WorldWideScience
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An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured...

Teklehaymanot Tilahun; Demissew Sebsebe; Mesfin Fisseha

2009-01-01

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An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2009-10-01

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Towards a regional assessment of self supply potential in SNNPR, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study uses a mapping approach to assess whether readily available spatial datasets and expert knowledge can be used to assess regional potential for self supply in Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. Self supply can be defined as improvement to water supplies developed largely or wholly through user investment, usually at household level. The study was funded by the RiPPLE Programme (Research-inspired Policy and Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the N...

Macdonald, David M. J.

2012-01-01

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Effects of Drought on Pastoral Household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study adopted the survey research design to investigate the effect of drought on Pastoral household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The aim was to give information about drought pattern in the study area, create an understanding of the menace as well as identify appropriate and relevant local level response mechanisms. A household survey was conducted with 134 households and this was complemented by interviews with informants. Meteorological data were also used to m...

Abera Bekele; Aklilu Amsalu

2012-01-01

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Effects of Drought on Pastoral Household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available This study adopted the survey research design to investigate the effect of drought on Pastoral household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The aim was to give information about drought pattern in the study area, create an understanding of the menace as well as identify appropriate and relevant local level response mechanisms. A household survey was conducted with 134 households and this was complemented by interviews with informants. Meteorological data were also used to map out the time line of drought events in the area. It was observed that severe and recurrent drought of the present time has brought about declining range land resources, poor productivity and declining survival of livestocks. The results indicate that the frequency of drought has been on the increase from year to year. Increased severity of drought has caused huge moisture deficit and has posed multi-dimensional adverse effects on households' livelihood sources. However, households have developed various strategies to deal with the challenges of severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities.

Abera Bekele

2012-04-01

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Physicochemical characteristics of the rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa in Ethiopia have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from four different localities, viz. Awaro, Senkele, Meja and Guder, and their edaphic characteristics are determined. The soils are dominated by clay (40.4-45.8% along with coarse particles of sand. Bulk density, organic carbon (1.52-1.81% and electrical conductivity (1.3-1.9 dSm are low in all the soil samples. The soils are acidic with pH varying from 6.2 to 6.7. There are similarities in the relatively low content of available phosphorus (1.4-2.4 mg kg-1 and high available nitrogen content (480-986 mg kg-1 in all the soil samples while available potassium content (240-496 mg kg-1 is found to be medium in Awaro soil but high in the other three soil samples. Deficiencies are observed in the levels of available micro-nutrients (Cu: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1, Zn: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1 and Mn: 3.2-3.8 µg g-1 while the Fe content is sufficient in all the soil samples (340-496 µg g-1. With proper soil management, the farmlands studied are recommended for the cultivation of cereal crops.

Louis E. Attah

2010-03-01

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Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6-59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia.  

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Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6-59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48?g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6-23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8)], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3)], having MUAC less than 12?cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3)], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3)] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention. PMID:25302116

Gebreegziabiher, Gebremedhin; Etana, Belachew; Niggusie, Daniel

2014-01-01

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Bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.  

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Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%-2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%-5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research. PMID:20808913

Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob

2010-01-01

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Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas) of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 med...

Mathewos Agize; Sebsebe Demissew; Zemede Asfaw

2013-01-01

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Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23?months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23?months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23?months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR?=?2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR?=?2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR?=?2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR?=?4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8, whereas area of residence and mother’s socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with full immunization among children. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12–23?months remains low. Maternal health care utilization and knowledge of mothers about the age at which child begins and finishes vaccination are the main factors associated with complete immunization coverage. It is necessary that, local interventions should be strengthened to raising awareness of the community on the importance of immunization, antenatal care and institutional delivery.

Etana Belachew

2012-07-01

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Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia  

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Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23?months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23?months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23?months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR?=?2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9), being born in the health facility (AOR?=?2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4), mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR?=?2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6) and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR?=?4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8), whereas area of residence and mother’s socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with full immunization among children. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12–23?months remains low. Maternal health care utilization and knowledge of mothers about the age at which child begins and finishes vaccination are the main factors associated with complete immunization coverage. It is necessary that, local interventions should be strengthened to raising awareness of the community on the importance of immunization, antenatal care and institutional delivery. PMID:22839418

2012-01-01

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Food Security, Gender and Community Relations. Challenges and Strategies of Rural Women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda, Ethiopia, and the Role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in Empowering Women.  

OpenAIRE

The study was designed to explore Food security, gender and community relations. Challenges and strategies of rural women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda,Ethiopia, and the role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in empowering women. The research applied qualitative methods such as in- depth interviews, Focused Group Discussions and observation to address issues from a gender perspective. The livelihood approach and empowerment approach have been the theoretical frameworks that underpin this s...

Mekonnen, Addis Bezabih

2013-01-01

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Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 medicinal plants distributed in 64 families were documented in this study. The most frequently used plant part was leaf while the growth form with the highest number (43.82% of representatives among the plants encountered in this study were herbs. About 57.9% medicinal plants were collected from wild while 24.1% were cultivated and 18.5% were both cultivated and collected from wild. A total of 62 human and 27 veterinary diseases were documented in the study. However, only 58% of the traditional healers exercised their indigenous knowledge on treating both human and livestock diseases, while 41.96% practiced treatment of only human diseases. The medicinal plant resources and the associated knowledge of herbal medicine need to be used in a sustainable way and developed for more effective use in the future.

Mathewos Agize

2013-09-01

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Determinants of Delay in Malaria Prompt Diagnosis and Timely Treatment among Under-Five Children in Shashogo Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Case Control Study  

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Full Text Available Background: Ensuring prompt diagnosis and timely malaria treatment will prevent most cases of uncomplicated malaria from progressing to severe and fatal illness. To avoid this progression, treatment must begin as soon as possible, generally within 24 hours after symptoms onset. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria prompt diagnosis and timely treatment for under-five is not well studied in the study area as well as in Ethiopia. Objective: To assess determinants of delay in malaria prompt diagnosis and timely treatment among under-five children in Shashogo Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2013. Methods: An unmatched case control study was conducted from March 25-April 25, 2013. A total sample size of 302 with 151 cases and 151 controls were selected by systematic random sampling techniques. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of symptoms onset, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of symptoms onset. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were done to identify determinant of delay in malaria prompt diagnosis and timely treatment. Results: A total of 151 mothers/caretakers of cases and 151 mothers/caretakers of controls were interviewed. Illiterate mothers (AOR = 7.14; 95%CI: 1.10, 46.39, monthly income ?500 ETB (AOR = 5.49; 95%CI: 2.09, 14.45, females sex (AOR = 3.45; 95%CI: 1.62, 7.34, distance from health facility >5 km (AOR = 4.31; 95%CI: 1.22, 15.23, absence of history of child death (AOR = 4.21; 95%CI: 1.514, 11.68, side effects of antimalarial drugs (AOR = 2.91; 95%CI: 1.15, 7.33 and khat chewing (AOR = 2.38; 95%CI: 1.28, 5.79 were determinants of delay in malaria prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of under-five children. Conclusion: Mother’s education, monthly income, distance from health facility, absence of history of child death, complained about side effects of drugs and khat chewing were predictors of delay of prompt diagnosis and timely malaria treatment. Effective malaria control programs revision would be required to avoid delay of prompt diagnosis and timely treatment for under-five children.

Ermias Abera Turuse

2014-04-01

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Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is a global priority which is particularly relevant to developing countries like Ethiopia. One of the key strategies for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is increasing institutional delivery service utilization of mothers under the care of skilled birth attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the level of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors. Methods A ...

Amano Abdella; Gebeyehu Abebaw; Birhanu Zelalem

2012-01-01

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Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers need special attention as they are distant from various information sources.

Belachew Tefera

2011-04-01

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Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (? = 0.05 was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (? = 0.05 was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05 were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50% of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29% were shrubs, six (16% were herbs and two (5% were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97% fruits, 13 (33.33% leaves, 3 (7.69% roots and one (2.56% seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.872 and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.994 by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of wild edible plants were gathered and consumed from 'Duka' (March to 'Halet' (May and from 'Meko' (August to 'Tejo' (November. Sixteen (41% of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge. The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. Conclusions The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity.

Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2010-08-01

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An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District; it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3% and 14 (12% species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6% are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90% were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5% for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5% were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8% followed by fire (22.3% and construction (19%. Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34 were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community, which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process of threatening the resources and this signals the need for serious efforts to create public awareness so that measures are taken to conserve the medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments.

Woldemariam Zemede

2009-09-01

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Determinants of Delay in Malaria Prompt Diagnosis and Timely Treatment among Under-Five Children in Shashogo Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Case Control Study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Ensuring prompt diagnosis and timely malaria treatment will prevent most cases of uncomplicated malaria from progressing to severe and fatal illness. To avoid this progression, treatment must begin as soon as possible, generally within 24 hours after symptoms onset. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria prompt diagnosis and timely treatment for under-five is not well studied in the study area as well as in Ethiopia. Objective: To assess determinants of delay in malari...

Ermias Abera Turuse; Kassahun Alemu Gelaye; Teresa Kisi Beyen

2014-01-01

20

Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.  

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Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future. PMID:20701879

Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Bekele, Mammo

2009-01-01

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Magnitude and Correlates of Contraceptive Use among Females in Reproductive Age in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Despite its positive impact in reducing maternal and child mortality and morbidity, the utilization rate of contraceptives is unacceptably low in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This warrants the investigation of the contributing factors of this low utilization for appropriate interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of contraceptive use in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia....

Girma Temam Shifa

2014-01-01

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Pastoral Livelihoods in South Ethiopia - Value Chain Assessment of Gum & Resins in Moyale Area  

OpenAIRE

This research assessed the value chain of gum and resins, which are available in four woreda in the southern lowlands of Ethiopia. They are Moyale Somali, Moyale Oromia, Dhas and Dire woreda. The output of this research is the elaboration of three value chains. The first is a general one for all the woreda, while the other two concern the Moyale and Dubluk markets. The assessed products are the gum arabic from Acacia trees and the resin exuded by the dunkhal tree - Boswellia family. The aim o...

Bernabini, Francesca

2012-01-01

23

Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.  

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A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%). PMID:11732422

Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

2001-12-01

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Magnitude and Correlates of Contraceptive Use among Females in Reproductive Age in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite its positive impact in reducing maternal and child mortality and morbidity, the utilization rate of contraceptives is unacceptably low in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This warrants the investigation of the contributing factors of this low utilization for appropriate interventions. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of contraceptive use in Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2010 in 9 kebeles of Arba Minch Demographic and Health Development Program. Results: In this study, 28.3% of all women & 32.7% currently married were using any contraceptive methods during the time of the survey. Almost all current users were using modern methods; the most widely used method was injectable (24.2% followed by implants (2.4% and pills (1.3%. Current marital status, ethnicity, age, education, presence of radio set in the house hold and discussion about family planning in the last 6 month before the study with their partner were the independent predictors of contraceptive use. Conclusion: The contraceptive prevalence rate is promising but efforts should continue to further increase the contraceptive coverage especially on kebeles with low coverage by targeting men and misconceptions about family planning.

Girma Temam Shifa

2014-05-01

25

Prevalence of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) in Wolaitta, Southern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The survey was undertaken to establish the point prevalence of overt podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) in Wolaitta zone, Southern Ethiopia, and also to determine whether age- or sex-related prevalence differences exist. A cross-sectional survey was performed during May-September 2001 among 33 678 residents of 4210 households randomly selected from all seven woredas (administrative districts) of Wolaitta zone. Trained data collectors administered a simple questionnaire and examined household residents for signs of podoconiosis. Of the residents 1890 had overt signs of podoconiosis. The mean zonal prevalence weighted for the woreda size was 5.46%. Most of cases (64%) occurred in the economically productive age groups (16-45 years). The male:female ratio was 1:0.98, reflecting the gender ratio of the zone. Podoconiosis is an important chronic public health problem affecting both men and women in areas of irritant soil. Further research is necessary to establish the economic effects of the condition. PMID:14620426

Destas, Kelemu; Ashine, Meskele; Davey, Gail

2003-10-01

26

Light for Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the aid of small island PV systems, a German-based aid foundation is bringing light in the huts of Ethiopia's rural population. The solar energy is also awakening the energy of the people themselves. (orig.)

Dany, Christian

2009-07-01

27

Epidemiology and individual, household and geographical risk factors of podoconiosis in ethiopia: results from the first nationwide mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9-4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail

2015-01-01

28

Constraints Faced by Development Agents in North-Western Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Ethiopia, agricultural extension and advisory services are expected to play crucial role in improving the agricultural sector in general and the livelihood of small-scale farmers in particular. However, it faced various constraints. The objective of this study was to examine constraints faced by development agents. Data collected from 250 development agents working in Amhara region was the empirical basis of this study. The study result showed that development agents in all zones have the role of selecting and deciding who should take part in the agricultural extension packages. Moreover, their service provision is inclined to middle income farmers. The most important source of extension information for them is the trainings provided by the woreda agricultural offices and they mostly contact farmers on weekly basis. The study also revealed that a number of factors constrain their agricultural extension activities. Out of the eighteen constraints identified to affect the performance of development agents, six of them were found to be most important. These constraints in their order of importance are lack of entrepreneurship related trainings; lack of finance and other inputs to run farmer training centers; agriculture office enforcement of development agents to serve as a general practitioner; lack of transport, stationery and office equipments; and burden of administrative and other non-extension works. Therefore, government should address these constraints to make the agricultural extension activities of development agents efficient through availing start-up fund, means of transport and communication, arranging business related soft-skill trainings and relieving development agents from non-extension workloads.

Zerihun Nigussie Gebresilasie

2014-01-01

29

Ethiopia, Europe and Modernity: A Preliminary Sketch  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores some of the issues of cultural epistemology which underlie the relations between Ethiopia and Europe.  It briefly explores the origins of modern diplomatic contacts, arguing that the appropriation of modernity increasingly became a central concern of Ethiopia’s rulers in their relations with Europe.  It then raises the question, if Europeanized modernity has increasingly marked Ethiopia in the twentieth century, how are we to discern Ethiopia’s contribution to this p...

Crummey, Donald

2013-01-01

30

The implications of federalism and decentralisation on socio-economic conditions in Ethiopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we wil [...] l show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

P, Zimmermann-Steinhart; Y, Bekele.

2012-08-01

31

Self-supply as a complementary water services delivery model in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

John Butterworth

2013-10-01

32

Ethiopia - norad.no  

SCPinfonet

...Ethiopia Dialogue supported by Norway has resulted in religious leaders publicly denouncing female genital mutilation. They are reaching millions of people with the ...message of how harmful genital mutilation is. Published 02/09/2013 Updated 16/09/2013 Print Tweet By sector By partner Aid trends ... Ethiopia is a pioneer country, also for Norway’s international action plan against genital mutilation. In the fight against genital mutilation the Norwegian Church ...a clear reduction in the number of girls that are subjected to genital mutilation. These are some of the results: The Ethiopian ...

33

Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis ...

Józef Razowski; Pasquale Trematerra

2010-01-01

34

Country programme review. Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

35

Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In 1999, the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International undertook a project which was named the Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia. Rotary clubs from India, Ethiopia and the USA participated in this unique project which was a resounding success, not just in terms of the number and quality of the operations done, but also in bringing people of India, Ethiopia and the USA closer to each other and so fostering understanding and friendship amongst them.The matching grant and new opportu...

Grewal Ms Doms, Dr P. S.; Ms, Dr Shrirang Deshpande; Ms Doms Fcps, Dr Uma Pradhan; Dr Museret Awave

2003-01-01

36

Young Lives Preliminary Country Report: Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes childhood poverty in Ethiopia and reviews the policies expected to have an impact on childhood poverty. It identifies key stakeholders for the Young Lives study, describes the methods used during the first round of Young Lives research in Ethiopia, and presents preliminary results. Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 168 out of 173 countries according to UNDP’s 2002 Human Development Index. About 44 per cent of Ethiopia’s population were...

Alemu, Tekie; Asgedom, Getachew; Liebenberg, Janet; Mekonnen, Alemu; Seager, John; Tefera, Bekele; Woldehanna, Tassew

2003-01-01

37

Afar Triangle, Ethiopia, Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The Afar Triangle of Ethiopia (11.5N, 42.5E) is a very active plate tectonic region. The region is stressed by Saudi Arabia moving away from Africa and East Africa tearing itself away from the rest of Africa. Because of the plate movements in three different directions, The Afar Triangle is stretched thin and torn resulting in a series of faults seen as long parallel valleys. There is frequent volcanic activity and lava flows occur along the faults.

1992-01-01

38

Cancer in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia has a population of more than 84 million people and is expected to become the ninth most populous country in the world by 2050. The growing population coupled with lifestyle changes will mean an increasing burden of cancer. However, oncology services are wholly inadequate--no cancer registry exists, and only one cancer centre, with a handful of doctors and nurses, struggles to serve the entire country. PMID:23561741

Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Girma, Belaineh; Teklu, Alula M

2013-04-01

39

Food from windmills. [Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work done to improve and evaluate a series of wind-mills developed for irrigating small plots of land on the banks of the Omo River in Ethiopia, using river water. The systems were developed by the American Mission for use by the local people in order to permit all year round cultivation which is not otherwise possible. Statistical information is included in the five appendices.

Fraenkel, P.L.

1975-11-01

40

Children's Theatre in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

When theatre arts emerged in Ethiopia 90 years ago, all characters in the pioneering play were performed solely by children in front of the Crown Prince Täfäri Mäkwänn?n, and members of the aristocracy. The tradition of considering children as a main force of stage production, and the tendency of showing dramatic performance by students to the benefit of adult audience, likewise, continued up until the establishment of the first professional public theatre in 1942. It was late in early 1...

Ashagrie, Aboneh

2013-01-01

41

Ethiopia/Abyssinia  

OpenAIRE

When Father Francisco Álvares published his famed account of the first visit by a Portuguese, and indeed European, embassy to the Christian kingdom of Abyssinia (between 1520 and 1526), he gave it the curious title of True Information of the Kingdom of Prester John of the Indies. Only once or twice in the account does he refer to the lands he visits as “Ethiopia”, and “Abyssinia” is never used. He, like many European writers of that period, speaks of that regional and ...

Ramos, Manuel Joa?o

2000-01-01

42

Home-Based Life Saving Skills in Ethiopia: an update on the second phase of field testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Home-Based Life Saving Skills (HBLSS) was integrated over 3 years into a district-level child survival project coordinated through the Ministry of Health and Save the Children Foundation/US in Liben Woreda, Guji Zone, Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia. During late 2004, the second phase of the program was reviewed for performance, home-based management, learning transfer, and program coverage. The immediate posttraining performance score for HBLSS guides for "First Actions" was 87% (a 78% increase over the pretraining baseline) and 79% at 1 year (a 9% decrease from the immediate posttraining score). The home-based management score of women attended by HBLSS guides for "First Actions" was 89%, compared to 32% for women assisted by other unskilled attendants. HBLSS guides teach women and families in the community as they were taught, by using pictorial Take Action Cards, role-play and demonstration, and a variety of venues. Estimates of HBLSS coverage suggest that HBLSS guides attended 24% to 26% of births, and 54% of women giving birth were exposed to HBLSS training. The HBLSS field tests demonstrate a promising program that increases access to basic care for poor, underserved, rural populations who carry the greatest burden of maternal and neonatal mortality. PMID:16814224

Sibley, Lynn; Buffington, Sandra Tebben; Tedessa, Lelisse; McNatt, Kathryn

2006-01-01

43

Impact of Land Certification on Sustainable Land Resource Management in Dryland Areas of Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of land certification on sustainable land resource management, long-term investments, and farmers’ perception and confidence on land ownership and land use rights in the dryland areas of Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Fifteen kebeles from three woredas and 20 households per kebele were selected using stratified random sampling techniques with whom face-to-face interviews were carried out. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data showed that, 160 households have on average 0.40 ha of farmland on steep slope area; and about 21.0% and 15% of households have fear land redistribution and the government may take their farm plot at any time, respectively. However, respondents believe that land certification reduced landlessness of women, disable and poor of poor where as it increased youths’ landlessness. The participation of households in land management practices (LMP has shown a 15.4% increment after land certification. Nonetheless, the mean comparison of major crop yields per household is insignificant except sorghum which decreased significantly at level of p<0.1 level. Generally, land certification improves tenure security; LMP and land use rights of women and marginal groups of societies but did not crop productivity.

Abate Tsegaye

2012-11-01

44

Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature on schistosomiasis in Ethiopia is reviewed with the objective of bringing together in one paper diverse sources which may not be available to those interested in schistosomiasis. Particular attention is given to the influence of altitude and climate, snail ecology and government economic programs on the distribution of schistosomiasis. Out of 365 communities studied between 1961 and 1986 for Schistosomiasis mansoni, cases were reported from 225 (62%), and in 85 (23%) the prevalence ranged from 10 to 92%. Most transmission sites and S. mansoni infections are in agricultural communities along streams between 1300 and 2000 m altitude infested with Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the major snail intermediate host. S. mansoni transmission above 2200 m and below 800 m is precluded in many parts of Ethiopia by low and high water temperatures, respectively. Schistosomiasis haematobium cases have been reported from 30 of the 54 communities studied, 17 of them with infection rates between 14 and 75%. Endemic S. haematobium appears to be confined in its distribution to lowlands below 800 m altitude. The highly focal distribution of S. haematobium transmission is largely due to the nonsusceptibility of most bulinine snails to the Ethiopian strain of the parasite and low water temperatures in the highlands. Water resources development, resettlement programs, refugee migration and other population movements may result in the spread of endemic S. mansoni. Lack of information on snail host/parasite relationships and the ecology of proven and suspected snail hosts does not permit predictions on the spread of endemic S. haematobium. Past and present schistosomiasis control programs in Ethiopia are reviewed and recommendations made for the national control program. PMID:3131881

Kloos, H; Lo, C T; Birrie, H; Ayele, T; Tedla, S; Tsegay, F

1988-01-01

45

Tortricidae (Lepidoptera from Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hübner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.

Józef Razowski

2010-07-01

46

An enterprise map of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This book describes the history and current capabilities of Ethiopia’s leading industrial companies (agribusiness, manufacturing and construction), focusing on 50 key large and mid-size firms. The motivation for the study is to help with the expansion of economic capabilities in the country by first understanding where the capabilities of the existing successful companies came from. The fifty firms chosen for this study represent almost all the largest firms in their respective sectors. An ...

Sutton, John; Kellow, Nebil

2010-01-01

47

Plant Diversity in Western Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The aim of this thesis is to investigate the ecology and ethnobotany of vegetation in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State (BGRS), western Ethiopia. The studies reported in this thesis have confirmed the existence of 1102 vascular plant species in BGRS. The region has, therefore, comparable vascular plant diversity to other floristic regions in Ethiopia. The study, which was carried out using classification and ordination techniques, revealed the existence of five plant comminutes and en...

Awas, Tesfaye

2007-01-01

48

Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

A Sathiya Susuman

2012-04-01

49

Uranium exploration in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench ge were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)

50

Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

Casale, Carolyn Frances

2010-01-01

51

Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia, 2  

OpenAIRE

Twenty species of Tortricidae from Ethiopia, Oromia Region, are recorded of which Olethreutes didessae sp. n., Ancylis colaccii sp. n., and Gypsonoma giorgiae sp. n. are described as new; Eucosma thalameuta Meyrick, 1918, is transferred to the genus Cosmetra Diakonoff, 1977.

Razowski, J.; Trematerra, P.

2012-01-01

52

Wind energy survey in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results are presented of a wind energy survey made for one country in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia) using mean wind speed data obtained from meteorological observations. The paper also presents reasons for expecting the calculated energy estimates to be potentially useful around most of the sites considered in the study.

Wolde-Ghiorgis, W.

1988-01-01

53

Export Performance and Determinants in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract In this study analysis of factors affecting export supply of Ethiopia, during the period 1981 – 2004, have been made using co integration analysis. Data trend reveals that Ethiopian export performance was highly volatile during the period, on average merchandise exports have been growing at 7% per annum, while manufacturing exports were growing at 4% per annum. The trend also reveals that Ethiopia’s export sector is mainly dominated by few primary commodities, where manufactu...

Menji, Sisay

2010-01-01

54

HISTORY OF HR MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ETHIOPIA  

OpenAIRE

In many countries the development of HR management not well articulated and documented and even difficult to write about it. Ethiopia is one of those countries with difficult documentation and written facts to clearly picture the development of HR management. Even though this article fallowing world trend in HR management practice described the HR management practice of Ethiopia. Ethiopia economic and administration structure mostly described by categorizing it in to three periods. The period...

TAREKEGN DEA LERA

2013-01-01

55

Earliest Homo Sapiens Fossils Discovered in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

... Affairs | Newsroom | Speeches | Priority Areas | What's Cool | Publications | Partners | History ... in the Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia, about 140 miles northeast of its capital, Addis Ababa ...

56

Eritrea-Ethiopia Border War  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In the News takes a look at the renewed fighting in the border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The eleven resources discussed provide news, analysis, and commentary. Horn of Africa neighbors Ethiopia and Eritrea were a single nation until May 1993, when Eritrea achieved sovereignty and seceded from Ethiopia after a protracted war of independence that lasted nearly thirty years. Eritrea, a nation of 3.6 million located on the Red Sea, was a former Italian colony (1890-1941) that was put under British administration during World War II, federated as an autonomous unit by Ethiopia in 1952, and then finally absorbed by the Ethiopian empire in 1962. Since Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia in 1993, the two nations have disputed the demarcation of their 620-mile shared boundary, which was ostensibly delimited earlier this century in a series of treaties between the Imperial Government of Ethiopia and the Italian colonial government in Eritrea. Despite recent bilateral attempts to delineate the former colonial divide, a joint border commission has failed to settle the dispute. This on-going border conflict, compounded by severe economic tensions between the two states, erupted into war when Ethiopian and Eritrean forces clashed on May 6, 1998, in the Ethiopian-administered region of Badme. The skirmish resulted in about five weeks of fierce battle that ended last June with an unofficial peace plan brokered by the US and Rwanda. However, on February 6, the tenuous seven month stalemate snapped as heavy fighting re-ignited at several flashpoints along the contested border where both countries had amassed troops. Last weekend amid continued fighting, a delegation from the European Union failed to reach a cease-fire agreement between Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki and Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum Mesfin. The unsuccessful proposal, based on a framework drafted by the Organization of African Unity, called for Eritrea to concede its current positions and return to the territory it held before the border conflict last May. As military involvement between the two countries escalates, the EU, the OAU, and the United Nations Security Council promise to re-initiate the mediation process as soon as possible before the Horn War further destabilizes east Africa.

Osmond, Andrew.

57

Modern Ethiopia and Colonial Eritrea  

OpenAIRE

The article develops some reflections on present-day Eritrea in the light of the colonial past and in the context of modern Ethiopia. If we consider Eritrea and its path towards independence, some differences and analogies emerge in comparison with other African colonies. The Eritrean independence is taking place today in a very specific context in post-colonial Africa. It is not a simple case of delayed decolonization, postponed by 30 years with respect to other former African colonies. The ...

Taddia, Irma

2013-01-01

58

Dynamics of poverty in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This paper addresses issues related to the dynamics of income poverty using unique household panel data for urban and rural areas of Ethiopia covering the period 1994-97. The percentage of households that remained in poverty was twice as large in urban areas as in rural areas. This suggests that income variability is a serious problem in rural areas, while the persistence is a key feature of urban poverty. The paper also discusses household characteristics that are correlated with the inciden...

Bigsten, Arne; Shimeles, Abebe

2004-01-01

59

Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agricult...

Gonza?lez Ruibal, Alfredo

2005-01-01

60

Recent drought and precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011, drought in the Horn of Africa again made news headlines. This study aims to quantify the meteorological component of this and other drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971. A monthly precipitation data set for 14 homogeneous rainfall zones was constructed based on 174 gauges, and the standardized precipitation index was calculated on seasonal, annual, and biannual time scales. The results point to 2009 as a year of exceptionally widespread drought. All zones experienced drought at the annual scale, although in most zones, previous droughts were more extreme. Nationally, 2009 was the second driest year, surpassed only by the historic year 1984. Linear regression analysis indicates a precipitation decline in southern Ethiopia, during both February-May and June-September. In central and northern Ethiopia, the analysis did not provide evidence of similar tendencies. However, spring droughts have occurred more frequently in all parts of Ethiopia during the last 10-15 years.

Viste, Ellen; Korecha, Diriba; Sorteberg, Asgeir

2013-05-01

61

Ethiopia extends health to its people  

OpenAIRE

At a time when aid effectiveness is under scrutiny, Ethiopia is embracing a new approach to make health aid work – not least with an innovative programme to train and deploy thousands of ‘health extension workers’ in communities across the country.

2009-01-01

62

Moisture Transport and Precipitation in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

With little irrigation and a diverse climate, Ethiopia is a country where the effects of too little precipitation are frequently seen. While the generation of precipitation also depends on local ascent and cooling of the air, the main focus of this thesis has been on the transport of moisture into the country. Three manuscripts are included. One provides an overview of drought episodes in all parts of Ethiopia during the last decades, while the other two discuss moisture transport as a ...

Viste, Ellen Marie

2012-01-01

63

An enterprise map of Ethiopia - Chinese version  

OpenAIRE

This book describes the history and current capabilities of Ethiopia’s leading industrial companies (agribusiness, manufacturing and construction), focusing on 50 key large and mid-size firms. The motivation for the study is to help with the expansion of economic capabilities in the country by first understanding where the capabilities of the existing successful companies came from. The fifty firms chosen for this study represent almost all the largest firms in their respective sectors. An ...

Sutton, John; Kellow, Nebil

2011-01-01

64

Analysis of Obstetric Fistula in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To study the association between social, demographic, cultural and maternal care practice variables and obstetric fistula status in Ethiopia. "nMaterials and Methods: The most recent Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2005 is used to study the association between social, demographic, cultural and maternal care practice and obstetric fistula. We use both univariate and bivariate analyses to describe the association between the selected variables on obstetric fi...

Thankam Sunil; Marguerite Sagna

2009-01-01

65

Bargaining over Fertility in Rural Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The results of the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) reveal that women in Ethiopia prefer fewer children than men, which can be explained by the greater costs that women have to incur from pregnancy, delivery and care for children. In view of differing preferences it is yet not clear which factors determine the final decision. The aim of this study is to shed light on the impact of different bargaining weights on family planning within married couples in rural Ethiopia. Bargaining over fertilit...

Seebens, Holger

2006-01-01

66

Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...

Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M. P. M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W. J. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P. C.

2010-01-01

67

[Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS research project  

OpenAIRE

The 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS Research Project' (ENARP), started in 1994, is a long-term collaboration between AIDS researchers in Amsterdam and the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in Addis Ababa. The ENARP's primary objectives include conducting studies on HIV and AIDS in Ethiopia, especially by means of some large-scale prospective cohort studies, training Ethiopian scientists in PhD programmes in epidemiology, immunology and virology and establishing a reference laborato...

Sanders, Ej; Wit, Tf; Fontanet, Al; Goudsmit, J.; Miedema, F.; Coutinho, Ra

2001-01-01

68

The nature of unemployment in urban Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

With around 50% of the urban men between age 15 and 30 unemployed, Ethiopia has one of the highest unemployment rates worldwide. This paper describes the nature of unemployment among young men in urban Ethiopia. We analyse the determinants of incidence and duration and find that most variables have the same effect on both. Unemployment is concentrated among relatively well-educated first time job seekers who come from the middle classes. Mean duration of unemployment is close to f...

Serneels, Pieter

2004-01-01

69

Ethiopia: CCTV well field review 2009  

OpenAIRE

This report covers data collection and field work for the technical aspects of the World Bank-funded Joint Governance Assessment and Measurement Initiative (JGAM) in Ethiopia. The work comprised a survey on rural borehole drilling in Ethiopia, in support of the Water Sector Diagnostic. It was carried out as part of an initiative to assess the degree of corruption within the water sector in the country. • The objective of the technical aspect of the work was to compare the variables of lo...

Ball, D. F.

2009-01-01

70

Land Rights and Expropriation in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study examines and analyses the expropriation laws and practices in Ethiopia. The objective of the thesis is to analyze and describe the land rights and expropriation laws in Ethiopia and to compare them with the practice in order to determine the fairness of compensation. The study is made against the Ethiopian Constitution and other subsidiary legislations which provide the basic land rights and the nature and details of expropriation. The basic argument made in this thesis is that eve...

Ambaye, Daniel Weldegebriel

2013-01-01

71

Authority and leadership in Surma society (Ethiopia)  

OpenAIRE

This article examines recent developments of local authority and 'leadership' among the Surma of southern Ethiopia, where the author carried out field research over the years 1990-1995. The intention is to analyse the nature of 'authority' in a non-State social formation, in which 'chiefs' in the proper sense of the word are absent. The author gives an overview of the three different political systems which have succeeded each other in Ethiopia since the late 19th century: Haile Selassie's fe...

Abbink, J.

1997-01-01

72

The epidemiology of burns in rural Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and cost of the service. Adult members of a systematic random sample (20%) of households from 16 communities (total popu...

Courtright, P.; Haile, D.; Kohls, E.

1993-01-01

73

Planation surfaces in Northern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Planation surfaces are an old-fashioned topic in geomorphology, but they are nevertheless important where they make up much of the landscape. Northern Ethiopia is largely a stepped topography, caused by differential erosion. Exhumation of old planation surfaces that were preserved under sedimentary or volcanic cover is an important process in landscape evolution. The oldest planation surface is of early Palaeozoic age (PS1); the second is Late Triassic (PS2); and the third is of Early Cretaceous age (PS3). The Oligocene Trap Volcanics buried a surface (PS4) of early Tertiary age, which is now widely exposed by erosion as a surface that, where flat enough, is an exhumed planation surface. The surfaces do not relate to the supposed Africa-wide pediplain sequence of King [King, L.C., 1975. Planation surfaces upon highlands. Z. Geomorph. NF 20 (2), 133-148.], either in mode of formation and age. Although the region is tropical, there is scarce evidence of deep weathering and few indications that the surfaces could be regarded as etchplains. These surfaces indicate that eastern Africa underwent long episodes of tectonic quiescence during which erosion processes were able to planate the surface at altitudes not too far from sea level. Only after the onset of rifting processes, uplift became active and transformed a vast lowland plain into the present Ethiopian highlands, largely exceeding 2500 m a.s.l. Some hypotheses and speculations on the genesis of these surfaces are considered here.

Coltorti, M.; Dramis, F.; Ollier, C. D.

2007-09-01

74

Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

75

Ethiopia - energy situation 1984. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Remarks on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Important figures are presented on external trade and the balance of payments. (UA).

1985-11-01

76

Ethiopia - energy situation 1985. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

1986-10-01

77

Ethiopia - energy situation 1982/83  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and on the balance of payments.

1984-02-01

78

Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their c...

Kassa Nega; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu

2012-01-01

79

State and Politics in Ethiopia’s Somali Region since 1991  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article argues that the recognition of an Ethiopian-Somali polity has neither translated into democratic or effective working relations between the federal government and its Somali regional state nor, for that matter, increased mutual appreciation between highland Ethiopians and Somalis. In the first section of the essay, we review important developments in the formal political arena of the region since 1991, with a special focus on party politics. A second section looks at how the new principle of “ethnic federalism” was implemented and how it affected Ethiopian-Somalis in Ethiopia’s Somali region. The third part outlines the federal government’s interventions and evolving agenda towards its Somali periphery. Fourthly, we discuss the contested political identities of Ethiopian-Somalis alluded to in the introduction. Finally, this article concludes with a discussion of the historic continuities and ruptures of the relations between highland Ethiopia and its Somali subjects-cum-citizens.

Hagmann, Tobias; Khalif, Mohamud H.

2006-01-01

80

Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

2013-12-01

81

Raising public awareness of glaucoma in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Ethiopia, glaucoma is the fifth most common cause of blindness and the disease caused irreversible blindness in an estimated 62,000 people in 2006.1Due to the nature of the disease, an inadequate and inaccessible eye care service, and a very poor level of public awareness, glaucoma patients tend to come for help after they have become either unilaterally or bilaterally blind. Even among some health professionals in Ethiopia, awareness and understanding of glaucoma is low. There are many instances of parents being told that their child does not have an eye problem when in fact they are suffering from congenital glaucoma, and I have seen many people with acute angle-closure glaucoma who have been treated for conjunctivitis!

Mabeba T Giorgis

2012-01-01

82

A zoonotic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in the highlands of Ethiopia, and almost always caused by Leishmania aethiopica. Hitherto, Addis Ababa (the capital city of Ethiopia) was not considered endemic for CL, mainly due to absence of epidemiological and field ecological studies. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiological investigation that proved the existence of active transmission in southeastern Addis Ababa. Results Ac...

Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Gadisa Endalamaw; Erenso Girume; Lemma Wossenseged; Hailu Asrat

2009-01-01

83

Recent drought and precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In 2011, drought in the Horn of Africa again made news headlines. This study aims to quantify the meteorological component of this and other drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971. A monthly precipitation data set for 14 homogeneous rainfall zones was constructed based on 174 gauge observations. As a measure of drought, the Standardized Precipitation Index was calculated on seasonal, annual and biannual timescales for each zone. The results point to 2009 as a year of exceptionally widespread...

Viste, Ellen Marie; Korecha, Diriba; Sorteberg, Asgeir

2013-01-01

84

Children's endowment, schooling, and work in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

I investigate the relationship between children's endowment and parental investment using a rich dataset on a cohort of children from Ethiopia, who were surveyed at ages eight, twelve and fifteen. Children's endowment is measured by scores on tests of cognitive skills/ability. A child's enrollment in school, participation in work and work hours are employed as measures of parental investment in human capital. The results provide strong evidence of reinforcing parental investment - higher abil...

Dendir, Seife

2013-01-01

85

A bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia covers material published from the early 1960s onwards. It focuses on the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, including the Eritrean Orthodox Church, which became autonomous in 1993, but references on modern missionary and evangelical Christianity, as well as Catholicism are also included. The focus is on foreign-language studies, but a limited number of works in Ethiopian languages is also included. The entries are arranged in three parts: 1. Ethiopian Or...

Abbink, J.

2003-01-01

86

Genetic divergence among barley accessions from Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The study was done with the objective of assessing the genetic diversity existing among Ethiopian and ICARDAbarley germplasm using multivariate data analyses. The experiment was conducted at Asasa and Ambo in Ethiopia, in 10 x 10simple lattices with two replications. To quantify the differentiation among genotypes canonical discriminant analysis, clusteringanalysis and Mahanalobis (D2) distance were used. The study indicated that the first two canonical variates explained 95%and 91% of the to...

Tesfahun Alemu Setotaw; Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias; Robson Fernando Missio

2010-01-01

87

Studies on affective disorders in rural Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Background Affective disorders are poorly defined and studied in sub-Saharan Africa despite their substantial public health impact. Objectives Overall objective: To describe the epidemiology of selected affective disorders in rural Ethiopia. Specific objectives 1. To describe the validity and utility of the concept of minor depressive disorder (mD). 2. To describe the manifestation, prevalence and the short-term clinical and functional course and outcome of bipolar disorder. Subjects and met...

Fekadu, Abebaw

2010-01-01

88

Foreign aid and economic growth in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The study has examined the impact of foreign aid on investment and economic growth in Ethiopia over the period 1970 to 2009 using multivariate cointegration analysis. The empirical result from the investment equation shows that aid has a significant positive impact on investment in the long run. On the other hand, volatility of aid by creating uncertainty in the flow of aid has a negative influence on domestic capital formation activity. Foreign aid is effective in enhancing growt...

Tadesse, Tasew

2011-01-01

89

Risk Pooling through Transfers in Rural Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

It is often assumed that transfers received from governments, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), friends and relatives help rural households to pool risk. In this paper I investigate two functions of transfers in Ethiopia: risk pooling and income redistribution. Unlike most of the literature this paper investigates not only whether but also how much risk pooling is achieved. I find evidence that transfers from governments/NGOs play a role in insuring covariant income shocks, (weak) evidence ...

Pan, Lei

2007-01-01

90

Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response to a unimodal rainfall regime. The selection of mesic locations ensured that the trees did not respond to intra-seasonal weather anomalies. Crossdating was achieved by comparison of the wood anatomy...

Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

2011-01-01

91

Entrepreneurship and income inequality in Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

Kimhi, Ayal

2009-01-01

92

Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting the traditional bean production practices. Surveys identified five major diseases. Bean rust, bacterial blight and anthracnose were widely distributed. Angular and floury leaf spots were prominent in the humid west. Disease severities depended on regions, cropping pract...

Habtu Assefa

1994-01-01

93

Innovation and microenterprises growth in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This paper addresses two prominent issues on the development of small enterprises in Africa. Which factors inhibit or foster innovation activities in small enterprises? Do innovators create more jobs? We use a large set of microenterprises survey data from Ethiopia that comprise 1000 observations with ten and fewer workers. The analysis shows that firms larger in size and in manufacturing are more likely to engage in innovative activities. Among the human capital variables vocational training...

Gebreeyesus, Mulu

2009-01-01

94

FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vas...

E Admasu, Negalign Chekol

2013-01-01

95

Determinants of Recent Inflation in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Inflation has been a rising in Ethiopia during recent years, mainly fueled by food inflation. In the study, an analysis of the determinants of inflation was made using quarterly data during 1997/98 – 2007/08. The research employed Co-integration regression after finding that the variables included in the model were cointegrated. The results from the study depicts that inflation was significantly affected by money supply growth (positively) and domestic output (negatively). T...

Menji, Sisay

2008-01-01

96

The Victimization of Juvenile Prostitutes in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This paper quantifies the victimisation experienced by 30 juvenile prostitutes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Seventy three per cent had been raped at least once and ninety three per cent had been beaten in the course of their work. Only 50% used contraception, resulting in a pregnancy rate of 37%. Findings indicate that prostitution is a highly victimogenic lifestyle, fostered by conditions of extreme deprivation. Policy and practice implications are discussed.

Lalor, Kevin

2000-01-01

97

Household welfare and education in urban Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the correlates of household welfare in urban Ethiopia with an emphasis on the impact of education. We use household panel data collected between 1994 and 1997. Welfare is approximated by household income. Although non-educated households are found in all income quintiles, education has a significant effect on household welfare. The effect of education is reduced when parental background is introduced as an explanatory variable, indicating that parents’ education has ...

Kronlid, Karin

2001-01-01

98

Handbook for Greenhouse Rose Production Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This practical handbook is prepared by DLV Plant, in collaboration with Wageningen UR, CBI and EHPEA, under assignment of the Ethiopia Netherlands Horticulture Partnership (ENHP). The following persons have contributed to this handbook: DVL Plant: Edwin van der Maden, Francis Hoogerwerf, Jeroen van Marrewijk, Eric Kerklaan, Jelle Posthumus, Arnoud van Boven; Wageningen UR: Anne Elings, Nieves Garcia Victoria; CBI / ProVerde: Milco Rikken EHPEA: Glenn Humphries

Maden, E.; Hoogerwerf, F.; Marrewijk, J.; Kerklaan, E.; Posthumus, J.; Boven, A.; Elings, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.; Rikken, M.; Humphries, G.

2012-01-01

99

Absolute geopotential height system for Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study used airborne gravity data, the 2008 Earth Gravity Model (EGM08) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data in a ‘Remove-Compute-Restore’ process to determine absolute vertical reference system for Ethiopia. This gives a geopotential height at any isolated field point where there is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurement without reference to a vertical network or a regional datum point. Previously, height was determined c...

Bedada, Tullu Besha

2010-01-01

100

The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.

Friis, Ib

2009-01-01

101

Beyond clannishness and colonialism: understanding political disorder in Ethiopia’s Somali Region,1991-2004  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article proposes an alternative interpretation of political disorder in Ethiopia’s Somali Regional State since the rise to power of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in 1991. Some observers have perceived contemporary politics in the former Ogaden as an example of ‘internal colonisation ’ by highland Ethiopians. Others attribute political instability to the ‘nomadic culture ’ inherent in the Somali clan structure and the ineptness of its political leaders. This study argues that neither of these two politicised narratives grasps the contradictory interactions between the federal Ethiopian government and its Somali periphery, nor the recursive relations between state and society. With reference to the literature on neo-patrimonialism, I elucidate political disorder in the Somali Region by empirically describing hybrid political domination, institutional instability, and patronage relations, showing how neo-patrimonial rule translates into contested statehood in the region and political devices ranging from military coercion to subtle co-optation. Rather than unilateral domination, a complex web of power and manipulation between parts of the federal and regional authorities animates political disorder in Ethiopia’s Somali Region.

Hagmann, Tobias

2005-01-01

102

31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AL-HARAMAIN: BANGLADESH BRANCH, House 1, Road 1, S-6, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh [SDGT]AL-HARAMAIN: ETHIOPIA BRANCH, Woreda...Ghana; House #40, Lake Drive Road, Sector #7, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Al-Aridiyah, Kuwait; Qurtubah,...

2010-07-01

103

Health and medical care in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and 12% respectively. Infectious diseases dominate the medical scene in Ethiopia. In 1984, tuberculosis accounted for 11.2% of hospital admissions and 12.2% of deaths. The leading cause of childhood mortality in 1984 was diarrhea (45%). Malaria, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and meningococcal meningitis are endemic. Intestinal parasitism is rampant, and the nationwide prevalence of leprosy is 3/1000. Venereal diseases were the 9th most common cause of hospital outpatient visits in 1984, but AIDS is rare. The leading noninfectious diseases are rheumatic and syphilitic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatoma, and elephantiasis. Ethiopia has the highest number of cases of nonfilarial elephantiasis -- an estimated 350,000 cases -- in the world. Aside from a large influx of money, the most necessary changes to improve the health system are lowering the salaries of doctors and nurses, reorienting physician training toward primary health care, increasing the quality of existing health services, more efficient management, and better coordination between the Ministry of Health and the voluntary organizations. PMID:3419456

Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

1988-10-01

104

Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance of economic issues in defining government policies, and the significance of development and relations with donors.

Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

2011-01-01

105

Influence of Agro-ecologies, Traditional Storage Containers and Major Insect Pests on Stored Maize (Zea mays L. in Selected Woredas of Jimma Zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is a versatile cosmopolitan crop cultivated in diverse climate and used as sources of energy for humans and animals, raw materials for diverse industries, construction materials and fuel in rural areas. Worldwide demand for maize crop, its production and land coverage are increasing despite many biological, physical and environmental constraints. Impact of two agro-ecologies, two traditional storage structures, storage periods and major insect pests on maize variety BH-660 were studied in two selected Zones of Jimma, South Western Ethiopia in 2010. Three factors, the first two each at two levels and the other at four levels were arranged in Completely Randomized Design replicated twice. Number of insects, insect damaged kernels and percentage germination showed significant differences (pSitophilus zeamais M. and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella (O. were the two major insect pests identified from maize samples. Storage of maize grain for more than one moth demands eco-friendly maize weevil and grain moth management in both agro-ecologies and storage containers.

M.R. Sethu

2012-01-01

106

Quaternary glaciation of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

Central Ethiopia comprises a high plateau at 2000-3000 m, formed from Tertiary lava flows and bisected by the Eastern African Rift. Ten volcanic mountains rise to altitudes of just over 4000 m, but on only three has Quaternary glaciation been substantiated by published field observations. On the Bale Mountains (4400 m), a previous report based on limited evidence proposed an ice-cap extending to 600 km2. Based on aerial photographs and ground surveys, this paper reports evidence of a more com...

Osmastom, H. A.; Mitchell, W. A.; Osmaston, J. A. N.

2005-01-01

107

Ethiopia's financial sector and its regulation  

OpenAIRE

Ethiopia is one of a number of SSA economies that adopted state-led development strategies in the 1970s (others include Angola and Mozambique), and suffered from intense conflict (leading to the fall of the Derg regime in 1991). The new government was therefore faced with the twin tasks of reconstructing the economy, and embarking on the transition to a market economy. As part of this process, state banks have been reorganised, the role of the private sector in the financial system has been e...

Addison, Tony; Geda, Alemayehu

2001-01-01

108

Ethiopia: A socio-economic study  

OpenAIRE

Ethiopia is considered to be one of the oldest nations in the world but at present its socio-economic condition is not satisfactory. It is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is rated the poorest and most heavily indebted countries of the world, ranked last out of 208 countries. About 26% of the populations of the country, mostly women and rural residents, are living with their income less than one dollar a day. In terms of health and welfare, it ranks among Africa’s ...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2013-01-01

109

Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

1971-01-01

110

Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU). In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia....

Agalu Asrat; Ayele Yemane; Bedada Worku; Woldie Mirkuzie

2012-01-01

111

Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationali...

Ayele Dawit G; Zewotir Temesgen T; Mwambi Henry G

2012-01-01

112

Relatively low primary drug resistant tuberculosis in southwestern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Ethiopia in general, and Jimma area in particular, is not well documented. We conducted a study at Jimma University specialized hospital in southwest Ethiopia among new cases of smear positive TB patients to determine the pattern of resistance to first-line drugs. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to September 2011. Any newly diagnose...

Abebe Gemeda; Abdissa Ketema; Abdissa Alemseged; Apers Ludwig; Agonafir Mulualem; de-Jong Bouke C; Colebunders Robert

2012-01-01

113

Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

114

Ecological aspects and resource management of bamboo forests in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes the extent and condition of the natural bamboo forests of Ethiopia and their actual and potential values for society and environment. It assesses in detail the growth and nutrient dynamics in a selected highland bamboo forest in Southwest Ethiopia (Masha) and suggests solutions for its sustainable management. A specific management aspect is addressed by means of the factors that affect Oxytenanthera abyssinica seedling emergence and subsequent growth. The following were ...

Embaye, Kassahun

2003-01-01

115

Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons  

OpenAIRE

In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha) of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specific...

Mulugeta Lemenih; Habtemariam Kassa

2014-01-01

116

Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time series ranges between 35 to 50 and 9 to 49 years for rainfall and river flow, respectively. In order to improve the poor linear correlation model to describe rainfall gradient with altitude a simple topographic parameter is introduced capable to better depict the spatial variability of annual rainfall and its coefficient of variation. The small rains (Belg) were found to be much more unpredictable than the long, monsoon-type rains (Kiremt) and hence much more out of phase with the variation of annual precipitation amount that is significantly influenced by the Kiremt rains. In order to investigate the long term trends, rainfall anomalies were calculated as Z score for annual, Belg and Kiremt precipitation for all the stations and average values are calculated and plotted against time. The three Z trend lines obtained show no marked deviation from the mean as only an almost negligible decreasing trend is observed. Rainfall intensity in 24 hours is analyzed and the trend line of the maximum intensity averaged over the maximum value of each year recorded at each meteo-station is constructed. These data indicate a general decrease in daily rainfall intensity across Ethiopia with clear exceptions in a few selected areas. The same procedure, based on the Z scores, used to analyze rainfall variability is applied also to the river flow data and a similar result is obtained. If compared with rainfall, annual runoff shows a much wider range of variation among the study rivers. This issue is discussed and possible explanations are presented.

Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

2014-05-01

117

Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from abattoir to abattoir (P>0.5). The tongue, masseter muscles, heart muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Of 4102 male cattle, examined, 768 (18.72%) had cysts of C. bovis while 56 (15.82%) of the 354 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in occurrence was recorded between the sexes. Monthly occurrence of the cysts in the animals revealed a rise of infected animals during the dry season. PMID:18321540

Kebede, Nigatu

2008-12-01

118

Genetic divergence among barley accessions from Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was done with the objective of assessing the genetic diversity existing among Ethiopian and ICARDAbarley germplasm using multivariate data analyses. The experiment was conducted at Asasa and Ambo in Ethiopia, in 10 x 10simple lattices with two replications. To quantify the differentiation among genotypes canonical discriminant analysis, clusteringanalysis and Mahanalobis (D2 distance were used. The study indicated that the first two canonical variates explained 95%and 91% of the total variation at Asasa and Ambo, respectively. At both the locations, genotypes showed maximum differentiationon days to maturity, grain filling period, tiller per plant and spike per plant. Analysis of clustering grouped the 100 genotypesinto four cluster groups at Asasa and six clusters at Ambo. Ethiopian landraces and genotypes from ICARDA grouped in thesame cluster groups indicated the germplasm exchange between the Ethiopian and ICARDA barley breeding programs.

Tesfahun Alemu Setotaw

2010-01-01

119

Rehab: Drought and famine in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Special Report on the two Ethiopian drought-famine crises is reviewed. The Wollo drought occurred at the same time as the West African. Although drought also hit Sudan, and thus spread from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, Ethiopia's drought seems to have been unique, for its normal rainfall pattern is different from that of the Sahel; there are two rainy seasons, linked to a wind system more complex than that in West Africa. The limited data on this is summarized in S. Betheke's chapter of Rehap. This is an important study which helps impact an understanding of the revolution provoked by the Imperial regime's handling of the northern famine, and also allows useful comparisons of the Ethiopian and West African drought crisis.

Hussein, A.M.

1976-01-01

120

North-eastern Ethiopia: Society in famine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Special Report on the two Ethiopian drought-famine crises is reviewed. The Wollo drought occurred at the same time as the West African. Although drought also hit Sudan, and thus spread from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, Ethiopia's drought seems to have been unique, for its normal rainfall pattern is different from that of the Sahel; there are two rainy seasons, linked to a wind system more complex than that in West Africa. The limited data on this is summarized in S. Bethke's chapter of Rehab. This is an important study which helps impact an understanding of the revolution provoked by the Imperial regime's handling of the northern famine, and also allows useful comparisons of the Ethiopian and West African drought crisis.

Lundstrom, K.J.

1976-01-01

121

Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

2012-04-01

122

In search of quality in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1992 organized the first African Regional Workshop on quality of care with the goal of increasing the awareness of and commitment to the quality of care, and discussing practical activities for family planning associations to undertake with their governments to improve quality of care. The workshop was attended by 46 senior officials, policymakers, planners, managers, and service providers involved in family planning and was officially opened by the Vice Minister of Health. Regional workshops were subsequently held in Jimma, South Western Ethiopia, and Dessie in the Northeast. Participants in the central workshop conducted the regional workshops, while the three main facilitators from Addis Ababa served as resource personnel. These workshops have helped boost regional know-how in providing quality family planning services and in mapping out priority areas for intervention. Similar step-down workshops at the district level are planned. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) has observed the contraceptive method mix change over the two years following the 1992 workshop from one comprised of 70% oral pill use to only 35% pill use with an increase in the use of other methods. Studies indicate client satisfaction, more clients are being served at FGAE than at other government health institutions, and attendance has increased by 15-20% over the period. Moreover, the promotion of family planning through mass media has been further developed and more people are aware of family planning than before. Other collaborative efforts are ongoing. The workshops have also led to better working relationships between the FGAE, the Ministry of Health, and other institutions and NGOs, while helping to prioritize the allocation of resources. PMID:12318918

Tokon, T

1994-01-01

123

Ethiopia's health extension program: improving health through community involvement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english The Health Extension Program is one of the most innovative community-based health programs in Ethiopia. It is based on the assumption that access to and quality of primary health care in rural communities can be improved through transfer of health knowledge and skills to households. Since it became [...] operational in 2004-2005, the Program has had a tangible effect on the thinking and practices of rural people regarding disease prevention, family health, hygiene and environmental sanitation. It has enabled Ethiopia to increase primary health care coverage from 76.9% in 2005 to 90% in 2010.

Hailom, Banteyerga.

2011-07-01

124

Book review: famine and foreigners: Ethiopia since Live Aid  

OpenAIRE

The terrible 1984 famine in Ethiopia focused the world’s attention on the country and the issue of aid as never before. Peter Gill was the first journalist to reach the epicentre of the famine and one of the TV reporters who brought the tragedy to light, and in this book tells what happened to Ethiopia in the 25 years following Live Aid. Maria Kuecken finds that Gill does great justice to this ever-pertinent issue by illuminating a complexity of confounding factors through a digestible narr...

Kuecken, Maria

2012-01-01

125

Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

1971-01-01

126

Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

2010-01-01

127

Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

2011-01-01

128

Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

129

Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria  

OpenAIRE

Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, Syria

Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso

131

The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

Teitz, H.H.

1991-01-01

132

Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic problems caused by dams in Ethiopia and elsewhere. Dams are planned from a top-down perspective in Ethiopia, some people are relocated against their will, haphazard land-use changes can occur, and s...

Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.

2007-01-01

133

The Dynamics between Real Exchange Rate Movements and Trends in Trade Performance: The Case of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT Ethiopia’s exchange rate policies have been a bone of contention for concerned economic analysts and commentators alike. This study takes a new look at the record to explore the impact of exchange rate liberalization reforms on export growth in Ethiopia. I employ generalized method of moments estimators (GMM) techniques on time series data for the period 1981- 2009. The study does not support the widely held view that exchange rate reforms induce export growth. But world income was...

Melesse, Wondemhunegn Ezezew

2011-01-01

134

Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1 : 2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

Tadesse, S.; Milesi, J.P.; Deschamps, Y. [University of Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). Dept. for Geology & Geophysics

2003-05-01

135

Outlook of future climate in northwestern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change is described as the most universal and irreversible environmental problem facing the planet Earth. While climate change is already manifesting in Ethiopia through changes in temperature and rainfall, its magnitude is poorly studied at regional levels. The objective of this paper was to assess and quantify the magnitude of future changes of climate parameters using Statistical Downscaling Mode (SDSM version 4.2 in Amhara Regional State which is located between 8°45‘N and 13°45‘N latitude and 35°46‘E and 40°25‘E longitude. Daily climate data (1979- 2008 of rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures were collected from 10 observed meteorological stations (predictand. The stations were grouped and compared using clustering and Markov chain model, whereas the degree of climate change in the study area was estimated using the coupled HadCM3 general circulation model (GCM with A2a emission scenarios (Predictors. Both maximum and minimum temperatures showed an increasing trend; the increase in mean maximum temperature ranges between 1.55°C and 6.07°C and that of the mean minimum temperature ranges from 0.11°C and 2.81°C. While the amount of annual rainfall and rainy days decreased in the study Regions in the 2080s. The negative changes in rainfall and temperature obtained from the HadCM3 model in the current study are alarming and suggest the need for further study with several GCM models to confirm the current results and develop adaptation options.

Wondimu Bayu

2012-07-01

136

Water implications of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethiopia is often highlighted as a country in which a lot of foreign land acquisition is occurring. The extent to which these investments also constitute significant acquisitions of water is the subject of this paper. It is apparent that water availability is a strong driver of the recent surge of investments in agricultural land globally, and in general the investments occur in countries with significant 'untapped' water resources. Ethiopia is no exception. We propose that the perception of unused and abundant water resources, as captured in dominant narratives, that drives and justifies both foreign and domestic investments, fails to reflect the more complex reality on the ground. Based on new collections of lease information and crop modelling, we estimate the potential additional water use associated with foreign investments at various scales. As a consequence of data limitations our analyses provide only crude estimates of consumptive water use and indicate a wide range of possible water consumption depending on exactly how foreign direct investment (FDI development scenarios unfold. However, they do suggest that if all planned FDI schemes are implemented and expanded in the near future, additional water consumption is likely to be comparable with existing water use in non-FDI irrigation schemes, and a non-trivial proportion of the country’s water resources will be effectively utilised by foreign entities. Hence, additional water use as well as local water scarcity ought to be strong considerations in regulating or pricing land leases. If new investments are to increase local food and water security without compromising local and downstream water availability they should be designed to improve often very low agricultural water productivity, and to safeguard access of local populations to water.

Deborah Bossio

2012-06-01

137

Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiop to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of the total collection comprised of An. gambiae. Different cytogenetic studies have shown that An. arabiensis is more predominant species than An. quadriannulatus. Malaria Control: The major vector control measure that is being used in the country is in-door residual insecticide (DDT) spraying. As a result An. arabiensis has developed resistance to DDT in some areas. In such cases malathion is used as an alternative. Other vector control measures such as source reduction, chemical larviciding and very recently use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are also used in selected areas.

138

ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUG RESISTANCE IN ETHIOPIA: A MATA- ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most dangers of health in the world. Ethiopia ranked seventh from the 22 high burden counties in the world. The main problem is development of resistance to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs actually increasing in Ethiopia. The aim was to review studies done on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Ethiopia. Literatures were searched for published articles on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance using the combination of terms; resistance, anti-tuberculosis and Ethiopia. Fifteen studies done in different parts of Ethiopia from 1978-2005 G.C were retrieved without restriction of place & design of study. The primary resistance of the fifteen studies done in various parts of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa, Harar, Bahir Dar, Sidamo, Arsi, and Hosanna from1978-2005 G.C showed: Isoniazid (H 1.9%-21.4%, Streptomycin (S 1.9%-26%, Rifampicin (R 0%-1.9%, Ethambutol (E 0%-6.3%, Thiacetazone (T 2.2%-6.3%, H+S 1.9%-26%, H+T 0%-4.4%, S+T 0%-1.8%, H+R 0%-1.1%, S+R 0%-0.7%, R+T 0%-0.4%, H+E 0%-0.9%, S+E 0%-0.6% ,H+S+T 0%-2.4%, H+S+R 0%-1.1%, H+T+R 0%-0.4%, H+S+E 0%-1.7%, R+H+T+S 0%-0.6% and Multi Drug Resistance 0%-1.3%.Acquired drug resistance: H 5.3%-66.7%, S 1.2%-46%, R 0%-12%, E 0%-5.6%, T0%-29%, H+T 0%-20%, H+S 4.8%- 28%, R+H 0%-8%, R+S 0%-3.5%, S+T 0%-2.3%, H+E 0%-3.6%, R+E 0%-5.6%, S+E 0%- 11.2%, H+S+T 0%-16%, R+S+T 0%-2.3% , R+S+H 0%-4%, H+S+E 0%-3.6%, H+R+E 0%- 3.6%, H+R+S+E 0%-14.3% and Multi Drug Resistance 0%-26.3%. It can be concluded that resistance to the anti-tuberculosis drugs is increasing. National level drug resistance survey is recommended to design policies and strategies to prevent increase of drug resistance.

lemlem gebremedhin gebremichael

2014-05-01

139

Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

2013-12-01

140

Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia

Yates, Brian James

2009-01-01

141

Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

Alemu, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

142

Search for Impact Craters in Ethiopia: No Meteorite Impact Structure At Shakiso  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, 18 impact structures have been identified on the continent of Africa. No impact structures are so far known in Ethiopia, with the exception of a suggestion of an impact crater centered on the town of Shakiso, southern Ethiopia. Our field work, petrographic, and geochemical studies on rocks from the area do not show any evidence of an impact structure at that locality.

Abate, Begosew; Koeberl, Christian

1997-02-01

143

Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB ep...

Abebe Fekadu; Bjune Gunnar; Gele Abdi A

2009-01-01

144

DIVERSITY AND ENDEMICITY OF CHILIMO FOREST, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA  

OpenAIRE

Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m) quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species) follo...

Teshome Soromessa; Ensermu Kelbessa

2013-01-01

145

Recent changes in rainfall and rainy days in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in annual, June-September and March-May rainfall and rainy days herein (defined as a day with rainfall greater than 1 mm) have been analysed based on 11 key stations located in different climatic zones of Ethiopia over the common period 1965-2002. The progressive Mann-Kendall trend test shows that there is no trend in the annual rainfall total, the seasonal rainfall total or rainy days over central, northern and northwestern Ethiopia in the period 1965-2002. In contrast, the annual and the June-September total rainfalls for the eastern (Jijiga, 137 mm/decade), southern (Negele, 119 mm/decade) and southwestern (Gore 257 mm/decade) stations show a significant decline since about 1982. Correlation analysis shows that the decline of rainfall in eastern, south and southwestern Ethiopia is caused by the corresponding persistent warming of the South Atlantic Ocean over the period approximately from 1986 to 2002. The sea-surface temperature (SST) over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is not significantly correlated with the main rainfall of the semi-arid lowland areas of eastern, southern, and southwestern Ethiopia, except at marginal zones in transition to the Ethiopian Highlands.June-September rainfall over the Ethiopian Highlands is positively correlated to the equatorial east Pacific sea-level pressure and the southern oscillation index, and negatively correlated to SST over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean as expected, confirming again that warm El Niño-southern oscillation episodes are associated with below-average June-September rainfall over the Ethiopian Highlands.

Seleshi, Yilma; Zanke, Ulrich

2004-06-01

146

Ethiopia ’s nationhood reconsidered / A nação etíope reconsiderada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As teorias convencionais associam o nacionalismo à Europa ocidental moderna, em geral a um período subsequente à Revolução Francesa. No entanto, no caso etíope, os indicadores de nacionalismo usados pela maior parte dos investigadores encontram-se atestados desde o século vi da nossa era. Este facto [...] põe em causa as perspectivas convencionais sobre a ideia de nação, e questiona os que encaram o sentimento nacional etíope como uma invenção recente. Para mais, a experiência da recente diáspora etíope permite-nos repensar a própria ideia de nação. Os laços permanentes entre etíopes expatriados e a sua pátria, e a comunicação através de meios electrónicos, manifestam uma nova configuração da ideia de nação etíope, que se compõe agora de três partes confluentes: bet-agar (pátria); wutch-agar (diáspora); e sayber-agar (ciberespaço). Abstract in english Conventional theories trace nationalism to modern Western Europe, usually following the French Revolution. However, markers of nationalism used by most scholars are attested by evidence of Ethiopia’s nationhood as early as sixth century C.E. This requires revisions in both conventional notions of na [...] tionhood and views of those who find Ethiopianness a recent invention. Moreover, the experience of Ethiopians in their recent Diaspora warrants rethinking the very notions of nationhood. Continuing ties of Ethiopian expatriates with their homeland and communication through electronic media manifest a new configuration of Ethiopia’s nationhood, consisting now of three confluent parts: bet-agar (homeland); wutch-agar (diaspora); and sayber-agar (cyberspace).

Donald N., Levine.

147

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20965132

Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Berg, Stefan

2011-01-01

148

Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect ho...

Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A. J. W.; Hagos, F.

2008-01-01

149

Early marriage in Ethiopia : causes and health consequences  

OpenAIRE

Early marriage is a violation of the fundamental rights of the child. In 2006, Pathfinder International/Ethiopia conducted a study on the incidence, reasons for, and the personal and social consequences of early marriage in both urban and rural areas of the Amhara region. Understanding the forces at work at the community and family levels that drive parents to marry their girl-children off is essential in the development of effective programmes to tackle this traditional practice. A total of ...

Alemu, B.

2008-01-01

150

Determinant and impacts of dynamic inflation in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This thesis uses quarterly data for the period 1998-2010 to investigate the determinant and impacts of dynamic inflation in Ethiopia. By using Granger causality model approach four testable hypotheses are investigated: (1) does the money supply growth Granger-cause inflation? (2) Does currency devaluation Granger cause inflation? (3) Does inflation affect economic growth? And (4) Does oil price Granger cause of inflation? The empirical results suggest that there existed a bi-directional c...

Biresaw, Temesgen Tezera

2014-01-01

151

Clean fuel-saving technology adoption in urban Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The heavy dependence and inefficient utilization of biomass resources have contributed to the depletion of forest resources in Ethiopia, while the use of traditional cooking technology has also been linked to indoor air pollution and poor health. In response, the government and other institutions have pushed for the adoption of new cooking technologies, with limited success. This research examines the reasons underpinning the lack of widespread adoption, via duration analysis, cor...

Beyene, Abebe Damte; Koch, Steven F.

2013-01-01

152

Soviet involvement in Ethiopia and Somalia, 1947-1991  

OpenAIRE

Soviet-Third World relations during the Cold War are still not clearly understood. Largely based on previously unused primary material, this study aims to fill this gap in knowledge by emphasising the interplay between domestic, local, regional, and global dimensions in analysing Moscow’s involvement in the Horn of Africa. By offering a detailed examination of Soviet involvement in Somalia and Ethiopia during the Cold War, this thesis aims to shed light on the factors, shaping Moscow’s...

Yordanov, Radoslav; Anderson, David; Pravda, Alex

2012-01-01

153

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed ...

Bauer, S.; Ketema, M.

2012-01-01

154

Flow, melt and fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.

Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

2014-05-01

155

Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ethiopia, information on the transmission of human zoonotic pathogens through ixodid ticks remains scarce. To address the occurrence and molecular identity of spotted fever group rickettsiae using molecular tools, a total of 767 ixodid ticks belonging to thirteen different species were collected from domestic animals from September 2011 to March 2014. Rickettsia africae DNA was detected in 30.2% (16/53) Amblyommma variegatum, 28.6% (12/42) Am. gemma, 0.8% (1/119) Am. cohaerens, 18.2% (4/22) Amblyomma larvae, 6.7% (2/60) Amblyomma nymphs, 0.7% (1/139) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and 25% (1/4) nymphs of Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus. A markedly low prevalence of R. africae was recorded in both Am. cohaerens and Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus (pEthiopia is presented herein. Altogether, these results suggest that the transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae through ixodid ticks is a potential risk for human health in different parts of Ethiopia. Clinicians in this country should consider these pathogens as a potential cause of febrile illness in patients. PMID:25262832

Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2015-02-01

156

Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

2014-04-01

157

An audit of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the existence of national tuberculosis guidelines (NTG in Ethiopia, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis did not decline markedly. Audits could attempt to determine whether or not healthcare professionals actually implemented these guidelines, as non-implementation could contribute to suboptimal tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Aim: To evaluate healthcare providers’ implementation of Ethiopia’s NTG during the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in order to enhance tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. Results: Healthcare providers implemented the NTG during tuberculosis diagnosis for female (60.9%; n = 67 and male (56.1%; n = 69 patients. The correct numbers of anti-tuberculosis pills, complying with the NTG recommendations, were prescribed for 91.8% (n = 101 of the women and for 90.2% (n = 111 of the men. However, both over- and under-prescriptions of anti-tuberculosis drugs occurred. There was an over-diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Only 2.6% (n = 2 of the 76 smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients had been diagnosed correctly. Conclusion: Implementation of the NTG should be enhanced, especially with regard to the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients and the correct prescription of anti-tuberculosis drugs. This would help to increase the number of correctly-diagnosed and -treated tuberculosis patients, improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes, decrease the spread of tuberculosis and prevent the development of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis strains.

Valerie J. Ehlers

2014-08-01

158

Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year?1 and downward trends in rainfall of ? 0.4 mm month?1 year?1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Chris

2013-01-01

159

The Mesozoic succession of Dire Dawa, Harar Province, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mesozoic succession of Dire Dawa, Harar Province, Ethiopia, consists of a lower fluviatile sandstone (Adigrat Sandstone); an intermediate carbonate-marly unit, formerly called Antalo Limestone; and an upper fluviatile sandstone (Amba Aradam Formation). This study has shown that the intermediate unit consists of four different formations grouped into two depositional sequences. These sequences and their boundaries, Middle-Late Jurassic in age, are well correlated with sequences recognised throughout East Africa and a large part of Yemen. The base of the lower sequence (Antalo Supersequence) is time-transgressive (Pliensbachian to Oxfordian) and is the result of the first flooding of this sector of the Gondwana continent during the Mesozoic. The second major sequence boundary is also time-transgressive and corresponds to an abrupt deepening of East Africa and southern Arabia shallow water ramps and carbonate platforms, a collapse most probably related to the separation of Madagascar from Africa. A major tectonic event occurred in Early Cretaceous from northern Ethiopia to Yemen, and southern Ethiopia and Somalia. This vast uplift, testified by faults and angular uncomformities, was followed by deposition of fluviatile sediments over the entire region.

Bosellini, A.; Russo, A.; Assefa, G.

2001-04-01

160

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-12-31

161

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-01-01

162

Where, and why, women are at risk. Country focus: Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first evidence of HIV infection in Ethiopia was found in 1984, and the first AIDS case was reported in 1986. By 1993 and 1996, an estimated 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively, of adults in the country had been infected. According to the Ethiopian government's epidemiology and AIDS control department, more than 400,000 people may have already developed AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic. However, only a small proportion of these cases has ever been recorded in the official health statistics. In urban areas, probably more than 11% of adults are infected with HIV, most who do not know that they are infected. The main mode of HIV transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The number of male cases in Ethiopia approximately equals the number of female cases. Among 15-19 year olds, however, there are far more females than males infected. Unequal power relations, the failure of faithfulness, lack of communication and knowledge, arranged marriages, economic dependence, illiteracy, excessive workloads, and poverty leading to prostitution for survival are risk factors which predispose women in Ethiopia to exposure to HIV. PMID:12347435

Wyohannes, M

1996-10-01

163

Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo ...

Girma, Meseret; Yaya, Yaliso; Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Lindtjørn, Bernt

2013-01-01

164

Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of...

Girma, Meseret; Yaya, Yaliso; Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Lindtjørn, Bernt

2013-01-01

165

Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

2014-05-01

166

Conservation and Livelihood Impacts of Decentralized Forest Governance in Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dissertation focuses on a specific form of forest decentralization, participatory forest management (PFM). The underlying premise of PFM is that sustainable forest management is most likely to occur when local communities manage local forests, and when they get access to direct benefits from participating in forest management. However, the outcomes of PFM have so far been reported as “mixed” and where success is reported, it usually relates to the forest condition rather than to improving local livelihoods. The key research questions in this PhD study are what have been the impacts of PFM on livelihood, forest governance and forest conditions in Ethiopia? The study approaches these questions by disentangling outcomes that can be attributed to PFM rather than other factors through quasi-experimental designs. The significance of the study lays in its holistic assessment of the theoretically expected outcomes of PFM. In the four articles that form the thesis, the study argues that the PFM programme in Ethiopia contributes to forest conservation compared to other types of management regimes. However, conservation is also challenged mainly by lack of support from the authorities to forest user groups. Though various pilot projects have contributed valuable experiences on the performance of PFM in Ethiopia, the programme is currently being scaled up to the national level without taking these into account. Indeed, the PFM up-scaling programme remains based on the discretion of the individual donors and NGOs, with a model where only subsistence level incentives are made available to forest user group members. The study confirms the theoretical claim that rules imposed from above are not followed, and uniquely shows that commercialization of timber and forest conservation can go side by side in decentralized forest management.

Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha

2013-01-01

167

Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

2014-02-24

168

Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia. PMID:25481716

Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

2015-03-01

169

Prevalence of onchocerciasis in Blue Nile valley of western Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A epidemiological study of Onchocerciasis among different ethnic groups in the Blue Nile valley of Western Ethiopia was conducted to obtain baseline data on disease prevalence, skin snips samples were obtained from 493 persons, representing different ethnic groups (Nilotic and Oromos), living under different geographic and climatic conditions (lowlands, Midland and highland) or Mendi district for parasitological verification. A total of 169 (34%) had microfilariae of the skin by direct microscopy. The highest prevalence rate (81%) was found among the Nilotic people living along the southern banks of the Blue Nile River. Most patient had wide spread skin infection. Epidemiological differences were also observed. PMID:8077003

Jira, C

1993-01-01

170

Defining weaning age of camel calves in Eastern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This experiment was conducted with the aim to define the weaning age of camel calves managed with pastoral farmers in eastern Ethiopia. Twenty camel calves (11 males and 9 females) were randomly assigned into five blocks based on their birth date. Calves within a block were further assigned to one of the four Treatments (T1, T2, T3, and T4). Calves in T1, T2, and T3 were weaned at 6, 8, and 10 months of age and supplemented with concentrate from weaning up to 12 months of age, respectively. T...

Chibsa, Merga B.; Mummed, Yesihak Y.; Kurtu, Mohamed Y.; Leta, Mengistu U.

2014-01-01

171

Notes on Euphorbia subgenus Euphorbia in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Precursory notes on Euphorbia subgen. Euphorbia for the Flora of Ethiopia are given. Revised synonymies are given for E. abyssinica, E. ampliphylla and E. polyacantha. Six species: E. burgen M.G. Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.G. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.G.Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.G. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert and <...

Gilbert, M. G.

1992-01-01

172

Investigation on Infectious Bursal Disease Outbreak in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

An outbreak of infectious bursal disease affecting 20-45 days old broiler and layer chickens was investigated for the first time in Ethiopia in the months of March and April 2002. Death of chickens started at the 30th day of age and continues to the 55th day. The mortality rate of the disease in different poultry houses ranges from 45-50 %. The over all mortality rate was 49.89%. Broiler mortality was 56.09% while 25.08% for layer chickens. The major clinical symptoms were sudden drop ...

Aschalew Zeleke; Esayas Gelaye; Teshale Sori; Gelagay Ayelet; Asegedech Sirak; Bereket Zekarias

2005-01-01

173

Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest pre...

Tewodros Fantahun; Tsegiedingle Yigzaw; Mersha Chanie

2012-01-01

174

Water quality of Wenchi Crater Lake in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determination of physico-chemical properties of water samples from Wenchi Crater Lake in Ethiopia was carried out. Selected heavy metals in water, sediment, and plant samples from the lake were also comparatively determined. The results indicated that most general physico-chemical properties of the lake water fell within those recommended for drinking water. However, the lake water was found to be high in some heavy metals, which also accumulated in the sediment. Bioconcentration of these metals was also observed in the plant samples.

Malairajan Singanan

2008-06-01

175

The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, e questi informazioni sono utilizzati qui: dopo una revisione di tutto il materiale di Etiopia e Eritrea, e un comparazione con materiale di Africa tropicale orientale, si è concluso che P. truncata è conspecifi ca con P. dawei, nota per l’Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania e Madagascar, e che un’altra specie conosciuta per l’Africa tropicale orientale (Kenya e Tanzania), P. montis-elgonis, é stata raccolta anche in due stazioni nel sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. In Etiopia, le due specie rare, P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis, sono limitate alle aree originariamente coperti da foresta umida: P. dawei si trova nella foresta pluviale di transizione (Transitional Rain Forest) e anche nella foresta fluviale (Riverine Forest), ma P. montis-elgonis si trova nella zona più bassa della foresta afromontana umida sempreverde (Moist Afromontane Evergreen Forest), secondo i tipi di vegetazione defi niti da Friis, Sebsebe Demissew e van Breugel. La distribuzione ed ecologia di P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis in Africa orientale e il Madagascar viene riesaminata, utilizzando i dati quantitativi disponibili. La distribuzione è stata ottenuta da dati d’erbario, mentre sono state valutate anche la distribuzione potenziale e lo stato di conservazione generale delle due specie. Malgrado loro rarità, almeno in Etiopia, le due specie siano da attribuire alla categoria IUCN Least Concern (LC) se si basi la stima sulla dimensione del EOO o sulla dimensione del AOO con grande cellule. Inoltre viene riproposto un nuovo trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species. In the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 5, published in 2006, only two indigenous species were accounted for: the widespread and common P. zeylanica and a new species, P. truncata, restricted to south-western Ethiopia. The name P. truncata was not formally validated. Since then more collections and field observations of Plumbago have been made in Ethiopia: after revision of the entire material it is concluded that P. truncata is conspecific with P. dawei, known from Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar, and that another tropical East African species, P. montis-elgonis, known from Kenya and Tanzania, also occurs in south-western Ethiopia. In Ethiopia the two species are restricted to areas originally covered by moist forest: P. dawei to Transitional Rain Forest and Riverine Forest, while P. montis-elgonis to the lowermost zone of the Moist Afromontane Forest, as these vegetation types have been defi ned by Friis, Sebsebe Demissew and van Breugel. The distribution and ecology of P. dawei and P. montis-elgonis in eastern Africa and Madagascar is also reviewed, using quantitative data available: the distribution as documented by herbarium material is shown, the potential distribution of the species is modelled, and the conservation status of the species is estimated. In spite of their rarity, the two species are attributed to the IUCN category Least Concern (LC) when the category is estimated using EOO and AOO with moderate or large cell size. A rewritten account of the genus Plumbago is provided in the format of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, taking account of the new findings.

Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie

2012-01-01

176

Oil and gas in the Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To date, many of the 47 exploration and development wells drilled in the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia have exhibited natural oil seeps and oil and gas shows. The Calub gas field and the Hilala oil field occurs in the central part of the 350,000 sq. km. basin. The various units within the basin consist of continental sediments, a regional organic-rich interval close to the Permo-Triassic boundary, organic-rich marine sediments and carbonates. The Ogaden Basin is dissected by several faults that are related to the Ethiopian Rift and may form a component of traps in the Calub-Hilala area.

Du Toit, S.R.; Kurdy, S. [Alconsult International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asfaw, S.H.; Gessesse, A.A. [Petroleum Operations Dept., Ministry of Mines and Energy, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

1997-09-01

177

Utilization of antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia between February and December 2006: spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health (MOH started to implement a national antiretroviral treatment (ART program. Using data in the monthly HIV/AIDS Updates issued by the MOH, this paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of ART on a population basis for Ethiopian towns and administrative zones and regions for the period February to December 2006. Results The 101 public ART hospitals treated 44,446 patients and the 91 ART health centers treated 1,599 patients in December 2006. The number of patients currently receiving ART doubled between February and December 2006 and the number of female patients aged 15 years and older surpassed male patients, apparently due to increased awareness and provision of free ART. Of 58,405 patients who ever started ART in December 2006, 46,045 (78.8% were adhering to treatment during that month. Population coverage of ART was highest in the three urban administrative regions of Addis Ababa, Harari and Dire Dawa, in regional centers with referral hospitals, and in several small road side towns that had former mission or other NGO-operated hospitals. Hospitals in Addis Ababa had the largest patient loads (on average 850 patients and those in SNNPR (Southern Nations and Nationalities Peoples Republic (212 patients and Somali (130 patients regions the fewest patients. In bivariate tests, number of patients receiving treatment was significantly correlated with population size of towns, urban population per zone, number of hospitals per zone, and duration of ART services in 2006 (all p Conclusion The sharp increase in ART uptake in 2006 is largely due to the rapid increase in the provision of free treatment at more sites. The marked variation in ART utilization patterns between urban and rural communities and among zones and regions requires further studies. Recommendations are made for further expansion and sustainability of the ART scale-up.

Mulatu Mesfin

2007-09-01

178

Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.

Gebreegziabher, Z.

2007-01-01

179

Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En analyse af fordelingen af artsrigdom og endemisme på de floristiske regioner, der har været anvendt ved udarbejdelsen af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; artiklen er baseret på en tidligere udgivet analyse af floraen på hele Afrikas Horn.

Friis, Ib

2009-01-01

180

Fuelwood Savings and Carbon Emission Reductions by the Use of Improved Cooking Stoves in an Afromontane Forest, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In many Sub-Saharan African countries, fuelwood collection is among the most important drivers of deforestation and particularly forest degradation. In a detailed field study in the Kafa region of southern Ethiopia, we assessed the potential of efficient cooking stoves to mitigate the negative impacts of fuelwood harvesting on forests. Eleven thousand improved cooking stoves (ICS), specifically designed for baking Ethiopia’s staple food injera, referred to locally as “Mirt” stoves, have...

Elisabeth Dresen; Ben DeVries; Martin Herold; Louis Verchot; Robert Müller

2014-01-01

181

The predicaments of child victims of crime seeking justice in Ethiopia: a double victimization by the justice process  

OpenAIRE

This article presents an account of a legal system that has fundamentally failed Ethiopia´s young and vulnerable citizens. The Ethiopian justice process has permitted the subjection of child victims to cycles of traumatisation during investigation, prosecution and trial phases of cases in which they are involved. Ethiopia does not have laws that require the special treatment of children who are victims or witnesses of crime. It has neither rules of criminal procedure nor evidence that dire...

Woldemariam, Getachew Assefa

2011-01-01

182

Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons  

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Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.

Mulugeta Lemenih

2014-07-01

183

Investigation on Infectious Bursal Disease Outbreak in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available An outbreak of infectious bursal disease affecting 20-45 days old broiler and layer chickens was investigated for the first time in Ethiopia in the months of March and April 2002. Death of chickens started at the 30th day of age and continues to the 55th day. The mortality rate of the disease in different poultry houses ranges from 45-50 %. The over all mortality rate was 49.89%. Broiler mortality was 56.09% while 25.08% for layer chickens. The major clinical symptoms were sudden drop in feed and water consumption, sever depression, white watery droppings and mass death. Grossly, hemorrhages in leg muscles, degeneration of the pectoral muscle, white mass (Urate deposit in kidneys and in Cloaca were frequently observed during post mortem examination. In addition, haemorrhagic & swollen bursas filled with straw colored fluid were identified in few cases. Histopathology revealed hyperplasia of the reticulo-endothelia cells and interfollicular tissue of affected bursa of fabricius. The Agar Gel Immuno Diffusion (AGID Test detected precipitating antibodies against Infectious Bursal disease virus in sera collected from convalescent chicken. Virus cytopathic effect was observed in chicken fibroblast cells (CFC inoculated with bursa and spleen tissue suspension of sick chicken. Vaccination failures were encountered to Newcastle disease vaccine (Clone 30. This paper probably is the first to report the occurrence of infectious bursal disease in Ethiopia as the country has been known to be free from Infectious Bursal Disease(IBD.

Aschalew Zeleke

2005-01-01

184

Outbreak of tungiasis following a trip to Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungiasis is a skin disease caused by the ectoparasite sand flea Tunga penetrans. Although tungiasis is an important health problem in endemic areas, mainly South America and sub-Saharan Africa, it is reported uncommonly in travelers. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in a group of travelers to Ethiopia. Following the diagnosis of tungiasis in a member of a group of 17 Israeli travelers to Ethiopia, other affected members were identified by photograph assisted self diagnosis. The characteristics, including relevant demographic and epidemiologic data were recorded using a telephone interview and computerized questionnaire, and analyzed subsequently. The attack rate of tungiasis in the travel group was 53% (9 patients). Most of the patients (89%) wore open sandals during prolonged periods of their journey, but the pattern of shoeware use was similar in unaffected group members. An insect bite was not felt by any patient. The median number of skin lesions was one, and most lesions were located on the foot (7 of 9 travelers), but the hands were also affected in 2 travelers. All skin lesions healed without a need for a major intervention and without major sequela within 5 weeks of their appearance. Tungiasis may be underdiagnosed in travelers. Medical personnel should include tungiasis in pre-travel recommendations, and post-travel assessment. PMID:23031181

Grupper, M; Potasman, I

2012-09-01

185

Participatory forest management in Ethiopia : learning from pilot projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

2014-01-01

186

Crustal structure across Afar, Ethiopia, from surface wave tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the results of a study of the group velocity dispersion characteristics of fundamental-mode surface waves across Afar, Ethiopia. We analyze surface wave data for more than 200 events recorded in 2007 and 2008 by the NERC Afar Consortium experiment and the NSF Rochester seismic networks deployed in northern Ethiopia. We first apply a dispersion analysis using the frequency-time analysis to obtain the group velocity of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves for periods ranging from 3 to 15 sec. We then invert path-averaged dispersion curves to obtain 2D maps, of group velocity for discrete periods using a method that is the generalization to two dimensions of the Backus and Gilbert method. The resulting tomographic maps show a significant low velocity anomaly below the Dabbahu and Hararo magmatic segments, the site of recent dyke intrusions and maps out crustal anomalies within the Afar rift segments. Our results represent the first detailed surface wave study of crustal and uppermost upper mantle structure of Afar and could lead to significant progress towards a better understanding of the lithospheric structure and magma distribution in the area.

Guidarelli, M.; Stuart, G. W.; Hammond, J.; Kendall, J. M.; Ebinger, C. J.

2009-12-01

187

Monetary Developments and Decolonization in Ethiopia (1941-1952  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the reorganization process of the monetary setting in Ethiopia which started in 1941 along with decolonization, when the Italian colonial rule came to an end. The country regained independence and the former Ethiopian empire was restored. The monetary reform in Ethiopia after the liberation during World War II, was a necessary measure to be adopted. Different paths however could have been followed at that moment by the Ethiopian government. The crucial choice made in money matter was to re-establish a national monetary unit instead of keeping the country inside the East African shilling area, as it was envisaged in British designs for the post-war setting of the Horn of Africa. The Ethiopian project unpredictably prevailed at the end of a weary negotiation, due to the chiefly American support in the framework of a new role gained by the United States in this area. The Ethiopian Authorities were, as a consequence, enabled to free themselves from dependence on Great Britain.

Arnaldo Mauri

2010-03-01

188

Prevalence of antituberculosis drug resistance in Harar Tuberculosis Centre, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A tuberculosis centre based, cross sectional study was carried out in order to describe the magnitude of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted in Harar Tuberculosis Centre which is the major tuberculosis treatment centre in eastern Ethiopia. A total of 338 smear/culture positive patients were enrolled in the study between October 10, 1994 and January 20, 1995. Exposure status was determined through interview; drug resistance was determined through laboratory investigation. The overall prevalence of resistance to one or more antituberculosis drugs was 126/338(37.3%). Initial and acquired resistance were 82/252(32.5%) and 44/86(51.2%) respectively. Multi-drug resistance (resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin) was detected in 3.5% of cases who had previous history of treatment. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance was significantly higher in those who had previous history treatment (p Harar. There is a need for periodic drug resistance survey. Implementation of the WHO recommended supervised treatment with multi-sectoral approach is suggested. PMID:9185412

Mitike, G; Kebede, D; Yeneneh, H

1997-03-01

189

Modelling soil nutrient dynamics under alternative farm management practices in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Agricultural production in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia is low, stagnant or unsustainable. The objectives of this study were to explore long-term dynamics of soil organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and the consequences for crop-available N and P to support the design of sustainable farm management practices for higher yields and improved livelihoods in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. Simplified soil N and P dynamics modules are described. C dynamics have been linked...

Abegaz Yimer, A.; Keulen, H.

2009-01-01

190

Feed resources, livestock production and soil carbon dynamics in Teghane, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia, integrated crop-livestock production within smallholder farms is the dominant form of agricultural production. Feed availability and quality are serious constraints to livestock production in Ethiopia in general, and in its Northern Highlands in particular. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between feed availability and quality and live weight gain, milk and manure production and the soil C balance in Teghane, Northern Highland...

Abegaz Yimer, A.; Keulen, H.; Oosting, S. J.

2007-01-01

191

Hepatitis B virus infection among medical aste handlers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Healthcare wastes contain a wide range of microorganisms among which hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the most significant pathogens. No data about the prevalence of HBV among medical waste handlers is available in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore; this study was conducted to describe the prevalence of HBV infection among medical waste handlers in Government hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted among 2...

Shiferaw Yitayal; Abebe Tamrat; Mihret Adane

2011-01-01

192

Initial community perspectives on the Health Service Extension Programme in Welkait, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The Health Service Extension Programme (HSEP) is an innovative approach to addressing the shortfall in health human resources in Ethiopia. It has developed a new cadre of Health Extension Workers (HEWs), who are charged with providing the health and hygiene promotion and some treatment services, which together constitute the bedrock of Ethiopia's community health system. Methods This study seeks to explore the experience of the HSEP from the ...

McAuliffe Eilish; Negusse Haile; MacLachlan Malcolm

2007-01-01

193

Disease Progression Among Untreated HIV-Infected Patients in South Ethiopia: Implications for Patient Care  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Context The natural course of HIV disease progression among resource-poor patient populations has not been clearly defined. Objective To describe predictors of HIV disease progression as seen at an outpatient clinic in a resource-limited setting in rural Ethiopia. Design This prospective cohort study included all adult HIV patients who visited an outpatient clinic at Arba Minch hospital in South Ethiopia between January 30, 2003 and April ...

Jerene Degu; Lindtjørn Bernt

2005-01-01

194

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit ...

Gezahegn Tesfaye; Mitiku Teshome Hambisa; Agumasie Semahegn

2014-01-01

195

Most common causes of natural and injury-related deaths in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In Ethopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include sparse pathological diagnoses. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia in 2006, 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathologica...

Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T. Dianne

2009-01-01

196

The Impact of Globalization and Technology Transfer on Manufacturing Employment and Skills in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

There is a dearth of research on the impact of technological change on employment in the context of least developed countries (LDCs) embarking on globalization, which enhances the prospect of direct technological imports or embodied technological transfer. Using a sample of 1,940 enterprises from Ethiopia over the period 1996-2004 and deploying System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM-SYS), this paper attempts to establish the nature of manufacturing employment in Ethiopia and the role playe...

Haile, Getinet Astatike; Srour, Ilina; Vivarelli, Marco

2013-01-01

197

Land reform, distribution of land and institutions in rural Ethiopia: analysis of inequality with dirty data  

OpenAIRE

There are two either explicitly or implicitly and widely accepted ideas about the distribution of land in Ethiopia after the reform of 1975. First, land distribution in rural Ethiopia is highly equitable, for example compared to other African countries where private ownership exists. Second, the land distribution pattern currently observed is basically explained by what happened after the reform; hence, pre-reform tenures do not help us understand post-reform land distribution. This paper que...

Kebede, Bereket

2006-01-01

198

A methodology for the adoptation of information systems in least developed countries (LDCs) : case study Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Ethiopia is one of the United Nation’s Least Developed Countries (LDCs), and is ranked as one of the absolute least developed in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) development and penetration. Ethiopia has only 0.5 Internet users per 100 residents and 6 telephone lines per 100 residents, which is one of the lowest penetration rates in the world. Additional issues include the limitation of most Internet access to cities and a monopoly telecommunications provide that con...

Kebbede, Sirak

2012-01-01

199

Seroepidemiological study of caprine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular apicomplexan parasite. The objectives of this study were to estimate the animal and flock level seroprevalence and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis in goats of Central Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, goats are economically important animals used for meat and milk production. The study was cross-sectional and 927 blood samples from 187 goat flocks were collected to examine T. gondii specific IgG antibodies by enz...

Zewdu, E.; Agonafir, A.; Tessema, T. S.; Tilahun, G.; Medhin, G.; Vitale, M.; Di Marco, V.; Cox, E.; Vercruysse, J.; Dorny, P.

2013-01-01

200

Genetic diversity and grain protein composition of tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum Desf) germplasm from Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The extent and patterns of genetic diversity in landraces of tetraploid wheat germplasm collected from major wheat-producing regions of Ethiopia were assessed with the use of agromorphological,phenol-qualitative traits, grain proteins and molecular markers. The extent of genetic erosion of landraces in tetraploid wheat germplasm from Ethiopia was also evaluated. Field evaluation of agro-morphological characters and laboratory analysis of grain proteins and molecular markers (ISSR) reveale...

Hailu, Faris

2011-01-01

201

The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.

Deribe Kebede

2012-10-01

202

Federalism in Africa: The Case of Ethnic-based Federalism in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Ethiopia adopted ethnic federalism and restructured the regions along ethnic lines as soon as the EPRDF took political power by overthrowing the Marxist military government in 1991. The aim of this paper is to examine the merits and the demerits of federalism. The paper particularly assesses federalism in Africa by taking the case of Ethiopia as an example. The paper argues that in order to ensure the success of federalism, it should not be imposed from above. Since its introduction in 1991 a...

Jan Záho?ík; Wondwosen Teshome

2008-01-01

203

Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management  

OpenAIRE

Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the functioning of the wheat seed system in four major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. A total of 304 wheat growers were interviewed in Arsi, West Shoa, North Shoa, and East Gojam zones. Most wheat growers w...

Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A. J. G.

2010-01-01

204

Managing Ethiopian Cities II: Informality in Ethiopia: Taxing the Hard to Tax  

OpenAIRE

Large informal (hard to tax) sectors are an integral part of the economies of developing countries (Ethiopia included). In much of Africa, the informal, or gray economy that escapes tax collectors and government regulators, is the hidden dynamic driving economic growth. The informal economy is an important contributor to employment and production in Ethiopia but also to fiscal and regulatory evasion and, as such, is an intensely debated issue. Informality has a direct impact...

Bongwa, A.

2009-01-01

205

From Economic Vulnerability to Sustainable Livelihoods: The Case of Oromia Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

We present the case study of a fast growing agribusiness cooperative in Ethiopia, Oromia Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union (OCFCU). OCFCU was established in 1999 by 34 cooperatives and a capital of US$90,000. Nowadays, OCFCU has 240 cooperatives and a capital exceeding $12,000,000 USD. Well known in the specialty coffee market, OCFCU works with growers across Ethiopia influencing communities economically and socially. Using the GLIMPSE perspective, we investigate the raw-bean procurement, tr...

Meskela, Tadesse; Teshome, Yalem

2014-01-01

206

Local leadership and State governance in southern Ethiopia : from charisma to bureaucracy  

OpenAIRE

Based on the study of chiefs, elders and local leaders in southern Ethiopia, this paper analyses the idea of authority, legitimacy and governance among three small-scale societies, the Meén, the Dizi and the Suri. It shows that in southern Ethiopia efforts were made to replace charismatic and traditional authority by a bureaucratic structure of rulers and legal procedures instigated by the expanding national State, but that this process was neither complete nor successful, because the source...

Abbink, J.

2003-01-01

207

The International Community’s Intervention on Ethiopia and Eretria s Conflict  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Border issues are political problems in Africa. The border conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea was one of the contentious wars faced by the international community. To manage this conflict, the same community established border commission to draw up the boundaries and demarcate the borderline. Ethiopia was however insolent and in effect discarded this demarcation. It also continued to dwell in the territory of Eritrea. This research urges the international community to make border issues in Africa a priority. In fact, one of the reasons why Kenya and Ethiopia are reluctant to participate in the efforts to form tangible Somali government has its origin in border issue.  Historically Ethiopia will not forget the damage inflicted upon them by Somali freedom fighters including Imam Ahmad, Sayed Muhammad Abdulle Hassan, and the Somali military. In 1531, Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (1507-1543 launched a campaign against Ethiopia and defeated several Ethiopian emperors, inflicting much dent on the kingdom. This conflict brought three-quarters of Ethiopia under Muslim Somali Sultanate of Adal in the intense Ethiopian Adal War from 1529-43. Similarly, Sayed Muhammad Abdulle Hassan, ONLF, UWSLF and the former Somali National Military have meted out damages on Ethiopia. Similarly Somalia was on the offensive in 1964 to reclaim the Kenyan Northeastern region. The point at hand is that, the history of most conflicts in the region revolves on border related issues. In the case of Ethiopia and Eritrea the military move by the international community had significantly ended a long held conflict and struggle through peaceful engagement and drafted binding arbitration.

Abdi O. Shuriye

2013-02-01

208

Complementary Oriental Cities, the Case of Harar and Dire Dawa (Eastern Ethiopia)  

OpenAIRE

The article touches on a number of themes relevant to the topic of complementarity of cities. Two cities of Eastern Ethiopia are being considered, Harar, an ancient and religious centre of Islam, also called a holy city of Islam in the Horn of Africa, and Dire Dawa, founded as a railway station, which further developed into a commercial and industrial centre and a second chartered city of Ethiopia – after the capital city of Addis Ababa. Statistical data presented in the arti...

?ykowska, Laura

2011-01-01

209

In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The leaves extracts of two indigenous plants of Ethiopia: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentra...

Hawaze, S.; Deti, H.; Suleman, S.

2012-01-01

210

Performance of small-scale photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic systems is tested under the climatic conditions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. With climatic data obtained at a station in the Rift Valley, the photovoltaic systems performance is estimated for those climatic conditions. The economics of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic system applications under Ethiopian conditions are analysed. The potential of photovoltaics for the rural electrification of Ethiopia is discussed. (Author)

Stutenbaeumer, Ulrich; Negash, Tesfaye; Abdi, Amensisa [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

1999-09-01

211

Agroforestry Practices and Biodiversity Management in Backyards in Hiwane, Hintalo Wejerat of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In Ethiopia more than 85% of the population is involved in agriculture based profession. Farmers in Ethiopia have been practicing different agroforestry models since time immemorial. What is more, backyard (home garden) agroforestry practice is most popular in the northern part of the country. This backyard agroforestry (home garden) is practiced as a mixture of crops (vegetables, herbs) and trees (fruits and fodder trees) to provide diversified products to the cultivators. This study found o...

Haileselasie, Tsegazeabe H.; Hiwot, Mekonen T. G.; Gebremichael, Gebru E.; Hiluf, Solomon A.

2012-01-01

212

Economic efficiency and marketing performance of vegetable production in the eastern and central parts of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this thesis is to examine the production and marketing performance of vegetables in the eastern and central parts of Ethiopia. Efficiency estimation and identification of their determinants in mixed-crop and market-driven (vegetables) production systems was performed in two districts of eastern Ethiopia. A significant economic inefficiency was observed for both systems, with lower efficiency scores for the market-driven farm production. The improvement in efficiency calls for...

Haji, Jema

2008-01-01

213

Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2% were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8% were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists. Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91 and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98 were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54. Extra-pulmonary TB was the only observed predictor for health care providers' delay (aOR. 3.39, CI 1.68–6.83. Conclusion Patient delay observed among pastoralist TB patients in SRS is one of the highest reported so far from developing countries, exceeding two years in some patients. This long patient delay appears to be associated with patient's inadequate knowledge of the disease and distance to health care facility with nomadic pastoralists being the most affected. Regional TB control programmes need to consider the exceptional circumstances of pastoralists, to maximise their access to TB services.

Abebe Fekadu

2009-01-01

214

Physical volcanology of the Gubisa Formation, Kone Volcanic Complex, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite their significance for understanding the potential environmental factors involved in hominin evolution in Ethiopia, very few modern volcanologic studies have been carried out on the Quaternary calderas and associated silicic tephra deposits of the Ethiopian Rift. We present here the second of a set of papers reporting the findings of fieldwork and laboratory analyses of one of the largest of these structures, Kone Caldera, located within the Kone Volcanic Complex in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift. The most recent major episode of explosive eruptive activity at Kone Caldera was apparently associated with formation of part of the overall 8-km-diameter collapse area, and deposited a widely-dispersed alkali rhyolite tephra that reaches a thickness of up to 60 m in vent-proximal deposits. We report here the physical characteristics of this unit in order to constrain eruptive conditions. The pumice fall deposit suggests that an abrupt decrease in magma discharge rate occurred part way through the eruption.

Rampey, Michael L.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pyle, David M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn

2014-08-01

215

DIVERSITY AND ENDEMICITY OF CHILIMO FOREST, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species followed by pteridophyta (16 species; the least represented being the gymnosperms (represented by 2 exotic and 2 indigenous species. To provide a better management and monitoring as well as to maintain the biodiversity, cultural and economic values of the forest unsustainable utility of the forest would be controlled with the various conservation activities in place.

Teshome Soromessa

2013-01-01

216

A review of uranium minerals exploration in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in und in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa, Illubabor and Wollega administrative regions. Much of the country has been examined by geologists, but it would be premature to say that there are no further deposits of useful minerals awaiting discovery. Only a comparatively small part of the country has been geologically mapped so far on a systematic basis. Geologic maps at scales of 1:100,000 to 1:25,000 should be prepared for areas where mineral deposits are to be prospected for and where known deposits are to be developed or exploited. At present the best available geological map is one at a scale of 1:250, 000. This and other programs of mineral exploration basically call, among others, for: - Equipment and funds from bilateral, multilateral and local sources; - A national program geared towards uranium mineral exploration; - Heavy investment in infrastructure to get to many of the deposits, which are located in remote parts of the country; - International and regional cooperation in uranium mineral resources research. Finally, participation in international conferences such as this organized by the IAEA will give us, researchers in developing countries, good impetus to get moving and do useful research in uranium exploration and its uses. Research collaboration with scientists in the developed world is very essential to accelerate forward the creeping research in developing countries. (author)

217

Conceptual design of first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Aluto-Langano Geothermal Pilot Plant will be the first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia. Its purpose is to utilize existing wells, drilled about a decade ago, to generate additional electricity for the power system and to prove the capability of the Aluto-Langano field to support expansion to 30 MWe. This paper discusses the evaluation of possible production wells, in combination with three power cycle options, leading to selection of a preferred development concept. Despite the small size of the pilot plant, the high elevation of the site, and the very high gas content of the field, a condensing unit was selected. Particular design features proposed for the steamfield and power plant are explained, including those that reflect the pilot plant nature of the project.

Mills, T.D.; Melaku, M.; Betemariam, G. [and others

1996-12-31

218

The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

Assefa, Getaneh

219

Ethiopia before the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known – together with their additional protocols – as the coreinternational human rights instruments:- The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination;- The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;- The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women;- The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment;- The Convention on the Rights of the Child;- The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in internationalhuman rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining thetreaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years. The international committees examine the reports submitted bythe state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nationsmaterials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of thisprocess the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state –Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system.

E. Brems

2007-01-01

220

Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215

Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

2015-01-01

221

Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey played a leading role in conducting a National Workshop that designed the programme's basic features. (author)

222

Women’s Education and Modern Contraceptive Use in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Women’s education and modern contraceptive use are two central issues highlighted in the Ethiopian government’s current development strategy. While the link between education and contraceptive use has been widely established in the background literature, there are few quantitative studies that explore how and why education affects the use of contraception. This study investigates the relationship between education and modern contraceptive use among a sample of 1,200 sexually active women from across Ethiopia. It uses secondary analysis of a survey conducted by Marie Stopes International Ethiopia in 2008. Through structural equation modelling it demonstrates that educational effects are fully mediated by attitudes, knowledge and access to health services. Of these, knowledge and access emerge as having the most considerable explanatory power.

Charlie Gordon

2011-05-01

223

A zoonotic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is endemic in the highlands of Ethiopia, and almost always caused by Leishmania aethiopica. Hitherto, Addis Ababa (the capital city of Ethiopia was not considered endemic for CL, mainly due to absence of epidemiological and field ecological studies. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiological investigation that proved the existence of active transmission in southeastern Addis Ababa. Results Active case finding surveys were conducted in 3 localities, Saris, Kality, and Akaki, which are found in and around Bulbula-Akaki river gorges. During the surveys conducted in January 2005 - May 2006, a total of 35 cases with 9 active and 26 healed skin lesions were identified. Eighteen of the cases (51.4% were found in Saris; while 10 (28.6% and 7 (20% cases were from Kality and Akaki respectively. Ten colonies of rock hyraxes (Heterohyrax brucei were identified in the vicinities of the 3 localities. Three of the 48 hyraxes (6.3% trapped from the surroundings harbored natural infections of Leishmania aethiopica. Confirmation of the Leishmania species of the 3 isolates was achieved by PCR amplification and RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences. Based on sandfly species composition and proximity of resting sites to human settlements, Phlebotomus longipes is circumstantially proven to be the vector of CL in south east Addis Ababa. Conclusion The study proves the existence of isolated zoonotic foci of CL in south eastern Addis Ababa, with P. longipes as the likely vector and H. brucei as the natural reservoir host.

Gebre-Michael Teshome

2009-12-01

224

Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215

Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.

2015-01-01

225

Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of JUSH from February 7 to March 24, 2011. All medication interventions administered by the nurses to all patients admitted to the ICU during the study period were included in the study. Data were collected by directly observing drug administration by the nurses supplemented with review of medication charts. Data was edited, coded and entered in to SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive statistics was used to measure the magnitude and type of the problem under study. Results Prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU of JUSH was 621 (51.8%. Common administration errors were attributed to wrong timing (30.3%, omission due to unavailability (29.0% and missed doses (18.3% among others. Errors associated with antibiotics took the lion's share in medication administration errors (36.7%. Conclusion Medication errors at the administration phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Supervision to the nurses administering medications by more experienced ICU nurses or other relevant professionals in regular intervals is helpful in ensuring that medication errors don’t occur as frequently as observed in this study.

Agalu Asrat

2012-05-01

226

Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)

Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

2007-11-22

227

Causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia: A literature review  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACTObstetric fistula (OF is one of the major potential complications of childbirth mostly young women in developing countries including Ethiopia. Though few scientific studies have been conducted related to its causes and consequences, it is challenging to find a comprehensive figure about obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper sought that to review the causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. A number of relevant obstetrics and gynaecology websites and journals were reviewed. Google, Pubmed, and Hinari searching engines were used to find out relevant references. Year of publication, location, language and its type of publication were the inclusion criteria used for reviewing literatures. It is observed that obstetric fistula has been a major burdened mainly for women in the rural Ethiopian and its causes and consequences are very deep and diverse. The great majority of obstetric fistula causes in Ethiopia is due to Obstetric labour. Distance to the health care facility, transportation access, economic factors (poverty, poor knowledge related to the problem, poor health seeking behaviour of the affected women and age at first marriage are the other triggering factors. Stigma and discrimination of obstetric fistula patients by their husbands and families, economic dependency and psychological disorder are often mentioned as consequences for OF patients in Ethiopia.

Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mengistu Asnake Kibret

2013-04-01

228

Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia

229

The immune status of young adult females in Ethiopia to rubella virus infection*  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a study on the prevalence of rubella-specific antibody among young adult females aged 14-25 years old in four cities and one district town in Ethiopia are presented. The highest prevalence of rubella antibody (97%) was found among young females in Addis Ababa in the central region of the country, followed by those in Dessie, in the north of Ethiopia, and in Awassa in the south, both of which exhibited 94% prevalence. The next highest prevalences were observed in Dire Dawa (88%), a large town in the Hararge region, and in Gambella (85%), a town in the remote western part of the country. The overall prevalence of the antibody was found to be 94%. The remaining 6% of the young adult female population are potentially susceptible to rubella virus infection. It follows that the incidence of congenital rubella infection is probably low in Ethiopia because the vast majority of the female population is immune. PMID:3879204

Gebreselassie, Lakew; Abebe, Almaz

1985-01-01

230

The immune status of young adult females in Ethiopia to rubella virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a study on the prevalence of rubella-specific antibody among young adult females aged 14-25 years old in four cities and one district town in Ethiopia are presented. The highest prevalence of rubella antibody (97%) was found among young females in Addis Ababa in the central region of the country, followed by those in Dessie, in the north of Ethiopia, and in Awassa in the south, both of which exhibited 94% prevalence. The next highest prevalences were observed in Dire Dawa (88%), a large town in the Hararge region, and in Gambella (85%), a town in the remote western part of the country. The overall prevalence of the antibody was found to be 94%. The remaining 6% of the young adult female population are potentially susceptible to rubella virus infection. It follows that the incidence of congenital rubella infection is probably low in Ethiopia because the vast majority of the female population is immune. PMID:3879204

Gebreselassie, L; Abebe, A

1985-01-01

231

The deep seismic structure of the Ethiopia/Afar hotspot and the African superplume  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ethiopia/Afar hotspot has been frequently explained as an upper mantle continuation of the African superplume, with anomalous material in the lower mantle under southern Africa, rising through the transition zone beneath eastern Africa. However, the significantly larger amplitude low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia/Afar, compared to the anomalies beneath neighboring regions, has led to questions about whether or not along-strike differences in the seismic structure beneath eastern Africa and western Arabia are consistent with the superplume interpretation. Here we present a new P-wave model of the hotspot's deep structure and use it to evaluate the superplume model. At shallow (Ethiopia/Afar are significantly slower than those beneath neighboring East Africa and western Arabia. The superplume interpretation can thus explain the deep seismic structure of the hotspot if the effects of both decompression melting and mantle flow are considered.

Hansen, Samantha E.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

2013-07-01

232

Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia.

Berhe, S.M.; Desta, B.; Teferra, M.; Nicoletti, M.

1987-03-01

233

Utilization of antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia between February and December 2006: spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health (MOH) started to implement a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program. Using data in the monthly HIV/AIDS Updates issued by the MOH, this paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of ART on a population basis for Ethiopian towns and administrative zones and regions for the period February to December 2006. Results The 101 public ART hospitals treated 44,446 patients and the 91 ART health centers treated 1,599 patients in December 2006. The number of patients currently receiving ART doubled between February and December 2006 and the number of female patients aged 15 years and older surpassed male patients, apparently due to increased awareness and provision of free ART. Of 58,405 patients who ever started ART in December 2006, 46,045 (78.8%) were adhering to treatment during that month. Population coverage of ART was highest in the three urban administrative regions of Addis Ababa, Harari and Dire Dawa, in regional centers with referral hospitals, and in several small road side towns that had former mission or other NGO-operated hospitals. Hospitals in Addis Ababa had the largest patient loads (on average 850 patients) and those in SNNPR (Southern Nations and Nationalities Peoples Republic) (212 patients) and Somali (130 patients) regions the fewest patients. In bivariate tests, number of patients receiving treatment was significantly correlated with population size of towns, urban population per zone, number of hospitals per zone, and duration of ART services in 2006 (all p < 0.001). The stronger relationship with urban than total zonal populations (p < 0.001 versus p = 0.014) and the positive correlation between distance from 44 health centers to the nearest ART hospital and patients receiving treatment at these health centers may be due to a combination of differential accessibility of ART sites, patient knowledge and health-seeking behavior. Conclusion The sharp increase in ART uptake in 2006 is largely due to the rapid increase in the provision of free treatment at more sites. The marked variation in ART utilization patterns between urban and rural communities and among zones and regions requires further studies. Recommendations are made for further expansion and sustainability of the ART scale-up. PMID:17894877

Kloos, Helmut; Assefa, Yibeltal; Adugna, Aynalem; Mulatu, Mesfin Samuel; Mariam, Damen Haile

2007-01-01

234

Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assesse...

Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert

2010-01-01

235

Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia’s second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer’s income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to surve...

Kandari, Laxman S.; Yadav, Hiranmai R.; Thakur, Ashok K.; Kandari, Tripti

2014-01-01

236

The immune status of young adult females in Ethiopia to rubella virus infection*  

OpenAIRE

The results of a study on the prevalence of rubella-specific antibody among young adult females aged 14-25 years old in four cities and one district town in Ethiopia are presented. The highest prevalence of rubella antibody (97%) was found among young females in Addis Ababa in the central region of the country, followed by those in Dessie, in the north of Ethiopia, and in Awassa in the south, both of which exhibited 94% prevalence. The next highest prevalences were observed in Dire Dawa (88%)...

Gebreselassie, Lakew; Abebe, Almaz

1985-01-01

237

Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572

Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

2014-12-01

238

Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting to expose the issue and not knowing where to go.

Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.

2013-01-01

239

Volcanic outcrops of southeast Ethiopia and the Ogaden Dyke Swarm  

Science.gov (United States)

A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter-­-supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon-­-filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro-­-Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW-­-directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.

Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane

2013-04-01

240

Treatment outcome in children with tuberculosis in southern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our study took place at 8 tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment centres in Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Our objectives were to assess the status of TB treatment in children and risk factors associated with unfavourable outcome. A retrospective study was based on information retained in TB registers of the centres. Demographic characteristics and treatment outcome of children registered between 2002 and 2007 were retrieved. Risk factors for unfavourable outcome (failure, default or death) were calculated. Of 851 (165 with smear-positive, 475 smear-negative and 206 extrapulmonary TB) children, 655 (77%) were cured or completed and 124 (14.6%) had unfavourable outcome. Treatment success rate increased with age from 66% in children /=10-y-olds (p <0.001). 75% of patients with smear-negative TB had favourable outcome compared to 80.6% for smear-positive cases (p =0.06). Age <5 y, lack of smear conversion in the second month and living in rural areas were independent risk factors for unfavourable treatment outcome. In conclusion, the outcome of TB treatment varies with age, residency and smear results. Reporting only cases with smear-positive TB disproportionally excludes a higher proportion of children than adults. Surveillance systems to monitor TB outcome in children need to be improved. PMID:20001277

Muñoz-Sellart, Montserrat; Yassin, Mohammed A; Tumato, Million; Merid, Yared; Cuevas, Luis E

2009-01-01

241

Regional and local tectonics at Erta Ale caldera, Afar (Ethiopia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Erta Ale volcano lies along the on-shore Red Sea Rift (northern Afar, Ethiopia), separating the Nubia and Danakil plates. Erta Ale has a NNW-SSE elongated caldera, with a subvertical rim scarp, hosting a lava lake. Structural field work was aimed at defining the deformation pattern around the caldera. The caldera consists of along-rim and across-rim structures, resulting from local and regional (maximum extension ˜NE-SW) stress fields, respectively. These structures cross-cut each other at high angles, suggesting that the two stress fields remain distinct, each prevailing during rifting or caldera collapse. The local along-rim extensional fractures are gravity-driven structures that formed due to the retreat of the caldera wall after collapse, and are confined to the region of caldera subsidence. The across-rim structures are mainly located to the N and S of the caldera, where they form rift zones each accommodating a similar amount of extension (˜6.3 m), but displaying different trends and extension directions. Analogue models of interacting fractures are consistent with the Southern Rift being representative of the regional fault kinematics, while the Northern Rift is a local perturbation, resulting from the interaction between two right-stepping rift segments along the Erta Ale Range.

Acocella, Valerio

2006-10-01

242

Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genesis, evolution and fate of Homo erectus have been explored palaeontologically since the taxon's recognition in the late nineteenth century. Current debate is focused on whether early representatives from Kenya and Georgia should be classified as a separate ancestral species ('H. ergaster'), and whether H. erectus was an exclusively Asian species lineage that went extinct. Lack of resolution of these issues has obscured the place of H. erectus in human evolution. A hominid calvaria and postcranial remains recently recovered from the Dakanihylo Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, bear directly on these issues. These approximately 1.0-million-year (Myr)-old Pleistocene sediments contain abundant early Acheulean stone tools and a diverse vertebrate fauna that indicates a predominantly savannah environment. Here we report that the 'Daka' calvaria's metric and morphological attributes centre it firmly within H. erectus. Daka's resemblance to Asian counterparts indicates that the early African and Eurasian fossil hominids represent demes of a widespread palaeospecies. Daka's anatomical intermediacy between earlier and later African fossils provides evidence of evolutionary change. Its temporal and geographic position indicates that African H. erectus was the ancestor of Homo sapiens. PMID:11907576

Asfaw, Berhane; Gilbert, W Henry; Beyene, Yonas; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Vrba, Elisabeth S; White, Tim D

2002-03-21

243

Isotope Hydrology Projects in Ethiopia Provide Valuable Information and Training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.

244

Immunization (EPI) in Ethiopia: acceptance, coverage, and sustainability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia has been engaged in expanding immunization services against the six childhood diseases since 1980. According to plans set at the beginning of the program, the country should have achieved universal child immunization by now. However, the child immunization coverage has never reached the level that is desired to curtail disease transmission and to reduce the morbidity burden associated with the target diseases. This study used the potential of social science research methods in understanding social, cultural, political and economic factors that influence the efficiency and effectiveness of immunization programs in the Ethiopian context. A better understanding of these factors is believed to improve the quality and sustainability of immunization programs. This research focused on relevant issues at micro- and macro-levels. The study basically utilized qualitative research methods involving multiple data collection tools and information sources. Factors related to acceptors, immunization service providers and organization of health services that influence the successful implementation and sustainability of the immunization program in the Ethiopian context are identified and discussed. Strengthening efforts to improve technical capacity of service providers, increasing social mobilization activities, instituting quality assurance schemes and improving management of resources (human, finance and material) are among the major recommendations. PMID:11132351

Berhanel, Y; Bekele, A; Tesfaye, F

2000-04-01

245

Wind energy potential assessment at four typical locations in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wind energy potential at four different sites in Ethiopia - Addis Ababa (09:02N, 38:42E), Mekele (13:33N, 39:30E), Nazret (08:32N, 39:22E), and Debrezeit (8:44N, 39:02E) - has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve (DC) for all four selected sites. In brief, for measurements taken at a height of 10 m, the results show that for three of the four locations the wind energy potential is reasonable, with average wind speeds of approximately 4 m/s. For the fourth site, the mean wind speed is less than 3 m/s. This study is the first stage in a longer project and will be followed by an analysis of solar energy potential and finally the design of a hybrid standalone electric energy supply system that includes a wind turbine, PV, diesel generator and battery. (author)

Bekele, Getachew; Palm, Bjoern [Department of Energy Technology, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-03-15

246

Chemistry of magmatic gases from Erta'Ale, Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical composition of the gases emitted from a hornito close to the active lava lake of Erta'Ale, Ethiopia, as derived from chemical analyses on 18 samples collected on 23 January 1974, was found to be (in mol-percent): H/sub 2/O: 79.4; CO/sub 2/: 10.4, total S: 7.36, HCl: 0.42, H/sub 2/: 1.49, N/sub 2/: 0.18, Ar: 0.001, CO: 0.46, and COS: 0.009. Thermodynamic considerations, based on the equilibria CO/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/ reversible CO + H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ + 3H/sub 2/ + SO/sub 2/ reversible COS + 3H/sub 2/O show that the analytical values represent the equilibrium composition of a gas mixture at the measured temperature of around 1130/sup 0/C under close to the surface pressure conditions. Comparison of the Erta'Ale gas emissions with those from other volcanoes suggests a close similarity in their chemical composition. This similarity is considered to be due to common processes governing the release of gaseous species from a magma.

Giggenbach, W.F. (Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Petone, New Zealand); Le Guern, F.

1976-01-01

247

Estimation of solar radiation energy of Ethiopia from sunshine data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface, for nine meteorological stations in Ethiopia, are compared with their corresponding values computed based on Angstroem relations. Regression coefficients are obtained and correlation equations are determined to predict the global solar radiation. The results shows that Angstroem relations are valid for Ethiopian locations, and the correlation equations can be used to predict the monthly mean daily global solar radiation in the locations considered in this study. This study also proves that the results made by ENEC et al, using the generalised Frere`s coefficients, is unsatisfactory for the prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation. On the other hand, the work of Dogniaux and Lemoine, using the regression coefficients a and b as a function of latitude and atmospheric turbidity and grouping large range latitudes to extend the application, can give better estimation. However, for more accurate estimation, several additional meteorological stations have to be evaluated and their regression coefficients have to be determined before grouping in to one relationship to express the variations of a and b under any conditions of equipment and location. (author) 1 fig., 11 tabs., 22 refs.

Argaw, N. [Tampere Univ., Dep. of Civil Engineering, Tampere (Finland)

1996-12-31

248

Predictors of HIV Testing among Patients with Tuberculosis in North West Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: The acceptance of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis (TB) is low in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of acceptance of HIV testing among patients with TB in North Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study was conducted in eight randomly selected health facilities in North Ethiopia from February 5 to March 11, 2009. A total of 282 participants (188 controls and 94 cases) were included in the study. Cases were TB patients who refused to be tested f...

Ayenew, A.; Leykun, A.; Colebunders, R.; Deribew, A.

2010-01-01

249

Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia:a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of...

Girma, Meseret; Yaya, Yaliso; Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Lindtjørn, Bernt

2013-01-01

250

Contrasting climate variability and meteorological drought with perceived drought and climate change in northern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The rationale of this paper is to investigate peoples’ perception of climate variability, climate change and drought frequency and compare it with measurements of rainfall variability and anomalies in northern Ethiopia. Statistical analysis of rainfall chronologies was performed and contrasted with qualitative data collected through a survey and questionnaires. Fieldwork studies showed that local authorities, farmers and pastoralists perceived regional climate to have changed ...

Meze-hausken, Elisabeth

2004-01-01

251

Educational Reform and Teacher Education in Ethiopia: Does the Tail Wag the Dog?  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia, a country with 82 distinctly different languages and ethnic groups, has recently emerged from decades of civil war. In the process of restoring civilian rule, alliances have formed between a wide spectrum of local interest groups. Education generally, and language policy more specifically, continues to be one of the most contentious…

Honig, Benson

252

Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

2011-01-01

253

Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts of

Teshome, W.

2003-01-01

254

Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

Alemu, Yirgalem

2014-01-01

255

Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret...

Amare Bemnet; Moges Beyene; Fantahun Bereket; Tafess Ketema; Woldeyohannes Desalegn; Yismaw Gizachew; Ayane Tilahun; Yabutani Tomoki; Mulu Andargachew; Ota Fusao; Kassu Afework

2012-01-01

256

Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation: Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia's South  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…

Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine

2009-01-01

257

Federalism in Africa: The Case of Ethnic-based Federalism in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted ethnic federalism and restructured the regions along ethnic lines as soon as the EPRDF took political power by overthrowing the Marxist military government in 1991. The aim of this paper is to examine the merits and the demerits of federalism. The paper particularly assesses federalism in Africa by taking the case of Ethiopia as an example. The paper argues that in order to ensure the success of federalism, it should not be imposed from above. Since its introduction in 1991 and officially sanctioned in the country’s 1994 Constitution, ethnic federalism and Article 39 of the Constitution that awarded the self-rule states (regions the right to secede has become the major source of intense debate. For some, ethnic federalism and the right to secede discourage ethnic tensions in the country and encourage the various ethnic groups to live together peacefully. However, for others, this “experiment” can go out of hand and may lead the country into never-ending ethnic wars and eventually to disintegration. This paper, by taking into account of Ethiopia’s and other countries’ experiences, will examine both sides of the arguments.

Jan Záho?ík

2008-10-01

258

Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

2014-01-01

259

Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

260

Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda  

Science.gov (United States)

This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

2007-01-01

261

Challenges and Opportunities in Mainstreaming Environmental Education into the Curricula of Teachers' Colleges in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…

Waktola, Daniel Kassahun

2009-01-01

262

Appendix : Additions to Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea volumes 2 - 7  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En taxonomisk og floristisk redegørelse for alle de nyfundne eller nybeskrevne arter fra Etiopien og/eller Eritrea, der er blevet opdaget efter deadline for bindene 2-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, men medens floraværket var under udgivelse.

Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

2009-01-01

263

Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Informationer baseret på alle tilgængelige kilder om fulde navn, nationalitet, profession, område og periode i hvilke vedkommende har indsamlet planter inden for floraens område, men hvem de vides at have foretaget fælles indsamlinger, herbarier i hvilke dubletter af indsamlingerne er deponeret, o.s.v., for alle indsamlere af planter nævnt i bindene 1-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Friis, Ib

2009-01-01

264

Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to cite this article: Lutala P.M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1, Art. #226, 2 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm. v3i1.226

Prosper M. Lutala

2011-02-01

265

Farm management in mixed crop-livestock systems in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Key Words: nutrient dynamics, fertility management, feed availability and quality and livestock production, Northern Highlands of EthiopiaIn the Northern Highlands of Ethiopiaone of the least-favored areas inEast Africa,farming systems are characterized by the integrated management of crop and livestock component...

Abegaz Yimer, A.

2005-01-01

266

Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

2012-01-01

267

Study of heavy metals in Lake Abbaya, Ethiopia, and the incidence of non-parasitic elephantiasis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of surface water from Lake Abbaya, Ethiopia, and from nearby hot springs, have been analysed for heavy metals and other consituents. Significant levels of mercury and arsenic were observed. These findings may be relevant to the high incidence of non-parasitic elephantiasis in the immediate vicinity of the lake.

Klein, A.E.

1977-01-01

268

Ethiopia - energy situation 1986/87. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1986/87  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

1988-01-01

269

Industrial energy utilization patterns in a developing country: a case study of selected industries in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy utilization patterns in three factories involved in cement production, textile manufacturing, and food processing in Ethiopia are discussed. The study uses data of energy consumption and products to obtain specific energy consumption figures for two of the factories. Results show areas of apparent energy losses and corresponding conservation possibilities. (author).

Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. (Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia))

1991-01-01

270

Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

2012-01-01

271

The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En redegørelse for den videnskabelige udforskning af floraen i Etiopien og Eritrea, i væsentlig grad baseret på iagttagelser gjort under arbejdet med udgivelsen af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og med inddragelse af den nyeste litteratur.

Friis, Ib

2009-01-01

272

Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)  

Science.gov (United States)

CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.

Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

273

Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories. Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges. Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hours for cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star rating levels. Results: Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01; and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01, respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% of the first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified. Conclusion: Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities.

Tilahun M. Hiwotu

2014-11-01

274

Rinderpest disease and sero-survey in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabsied out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

275

Notes on Euphorbia subgenus Euphorbia in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Precursory notes on Euphorbia subgen. Euphorbia for the Flora of Ethiopia are given. Revised synonymies are given for E. abyssinica, E. ampliphylla and E. polyacantha. Six species: E. burgen M.G. Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.G. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.G.Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.G. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert and E. awashensis M.G. Gilbert, and one subspecies: E. septentrionalis subsp. gamugofana M.G. Gilbert, are described as new.

Es presenten unes notes preliminars per a la Flora d'Etiòpia sobre Euphorbia L. subgen. Euphorbia. Es do nen les sinonímies revisades per a E. abyssinica, E. Ampliphylla i E. poJyacantha. Es descriuen sis espècies noves (E. Burgeri M.a . Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.O. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.a . Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.O. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert i E. awashensis M.G. Gilbert i una subespècie (E. septentrionalis subsp. gamugofana M.G. Gilbert.

Gilbert, M. G.

1992-12-01

276

Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest prevalence was observed from animals greater than 3 years of age, 48 (18.32 % while the lowest, 9 (0.96 % in those one to three years. 18.25% and 11.1% was recorded in female and male animals respectively. The spatial distribution of demodex on shoulder was 8.08 % and 1.04 % on ears and eyes respectively. Production system of semiintensive and extensive managements was found almost affecting similarly with 13.66% and 13.43% respectively. In lime-sulphide treated hides large nodules were prominent with dark contents; small nonprotruding nodules, enlarged openings and ragged depressions near the grain surface were dipcted. In conclusion the highest overall prevalence (15.63% of D. bovis infestation was recorded. This indicates that despite many efforts tried to study infectious diseases prevalence in the study area, demodicosis has been given lesser attention to be treated as a separate health problem. Therefore, Prevention and control measures should be taken rather than treating demodicosis.

Tewodros Fantahun

2012-09-01

277

Predictors of HIV Serodiscordance among Couples in Southwestern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background:With transmission of HIV occurring mainly through heterosexual contact, it is paramount to identify serodiscordant couples and implement preventive strategies that will protect the negative partner. The burden of serodiscordance and its predictors in Ethiopia is not clearly understood due to the dearth of data.Objective: To assess the prevalence and predictors of HIV serodiscordance among couples tested in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center.Methods:The study employed a case-control study design conducted at VCT center of JUSH in all registered serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples that were selected from the registered clients in the period from 2003 to 2010. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection using medical chart abstraction. Data were entered, cleaned, and coded using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.Results:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study population was found to be 8.4%. Male and female discordants accounted for 5.8% (137) and 2.6% (62), respectively. Rare use of condom (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-32.54) and active tuberculosis (TB) at enrollment (AOR= 17.7; 95% CI = 2.3-139.2) were significantly found to be the predictors of serodiscordance. Conclusion:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study area was found to be low, but it contributes to a clinically significant population that mandates implementation of preventive strategy. Sero-positive individuals who use condoms rarely should be encouraged to have their partners tested, and the association between active TB and serodiscordance underscores the need for further study. PMID:23697776

Habte, Ermias; Yami, Alemeshet; Alemseged, Fissahye; Abdissa, Yishak; Deribe, Kebede; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

2013-05-22

278

Flow regime change in an endorheic basin in southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Endorheic basins, often found in semi-arid and arid climates, are particularly sensitive to variation in fluxes such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, resulting in variability of river flows as well as of water levels in end-point lakes that are often present. In this paper we apply the indicators of hydrological alteration (IHA) to characterise change to the natural flow regime of the Omo-Ghibe Basin in southern Ethiopia. Little water resource infrastructure has been developed in the basin to date, and it is considered pristine. The basin is endorheic and is the main source of flow to Lake Turkana in the East African Rift Valley. The water level in Lake Turkana shows significant fluctuation, but increase of its level can be observed over the past 20 years. The reasons are currently not well understood. Of the five groups of hydrological characteristics in the IHA (magnitude, timing, duration, frequency and variability), only those related to magnitude were found to show significant trends, with the main trend being the increase of flow during the dry season. This trend was not reflected in climatological drivers such as rainfall, evaporation and temperature (which shows a positive trend), but rather is attributed to the substantial changes in land use and land cover in the basin. The change in the basin hydrology is apparent mainly in the more humid part of the basin. The significant shift from forest and woodland to grassland and cropland results in a decrease of actual evaporation and subsequent increase in (dry season) runoff. The long-term trend of the increasing levels in Lake Turkana are related to these trends in dry season flows, while shorter-term fluctuations of the lake levels are attributed primarily to anomalies in consecutive wet and dry season rainfall.

Worku, F. F.; Werner, M.; Wright, N.; van der Zaag, P.; Demissie, S. S.

2014-09-01

279

Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in "Dejen" district, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P < 0.001). Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P < 0.01). The level of technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms. PMID:19669662

Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B

2010-02-01

280

Prevalence of ovine and caprine oestrosis in Ambo, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out to estimate the prevalence, larval burden and risk factors of ovine and caprine oestrosis from December 2007 to May 2008 on 554 heads of randomly selected sheep and goat slaughtered at Ambo town, Western Shoa, Ethiopia. The results show an overall prevalence of 59.9% with infection rate of 69.8% and 47.3% in sheep and goats respectively. No statistically significant difference in the prevalence was noted with regard to the assumed risk factors like sex, nose color, face color, horned versus polled, origin, and months (p?>?0.05). Sheep were nearly twice more likely to be infected as compared to goats (p?=?0.0001, odds ratio (OR)?=?1.975). Age of the animals was found to be protective (OR?=?0.579; 95% confidence interval?=?0.393, 0.853; p?=?0.006). As compared to very fat animals, poor (p?=?0.040, OR?=?4.834), medium (p?=?0.049, OR?=?4.198), and fat (p?=?0.022, OR?=?5.795) body condition animals are more likely to be infected by Oestrus ovis larvae. Nasal and sinus cavity pathology is positively correlated with the total larval count (r?=?0.56, p?

Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu

2011-01-01

281

Seed ecology and regeneration in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various aspects of seed and regeneration ecology: germination requirements of seeds, seed longevity in the soil, soil seed banks in forests, gaps and arable land as well as density, survival and growth of seedlings were investigated within the dry Afromontane region in Ethiopia. In laboratory germination tests, 60% of the species studied exhibited some degree of initial dormancy and the optimum constant temperature for germination was between 20 and 25 deg C in the majority of the species. A few species showed a requirement for fluctuating temperatures and germination was suppressed or completely inhibited in several, mainly small-seeded, species when they were incubated in darkness or in light filtered through green leaves. Hard-seeded species required scarification treatments to improve germination, indicating seed-coat imposed dormancy. Dry storage reduced the germinability of seeds in a few species, suggesting a recalcitrant behaviour, while seeds of many species remained unaffected. During four years of storage in forest soils, seeds of 2 out of 8 species germinated in the soil almost completely within a year, 2 of the species maintained nearly full viability, while 4 were intermediate. The generally high levels of dormancy and somewhat extended viability of seeds in the soil may have been selected for under a climate of seasonal drought and unreliable rainfall that characterizes the dry Afromontane region. Dry Afromontane forests have a potential to recover in relatively short time after natural and man-made disturbances, e.g. after carefully managed selective cutting. However, the common practice of clearing forests and converting them into permanent arable land destroys the sources of regrowth thereby preventing regeneration of the forest vegetation. Therefore, the fate of dry Afromontane forests depends on the protection, careful management and conservation of the remaining patches. 102 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

Teketay, D. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology

1996-12-31

282

Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were collected using pre-tested structured question...

Deressa Wakgari; Mitike Getnet

2009-01-01

283

Knowledge of, and attitudes towards, Voluntary HIV Counselling and Testing services amongst adolescent high school students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VHCT) is one of the key strategies in the prevention of HIV in Ethiopia. However, utilisation of the VHCT services amongst adolescents has been reported as low by previous studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate adolescents’ knowledge and attitudes towards VHCT services amongst adolescents attending high school in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional school-based design using quantitative methods was employed to at...

Gatta, Abraham A.; Gloria Thupayagale- Tshweneagae

2012-01-01

284

Household capacities, vulnerabilities and food insecurity: Shifts in food insecurity in urban and rural Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis  

OpenAIRE

The global food crisis of 2008 led to renewed interest in global food insecurity and how macro-level food prices impact household and individual level wellbeing. There is debate over the extent to which food price increases in 2008 eroded food security, the extent to which this effect was distributed across rural and urban locales, and the extent to which rural farmers might have benefited. Ethiopia’s food prices increased particularly dramatically between 2005 and 2008 and here we ask whet...

Hadley, Craig; Linzer, Drew A.; Belachew, Tefera; Mariam, Abebe Gebre; Tessema, Fasil; Lindstrom, David

2011-01-01

285

New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hyparrhenia diplandr var. mutica. Recent field work by Sebsebe Demissew and Pierre Dubeau resulted in one new generic record for the Flora area: Syyngonanthus wahlbergii. Field work by Ib friis and Sebsebe Demissew documented the cultivation of Elaeis guineensis in southwestern Ethiopia.

Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.

2011-01-01

286

DOTS improves treatment outcomes and service coverage for tuberculosis in South Ethiopia:a retrospective trend analysis  

OpenAIRE

Background: DOTS as a strategy was introduced to the tuberculosis control programme in Southern region of Ethiopia in 1996. The impact of the programme on treatment outcomes and the trend in the service coverage for tuberculosis has not been assessed ever since. The aim of the study was to assess trends in the expansion of DOTS and treatment outcomes for tuberculosis in Hadiya zone in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: 19,971 tuberculosis patients registered for treatment in 41 treatment centres ...

Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Lindtjørn, Bernt

2005-01-01

287

Knowledge and Perception on Long Acting and Permanent Contraceptive Methods in Adigrat Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study  

OpenAIRE

Background. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancies but the contraceptive choice and utilization in Ethiopia are highly dominated by short term contraceptives. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptives of married women and men in Northern Ethiopia. Method. A qualitative method was conducted in Adigrat on January, 2012. Four focus group discussions with married women and men and six ...

Alem Gebremariam; Adamu Addissie

2014-01-01

288

Land Degradation and Farmers' Acceptance and Adoption of Conservation Technologies in the Digil Watershed, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Land degradation has become a critical problem in many parts of highland Ethiopia. There is great need for rehabilitation and conservation works in such areas. The aim of this study is to empirically determine the magnitude and rate of land degradation and identify factors affecting farmers¿ acceptance and adoption of newly introduced land management technologies, with emphasis on SWC measures, in a typical microwatershed in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Changes in land cover/use a...

Bewket, W.

2003-01-01

289

Comparison between traditional and scientific irrigation scheduling practices for furrow irrigated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Traditional irrigation schemes constitute about 40% of the total irrigated land in Ethiopia. Despite this, the sector has been overlooked and not supported by improved water management technologies. A survey conducted on one of the schemes, Godino, indicated that farmers apply the same amount of water regardless of crop type and growth stage. In view of this, an experiment was established at the Debre-Zeit Research Centre in Ethiopia with the objective of comparing the performance of two trad...

Geremew, E. B.; Steyn, J. M.; Annandale, J. G.; Steyn, Martin

2008-01-01

290

Successful Implementation of Collective Action and Human-Capacity Building Among Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia: Lessons Learned, 2001-2008  

OpenAIRE

Since 2000 the PARIMA project has implemented pilot risk-management activities among poverty-stricken, semi-settled pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. The goal has been to improve human welfare via collective action and capacity building. Outcomes include progress in income generation, asset conservation, and livelihood diversification. The approach has been unique to southern Ethiopia in that a bottom-up, participatory perspective has dominated. It has focused on the priorities and felt need...

Coppock, David Layne; Tezera, Seyoum; Desta, Solomon; Gebru, Getachew

2008-01-01

291

Determinants of fertility decisions at a household level in the Alaje District of Southern Tigray-Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

High fertility has the potential to affect the health and well being of mothers and the survival of their children. Even though fertility in Ethiopia shows a declining trend at the national level, the onset of fertility decline is yet to come in rural areas. The main objective of this research is to identify major factors affecting the observed high fertility in rural Ethiopia. The study area was selected based on the Ethiopian demographic and health survey made by the Central Statistical Age...

Woldesenbet, Abeba K.

2011-01-01

292

Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three...

Debere Mesfin Kote; Gelaye Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa Zemedu Mehamed

2013-01-01

293

Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to be a major public health problem among women of reproductive age in South East Asia and Africa. In Ethiopia, there are no studies conducted on serum vitamin A status of HIV-infected pregnant women. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the level of serum vitamin A and VAD among pregnant women with and without HIV infection in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In this cross-...

Bekele Assegedech; Van Nhien Nguyen; Nakamori Masayo; Yitayaw Gashaw; Tegene Birhanemeskel; Huruy Kahsay; Kassu Afework; Mulu Andargachew; Wondimhun Yared; Yamamoto Shigeru; Ota Fusao

2011-01-01

294

Factors Predisposing Out-of-School Youths to HIV/AIDS-related Risky Sexual Behaviour in Northwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Ethiopia is a developing country with a demographic profile dominated by a young population. Due to biological, psychological, sociocultural and economic factors, young people, particularly those aged 15–24 years, are generally at a high risk of HIV/AIDS and other reproductive health problems. This paper presents results of a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia, to assess factors that predispose out-of-school youths to HIV/AIDS-related risk beha...

Alemu, Hibret; Mariam, Damen Haile; Belay, Kassahun Abate; Davey, Gail

2007-01-01

295

Effects of land use changes on soil quality and native flora degradation and restoration in the highlands of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Land degradation is threatening biological resources and agricultural productivity, the mainstay of the economy in Ethiopia. Ensuring sustainable food and biomass supply while maintaining ecological integrity in Ethiopia requires two imperative efforts: (i) the sustainable use of productive land resources, and (ii) effective regeneration of degraded ecosystems. This thesis aims to (i) identify trends in soil quality and native flora degradation due to deforestation and subsequent cultivation ...

Lemenih, Mulugeta

2004-01-01

296

Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients at Enfraz Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study  

OpenAIRE

Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess treatment outcome and associated risk factors among TB patients registered for anti-TB treatment at Enfraz health center, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A five-year retrospective data (2007–2011) of tuberculosis patients (n = 417) registered for anti-TB treatment at Enfraz health center, northwest Ethiopia, were reviewed. Tuberculosis outcomes were following the WHO guidelines. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. Among...

Mengistu Endris; Feleke Moges; Yeshambel Belyhun; Eleni Woldehana; Ahmed Esmael; Chandrashekhar Unakal

2014-01-01

297

Assessment of Patients' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Eastern Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study  

OpenAIRE

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Ethiopia and the Amhara region. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and health-seeking practice in this region is essential to plan, implement, and evaluate advocacy, communication, and social mobilization work. This may improve the case detection rate. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients toward TB in the Eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among suspect...

Esmael, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Agonafir, Mulualem; Desale, Adinew; Yaregal, Zelalem; Desta, Kassu

2013-01-01

298

Analysis of urban land use and land cover changes: a case of study in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The high rate of urbanization coupled with population growth has caused changes in land use and land cover in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Therefore, understanding and quantifying the spatio- temporal dynamics of urban land use and land cover changes and its driving factors is essential to put forward the right policies and monitoring mechanisms on urban growth for decision making. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze land use and land cover changes in Bahir Dar area, Ethiopia by applying...

Sahalu, Atalel Getu

2014-01-01

299

Research, policy engagement and practice: reflections on efforts to mainstream children into Ethiopia's second national poverty reduction strategy  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines efforts to bridge multi-disciplinary research, policy engagement and practice to improve the lives of children living in poverty in a sample of developing countries. The paper is based on the experiences of Young Lives and draws on insights from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. It pays particular attention to the work of the Young Lives team in Ethiopia to make children’s issues central to the Ethiopian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process. The paper first dis...

Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele; Woldehanna, Tassew

2005-01-01

300

Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia...

Mw, Gebremichael; Na, Kassa; Ws, Yirga; Ar, Aro

2012-01-01

301

Climate-growth relationships of the dominant tree species from semi-arid savanna woodland in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Long-term climategrowth relationships, were examined in tree rings of four co-occurring tree species from semi-arid Acacia savanna woodlands in Ethiopia. The main purpose of the study was to prove the presence of annual tree rings, evaluate the relationship between radial growth and climate parameters, and evaluate the association of El Niño and drought years in Ethiopia. The results showed that all species studied form distinct growth boundaries, though differences in distinctiveness were...

Gebrekirstos, Aster; Mitlo?hner, Ralph; Teketay, Demel; Worbes, Martin

2008-01-01

302

Village chickens management in Wolaita zone of southern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little effort has been made to improve village chickens housing, feeding, and health care. Due to this, the amount of output obtained is usually low. The aim of this study was to elicit farmers' knowledge on the routine husbandry practices of village chickens. One hundred nineteen farmers were one-on-one interviewed in the highland and lowland areas of Wolaita zone (southern Ethiopia) to generate the dataset used in this analysis. We found that all the respondents supplemented the scavenging chickens with locally available feed resources. However, the amount of supplementary feeds provided hardly meets the nutritional requirement of the flock. As a result, farmers were forced to practice a sort of preferential feeding mainly based on laying performance and the scavenging ability of different classes of the family flock. Moreover, there is a wide difference in the amount and type of feed available among seasons. This variation has forced farmers to resort on strategic supplementation to overcome the adverse effect of inherent feed (grain) scarcity on chickens' performance especially during wet season. Feed loss should be kept at a minimum by using feeding troughs, and a fraction of money obtained from selling of the chickens and eggs needs to be set aside to purchase feed. The risk of disease was higher during main rain season (June to September). Besides providing sanitary condition and feed supplementation, capacitating the veterinary service and validating the efficacy of ethno-veterinary practices through objective studies is required to improve the health status of village chickens. Majority of the farmers use rudimentary types of in-house built shelters to protect their chickens from adverse effects of bad weather, predation, and theft. This indicates the importance of constructing proper types of shelters from locally (freely) available or inexpensive materials. The existing tradition of responsibility sharing among family members while doing the routine husbandry practices needs to be strengthened to maximize the efficient use of family's labor force. This improvement plan needs to be mainly implemented through adoption of the existing best traditional practices and through the rational use of cheap and readily available local resources. PMID:22826116

Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli

2013-02-01

303

Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and inffor early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)

304

Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin sandstones of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Afar Rift, Ethiopia. The fossils and artefacts are dated between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago by precise age determinations using the 40Ar/39Ar method. The archaeological assemblages contain elements of both Acheulean and Middle Stone Age technocomplexes. Associated faunal remains indicate repeated, systematic butchery of hippopotamus carcasses. Contemporary adult and juvenile Homo sapiens fossil crania manifest bone modifications indicative of deliberate mortuary practices. PMID:12802333

Clark, J Desmond; Beyene, Yonas; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; Gilbert, Henry; Defleur, Alban; Suwa, Gen; Katoh, Shigehiro; Ludwig, Kenneth R; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Asfaw, Berhane; White, Tim D

2003-06-12

305

Molecular surveillance of mutations in the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium falciparum in Gabon and Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Atovaquone is part of the antimalarial drug combination atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone® and inhibits the cytochrome bc1 complex of the electron transport chain in Plasmodium spp. Molecular modelling showed that amino acid mutations are clustered around a putative atovaquone-binding site resulting in a reduced binding affinity of atovaquone for plasmodial cytochrome b, thus resulting in drug resistance. Methods The prevalence of cytochrome b point mutations possibly conferring atovaquone resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in atovaquone treatment-naïve patient cohorts from Lambaréné, Gabon and from South Western Ethiopia was assessed. Results Four/40 (10% mutant types (four different single polymorphisms, one leading to an amino acid change from M to I in a single case in Gabonese isolates, but all 141/141 isolates were wild type in Ethiopia were found. Conclusion In the absence of drug pressure, spontaneous and possibly resistance-conferring mutations are rare.

Kremsner Peter G

2006-11-01

306

Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes to, and exposure to tobacco advertisements among adolescents. Results Of the 1868 respondents, 4.5% males and 1% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Ethiopia is lower than in many other African countries. There is however need to strengthen anti-tobacco messages especially among adolescents.

Abdo Abdurahman

2007-07-01

307

Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p 0.05. The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry.

Nesibu Awo

2014-04-01

308

A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

309

A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

Gabreyohannes, Emmanuel [Ethiopian Civil Service College, P.O.Box 5648, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

2010-05-15

310

Rainfall variability and its influence on surface flow regimes. Examples from the central highlands of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article shows results of an international and interdisciplinary project with the title 'Rainfall and its Erosivity in Ethiopia'. Rainfall variability affects the water resource management of Ethiopia. The influence of rainfall variability on flow regimes was investigated using five gauging stations with data availability from 1982-1997. It was confirmed that the variability in rainfall has a direct implication for surface runoff. Surface runoff declined at most of the gauging stations investigated. Therefore, effective water resource management is recommended for the study area. Future research should focus on watershed management which includes land-use and land cover. The question posed here is whether the variability in rainfall significantly affected surface flow in the study area. (orig.)

Osman, M. [Debre Zeit (Ethiopia); Sauerborn, P. [Seminar fuer Geographie und ihre Didaktik, Univ. zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany)

2002-07-01

311

The recent droughts in Western Ethiopia and Sudan in a climatic context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examined here are two recent episodes of drought that occurred in western Ethiopia, Sudan and elsewhere in the Sahelian zone immediately south of the Sahara during the periods 1968-1973 and 1979-1984. These are shown to have followed a series of similar episodes during the earlier decades of the 1900s. Another disaster of drought, war and famine struck western Ethiopia and Sudan in 1990-1991. The zone has been arid for the past 4000 years at least. The dryland degradation associated with episodes of drought is considered to result from a combination of climatic and human impact factors. It is suggested that recently elucidated correlations between the Sahelian drought episodes and oceanic temperatures and circulation lead to the possibility of developing a predictive system for Sahelian droughts. However, to establish a functional early-warning system will require a sustained trans-disciplinary research and development effort of some magnitude.

Mattsson, J.O.; Rapp, A. (University of Lund, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography)

1991-08-01

312

Demand for energy in rural and urban centres of Ethiopia; An econometric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper starts by briefly discussing the current energy situation in Ethiopia. The major source of energy in Ethiopia is traditional and the major consumer is the household. A simple model of household utility function where energy consumption is the major variable is developed and a reduced form is derived. To make the model operational a simultaneous equation system describing the demand for and supply of traditional and modern energy sources has been specified. The model is closed by equating the demand for energy with the supply. Data from the national energy survey were used to estimate the model. The major finding of the study is that price of traditional energy plays an important role in the consumption of fuelwood and other traditional energy sources. By manipulating the price variable the government may be able to control the high rate of depletion of forest resources. (author).

Kidane, Asmerom (Addis Ababa Univ. (ET). Dept. of Statistics)

1991-04-01

313

Palaeoenvironmental records and landscape dynamics during the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene in Northern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

The stratigraphic record of fluvial and infilled valley deposits in the area of Adwa (Northern Ethiopia) allowed the description and identification of three main episodes of soil formation (between ca.50 ka - ca.10 ka yrs BP), related to wetter climatic conditions in the area, which constitute the oldest soil formation episodes described in northern Ethiopia. The oldest soil formation episode ca 50 ka yr BP correlates in time with a high lakes phase further south in the Ethiopian rift area (Abhé II). A second important episode of soil formation took place during the oldest gemorphological and sedimentary record of past active karst processes in the Adwa area, affecting the carbonaceous rock layers of the Tambien formation (Work Amba Surface), ca 30-35 ka yr BP. The preserved record of soil formation phases also register, interbedded, thick coluvial deposits units, corresponding to periods of rapid incision and erosion in the catchment area.

Machado, Maria

2014-05-01

314

Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited.

Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba

2010-01-01

315

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices with respect to Epilepsy among Preparatory School Students in Mekelle city, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used ...

Mulat Gedefa; Tesfaye Wolde; Gebremedhin Solomon

2012-01-01

316

Patients satisfaction with laboratory services at antiretroviral therapy clinics in public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Despite the fact that Ethiopia has scale up antiretroviral treatment (ART) program, little is known about the patient satisfaction with ART monitoring laboratory services in health facilities. We therefore aimed to assess patient satisfaction with laboratory services at ART clinics in public hospitals. Methods Hospital based, descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from October to November 2010 among clients attending in nine public h...

Mindaye Tedla; Taye Bineyam

2012-01-01

317

Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.

Robberstad Bjarne

2009-07-01

318

Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edib...

Kebebew Fassil; Balemie Kebu

2006-01-01

319

Efficiency of the health extension programme in Tigray, Ethiopia: a data envelopment analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Since 2004, the government of Ethiopia has made a bold decision to strengthen and expand its primary health care system by launching the Health Extension Program (HEP). While the scaling up of the HEP is necessary to achieve the aim of universal access to primary health care, close attention should be paid to the performance of the program. Using a data envelopment analysis this study aimed at (i) to estimate the technical efficiency of a sample of health ...

Lemma Hailemariam; Sebastian Miguel

2010-01-01

320

Urban malaria and associated risk factors in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Malaria kills millions around the world. Until recently it was believed to be a disease of rural areas, since the Anopheles mosquito, which transmits Plasmodium species breeds in rural areas. Urban malaria is emerging as a potential, but "avertable" crisis, in Africa. In view of the rapidly growing number of small and medium-sized towns in Ethiopia there is a pressing need to improve the understanding of the epidemiology of malaria. There...

Tsegaye Wondewosen; Alemu Abebe; Golassa Lemu; Abebe Gemeda

2011-01-01

321

Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A woman's satisfaction with the delivery service may have immediate and long-term effects on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Providing satisfying delivery care increases service utilization. The objective of this study is to assess the satisfaction of mothers with referral hospitals' delivery service and identify some possible factors affecting satisfaction in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-se...

Tayelgn Azmeraw; Zegeye Desalegn T; Kebede Yigzaw

2011-01-01

322

Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking preva...

Abdo Abdurahman; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S

2007-01-01

323

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and ...

Giday Mirutse; Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2007-01-01

324

Plant use in Odo-Bulu and Demaro, Bale region, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This paper reports on the plant use of laypeople of the Oromo in Southern Ethiopia. The Oromo in Bale had names/uses for 294 species in comparison to 230 species documented in the lower reaches of the Bale area. Only 13 species was used for veterinary purposes, or as human medicine (46). Plant medicine served mostly to treat common everyday ailments such as stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment and as toothbrush-sticks, as anthelmintic, for skin infections and ...

Worede Aserat; Swartzinsky Paul; Bussmann Rainer W; Evangelista Paul

2011-01-01

325

Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

326

Determinants of fertility in rural Ethiopia: the case of Butajira Demographic Surveillance System (DSS)  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Fertility is high in rural Ethiopia. Women in the reproductive age group differed in various characteristics including access to food and encounter to drought which requisite the assessment of determinants of fertility. Methods Reproductive age women were recruited from a DSS, the Butajira DSS database. A DHS maternity history questionnaire was administered on 9996 participants. Data quality was assured besides ethical clearance. Poisson regr...

Worku Alemayehu; Mekonnen Wubegzier

2011-01-01

327

The World Health Organization work and experiences in combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practic...

Mladonova, Anna

2007-01-01

328

Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile) is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeli...

Uhlenbrook, S.; Mohamed, Y.; Gragne, A. S.

2010-01-01

329

Self-supply as a complementary water services delivery model in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family w...

John Butterworth; Sally Sutton; Lemessa Mekonta

2013-01-01

330

Tackling health workforce shortages during antiretroviral treatment scale-up-experiences from Ethiopia and Malawi  

OpenAIRE

In many sub-Saharan countries, the health workforce shortage has been a major constraint in the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. This human resource crisis has led to profound adjustments of the antiretroviral treatment care delivery model in several countries in the region. It also inspired some governments to take swift measures to substantially increase human resources capacity. This article draws on the experience of Malawi and Ethiopia, which have been able to successfully increase ...

Rasschaert, F.; Philips, M.; Leemput, L.; Assefa, Y.; Schouten, E.; Damme, W.

2011-01-01

331

Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and practice of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge and use by traditional healers in southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Data were collected from 45 randomly selected traditional healers using semi-structured interviews and observations. Sixty-seven ethnomedicinal plant species used by traditional healers to manage 51 different human ailments were identified and documented. Healers' indigenous knowledge was posi...

Yewhalaw Delenasaw; Yineger Haile; Teketay Demel

2008-01-01

332

Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse directed to spouses. Globally it is the most pervasive yet underestimated human rights violation. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against women in Western Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using ...

Abeya Sileshi G; Afework Mesganaw F; Yalew Alemayehu W

2011-01-01

333

Hydrological and Suspended Sediment Modeling in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study is conducted in Lake Tana basin located in the Upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia where water resources issues are critical and availability of relevant data is poor. The study is divided into three major components that include evaluation and analysis of the existing data, evaluation of the applicability of a physically-based distributed hydrological model and water and suspended sediment balance modeling for Lake Tana. The temporal and spatial coverage of various hydro-meteorologi...

Engida, Agizew Nigussie

2010-01-01

334

Hydatid disease in the Hamar of Ethiopia: a public health problem for women.  

Science.gov (United States)

A population-based study of hydatid disease was conducted among the Hamar of Ethiopia. Seven of 990 patients examined with a portable ultrasound scanner proved to have cysts (0.7% prevalence). Cysts were most common (4.7%) among women > or = 40 years of age. Only one male presented with a cyst. These results indicate a sex-specific hydatid public health problem in this tribe. PMID:8236382

Klungsøyr, P; Courtright, P; Hendrikson, T H

1993-01-01

335

The willingness-to-pay for insurance: evidence from Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Rainfall variability is a major problem in Ethiopia. The ability of Ethiopian farmers to deal with drought risk is made more scanty by the extension of land plots, which does not allow for a proper crop diversification, and by incomplete and inefficient financial markets which limit appropriate risk management financial strategies. Insurance can represent indeed a potential drought risk transfer mechanisms. However, the sustainability of a traditional drought insurance scheme is flawed by mor...

Vigano, Laura; Castellani, Davide; TAMIRE BELAYNESH

2014-01-01

336

Parasitological prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Kindo Koisha district, Wollaita zone, south Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

A cross sectional survey to determine the distribution and prevalence of trypanosomosis was conducted in Kindo Koisha district, in the Wollaita zone in southern Ethiopia. A total of 1008 adult cattle was examined at eight different localities. Dark field examination of the buffy coat, as well as stained thin blood film examination and packed cell volume (PCV) evaluation were the diagnostic techniques used. The overall prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was 15%. Among the positive animals, 10...

Kidanemariam, A.; Hadgu, K.; Sahle, M.

2002-01-01

337

Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels. PMID:18667323

Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew; Wodaje Kebede, Worku

2008-11-01

338

Ethnic conflict in the 'tribal zone': the Dizi and Suri in southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Although the Ethiopian Transitional Government has been attempting since 1991 to set up new national and regional structures of administration and cooperation that may eventually lead to some form of locally entrenched, ethnic-based democracy, these are not yet fully in place in Käfa region in southern Ethiopia. This paper analyses the possibilities and constraints of the Ethiopian model by highlighting the increasing ethno-political tensions in this 'marginal' area, notably between the Dizi...

Abbink, J.

1993-01-01

339

Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman), are examples of...

Tesfaye Abebe

2013-01-01

340

REGULATING URBANISATION IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA THROUGH CLUSTER SETTLEMENTS: LESSONS FOR URBAN MANGERS IN ETHIOPIA  

OpenAIRE

Against the backdrop that urbanization in sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries, including Ethiopia, has occurredwithout the attendant growth and development spillovers; and that the inherent benefits of urbanization arethreatened by the fast pace of urbanization, unparalleled speed and the uneven spatial spread, This paper positsthat this challenge and indeed urban management can be address through a proxy regional planning tool; clusterformation. Settlement cluster formation that focuses on th...

Alaci, Davidson Sunday Ashemi

2010-01-01

341

How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional stratified random survey of 180 households, and farm recording of 131 households. Rural poultry significantly contributed to the livelihoods of poor households: economically as starter capital, as ...

Aklilu, H. A.; Udo, H. M. J.; Almekinders, C. J. M.; Zijpp, A. J.

2008-01-01

342

Microbial Quality of Water in Rural Households of Ethiopia: Implications for Milk Safety and Public Health  

OpenAIRE

Waterborne pathogenic agents affect the health of people either by direct consumption of contaminated water or by its indirect use in food production and/or processing. Studies on the microbiological quality of water in rural areas of Ethiopia are still limited, especially at the household level. The aim of the present study was to assess the microbial quality of water from different sources in rural households in two districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley area. The correlation between E. col...

Amenu, Kebede; Spengler, Marisa; Andre?, Markemann; Valle Za?rate, Anne

2014-01-01

343

Bacterial pathogens implicated in causing urinary tract infection (uti) and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious disease ranking next to upper respiratory tract infection is the cause of morbidity and mortality in human. They are mostly caused by bacteria. However, studies conducted in Ethiopia are few and are not extensive. Therefore, studying bacterial pathogens causing UTI and their drug susceptibility patterns is of a highest priority. Material & Methods: A total of 3228 urine samples were collected from 2004 to 2009. F...

Theodros Getachew

2010-01-01

344

Parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in West Wellega, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Onchocerciasis is a disease of public health and socio-economic importance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in the Anfilo District, West Wellega, prior to implementation of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) to generate epidemiological and parasitological data for use in control program of the disease and subsequent evaluation of CDTI. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anfilo Distric...

Dori, Geme Urge; Belay, Tariku; Belete, Habtamu; Panicker, K. N.; Hailu, Asrat

2011-01-01

345

A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number of reasons for the failure. Methodical and technological problems are evident. Exclusion of farmers and the...

Bekele-tesemma, A.

1997-01-01

346

Geographic Structure of Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite Analysis of Parasite Populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3–44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were...

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Phone-kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J.; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Schousboe, Mette L.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Wirth, Dyann F.

2010-01-01

347

Nutritional status and dietary intake of urban residents in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3?ye...

Amare Bemnet; Moges Beyene; Moges Feleke; Fantahun Bereket; Admassu Mengesha; Mulu Andargachew; Kassu Afework

2012-01-01

348

Household food insecurity and symptoms of neurologic disorder in Ethiopia: An observational analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Food insecurity (FI) has been shown to be associated with poor health both in developing and developed countries. Little is known about the relation between FI and neurological disorder. We assessed the relation between FI and risk for neurologic symptoms in southwest Ethiopia. Methods Data about food security, gender, age, household assets, and self-reported neurologic symptoms were collected from a representative, community-based sample of ...

Tessema Fasil; Hadley Craig; El-Sayed Abdulrahman M; Tegegn Ayelew; Cowan John A; Galea Sandro

2010-01-01

349

Screening rhizobacteria for biological control of Fusarium root and crown rot of sorghum in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Fusarium oxysporum Schlectend causes root and crown rot in several crops including sorghum that results in low grain yield in Ethiopia and other East African countries. Seventy-eight bacterial isolates were obtained and subsequently tested both in vitro and in the greenhouse. Of the 78 isolates tested, 23 displayed between 30 and 66.3% inhibition of in vitro mycelial growth of F. oxysporum and also showed significant root colonization ability on sorghum seedlings. These isolates were further ...

Idris, H. Ahmed; Labuschagne, Nico; Korsten, Lise

2007-01-01

350

Catchment modeling and model transferability in upper Blue Nile Basin, Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia) and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the Gigel Abay was sub-divided into two gauged sub-catchments (Upper Gilgel Ab...

Gragne, A. S.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Mohammed, Y.; Kebede, S.

2008-01-01

351

Mobile Services and ICT4D, To the Network Economy - Bridging the Digital Divide, Ethiopia's Case  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a development paradigm for Ethiopia, based on appropriate services and innovative use of mobile communications technologies via applications tailored for sectors like business, finance, healthcare, governance, education and infotainment. The experience of other developing countries like India and Kenya is cited so as to adapt those to the Ethiopian context. Notable application areas in the aforementioned sectors have been outlined. The ETC 'next generatio...

Jebessa, Naod Duga; Alemayehu, Henok Getachew

2014-01-01

352

SHIFTING TO ALTERNATIVE FOOD SOURCE: POTENTIAL TO OVERCOME ETHIOPIAS' MALNUTRITION AND POVERTY PROBLEMS  

OpenAIRE

The currently population of more than 70 million people in Ethiopia is expected to double within the next 30 years. Almost 80% of the populations are living in the countryside while the rest situated in urban area. An estimated five million people are suffering from lack of vitamins and essential minerals, of which 80% are children for the next generation. Every year, on the average, about five million people have problems securing enough food for them and need assistance. Preliminary surveys...

Gelmesa, Dandena

2010-01-01

353

Factors associated with home delivery in Bahirdar, Ethiopia: A case control study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In Ethiopia although pregnant mothers increasingly attend antenatal clinics, utilization of skilled delivery service remains very low. The individual or health system factors that affect women’s preferences for delivery places are not well known. Method A case control study was conducted in July 2010 to assess factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery service. A total of 324 mothers who recently delivered and visited eit...

Abebe Fantu; Berhane Yemane; Girma Belaineh

2012-01-01

354

Characterization of Newcastle Disease Virus and poultry-handling practices in live poultry markets, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Newcastle disease represents the most severe poultry disease responsible for marked economic losses in Ethiopia. To provide a molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses circulating in this country, a cross sectional survey was conducted at five selected live poultry market sites in Addis Ababa. In addition, baseline data on the live poultry market system were acquired through a detailed questionnaire submitted to poultry traders. We identified 44/146 positive samples, 29 of which...

Mulisa, Delesa Damena; W Kiros, Menbere Kidane; Alemu, Redeat Belaineh; Keno, Melaku Sombo; Furaso, Alice; Heidari, Alireza; Chibsa, Tesfaye Rufael; Chunde, Hassen Chaka

2014-01-01

355

An assessment of the Young Lives sampling approach in Ethiopia: Young Lives Technical Note No. 1  

OpenAIRE

The sampling methodology adopted by Young Lives is known as a sentinel site surveillance system. In Ethiopia, the Young Lives team used multi-stage, purposive and random sampling to select the two cohorts of children. This methodology randomised households within a study site while the sites themselves were chosen on the basis of predetermined criteria, informed by the Young Lives objectives. To ensure the sustainability of the study, and for resurveying purposes, a number of well-defined sit...

Outes-leon, Ingo; Sanchez, Alan; ,

2008-01-01

356

Predictors of antiretroviral treatment-associated tuberculosis in Ethiopia: a nested case-control study  

OpenAIRE

Little is known about the predictors of antiretroviral treatment (ART)-associated tuberculosis (TB) in developing nations. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of ART-associated TB in adults with HIV infection at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia. A nested case-control study was conducted in October 2009. The study population consisted of adults with HIV infection (aged >14 years) who developed active TB in the first six months since ART initiation and controls that did n...

Mesfin, N.; Deribew, A.; Yami, A.; Solomon, T.; Geertruyden, J. P.; Colebunders, R.

2012-01-01

357

Nutritional aspects in the EDGET project : Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; report of a mission  

OpenAIRE

A mission was implemented to advise SNV project management and project staff on how to integrate human nutritional considerations into the EDGET project that aims at increasing the production of milk and dairy products in selected areas in Ethiopia. The EDGET project already also identified the objective of contributing to improving the nutritional situation of 500.000 young children in the areas. The advisory services concentrated on technical aspects of nutrition, linking the EDGET project ...

Dorp, M.

2014-01-01

358

Efficacy of flumethrin 1% pour-on against ticks on cattle under field conditions in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The efficacy of a flumethrin 1% pour-on (Bayticol, Bayer AH) was evaluated against natural infestations of ticks on cattle on a dairy farm in Ethiopia during 1997/98. The cattle, (n = 92), which were Friesian/ Zebu crosses, were heavily infested with Boophilus decoloratus. Dry cows (n = 8) were randomly selected and allocated either into a treatment or a control group. Flumethrin 1 % pour-on was applied to the treatment group according to the manufacturer's recommendation, i.e. al...

Mekonnen, S.

2000-01-01

359

A description of seed potato systems in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Seed potato systems in East Africa are described and opportunities for improvement identified on the basis of interviews with potato producers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia, and an assessment of Ralstonia solanacearum and virus disease levels in Kenya. 3% of seed potato sold in Kenyan markets was virus free. Ralstonia solanacearum was found in 74% of potato farms. Less than 5% of the farmers interviewed source seed potato from specialized seed growers. Over 50% rely entirely on farm-saved see...

Gildemacher, P. R.; Demo, P.; Barker, I.; Kaguongo, W.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W. W.; Wakahiu, M.; Leeuwis, C.; Struik, P. C.

2009-01-01

360

Determinants of low family planning use and high unmet need in Butajira District, South Central Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The rapid population growth does not match with available resource in Ethiopia. Though household level family planning delivery has been put in place, the impact of such programs in densely populated rural areas was not studied. The study aims at measuring contraception and unmet need and identifying its determinants among married women. Methods A total of 5746 married women are interviewed from October to December 2009 in the Butajira Demogr...

Mekonnen Wubegzier; Worku Alemayehu

2011-01-01

361

Detoxification and Consumption of Cassava Based Foods in South West Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was introduced in Ethiopia around 1960‘s. But the consumption was not practiced until 1984. Currently the plant is being distributed throughout the country as a tool to tackle food insecurity. However, the distribution is not supported by proved food preparation techniques for optimal processing to increase nutrient density and eliminate the toxin. Hence, development of suitable detoxification methods and optimal food processing without affecting consumers...

Birhanu Wodajo; Adamu Belay; Asrat Wondimu; Beka Teshome; Aweke Kebede; Aynalem Lakew

2012-01-01

362

Reproductive and lactation performnace of daíry cattle in the Oromia Central Highlands of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This thesis presents studies of the reproductive and lactation performance of dairy cattle in the Oromia Central Highlands of Ethiopia, with particular emphasis on diagnosing and monitoring pregnancy. In an introductory study, early abortions were induced in four heifers with cloprostenol and monitored using ultrasonography. Prior to cloprostenol injection, plasma concentrations of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1), prostaglandin F2? (PG metabolite), and progesterone (P4) va...

Lobago, Fikre

2007-01-01

363

Entrepreneurship and the Business Environment in Africa: An Application to Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Since mid-2000s, Ethiopia has been one of the fastest growing countries in the world. However, productive entrepreneurship in high-value added activities has made limited contributions to this growth, in part because of a weak business environment. Moreover, the low-productive firms in the informal sector still account for a large share of employment. Reflecting these facts, this paper presents a model of costly entrepreneurial start-ups in an economy with a large informal sector and rigid bu...

Brixiova, Zuzana; Ncube, Mthuli

2013-01-01

364

Hydrological and sediment yield modelling in Lake Tana Basin, Blue Nile Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Land and water resources degradation are the major problems on the Ethiopian highlands. Poor land use practices and improper management systems have played a significant role in causing high soil erosion rates, sediment transport and loss of agricultural nutrients. So far limited meas-ures have been taken to combat the problems. In this study a physically based watershed model, SWAT2005 was applied to the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia for modelling of the hydrology and sediment yield. The ma...

Setegn, Shimelis Gebriye

2008-01-01

365

Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide se...

Kebede Wolka Wolancho

2012-01-01

366

Comparison of screening methods for anaemia in pregnant women in Awassa, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for anaemia in pregnancy is essential for implementing and monitoring effective antenatal programmes. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of invasive and non-invasive screening methods in a cross-sectional survey of 403 pregnant women attending an urban health centre in Awassa, southern Ethiopia. Overall anaemia prevalence [haemoglobin (Hb): tested or models predicted anaemia with suitable accuracy in this population. The diagnosis of anaemia based on clinical signs and symptoms remains unreliable despite attempts to develop predictive models. PMID:12667148

Gies, S; Brabin, B J; Yassin, M A; Cuevas, L E

2003-04-01

367

Medication prescribing errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asrat Agalu1, Yemane Ayele2, Worku Bedada2, Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Wollo University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Dessie, Ethiopia; 2Jimma University, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: A number of studies indicated that prescribing errors in the intensive care unit (ICU are frequent and lead to patient morbidity and mortality, increased length of stay, and substantial extra costs. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU has not previously been studied. Objective: To assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital from February 7 to April 15, 2011. All medication-prescribing interventions by physicians during the study period were included in the study. Data regarding prescribing interventions were collected from patient cards and medication charts. Prescribing errors were determined by comparing prescribed drugs with standard treatment guidelines, textbooks, handbooks, and software. Descriptive statistics were generated to meet the study objective. Results: The prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was 209/398 (52.5%. Common prescribing errors were using the wrong combinations of drugs (25.7%, wrong frequency (15.5%, and wrong dose (15.1%. Errors associated with antibiotics represented a major part of the medication prescribing errors (32.5%. Conclusion: Medication errors at the prescribing phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Health care providers need to establish a system which can support the prescribing physicians to ensure appropriate medication prescribing practices. Keywords: medication error, prescribing error, intensive care unit

Woldie M

2011-10-01

368

Diffusion of Collective-Action Innovations Among Pastoralists in Liben District, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In 2001 PARIMA and her partners began to create collective-action groups among illiterate, settled pastoralists in Ethiopia. These groups—soon dominated by women—focused on savings-led microfinance, small business activity, and livestock marketing to increase incomes and diversify livelihoods. Fifty-nine groups with over 2,100 members were formed using intensive training methods, and they have subsequently merged into legally recognized cooperatives. We regard this approach as successful ...

Coppock, David Layne; Desta, Solomon; Gebru, Getachew; Kassa, Getachew; Tezera, Seyoum

2007-01-01

369

Child protection and harmful traditional practices : female early marriage and genital modification in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This article explores divergent perspectives on female early marriage and genital modification in Ethiopia. It contrasts international norms and research evidence with local understandings, the latter focusing on the part these practices play in securing family social heritage, wellbeing of girls, and their transition to adulthood. The article explains persistence of these practices in the face of campaigns to eliminate them and questions assumptions behind the international child protecti...

Boyden, Jo; Pankhurst, Alula; Tafere, Yisak

2012-01-01

370

Drinking, prestige, and power : alcohol and cultural hegemony in Maji, southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Alcohol can be used as a theme to belittle, patronize and differentiate people. This happens especially when different kinds of beverages are accorded a different status across social and ethnic groups in society. The case study presented in this chapter highlights cultural aspects of social inequality and ethnic stratification by tracing the ambivalent connections between alcohol, power and cultural dominance in the Maji region of southern Ethiopia, where the author carried out fieldwork in ...

Abbink, J.

2002-01-01

371

Beyond orphanhood: rethinking vulnerability in Ethiopia: Young Lives Policy Brief 16  

OpenAIRE

‘Orphans’ as a category of vulnerable children came to the fore in the context of the global AIDS crisis. Currently the notion of ‘Orphans and Vulnerable Children’ (or OVCs) dominates much of the child protection debates across sub-Saharan Africa. Data from Young Lives in Ethiopia challenges the assumption that parental death alone results in poorer life chances for children. While orphanhood can impact on children’s psychosocial well-being, socio-economic deprivation needs to be co...

Pells, Kirrily

2011-01-01

372

Gender disparities in Africa's labour markets : An analysis of survey data from Ethiopia and Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to our better understanding of the main factors behind large and persistent gender disparities in Africa's labour markets. This work looks at three key dimensions of labour market gender inequality in Africa: (i) the gender wage gap, (ii) gender inequalities in allocating time to market and household work, and (iii) the gender-differentiated income effect of informality. Chapter 2 shows that, in Ethiopia, progress towards gender equity in edu...

Suarez Robles, Pablo

2012-01-01

373

Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose...

Niguse Fekadu; Biffa Demelash; Megersa Bekele; Rufael Tesfaye; Asmare Kassahun; Skjerve Eystein

2011-01-01

374

Seed-borne fungi of the afromontane tree species Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is comprised of four studies regarding seed-borne fungi of the afromontane forest trees, Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb. Mirb.) and Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, in Ethiopia. Based on morphology and molecular data from the rDNA (ITS) region, a diverse group of mainly Ascomycota, some Basidiomycota and a few Zygomycota were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences revealed several clades differentiated according to the host. Some of these fungi were previously repor...

Gure, Abdella

2004-01-01

375

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in and Around Alamata, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64%) of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation....

Gidey Yirga

2010-01-01

376

Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in zinc and iron, many also contained high levels of phytic acid and tannins, which impair bioavailability of zinc and iron. The phytate:zinc molar ratios were >20 for non-fermented cereal foods, >15...

Umeta, M.; West, C. E.; Fufa, H.

2005-01-01

377

Environmental concern and its implication to household waste separation and disposal: Evidence from Mekelle, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Proper understanding of the relationship among concern for the environment, waste separation and disposal can contribute to good waste management and safer environment. This is particularly vital in cities of developing countries (such as Ethiopia) where waste separation is poor and there is widespread illegal dumping, with dire consequences for the environment. In this study, household data are collected in the city of Mekelle in order to identify and analyze the relationship among concern f...

Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

2009-01-01

378

Spatial metrics and Landsat data for urban landuse change detection: case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

The rapid development of urbanization coupled with fast demographic change and high demand for land resource requires landuse information for management and planning activities of urban regions. The advent of geospatial tools has great potential to long term monitoring and assessment of urban growth and its associated problems in surrounding landcover. This study analyzes urban landuse/landcover change of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using landsat TM and ETM+ acquired, respectively, ...

Bekalo, Mesfin Tadesse

2009-01-01

379

Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated factors in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Street youth are predisposed to sexual and reproductive health challenges. Most of the street children live in severe deprivation, which make them liable to various forms of health risks. Street youth have risky sexual behaviours that increase the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health consequences. Aim: This study was conducted to assess reproductive health behaviour and needs of street youth in Gondar city, North West Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitat...

Tadis Brhane; Berihun Assefa; Nigusie Birhan

2014-01-01

380

Long-term Bioethanol Shift and Transport Fuel Substitution in Ethiopia : Status, Prospects, and Implications  

OpenAIRE

In an effort to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels with a sustainable and environmentally sound improvements, the government of Ethiopia has recognized the need to promote biofuels development so as to support the green economy strategy of the country designed to bring a breakthrough for socio-economic and environmental transformations which are becoming the central excellence for current and future prosperity of the country towards the quality of life and global competitiveness. Unde...

Yacob Gebreyohannes Hiben, Yacob

2013-01-01

381

Prevalence of ectoparasite infestations of cattle in Bench Maji zone, southwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence and type of ectoparasitic fauna and associated host-related risk factors in cattle in Bench Maji Zone, Southwestern, Ethiopia, from October 2011 to April 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 212 cattle (84 male and 128 female) were sampled and examined. Both physical examination and laboratory investigation were employed in the study. Results: The study revealed that cattle in the study area were infested with single ...

Tesfaheywet Zeryehun Shiferaw; Simeon Haile Onu

2013-01-01

382

Can cities or towns drive African development? Economy-wide analysis for Ethiopia and Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Rapid urbanization is an important characteristic of African development and yet the structural transformation debate focuses on agriculture's relative merits without also considering the benefits from urban agglomeration. As a result, African governments are often provided conflicting recommendations on the importance of rural agriculture or urban industry. We develop dynamic economy-wide models for Ethiopia and Uganda that capture both traditional aspects of the debate (growth linkages and ...

Dorosh, Paul; Thurlow, James

2012-01-01

383

First experiences with a high-resolution imagery-based adjudication approach in Ethiopia:  

OpenAIRE

Great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the first phase certificates – those without a georeference. In 2008, a team conducted a simple field test using high resolution imagery. On-site tests were performed to determine if Quickbird satellite imagery could be used to establish parcel index maps in selected villages. The data collection in the field was performed with the help of land rights holders and local ...

Lemmen, C. H. J.; Zevenbergen, J. A.

2010-01-01

384

Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels.

Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: gwollel@yahoo.com; Wodaje Kebede, Worku [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)

2008-11-15

385

Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

386

Assessing the evidence of climate variability in the northern part of Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In semi-arid highlands of northern Ethiopia, episodes of droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these droughts is associated mainly with the seasonal rainfall variability. This study attempts to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of climate parameters, particularly rainfall and temperature for the period 1954-2008. Standardized rainfall anomaly was used to examine the temporal characteristics of climate variability and determine the prevalence of drou...

Gebrehiwot, T. G.; Veen, A.

2013-01-01

387

The Outcome of Trachomatous Trichiasis Surgery in Ethiopia: Risk Factors for Recurrence  

OpenAIRE

Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. It causes trichiasis (inturning of the eyelashes to touch the eye), which can cause visual loss. Trachomatous trichiasis (TT) affects over eight million people, 1.2 of whom live in Ethiopia – the most affected country worldwide. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for TT. However, results of surgery in the field are often very mixed. We investigated the surgical outcomes of one of the two most widely used surgical techniq...

Rajak, Saul N.; Habtamu, Esmael; Weiss, Helen A.; Kello, Amir B.; Abera, Bayeh; Zerihun, Mulat; Gebre, Teshome; Gilbert, Clare E.; Khaw, Peng T.; Emerson, Paul M.; Burton, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

388

Leadership in strategic information (LSI) building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI) course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the ...

Mitike Getnet; Deyessa Negussie; Negash Ashenafi; Enquselassie Fikre; Firew Aynalem; Jones Donna; Scharff Jennifer; Zaidi Irum; Rolle Italia V; Sunderland Nadine; Nsubuga Peter

2011-01-01

389

Developing and optimizing processes for biological nitrogen removal from tannery wastewaters in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In Ethiopia industrial effluents containing high contents of organic matter, nitrogen and heavy metals are discharged into inland surface waters with little or no pre-treatment. Significant pollution concerns related to these effluents include dissolved oxygen depletion, toxicity and eutrophication of the receiving waters. This has not only forced the government to formulate regulations and standards for discharge limits but also resulted in an increasing interest and development of methods a...

Leta, Seyoum

2004-01-01

390

Feasibility Study of Pumped Storage System for Application in Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

In these days environmental issues are critical. Environmental concerns mainly rise from energy productions. Fortunately Ethiopia is trying to use renewable energy sources as a means for electrical power production and it is a great start for a long, tiresome green energy journey. The basic job to be done in green energy sectors is to maximize the capacity of renewable technologies to fulfil the best efficiency.  Intermittent nature of the energy production and their inefficiency to meet pea...

Tilahun, Mastewal Alemu

2012-01-01

391

High parental monitoring prevents adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices in Harar, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a c...

Yadeta Dessie; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

2014-01-01

392

Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residi...

Hamdela, Belayneh; G Mariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Tizta

2012-01-01

393

Performance of health workers after training in integrated management of childhood illness in Gondar, Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

The performance of six primary health workers was evaluated after following a 9-day training course on integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). The participants were selected from three primary health centres in the Gondar District, Ethiopia, and the course was focused on assessment, classification, and treatment of sick children (aged 2 months to 5 years) and on counselling of their mothers. Immediately following this training, a 3-week study was conducted in the primary health cen...

Simoes, E. A.; Desta, T.; Tessema, T.; Gerbresellassie, T.; Dagnew, M.; Gove, S.

1997-01-01

394

Characteristic of oil-shale in Achibo-Sombo area of Yayu coalfield in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of introducing the location, condition of strata, and the development of the coal-bearing strata of Achibo-Sombo area of Yayu coal field in Ethiopia, the distributing regularities, thickness, physical and chemical characteristics of the oil-shale in this area which are of industrial utilization are studied. And the reserves of the oil-shale has been calculated. The various aspects of industrial utilization of oil-shale are outlined. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Fan, S.; Tang, Z. [Exploration Institute of Shandong Coal Geology Bureau, Taian (China)

2001-02-01

395

Energy in rural Ethiopia: Consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of real energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed.

Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy

1999-07-01

396

Linking Pastoralists and Exporters in a Livestock Marketing Chain: Recent Experiences from Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The Boran of southern Ethiopia have been traditionally viewed as unwilling or unable to engage in large scale, commercialized livestock trade. Here we report on the creation of a new livestock marketing chain from the Borana Plateau to export outlets largely serving the Gulf States. Since 2003 various meetings and exchange tours were organized by collaborating agencies and PARIMA to directly link pastoral producers with livestock exporters and policy makers. This occurred against a backdrop o...

Coppock, David Layne; Desta, Solomon; Gebru, Getachew; Tezera, Seyoum

2005-01-01

397

Stakeholder Alliance Facilitates Re-Introduction of Prescribed Fire on the Borana Plateau of Southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The implementation of a new prescribed fire program to restore bush-encroached rangelands in southern Ethiopia—and hence increase herbaceous forage supplies for livestock—is given as an example of an integrated action involving multiple institutions to address resource-management problems. The resumption of planned fire—traditionally conducted over hundreds of years by pastoralists until the 1970s—was preceded by key activities including mobilization of the pastoral community, review ...

Coppock, David Layne; Gebru, Getachew; Desta, Solomon; Gizachew, Lemma; Amosha, Dadhi; Taffa, Feyissa

2007-01-01

398

The impact of social networks on dairy technology adoption: evidence from Northwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Social structure, especially in the form of social networks, affects the adoption of agricultural technologies. In light of an increasing focus on new demand-driven agricultural extension approaches that leverage social networks as an opportunity, too little is known about (a) which network characteristics matter? and (b) how do specific network characteristics matter?. This paper uses survey data from Ethiopia to investigate the impact of social networks on smallholder dairy production techn...

Amlaku et al.

2012-01-01

399

The Emergence of a Dual-System of Primary Schooling in Ethiopia and Its Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, in quantitative terms, Ethiopia has expanded and universalized the enrolment of school aged children in primary schools in line the International Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural rights in order to minimize the irregularities that have existed over the years. However, when the existing primary schooling is visualized in terms of quality and equity, it is sad to observe that privately run-ultra-modern primary schools seem to be mushrooming in Ethiopia in order to serve the sons and daughters of a newly emerging privileged class. On the other hand, the sons and daughters of the poor and disadvantaged are confined to over crowded classes manned by semi-qualified teachers and equipped with inadequate teaching materials. Stated differently, it is unbelievable to observe that primary schools in Ethiopia are sliding into a class-based education. Thus, if the government believes in equity and fairness, it needs to completely redesign and better equip the public primary school.

Asayehgn Desta

2012-10-01

400

Serological survey of caprine toxoplasmosis in Ethiopia: prevalence and risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats in Southern and central Ethiopia between October 2005 and May 2006. A total of 641 goats sera were tested using Modified Direct Agglutination Test (MAT), of which 480 (74.8% CI: 71.3, 78.2) were found to be positive. The highest prevalence was recorded in South Omo zone (82%) while the lowest was observed in East Shewa zone (62.2%). The study revealed that goats raised in southern Ethiopia are at a greater risk of acquiring T. gondii infection (OR = 2.55, CI: 1.726, 3.776; p = 0.000) than those which are raised in central Ethiopia. The prevalence of anti T. gondii antibody was significantly higher in older goats than in kids (OR = 2.33, CI: 1.490, 3.655; p < 0.0002) and in females than in males (p < 0.0007; OR = 0.68, CI: 0.542, 0.849). No significant difference was observed among goats kept under various husbandry practices. The high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Ethiopian goats suggests a high risk of human infections. Further epidemiological investigation, isolation and genotyping of T. gondii are planned. PMID:17645188

Teshale, S; Dumètre, A; Dardé, M L; Merga, B; Dorchies, P

2007-06-01

401

Persistent Soil Seed Banks for Natural Rehabilitation of Dry Tropical Forests in Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute to natural forest regeneration in the dry forest of Ethiopia. Therefore, the composition of the seed bank in relation to vegetation and abiotic environment was analysed in four forest relics and four exclosures, i.e. demarcated land areas under strict conservation management, in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Results show strong relationships between natural vegetation, seed bank composition, soil chemical characteristics and environmental degradation, as evidenced through characteristics such as land use impact and soil depth. Most striking is the presence of only very few woody species in the seed bank of degraded areas. This suggests that seed banks only play a minimal role in natural forest recovery in the study area. If this is true, natural recovery will primarily depend on presence of seed trees in the vicinity and successful seed dispersal mechanisms. This result underlines the importance of sustainable management of the few remaining forest relics and trees outside these relics.

Gebrehiwot, K.

2007-01-01

402

Determinants of Capital Structure: Empirical Evidence from Large Taxpayer Share Companies in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of capital structure of large taxpayer share companies in Ethiopia. In this paper, econometric analysis were performed for a panel of 37 listed companies in Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority (ERCA large taxpayers’ branch office in Addis Ababa for the study period of 2006–2010. Nine conventional explanatory variables were adopted in this study, including profitability, size, age, tangibility, liquidity, non-debt tax shield, growth, dividend payout ratio and earnings volatility. As a result of the improvement in the existing estimation methods that enables to employ cross-sectional and time-series data concurrently, random-effect panel data regression was applied to study the effect of selected independent variables on capital structure. The result shows that size, age, tangibility, liquidity position and non-debt tax shield of a company are positively correlated with leverage, whereas profitability, earnings volatility and dividend payout ratio are negatively associated with leverage. Growth variable was found to be statistically insignificant in affecting leverage of large taxpayer share companies in Ethiopia. The sign of these relations suggest that, Agency cost theory provide more convincing evidence than other capital structure theories in elucidating the capital structure of large taxpayer share companies in Ethiopia.

Usman Muhammed Umer

2013-12-01

403

Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR?=?5.67; 95% CI?=?2.30, 13.00; p? Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

Assefa Dereje

2012-12-01

404

Conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV among people living with HIV in Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: The WHOQOL instruments are intended for cross-cultural studies of quality of life (QoL) but African countries have been poorly represented in its development. This study aimed to explore the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: The fieldwork included home visits, interviews, and focus group discussions with HIV patients and caregivers. RESULTS: We found that although WHOQOL-HIV includes many relevant facets, its applicability has several limitations in the Ethiopian setting. The most salient shortcomings of the instrument relate to the Social, Environmental and Religion/Spirituality/Personal Beliefs domains of the instrument. Themes not captured by the instrument include family responsibilities, disease disclosure, exclusion from common resources, basic needs, adequate food, and job opportunities. In addition, several of the tool's facets such as dependence on medicine seem less relevant. Also, the role of religion is more complex than captured in WHOQOL-HIV. We found that the tool is based on an individualist focus, which tends to overlook the social context of the patient. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV is only partially attained for use in Ethiopia. The findings from this qualitative study are used in the further process of developing and validating a QoL instrument for use in Ethiopia.

Olsen, Mette; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch

2013-01-01

405

Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed

406

Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)

2010-09-15

407

Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1996-09-01

408

Aid Donor Meets Strategic Partner? The European Union’s and China’s Relations with Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The motives, instruments and effects of China’s Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the “competitive pressure” that China’s growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one of the most important countries in Chinese as well as European cooperation with Africa. Yet, Chinese and European policies toward Ethiopia differ greatly. The EU mainly engages Ethiopia as an aid recipient, whereas China has developed a comprehensive political and economic partnership with the East African state. China has thereby become an alternative partner to the Ethiopian government, a development that both sheds light on the gap between European rhetoric and policy practice and puts pressure on the EU to make more efforts to reform its development policy system.

Christine Hackenesch

2013-01-01

409

Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea are outlined, as well as the big enterprises after the Second World War, e.g. the Kenya-Ethiopia Boundary Commission, the Desert Locust Service, and the achievement of an increasing number of individuals, both Ethiopian and foreign, is reviewed. The Ethiopian Flora Project purchased over the years a number of sturdy wehicles that allowed collecting activity in remote parts of the Flora areas, especially in western,southern and Eastern Ethiopia.

Friis, Ib

2011-01-01

410

A westward extension of the tropical Pacific warm pool leads to March through June drying in Kenya and Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.

Williams, A. Park; Funk, Chris

2010-01-01

411

Satellite-based hybrid drought monitoring tool for prediction of vegetation condition in Eastern Africa: A case study for Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

experimental drought monitoring tool has been developed that predicts the vegetation condition (Vegetation Outlook) using a regression-tree technique at a monthly time step during the growing season in Eastern Africa. This prediction tool (VegOut-Ethiopia) is demonstrated for Ethiopia as a case study. VegOut-Ethiopia predicts the standardized values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at multiple time steps (weeks to months into the future) based on analysis of "historical patterns" of satellite, climate, and oceanic data over historical records. The model underlying VegOut-Ethiopia capitalizes on historical climate-vegetation interactions and ocean-climate teleconnections (such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) expressed over the 24 year data record and also considers several environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover and elevation) that influence vegetation's response to weather conditions to produce 8 km maps that depict future general vegetation conditions. VegOut-Ethiopia could provide vegetation monitoring capabilities at local, national, and regional levels that can complement more traditional remote sensing-based approaches that monitor "current" vegetation conditions. The preliminary results of this case study showed that the models were able to predict the vegetation stress (both spatial extent and severity) in drought years 1-3 months ahead during the growing season in Ethiopia. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and satellite-observed vegetation condition range from 0.50 to 0.90. Based on the lessons learned from past research activities and emerging experimental forecast models, future studies are recommended that could help Eastern Africa in advancing knowledge of climate, remote sensing, hydrology, and water resources.

Tadesse, Tsegaye; Demisse, Getachew Berhan; Zaitchik, Ben; Dinku, Tufa

2014-03-01

412

Sediment storage dam: A structural gully erosion control and sediment trapping measure, northern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Gully erosion is a prime problem in Ethiopia. This study assessed the severity of gully erosion and the role of sediment storage dams (SSD) in restoring gullies and preventing further gully development, its sediment trapping efficacy (STE) and its capacity in converting degraded gully lands to productive land. On average 2.5 m deep, 6.6 m wide and 28.3 m long gullies were formed in Minizr watershed, northwest Ethiopia, in 2013. Concentrated surface runoff, traditional ditches, graded terraces without suitable water ways and road construction are the main causes of such serious gully erosion. Over grazing, tunnel flow and lack of proper immediate gully treatment actions after gully initiation are found to be additional causes of the problem. Gully erosion was also found as the major source of sediment for downstream rivers and water reservoirs. The annual volume of soil eroded from only four gullies was 1941.3 m3. To control gully erosion, SSDs were found to be important physical structures, which can trap significant amount of sediment within gullies and they can convert unproductive gully land to productive agricultural land for fruit and crop production. Eight SSDs trapped about 44*103 m3 of sediment within 2 to 8 years. Two representative SSDs constructed using gabion and stone were tested for their STE. Results showed that their efficacy was 74.1% and 66.4% for the gabion and stone SSDs, respectively. Six of the older SSDs were already full of sediment and created 0.75 ha of productive land within 2 to 8 years. SSDs best fits to treat large size and deep gullies where other gully control measures, check dams, could not function well. To prevent gully formation, controlling its causes that is avoiding traditional ditches, practicing grassed water ways to safely remove runoff water from graded terraces, integrated watershed and road side management practices are important solutions. KEY WORDS: Sediment storage dam, gully erosion, sediment trapping efficacy, productive land, Ethiopia

Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

2014-05-01

413

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p  0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319

Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula

2012-01-01

414

Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infection in children. The objective of this study was to assess PMTCT services by examining knowledge about reducing vertical transmission among pregnant women. Methods: A multistaged sampling institution-based survey was conducted in 113 pregnant women in Arba Minch. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Results: Of the 113 respondents, 89.4% were from Arba Minch, 43.4% were at least 25 years of age, 73.4% had formal education at primary level or above, 100% reported acceptance of voluntary counseling and testing, 92.0% were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmission, and 90.3% were aware of the availability of the PMTCT service in the health facility. Of 74 HIV-positive women in PMTCT, only three (4.1% had had skilled birth attendants at delivery. There was an unacceptable degree of loss of women from PMTCT. Maternal educational level had a statistical association with income (P < 0.001 and voluntary counseling and testing for pregnant women (P < 0.05. Factors that determined use of PMTCT included culture, socioeconomic status, and fear of stigma and discrimination. Conclusion: In the area studied, intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV is failing to reach its goal. This is an alarming discovery requiring quick reconsideration and strengthening of preventive strategies at all levels. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, pregnant women, Ethiopia

Merdekios B

2011-11-01

415

Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing interventions' effectiveness, but also emphasizes the relevance of tailoring interventions to the target population. PMID:25461867

Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

2015-01-01

416

Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59?years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ?44?years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

Leta Tesfaye H

2012-06-01

417

Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB lymphadenitis is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2009 in the Gilgel Gibe field research area. A total of 30,040 individuals 15?years or older in 10,882 households were screened for TB lymphadenitis. Any individual 15?years or older with lumps in the neck, armpits or groin up on interview were considered TB lymphadenitis suspect. The diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis was established when acid fast bacilli (AFB smear microscopy of fine needle aspiration (FNA sample, culture or cytology suggested TB. HIV counseling and testing was offered to all TB lymphadenitis suspects. Descriptive and bivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 15. Results Complete data were available for 27,597 individuals. A total of 87?TB lymphadenitis suspects were identified. Most of the TB lymphadenitis suspects were females (72.4%. Sixteen cases of TB lymphadenitis were confirmed. The prevalence of TB lymphadenitis was thus 58.0 per 100,000 people (16/27,597 (95% CI 35.7-94.2. Individuals who had a contact history with chronic coughers (OR 5.58, 95% CI 1.23-25.43 were more likely to have TB lymphadenitis. Lymph nodes with caseous FNA were more likely to be positive for TB lymphadenitis (OR 5.46, 95% CI 1.69-17.61. Conclusion The prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Gilgel Gibe is similar with the WHO estimates for Ethiopia. Screening of TB lymphadenitis particularly for family members who have contact with chronic coughers is recommended. Health extension workers could be trained to screen and refer TB lymphadenitis suspects using simple methods.

Abebe Gemeda

2012-07-01

418

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

Bersissa Kumsa

2012-10-01

419

SURVIVAL AND PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY AMONG PATIENTS UNDER MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT IN ETHIOPIA: ST. PETER'S SPECIALIZED TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB is an increasing global problem. The extent and burden of MDR-TB varies significantly from country to country. Survival of MDR-TB treatment is not described in Ethiopia. Therefore, examining a cohort who received second-line therapy for MDR-TB to determine overall survival has a great importance.Objectives: To assess survival and predictors of mortality among patients under MDR-TB treatment in Ethiopia: St Peter’s specialized TB Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective analysis of records was conducted from Oct, 2011 - May, 2012 among cohorts of MDR-TB patients in St. Peter’s specialized TB hospital that starts treatment from February 2009. Data were collected using checklist from 188 patients’ record that is determined and analyzed using the STATA Statistical package, Version 11.0. Risk was estimated for the entire follow-up time corresponding to each event occurrence using Kaplan-Meier method and the covariates are fitted to Cox proportional hazard regression model.Result: The 188 patients were followed for a total of 79,600 person-days. Median follow up time was 466.5 days or 1.28 years. Among the total subjects, 87 (46.28% are male and the rest 101 (53.72% are female with a median age of 27 years. There were 29 (15.43 % known deaths (incidence rate: 3.6 per 10,000 person-days. Survival rate at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment were 88.53 %, 85.83 %, 82.71 % and 78.95 % respectively. The mean survival time for patients under MDR-TB was 9.7 years. Comparison of the groups showed that there is a significant difference in the probability of surviving between HIV status, smoking status, therapeutic delay, No. of first line resistant drugs at initiation, co-morbidities, region and clinical complication. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression, factors independently associated with mortality of patients were smoking (HR: 4.01, 95% CI 1.42 - 11.37, P = 0.009, therapeutic delay > 1 month (HR: 3.61, 95% CI 1.41 - 9.20, P = 0.007, HIV seropositive (HR: 5.94, 95% CI 2.40 - 14.72, P < 0.0001 and clinical complication (HR: 1.90, 95% CI 1.52 - 2.39, P < 0.001.Conclusion and recommendation: Survival of patients was higher and higher hazard of death was noted in patients who started treatment after a month, smoker, HIV positive and patients who develop a clinical complication. Although survival is good, reinforcing the existing treatment program will further improve patients’ survival in Ethiopia.

Theodros Getachew, Alemayehu Bayray and Berhe Weldearegay

2013-02-01

420

Violence against women in relation to literacy and area of residence in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Objective: This study explores violence against women in a low-income setting in relation to residency and literacy. Setting: The study was conducted within the Butajira Rural Health Programme (a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site), which includes rural and semi-urban settings in south-central Ethiopia. Design: This is a community-based cross-sectional study and is part of the WHO Women's Health and Life Events multi-country study. It included 1,994 randomly selected married wome...

Negussie Deyessa; Yemane Berhane; Mary Ellsberg; Maria Emmelin; Gunnar Kullgren; Gberg, Ulf H. X. F.

2010-01-01

421

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sar...

Bersissa Kumsa; Kebede Beyecha; Mesula Geloye

2012-01-01

422

Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0....

Kassaye Tarik; Receveur Olivier; Johns Timothy; Becklake Margaret R.

2001-01-01

423

Levels of essential and non-essential metals in linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cultivated in Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

The levels of essential and non-essential metals were determined in linseed (Linum usitatissimum) samples collected in November 2011 from five different sites (Bale, East Gojam, Shoa, South Wello and Tigray) in Ethiopia where its cultivation is common. A 0.5 g dried powdered linseed was digested with 2 mL of nitric acid (HNO3), 1 mL of perchloric acid (HClO4) and 1 mL of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 270 oC for 2:30 hours and the levels of metals determined by flame atomic absorption spectromet...

Mekebo, D.; Chandravanshi, B. S.

2014-01-01

424

Control of schistosomiasis in Adwa, Ethiopia, using the plant molluscicide endod (Phytolacca dodecandra).  

Science.gov (United States)

Control of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in a town in northern Ethiopia was attempted using the natural product, endod (Phytolacca dodecandra), and its use compared with niclosamide. Within a five year period prevalence was reduced from 61.5 to 36.4% in the area where endod was used. Most of this decline was accounted for by the reduction in prevalence among 1-6 year old subjects. The practical use of endod as a molluscicide was demonstrated to have a performance which compared favourably with the commercial product, and although more expensive than niclosamide still at minimal annual cost (US + 0.06 per capita). PMID:6636299

Goll, P H; Lemma, A; Duncan, J; Mazengia, B

1983-09-01

425

Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon and Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the candidature of ten foreign companies for the introduction of natural gas in 1996 and the first enhanced recovery contract will relate to Rhourde El Baguel natural gas field (Algeria). New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Gabon, Ethiopia and Libya. Iraq has restarted its petroleum exports and Iranian production has diminished

426

The Study of Arabic Grammar in Ethiopia: The Case of two Contemporary Muslim Learned Men  

OpenAIRE

The article deals with the contribution of two contemporary Muslim Ethiopian scholars (šay? ?Abd al-B??i? b. Mu?ammad b. ?asan al-Min?s? and šay? Mu?ammad Am?n b. ?Abdall?h al-I?yub? al-Harar? al-Mu?ammad?) to the study of Arabic grammar. The position of this subject in the curricula of traditional Islamic education in Ethiopia is shortly described from both a diachronic and a synchronic perspective. The biography of the two learned men is analyzed with a special...

Gori, Alessandro Universita? Degli Studi Di Firenze

2012-01-01

427

The socio-economic role of salt in Northern Highland Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Salt is a known cross-cultural item of early trade with documented socio-political consequences. Written records on the Ethiopian salt industry go back at least 2,000 years. This dissertation is an ethnoarchaeological investigation of the socio-economic role of the salt trade in northern Ethiopia. Ethnoarchaeological methods are used to explore all aspects of the salt trade in an attempt to provide a basis to understand the role of salt as an economic item, in socio-cultural developments as w...

Apaak, Clement Abas

2008-01-01

428

Assessment Of Production Potentials And Constraaints Of Mango (Mangifera INDICA) At Bati, Oromia Zone, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Production potentials and constraints of mango were assessed at Bati wereda, Oromiya zone, Ethiopia in 2013 using data from sixty randomly selected mango producers in the area. Data were collected using questionnaire and focus group discussion. The result revealed that most of the producers belonged to the age group of 41-50 (28.3%) and 31-40 (266.7%). 95% of the producers were male and the rest 5% were female. Analysis of production system revealed that 90% of the respondents do not use fert...

Seid Hussen; Zeru Yimer

2013-01-01

429

Ixodid ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and species composition of ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in and around Hawassa in southern Ethiopia. In total, 200 dogs and 100 cats were examined from November 2008 to April 2009. Of the dogs and cats examined, 99.5% and 91.5%, respectively, were infested with one or more species of ticks, fleas or lice. The overall prevalence was higher in dogs than in cats. A total of six different species of ectoparasites were collected ...

Kumsa, Bersissa E.; Shewit Mekonnen

2011-01-01

430

Comparative Analysis of Instructional Language Issues in Ethiopia and the United States  

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Full Text Available Crafting and implementing language policies that address the needs of language minority students have always been challenging. The major challenges include addressing such concerns as: How do we address the language needs of minority students, while keeping the academic standards high? Should the role of minority langue be cultural maintenance or the facilitation of instruction through the mother tongue? To what extent does the use of minority language prepare the child for the global world? Through comparative analysis of practices in the United States and Ethiopia, this paper explores the background, approaches, and challenges/controversies in implementing polices that cater for language minority children in the two countries.

Daniel S. Alemu

2011-10-01

431

Do women with higher autonomy seek more maternal health care? Evidence from Eritrea and Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the 2002 Eritrea and 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study was carried out to investigate the link between women's autonomy and maternal health care utilization in relation to socioeconomic factors. Although some dimensions of women's autonomy are significantly linked to an increased likelihood of receiving health care, they do not emerge to be mediators of the link between socioeconomic factors and use of health services for antenatal care and delivery care. In order to derive a complete understanding of the determinants of maternal health care utilization, both women's autonomy and socioeconomic indicators should be analyzed. PMID:20526926

Woldemicael, Gebremariam

2010-07-01

432

Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women's health.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years, in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5% of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1% reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9% respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]. Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1% respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003, illiteracy (P = 0.01, and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012. The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3% were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM.Conclusion: In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it. Local healers were the main performers of FGM. Some of the women knew about the negative reproductive health effects of FGM and some had also experienced these themselves. However, only a few had tried to stop the practice and the majority had taken no steps to do so. This may be attributable to the fear of becoming alienated from the cultural system and fear of isolation.Keywords: female genital mutilation, reasons, health consequences, Ethiopia

Gebremichael MW

2012-02-01

433

Child labour in Addis Ketema, Ethiopia : a study in mental health  

OpenAIRE

Background: Child labour is a very common global problem. There are an estimated over 250 million in the world, and about 7.5 million child labourers in Ethiopia. Most of the studies available to date focus on the social, political, and economical issues, but very little on mental health or psychosocial problems of child labourers. There is no study describing the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among this group of children. Aims: 1. to assess the level of awareness and attitude of an u...

Fekadu Wolde-giorgis, Daniel

2008-01-01

434

Energy in rural Ethiopia: consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of ''real'' energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed. (author)

Mulugetta, Y.

1999-07-01

435

African Homo erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.

Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Heinzelin, J. de (Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels (Belgium)); Schick, K.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Hart, W.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)); WoldeGabriel, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walter, R.C. (Institute of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Suwa, G. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Asfaw, B. (Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

1994-06-24

436

Teachers of Poor Communities: The Tale of Instructional Media Use in Primary Schools of "Gedeo" Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working conditions at school on teachers' level of instructional media use in the primary school system of Gedeo Zone, southern Ethiopia. The survey was made on a sample of 139 (24.4% female and male 75.6%) teachers who were randomly drawn from 9 primary schools (four rural and five urban…

Abdo, Mehadi; Semela, Tesfaye

2010-01-01

437

Schools Serving as Centres for Dissemination of Alternative Energy Know-How and Technologies: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive…

Dalelo, Aklilu

2008-01-01

438

Teachers' Career Ladder Policy in Ethiopia: An Opportunity for Professional Growth or ''a Stick Disguised as a Carrot?''  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the ever-declining status of the teaching profession, and its adverse effects on the country's educational system, the Federal Ministry of Education in Ethiopia introduced a policy of the teachers' career ladder in 1994. While reformers believe that the introduction of the policy has improved the condition of the teaching…

Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

2005-01-01

439

Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

Joleen A. Timko

2014-10-01

440

Design of Sustainable Relief Housing in Ethiopia: An Implementation of Cradle to Cradle Design in Earthbag Construction  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Urbanization in Ethiopia resulted in urban poverty and homelessness. In this study, a sustainable relief housing prototype that aided in sheltering homeless citizens was designed. To avoid repeating errors in urban development such as unsustainable resource consumption, it was necessary to look beyond traditional construction materials and methods. Approach: This design applied cradle to cradle design model to the earthbag construction technique and developed a prototype for sustainable relief housing in Ethiopia. Results: Based on environmental and human health, all materials selected for construction were naturally occurring and could safely return to nature after use. Structural design maximized natural energy use and housing and interior design considered the local culture in Ethiopia. Conclusion: With locally available materials, inexpensive construction, maintenance and use, this design provided affordable shelter for the Ethiopian people. Material selection ensured the most effective use of material resources, no synthetic material and toxin deposition and the best indoor air quality for human health. Using earthbags rather than wood for the structure, this housing design helped prevent deforestation and the resulting desertification in Ethiopia.

Brooke Barnes

2009-01-01

441

Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

2011-01-01

442

Standardization Techniques for Grade-Inflation Problems at Higher Educational Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa  

Science.gov (United States)

Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a measure that is used to display the achievement of college students in Ethiopia. It also serves as a key yardstick in career and scholarship assessment. In recent time there has been a rapid massification of higher educational institutions (HEIs). Many academics believe that the expansion has increased a…

Kassahun, Daniel

2008-01-01

443

Modern Architecture in Africa. Critical reflections on architectural practice in Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Ethiopia (1984-1999):  

OpenAIRE

Nine case studies divided over four disciplinary parts (urban design & planning, building techology, building physics, monument care) of the architectural profession are being analysed in the context of the encounter between modern European architecture and Afrtican architectural culture. Volume I: Modern Architecture in Africa Volume II: Critical reflections on architectural practice in Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Ethiopia (1984-1999)

Folkers, A. S.

2011-01-01

444

A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

Harry Smit

2011-03-01

445

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

Mehari, A.

1997-11-01

446

National implementation and regional cooperation from the perspective of Ethiopia: points for discussion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)

447

Developing a lifelong learning system in Ethiopia: Contextual considerations and propositions  

Science.gov (United States)

Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national policy documents and an analysis of the Ethiopian educational, economic and social context. Focused group and one-to-one interviews were conducted with policy researchers, experts from the Ministry of Education, adult educators and coordinators at different levels. It emerged that some of the existing policy provisions and contexts reflecting the highly formalised and structured educational opportunities available to Ethiopian youth and adults require re-conceptualisation. Despite the enormous progress made in increasing children's access to primary school, more than two million children remain out of school and adult literacy rates are still far from reaching the targets set both by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by national educational programmes. Moreover, as many youth drop out after completing primary education, and as the quality of learning appears to have suffered due to efforts of expansion, it is necessary to revisit the responsiveness of Ethiopia's formal educational provisions in the face of these challenges. Based on the opportunities and challenges identified, the authors explore some major considerations believed to be fundamental in creating a platform for the conceptualisation of Lifelong Learning in the Ethiopian context and conclude with some suggestions for the way forward.

Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

2014-07-01

448

Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. PMID:24326024

Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-01-01

449

Farmers' seed management and innovation in varietal selection: implications for barley breeding in Tigray, northern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Farmers' innovation and selection of barley varieties were studied in the Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Two districts each in the central and southern zones and three districts in the eastern zone of Tigray were randomly selected for this study, which sought to understand the current status of local barley varieties and to measure their relative preference by farmers. Household surveys were conducted covering 240 households to elicit farmers' views on the values, constraints, and opportunities of growing local varieties of barley. This was supported by focus-group and informal discussions with elders, key informants, and women's groups. Case studies were made of local farmers whom the community recognized as barley breeders. Twenty-four barley varieties and their major descriptors were recorded. Seed and varietal-selection criteria depended on the environmental and varietal characteristics. Investigation of intrahousehold decision making indicated that, while men tended to decide on the type of variety to grow, seed storage and processing were exclusively the responsibility of women. Farmers undertook preharvest and postharvest selection, giving emphasis mainly to earliness and spike characteristics. The distinct varietal-selection and seed-renewal procedures revealed their potential for use in further plant breeding. The case-study analysis of farmer-developed varieties provided knowledge that, if combined with scientists' knowledge, could lead to identification and development of valuable cultivars with a wide potential for use in semiarid areas of Tigray and other parts of Ethiopia. PMID:18686512

Abay, Fetien; Waters-Bayer, Ann; Bjørnstad, Asmund

2008-06-01

450

Medicinal use and social status of the soap berry endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Berries from Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit. (endod in Amharic) offer a readily available molluscicide to control schistosomiasis. Parts of the endod plant have been used as a detergent and as traditional medicine for centuries in Ethiopia. An interview survey was performed in the highlands of Ethiopia to provide information on the distribution of the plant, people's traditional use of it, their perception of the plant, and the potential for increased production and use of endod as a soap for indirect control of schistosomiasis. People of all ages report that they are familiar with the plant and its detergent and medicinal uses. The plant is largely disappearing from unprotected areas due to land clearing. Younger people appear to use endod as a soap whenever it is available. Older women prefer commercial soap and consider endod to be associated with poor people. Common medicinal uses include treatment of skin itching (ringworm), abortion, gonorrhea, leeches, intestinal worms, anthrax and rabies. Two thirds of the people express interest in cultivating endod for personal use if supplied with rooted cuttings. Increased cultivation of endod and use of berries for washing might be possible if information about schistosomiasis and its control is disseminated among people. Preference for commercial soap and lack of land for cultivation are major obstacles for increasing the availability and use of endod. PMID:12639751

Esser, Kjell B; Semagn, Kassa; Wolde-Yohannes, Legesse

2003-04-01

451

Quality and potential use of data collected during nutrition surveys: an analysis of surveys in Ethiopia.  

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Humanitarian agencies regularly carry out nutrition surveys to estimate the prevalence of acute malnutrition (wasting) and mortality as well as to collect data on a wide range of contributory or aggravating factors in order to identify interventions and to direct aid where it is most needed. In this study, the case of Ethiopia was used (i) to assess the proportion of 291 nutrition surveys conducted between 2003 and 2008 that used the recommended sampling method to estimate the prevalence of wasting, (ii) to assess how and what data on indicators of aggravating factors were collected, (iii) to examine whether data on such factors can be used to establish priorities for emergency assistance based on Ethiopian Government guidelines and (iv) to discuss the general value of such data. All but one survey used the recommended methods to estimate the prevalence of wasting. Data were collected on more than 40 indicators of aggravating factors related to health, caring practices, food security and coping strategies, but no consistent methods or indicators were used, resulting in inconsistent data. This illustrates the need to develop and agree upon a set of core indicators of aggravating factors and then thresholds to describe the humanitarian situation in Ethiopia and elsewhere and to indicate priorities for interventions. PMID:24038180

Watson, Fiona; Negussie, Bekele; Dolan, Carmel; Shoham, Jeremy; Hall, Andrew

2011-06-01

452

High Frequency of Symptomatic Zinc Deficiency in Infants in Northern Ethiopia  

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Background. Zinc deficiency occurs in infants when its demand exceeds its supply. It presents with cutaneous signs which, in severe cases, are associated with diarrhea, alopecia, and irritability. Genetic and acquired forms of zinc deficiency have been reported and often overlap clinical features. Malnutrition, prematurity, malabsorption syndromes, and burns may cause an increased demand for zinc. Methods. Cases of acquired transient infantile zinc deficiency (TIZD) observed during a period of 3 years at Ayder Referral Hospital of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia, are reported here. Since no sophisticated tests were available at our center, the diagnosis was based on the clinical signs and prompt response to oral zinc supplementation. Results. We observed 18 cases of TIZD at our center. All patients were full-term and breastfeeding infants with no relevant associated diseases. Conclusions. In this region, a high incidence of this condition is observed. We could not rule out whether heterozygosity for the genetic mutation was present or that the disease was caused by a nutritional deficiency in the mothers or more probably because both the factors coexisted together. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the causes of the increased incidence of this disease in Northern Ethiopia. PMID:25548552

Dassoni, Federica; Abebe, Zerihun; Ricceri, Federica; Morrone, Aldo

2014-01-01

453

Antenatal care strengthening in jimma, ethiopia : a mixed-method needs assessment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health education, and lack of training of health professionals. Conclusions. Health system trials are needed to study the feasibility of ANC strengthening in the study area. Nationally and internationally, the leadership needs to be strengthened with supportive supervision geared towards building trust and mutual respect to protect maternal and infant health.

Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; TersbØl, Britt Pinkowski

2014-01-01

454

Cultural Politics and Education in Ethiopia: A Search for a Viable Indigenous Legend  

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Full Text Available The history of modern education in Ethiopian is short. What is not so short, however, is the history of traditional education, temehert. It goes back as far as the introduction of Christianity to Ethiopia – fourth century EC. Since its inception, education had a close, if ambivalent, relationship with different ideological tenets, and each tenet trying to formulate its educational philosophy around its own unique narrative. While some narratives arose from indigenous legend, others are imported (and domesticated in some cases from abroad. In this essay, I do not intend to discuss educational policies per se. I, however, intend to show how a deliberate, or unwitting, de-link with indigenous legend would affect the trajectory, and also the success, in educational system in Ethiopia. After a brief paradigmatic characterization of two ideologies and their underlying narratives, I will critically unravel the ethno-federalism educational philosophy of Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF and its undergirding ethnic legends. I focus on ethno-federalist system because it is an incumbent philosophy. After discussing a nascent remedy proposed by MaimireMennasemay, vis,.the notion of tezeta, I intend to argue for the primacy of the notion of qal-kidan as a better alternative. I will base my argument on the cultural prevalence, but also conceptual credibility.

Mohammed Girma

2012-02-01

455

Hydatid disease in Ethiopia: clinical survey with some immunodiagnostic test results.  

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After surveying various regions of Ethiopia using clinical examinations, filter paper indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, and hydatid skin test, a hyperendemic focus of hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus) was found in southwestern Ethiopia. Two tribes, the Dassanetch and Nyangatom, in the lower Omo River Valley were found to have a particularly high prevalence of the disease. Of 1,342 individuals from these two tribes 4.8% had palpable abdominal cysts and 15% had hepatomegaly. This contrasts with 0.2% and 5.6%, respectively, for all other groups combined. Among the Dassanetch and Nyangatom, 6.4% had filter paper indirect hemagglutination titers 1:128 or greater versus only 0.3% for the combined results of other tested Ethiopian groups. Of 366 Dassanetch and Nyangatom, 31.7% were positive by the hydatid skin test versus 5.9% for all other southwestern Ethiopian tribes tested. Marked sex differences in hydatid skin test positivity, not reflected in the clinical findings or the IHA results, limit the use of this test for hydatid disease and suggest that possibility that men be exposed more frequently than women to other antigens cross-reacting with the hydatid skin test antigen. PMID:7258484

Fuller, G K; Fuller, D C

1981-05-01

456

Comprehensive knowledge about cervical cancer is low among women in Northwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the first most common cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa followed by breast cancer. In Ethiopia, the incidence of cervical cancer is high i.e. 35.9 per 100,000 women. Low level of awareness, lack of effective screening programs, overshadowed by other health priorities (such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tuberculosis and malaria and insufficient attention to women’s health are the possible factors for the observed higher incidence rate of cervical cancers in the country. Data on knowledge of Ethiopian women regarding cervical cancer is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of women about cervical cancer and associated factors. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 4-16, 2010 in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 633 women aged 15 years and above were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire by 8 trained data collectors and 2 supervisors. SPSS Windows version 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Result Of all the respondents, 495 (78.7% of them had heard about cervical cancer and only 195 (31% of them were knowledgeable about the disease. Conclusion The knowledge of women on cervical cancer was found to be poor. Education about the disease must include information on risk factors, sign and symptoms of cervical cancer.

Getahun Frehiwot

2013-01-01

457

Agroforestry Practices and Biodiversity Management in Backyards in Hiwane, Hintalo Wejerat of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In Ethiopia more than 85% of the population is involved in agriculture based profession. Farmers in Ethiopia have been practicing different agroforestry models since time immemorial. What is more, backyard (home garden agroforestry practice is most popular in the northern part of the country. This backyard agroforestry (home garden is practiced as a mixture of crops (vegetables, herbs and trees (fruits and fodder trees to provide diversified products to the cultivators. This study found over 40 species of plants maintained in home garden of the study area. Furthermore, agroforestry practice in backyard has a crucial role in the improvement of livelihoods to small scale farmers in the study area through direct subsistence production, indirect subsistence production (such as foods, fuel wood, fodder and shade to the cultivators and income generation. Furthermore, it has helped to conserve many species of plants in a small areas with providing diversify needs to the farmers. We found that trees to have multiple roles in the study area where they provide significant economic and ecological benefits. Planting trees provide rural households with wood products for own consumption as well for sale and play role in decreasing soil degradation. Our findings also suggest that households consider a number of attributes in making decision to backyard agroforestry practice. These results can be used by policy makers to promote home garden agroforestry practice in the study area by creating conducive water supply and considering households’ backyard size and roofing system.

Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

2012-03-01

458

Detoxification and Consumption of Cassava Based Foods in South West Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta was introduced in Ethiopia around 1960‘s. But the consumption was not practiced until 1984. Currently the plant is being distributed throughout the country as a tool to tackle food insecurity. However, the distribution is not supported by proved food preparation techniques for optimal processing to increase nutrient density and eliminate the toxin. Hence, development of suitable detoxification methods and optimal food processing without affecting consumers acceptance is essential. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the existing processing technologies in order to identify effective methods for reducing the cyanide content and improve nutritional quality of cassava based foods. Primary and secondary data were collected from four cassava producing and consuming districts of south west Ethiopia using Focus Group Discussion (FGD, key informants interview and review of written documents. Processing methods such as washing, boiling, drying and fermenting with flour of cereals were evaluated to increase nutritional content and reduce cyanide level. Laboratory and kitchen trial of cassava mix with cereals at two levels were conducted to evaluate the toxin content and nutritional value of products. In this study solar drying and fermentation were found to be the best methods in totally removing the cyanide content of cassava. The results show that both cassava mix are suitable (at 95%CI for Anebabero, Injera, Dabbo (Bread and porridge preparation. Cereal blends improve nutritional quality of cassava based foods.

Birhanu Wodajo

2012-01-01

459

Productive performance of indigenous and HF crossbred dairy cows in Gondar, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the magnitude of variation in lactation length (LL, lactation milk yield (LMY and peak-yield (PYdue to genetic and non-genetic cases in indigenous and crossbred cattle reared under private dairy unit in and around Gondar, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 411 milch animals from 86 dairy farmers comprising of 172 indigenous and 239 Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbred cows. These cows were maintained under farmer's management system in and around Gondar (Ethiopia and were analyzed by Least squares analysis to study the magnitude of variation in their LL, LMY and PY due to genetic and some non-genetic factors. Result: The overall Least squares means for LL, LMY and PY were estimated to be 275.1165.23 days, 1407.3471.34 litres and 6.880.38 litres respectively. Genetic group and lactation order had significant effect (P0.01 on LL, LMY and PY. Season of calving had significant effect (P0.01 on LMY and PY but its effect on LL was non-significant. Effect of location of herd was significant (P0.05 on LMY and PY while its effect on LL was non-significant. Variations in all the traits due to herd size and farming system were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Productive performance of dairy cows in this study was found to be lesser than the optimum values desirable for profitable milk production.

Niraj Kumar

2014-03-01

460

Multivariate Analysis of Nutritional Diversity in Sorghum Landrace Accessions from Western Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In Ethiopia, sorghum is grown for food and cash income by subsistence farmers. The study was conducted at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Council, Grain Crops Institute at Potchefstroom, South Africa. A total of 31 sorghum landrace accessions were used for chemical analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of genetic diversity in nutritional composition of sorghum landraces from western Ethiopia. Sorghum whole grains were analyzed for crude protein, total starch and its component and mineral profile (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc and sodium. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed that the first four principal components contributed 71.77% of the variability among sorghum landrace accessions. Mineral elements such as zinc, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus and protein contributed more divergence to the first Principal Component (PC1, while iron, sodium and calcium contributed to the second Principal Component (PC2. Cluster analysis of mineral elements, protein, total starch and sugar contents resulted in five distinct groups of accessions with genetic distances ranging from 0.78-1.52. Therefore, the chemical compositions provide a useful measure of genetic divergence among sorghum landrace accessions to identify potential donors or parental lines for future sorghum quality improvement effort.

Angeline van Biljon

2013-01-01

461

Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.

Tora Abebayehu

2012-10-01

462

Phenotypic Diversity in Rhynchosporium secalis from Ethiopia and Host Response to Barley Scald  

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Full Text Available Knowledge of Rhynchosporium secalis variability and host response to scald is important in the context of breeding for resistance. The variation in R. secalis isolates from barley in different agroecological zones of Ethiopia was investigated with respect to colony and conidial morphology, colony growth rate, sporulation and virulence spectrum on a set of ten barley differentials. The R. secalis isolates differed markedly in several cultural characteristics but no correlation was found between these characteristics and isolate virulence. Five R. secalis pathotypes were selected from a total of 19 pathotypes and used to screen 35 barley lines in a glasshouse and also under natural infection in the field. Discriminant analysis revealed considerable divergence in host response, as well as in R. secalis virulence. Percent leaf area affected (PLAA and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC were negatively correlated with grain yield and 1000-grain weight and more closely reflected host resistance than apparent infection rate (r. High yielding barley lines such as HB-100 that showed resistance to all five pathotypes in the glasshouse and had low AUDPC, r and PLAA values in the field appear promising as donors of quantitative resistance genes in scald resistance breeding in the high altitude zones of Ethiopia.

Kiros Meles

2004-01-01

463

Investigating the effects of metacognitive instruction in learning primary school science in some schools in Ethiopia  

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Metacognition is increasingly recognized as an important component in successful learning. In science, metacognitive instructional interventions have been successfully incorporated to promote conceptual change learning, facilitate negotiating and constructing of meanings, and foster reading and problem solving abilities of learners. The present study investigated the contribution of three metacognitive instructional methods, namely graphic organizers, metacognitive reflection, and metacognitive reading in learning science among primary school students (age 10-14 years) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. The metacognitive instructional methods were believed to be efficient to introduce and transform learner-centeredness in science instruction under Ethiopia's primary school settings by allowing students to think productively and regulate their own learning. Qualitative study indicated that the metacognitive instructional methods fostered student conceptual understanding of science topics and enhanced active student participation. Quantitative study of post-scores of Immediate test-groups revealed that graphic organizers had some contribution in helping students perform better in 'application' type tests. Metacognitive reflection activities enabled students to perform better in 'application' and 'transfer' type tests as well as enhancing mean post-test scores. Metacognitive reading activities did not yield any apparent effects on post-intervention tests. The effects of the metacognitive methods were diminished among Delayed post-test groups.

Sbhatu, Desta Berhe

464

Multilingual Education: An Emerging Threat to Quality English Education in Eastern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In 1994, Ethiopian constitutions underwent an amendment in which each regional state was given a right to choose, use, and diffuse its language from both cultural and educational perspectives. This amendment marked the welcoming sign of multilingual education in Ethiopia, but the current pattern of multilingual education has caused more harm than good to the end users (students in terms of learning and mastering English language to an optimal level. The paper hypothesizes that multilingual education is one of the determinants for impairing the quality of English education in Eastern Ethiopia. So this research took the shape of an ethnographic perception-study not only to explore the adverse impacts of multilingual education on the quality of English education but also to seek mass views on reversing the current trend of multilingual (trilingual education from (Mother Tongue + Amharic + English to (English + Amharic + Mother Tongue as a remedy. In this pursuit, 150 participants comprising 50 students, 50 teachers, and 50 government employees were selected using convenience sampling. The data were collected through unstructured interview and participant observation; whereas, the analysis of the data was made through analytic induction and percentile. As a part of findings, the paper presents six adverse impacts of multilingual education on English Education; and the participants’ varied degree of consent on reversing the current pattern of trilingual education. The paper finally forwards apposite recommendations to streamline English in mainstream education to enhance the quality of English education.

Sanjay Kumar Jha

2013-10-01

465

Khat use among HIV voluntary counselling and testing centre clients in Ethiopia.  

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Khat (Catha edulis, a natural stimulant), has been used in Ethiopia for centuries. Over the past few decades, however, its use has dramatically increased, with recent research linking khat use to HIV status. Using qualitative methods, we explored the individual and micro-environmental characteristics of khat use and the social and physical contexts influencing type, acceptability and consequences of khat use. Among khat chewers attending an HIV voluntary counselling and testing centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, we found that chewing typically starts at an early age (15-18 years). The majority of users are young (aged 18-35) and chew for pleasure, primarily in social settings. Over 25 types of khat, with varying effects were reported. Approximately half of the participants perceived khat to enhance sexual desire, while the rest claimed the effect on sexual desire to be the opposite. Alcohol use among chewers was high. Our findings suggest the need for culturally appropriate interventions that highlight the factors associated with khat use and the potential interplay between khat, alcohol and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:22988913

Berhanu, Della; Go, Vivian F; Ruff, Andrea; Celentano, David D; Bishaw, Tewabech

2012-01-01

466

Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.  

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In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n?=?577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n?=?290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n?=?287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n?=?85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

2014-01-01

467

Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia  

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As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.

2008-01-01

468

Leadership in strategic information (LSI building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examined the impact of the training on trainees' skills and the strengths and weaknesses of the course. The evaluation consisted of surveys and focus groups. Findings Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E. Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia. Conclusion The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings.

Mitike Getnet

2011-08-01

469

Risk factors associated with observed clinical lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia.  

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A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and associated risk factors in three main agro-climatic zones of Ethiopia. A total of 330 questionnaire surveys were collected from 44 peasant associations (PA) distributed in 15 districts. Across agro-climate zones, herd-level LSD prevalence in the midland agro-climate was significantly higher 55.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 47.5-62.6] than in highland and lowland agro-climate zones. Overall observed LSD prevalence at animal-level was 8.1% (95% CI 7.3-8.9) and observed mortality was 2.12% (95% CI 1.73-2.6). The odds ratio (OR) of LSD occurrence in midland vs. highland and lowland vs. highland zones was 3.86 (95% CI 2.61-5.11) and 4.85 (95% CI 2.59-7.1), respectively. Significantly high risk of LSD occurrence was associated with communal grazing and watering management (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.02-6.18) and introduction of new cattle (OR 8.5, 95% CI 6.0-11.0). Our findings describe the distribution of LSD in different agro-climates in Ethiopia along with associated risk factors, and can help shed light on the epidemiology of LSD in other African countries suffering from the disease. PMID:20233495

Gari, G; Waret-Szkuta, A; Grosbois, V; Jacquiet, P; Roger, F

2010-11-01

470

Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS and HIV seronegative individuals in a teaching hospital, Ethiopia.  

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The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) /AIDS patients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in HIV/AIDS patients at Jimma Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia, between January and February 2002. Stool specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control groups were screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct and formalin-ether sedimentation concentration methods. Out of 78 HIV/AIDS patients, 52.6% (41/78), and out of 26 HIV-negative individuals, 42.3% (11/26), were infected with one or more types of intestinal protozoa and/or helminthes. The parasites detected among HIV/AIDS patients included Ascaris lumbricoides (30.8%), Blastocystis spp. (14.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (10.3%), Trichuris trichiura (6.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.1%), Giardia lamblia (3.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.5%), hookworm species (2.5%), and Taenia spp. (1.3%). Multiple infections were more common among HIV/AIDS patients. Blastocystis spp. were found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P < 0.05). The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high both in HIV/AIDS patients and in controls. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV-infected and uninfected individuals by contributing to reduce morbidity. PMID:15118206

Hailemariam, Getachew; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Gemeda; Abate, Ebba; Damte, Demekech; Mekonnen, Endris; Ota, Fusao

2004-04-01