Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.
Regasa, Guta; Taha, Mukerem
The objectives of the study were to assess the current status of the academic performance of females in grade seven and eight and to study how perception of parents affect the academic performance of female students in Kutto Sorfella Primary School, Sodo Zuria Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. To achieve the objectives of this research both qualitative and
Full Text Available Fentale pastoralists have been undertaking a set of responses to mitigate the adverse effects of the present day severe recurrent drought on the livelihood sources of the households. This study was conducted to investigate responses that are undertaken to drought by households in Fentale pastoral woreda of Oromia regional state in Ethiopia. A household survey was conducted with 134 households complemented by interviews with informants and with in-depth focus group discussion. The results indicate that households have developed various response mechanisms to deal with the challenges of the severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities. An extent of household responses towards both pastoral and non pastoral activities are varied, in which the household characteristics, specifically, wealth in terms of livestock holding is the decisive factors for the engagement of the household in any one or more of a set of productive activities/response mechanisms. The extent of households' mobility and herd diversification has increased. In addition, households have started to partly practice crop cultivation. Other non-pastoral activities such as agriculture, daily labour, petty trade, fuel wood collection and charcoal selling contributed to about 35% of the total household income.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 1223?months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 1223?months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mothers verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 1223?months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR?=?2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR?=?2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR?=?2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR?=?4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8, whereas area of residence and mothers socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with full immunization among children. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 1223?months remains low. Maternal health care utilization and knowledge of mothers about the age at which child begins and finishes vaccination are the main factors associated with complete immunization coverage. It is necessary that, local interventions should be strengthened to raising awareness of the community on the importance of immunization, antenatal care and institutional delivery.
Full Text Available The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 medicinal plants distributed in 64 families were documented in this study. The most frequently used plant part was leaf while the growth form with the highest number (43.82% of representatives among the plants encountered in this study were herbs. About 57.9% medicinal plants were collected from wild while 24.1% were cultivated and 18.5% were both cultivated and collected from wild. A total of 62 human and 27 veterinary diseases were documented in the study. However, only 58% of the traditional healers exercised their indigenous knowledge on treating both human and livestock diseases, while 41.96% practiced treatment of only human diseases. The medicinal plant resources and the associated knowledge of herbal medicine need to be used in a sustainable way and developed for more effective use in the future.
Tilahun, Marelign; Mohamed, Shikur
Background. Male involvement is an important determinant of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ethiopia is not well known. Objectives. To assess male partners involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated factors in Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria woreda. Methods. Community based study was conducted in Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district. Multistage sampling technique was used and data were collected using interviewer administered standard questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the presence of statistically significant associations between the outcome variable and the independent variables. Results. The level of male involvement in PMTCT program in Arba Minch town and Zuria district was 53%. Several factors appear to contribute to male involvement in the PMTCT program including age, residence, education level, knowledge on HIV, knowledge on PMTCT, accessibility of health facility, having weak perception for male involvement in PMTCT, having perception of ANC attendance being females' responsibility, ever use of khat, and ever use of cigarette. Conclusion. Geographical accessibility of health facility and male's knowledge on PMTCT should be improved to increase their involvement in PMTCT. PMID:26146631
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. Results More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94] and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]. The majority (67.02% of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with childs age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47 and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73 and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88], but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]. Conclusion The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community based behavior change communications using multiple channels including radio and folk media is recommended to reduce sub-optimal breast feeding practices and associated consequences among children in the study area.
Woldemariam Zemede; Woodmatas Sebsebe; Bekalo Tesfaye
Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District); it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (? = 0.05 was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (? = 0.05 was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05 were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50% of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29% were shrubs, six (16% were herbs and two (5% were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97% fruits, 13 (33.33% leaves, 3 (7.69% roots and one (2.56% seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.872 and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.994 by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of wild edible plants were gathered and consumed from 'Duka' (March to 'Halet' (May and from 'Meko' (August to 'Tejo' (November. Sixteen (41% of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge. The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. Conclusions The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District; it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3% and 14 (12% species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6% are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90% were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5% for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5% were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8% followed by fire (22.3% and construction (19%. Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34 were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community, which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process of threatening the resources and this signals the need for serious efforts to create public awareness so that measures are taken to conserve the medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments.
Ermias Abera Turuse; Kassahun Alemu Gelaye; Teresa Kisi Beyen
Background: Ensuring prompt diagnosis and timely malaria treatment will prevent most cases of uncomplicated malaria from progressing to severe and fatal illness. To avoid this progression, treatment must begin as soon as possible, generally within 24 hours after symptoms onset. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria prompt diagnosis and timely treatment for under-five is not well studied in the study area as well as in Ethiopia. Objective: To assess determinants of delay in malari...
Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however. PMID:12177998
This research assessed the value chain of gum and resins, which are available in four woreda in the southern lowlands of Ethiopia. They are Moyale Somali, Moyale Oromia, Dhas and Dire woreda. The output of this research is the elaboration of three value chains. The first is a general one for all the woreda, while the other two concern the Moyale and Dubluk markets. The assessed products are the gum arabic from Acacia trees and the resin exuded by the dunkhal tree - Boswellia family. The aim o...
Assefa, Ashenafi; Cano, Jorge; Deribe, Kebede; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Shafi, Oumer; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.; Kebede, Amha; Bockarie, Moses J.
Background Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is essential for the delineation of endemic implementation units and determining the population at risk that will be targeted for mass drug administration (MDA). Prior to the current study, only 116 of the 832 woredas (districts) in Ethiopia had been mapped for LF. The aim of this study was to perform a nationwide mapping exercise to determine the number of people that should be targeted for MDA in 2016 when national coverage was anticipated. Methodology/Principal Finding A two-stage cluster purposive sampling was used to conduct a community-based cross-sectional survey for an integrated mapping of LF and podoconiosis, in seven regional states and two city administrations. Two communities in each woreda were purposely selected using the World Health Organization (WHO) mapping strategy for LF based on sampling 100 individuals per community and two purposely selected communities per woreda. Overall, 130 166 people were examined in 1315 communities in 658 woredas. In total, 140 people were found to be positive for circulating LF antigen by immunochromatographic card test (ICT) in 89 communities. Based on WHO guidelines, 75 of the 658 woredas surveyed in the nine regions were found to be endemic for LF with a 2016 projected population of 9 267 410 residing in areas of active disease transmission. Combining these results with other data it is estimated that 11 580 010 people in 112 woredas will be exposed to infection in 2016. Conclusions We have conducted nationwide mapping of LF in Ethiopia and demonstrated that the number of people living in LF endemic areas is 60% lower than current estimates. We also showed that integrated mapping of multiple NTDs is feasible and cost effective and if properly planned, can be quickly achieved at national scale. PMID:26539700
Deribe, Kebede; Simon J Brooker; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; BOCKARIE, MOSES. J.; ASEFFA, ABRAHAM; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre
Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a d...
Alemu, Getahun; Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Daniel, Takele; Ahrens, Christel; Davey, Gail
Podoconiosis is a chronic non-infectious disease resulting in below-knee swelling of the legs in bare-footed people living in red clay soil areas. It is an important and yet neglected problem in tropical Africa, central and south America, and north India. Podoconiosis can be prevented by consistently wearing shoes and washing feet. We aimed to assess the burden of the disease, to characterize features of the disease, and to describe foot hygiene and shoe wearing practice of patients in west E...
Berhane, Hermela Haile
Poverty in Ethiopia is prevalent in both rural and urban areas. According to EEA (2002), more than 46 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty or below 2 dollars per day. In Ethiopia, rural areas account for 85 percent of the countrys population, and the majority of rural people live in abject poverty. Urban areas also exhibit a high incidence of poverty. Socio-economic indicators also reflect poverty to be wide spread throughout the country.
Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.
P, Zimmermann-Steinhart; Y, Bekele.
Full Text Available This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we wil [...] l show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.
This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development
Dr P S Grewal MS DOMS; Dr Shrirang Deshpande MS; Dr Uma Pradhan MS DOMS FCPS; Dr Museret Awave
In 1999, the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International undertook a project which was named the Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia. Rotary clubs from India, Ethiopia and the USA participated in this unique project which was a resounding success, not just in terms of the number and quality of the operations done, but also in bringing people of India, Ethiopia and the USA closer to each other and so fostering understanding and friendship amongst them.The matching grant and new opportu...
Sathiya Susuman, A
Ethiopias childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effe...
Alemu, Tekie; Asgedom, Getachew; Liebenberg, Janet; Mekonnen, Alemu; Seager, John; Tefera, Bekele; Woldehanna, Tassew
This paper describes childhood poverty in Ethiopia and reviews the policies expected to have an impact on childhood poverty. It identifies key stakeholders for the Young Lives study, describes the methods used during the first round of Young Lives research in Ethiopia, and presents preliminary results. Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world, ranking 168 out of 173 countries according to UNDPs 2002 Human Development Index. About 44 per cent of Ethiopias population were liv...
Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter
Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of out...
Belay Tessema, Solomon
Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopians contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.
Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest Us...
Abstract The aim of this thesis is to investigate the ecology and ethnobotany of vegetation in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State (BGRS), western Ethiopia. The studies reported in this thesis have confirmed the existence of 1102 vascular plant species in BGRS. The region has, therefore, comparable vascular plant diversity to other floristic regions in Ethiopia. The study, which was carried out using classification and ordination techniques, revealed the existence of five plant comminutes and en...
Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia are water-related: food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy condition. In order to develop and manage existing water resources in a sustainable manner, knowledge is required about water availability, water quality, water demand in various sectors, and the impacts of water resource projects on health and the environment. The lack of ground-based data has been a major challenge for generating this knowledge. Current advances in remote sensing and computer simulation technology could provide alternative source of datasets. In this talk, I will present the challenges and opportunities in using remote sensing datasets and hydrological models in regions such as Africa where ground-based datasets are scarce.
Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)
Dr P S Grewal MS DOMS
Full Text Available In 1999, the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International undertook a project which was named the Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia. Rotary clubs from India, Ethiopia and the USA participated in this unique project which was a resounding success, not just in terms of the number and quality of the operations done, but also in bringing people of India, Ethiopia and the USA closer to each other and so fostering understanding and friendship amongst them.The matching grant and new opportunities grant project was planned in order to perform 400 introcular lens implant surgeries in Ethiopia (along with polio-corrective and plastic surgeries. In Africa there are about 3 million cataract blind to which 50,000 new cases are added each year. A huge backlog has accumulated in rural areas and low-income urban slums. India faces similar problems. Indian surgeons are trained in performing cataract operations with limited resources and with reasonably good outcome. We are experienced in doing many operations in a short span of time.
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This
TAREKEGN DEA LERA
In many countries the development of HR management not well articulated and documented and even difficult to write about it. Ethiopia is one of those countries with difficult documentation and written facts to clearly picture the development of HR management. Even though this article fallowing world trend in HR management practice described the HR management practice of Ethiopia. Ethiopia economic and administration structure mostly described by categorizing it in to three periods. The period...
Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin
Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households risk management. This article examines the impact of the PSNP by using Propensity Score Matching to estimate the effect on income diversification. The results show receiving transfers from the PSNP, on average, increases natural resource extractio...
Macdonald, A. M.; Calow, R.C.; Nicol, A.L.; Hope, B.; Robins, N.S.
A map showing groundwater availability during drought for Ethiopia presented at a scale of 1:3,500,000. The map was constructed by combining three factors: (1) rock permeability (derived from the hydrogeology map) (2) the ability of the rock to store water (from the hydrogeology map) (3) recharge to the groundwater (estimated from rainfall data). Areas of high permeability, high storage and high recharge have most groundwater available during drought
The article develops some reflections on present-day Eritrea in the light of the colonial past and in the context of modern Ethiopia. If we consider Eritrea and its path towards independence, some differences and analogies emerge in comparison with other African colonies. The Eritrean independence is taking place today in a very specific context in post-colonial Africa. It is not a simple case of delayed decolonization, postponed by 30 years with respect to other former African colonies. The ...
Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink; Tsegaye, A; Struik, P.C.
This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...
With around 50% of the urban men between age 15 and 30 unemployed, Ethiopia has one of the highest unemployment rates worldwide. This paper describes the nature of unemployment among young men in urban Ethiopia. We analyse the determinants of incidence and duration and find that most variables have the same effect on both. Unemployment is concentrated among relatively well-educated first time job seekers who come from the middle classes. Mean duration of unemployment is close to f...
This book takes stock of political reform in Ethiopia and the transformation of Ethiopian society since the adoption of multi-party politics and ethnic federalism in 1991. Decentralization, attempted democratization via ethno-national representation, and partial economic liberalization have reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, democracy in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centr...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the merits and the demerits of colonial boundaries in Africa by using the Ethiopia-Sudan boundary as a case study. The paper tries to examine how the existing boundary between the two countries came into being in the early 20th century. The present-day boundary between Ethiopia and Sudan is principally the result of the 1902 and 1907 Anglo-Ethiopian delimitation treaties which were demarcated in 1903 and 1909 respectively. At present, there is confusion and controversy in Ethiopia, particularly, after the exposure of the alleged secret re-demarcation deal between the current governments of Ethiopia and Sudan that resulted, according to various media reports, in the ceding of huge Ethiopian border land to Sudan along their common border. This paper explores the historical background of the boundary conflict and gives an insight to the current boundary problem between Ethiopia and Sudan.
González Ruibal, Alfredo
Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.
Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.
...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia 1. Applicability. This Special...within the territory and airspace of Ethiopia north of 12 degrees north...
Courtright, P.; Haile, D; Kohls, E
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and cost of the service. Adult members of a systematic random sample (20%) of households from 16 communities (total popu...
Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo
Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the...
General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant collectors and a complete index to the 7 volumes of the entire work.
Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit
This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes
This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths
Valerie J. Ehlers; Getahun S. Aragaw
Background: Despite the existence of national tuberculosis guidelines (NTG) in Ethiopia, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis did not decline markedly. Audits could attempt to determine whether or not healthcare professionals actually implemented these guidelines, as non-implementation could contribute to suboptimal tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Aim: To evaluate healthcare providers implementation of Ethiopias NTG during the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in order to...
Although mental disorders are common among children all over the world, information on the extent and types of child psychiatric disorders in Ethiopia is extremely limited. A study was conducted in an urban setting of Ethiopia to look at the prevalence of child psychiatric disorders and their correlates. A two-phase survey was performed. In the first phase, parents of 5000 children in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, were interviewed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (R...
Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon
This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of revolutionary democracy. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and conti...
The aim of this paper is to study the merits and the demerits of colonial boundaries in Africa by using the Ethiopia-Sudan boundary as a case study. The paper tries to examine how the existing boundary between the two countries came into being in the early 20th century. The present-day boundary between Ethiopia and Sudan is principally the result of the 1902 and 1907 Anglo-Ethiopian delimitation treaties which were demarcated in 1903 and 1909 respectively. At present, there is confusion and c...
Calow, Roger; MacDonald, Alan; Cross, Piers
In Ethiopia, investment in rural water supply underpins the governments poverty reduction efforts. The challenge is huge: roughly 50 percent of the (mainly rural) population still have no access to safe water, and the country has the highest number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa without access to improved water supply and sanitation. The consequences are dire: every year, roughly 250,000 children die from diseases related to poor water and sanitation, and many others face ...
Background Affective disorders are poorly defined and studied in sub-Saharan Africa despite their substantial public health impact. Objectives Overall objective: To describe the epidemiology of selected affective disorders in rural Ethiopia. Specific objectives 1. To describe the validity and utility of the concept of minor depressive disorder (mD). 2. To describe the manifestation, prevalence and the short-term clinical and functional course and outcome of bipolar disorder. Subjects and meth...
Abstract The study has examined the impact of foreign aid on investment and economic growth in Ethiopia over the period 1970 to 2009 using multivariate cointegration analysis. The empirical result from the investment equation shows that aid has a significant positive impact on investment in the long run. On the other hand, volatility of aid by creating uncertainty in the flow of aid has a negative influence on domestic capital formation activity. Foreign aid is effective in enhancing growt...
Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; McDonald, Robert C.
In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...
Viste, Ellen Marie; Korecha, Diriba; Sorteberg, Asgeir
In 2011, drought in the Horn of Africa again made news headlines. This study aims to quantify the meteorological component of this and other drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971. A monthly precipitation data set for 14 homogeneous rainfall zones was constructed based on 174 gauge observations. As a measure of drought, the Standardized Precipitation Index was calculated on seasonal, annual and biannual timescales for each zone. The results point to 2009 as a year of exceptionally widespread...
This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Abebech; Friis, Henrik; Rasch, Vibeke
Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national gu...
Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig
Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual
Blomne Sopov, M.
This report, requested by the Royal Dutch Embassy in Ethiopia, outlines the modalities of setting up a Business Support Facility in the country with the objectives of: 1. Supporting sector coordination and business partnerships; 2. Brokering business relations between Ethiopia and the Netherlands; 3. Strengthening innovation capacity to ensure technical, business and entrepreneurial know how.
Kritzinger, J.J. (Johan Jakob)
A visit to Ethiopia revealed that enlightenment derived from travel is worth while. This article illustrates this by introducing the reader to the people and ancient Christian tradition of the northern highlands of Ethiopia. There is much in the history of this area, and the monuments of this tradition, but also in the present church life that are thought provoking.
E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didnt know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.
En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.
This book takes stock of political reform in Ethiopia and the transformation of Ethiopian society since the adoption of multi-party politics and ethnic federalism in 1991. Decentralization, attempted democratization via ethno-national representation, and partial economic liberalization have reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, democracy in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party has embarked upon a technocratic developmental state trajectory ostensibly aimed at depoliticizing national policy and delegitimizing alternative courses. The contributors analyze the dynamics of authoritarian state-building, political ethnicity, electoral politics and state-society relations that have marked the Ethiopian polity since the downfall of the socialist Derg regime. Chapters on ethnic federalism, 'revolutionary democracy', opposition parties, the press, the judiciary, state-religion, and state-foreign donor relations provide the most comprehensive and thought-provoking review of contemporary Ethiopian national politics to date.
Tadelle, D.; C. Kijora; Peters, K.J.
Growth performances and feed utilization potentials of six chicken populations were investigated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. Five local ecotypes originated from different Agro-ecologies and corresponding market sheds in Ethiopia, namely, Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, and the Fayoumi breed was used as a reference breed. Ecotype had a significant (p<0.01) effect on overall body weight gain per bird and mean body weight gain per bird per day from day old ...
Bezu, Sosina; Holden, Stein T.
This study aims to examine current land access and youth livelihood opportunities in Southern Ethiopia. Access to agricultural land is a constitutional right for rural residents of Ethiopia. We used survey data from the relatively land abundant districts of Oromia Region and from the land scarce districts of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) Region. We found that youth in the rural south have limited potential to obtain agricultural land that can be a basis for viable liveli...
Divisive debates on what constitutes the Ethiopian nation, how the state should be structured and how power should be devolved, have dominated Ethiopia's private press since the ruling party, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), came to power. The press has served as both a mirror reflecting these issues and a space for literate elites to engage in political debates. This article analyses the role of the media, and the press in particular, in Ethiopia's political deba...
Woldehanna, T; Hoddinott, J; Dercon, S.
This paper explores trends in poverty and inequality, and the role of growth, inequality and sectoral changes in the evolution of poverty in Ethiopia between 1996 and 2005. We find that while poverty remains widespread, it declined markedly over this period. However, while inequality remained unchanged in rural areas, there was a substantial increase in urban inequality. In Ethiopia, income growth reduces poverty and increases in inequality increase poverty; the income-poverty elasticity lies...
Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
We study the value chain of teff, Ethiopias most important staple food crop by area and value. Based on large-scale primary surveys, we find significant changes in the last decade. First, there is increasing adoption of modern inputs (chemical fertilizer, improved varieties, and herbicides) by farmers, especially by those living close to urban centers. Second, quality demands are rising and there are important shifts from the cheap red varieties to the more expensive white ones. Third, we se...
Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)
Yitayal M; Berhane Y; Worku A; Kebede Y
Mezgebu Yitayal,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,3 Yigzaw Kebede11University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Ethiopia has implemented a nationwide primary health program at grassroots level (known as the Health Extension Program) since 2003 to increase public access to basic health services. This study was conducted to assess whether households that fully implemented ...
Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.
Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.
Since the 1990s, war in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia has claimed thousands of lives. The conflict between the Government of Ethiopia and the insurgent Ogaden National Liberation Front has impoverished the communities of Ethiopias Somali Regional State, swollen the refugee population in Kenya, and added to insecurity in the Somali territories of the Horn of Africa. Talking Peace in the Ogaden is the outcome of extensive research in Ethiopia, East Africa and the global Ogaadeeni diaspora. It ...
The aim of the study was to evaluate, how the image of a country affects the tourism industry in Ethiopia. In this report the past and the present situation of tourism development was analyzed in comparison with the potential of the Country. The objective of this work was to suggest a way to build a better Ethiopian image as tourist destination in world standard. This research was based on the framework that dealt with the significance of place and image branding in the tourism industry...
Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.
It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere is addressed. WASPL is expected to join worldwide activities in monitoring local and global atmosphereic and ionospheric parameters. There is also a plan to install a neutron monitor to measure galactic and solar cosmic rays. WASPL will be situated at the magnetic equator and at 2500m above seal level, which make it a unique place to carry out space physics experiments. In this paper, we describe WASPL in some more details. Interested scientists may participate with us and/or start similar initiatives.
Full Text Available The Health Extension Program is one of the most innovative community-based health programs in Ethiopia. It is based on the assumption that access to and quality of primary health care in rural communities can be improved through transfer of health knowledge and skills to households. Since it became [...] operational in 2004-2005, the Program has had a tangible effect on the thinking and practices of rural people regarding disease prevention, family health, hygiene and environmental sanitation. It has enabled Ethiopia to increase primary health care coverage from 76.9% in 2005 to 90% in 2010.
Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J
The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron
Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw
Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of
Akalu, Girmaw Abebe
This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly
Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine
This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from
Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef
Ro?. 54, ?. 1 (2013), s. 49-56. ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Afrotropical * Ethiopia * new species * new synonymy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2013
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic
Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan
Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa.
Hoot, James; Szente, Judit; Tadesse, Selamawit
This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world--Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of
Donald N., Levine.
Full Text Available As teorias convencionais associam o nacionalismo à Europa ocidental moderna, em geral a um período subsequente à Revolução Francesa. No entanto, no caso etíope, os indicadores de nacionalismo usados pela maior parte dos investigadores encontram-se atestados desde o século vi da nossa era. Este facto [...] põe em causa as perspectivas convencionais sobre a ideia de nação, e questiona os que encaram o sentimento nacional etíope como uma invenção recente. Para mais, a experiência da recente diáspora etíope permite-nos repensar a própria ideia de nação. Os laços permanentes entre etíopes expatriados e a sua pátria, e a comunicação através de meios electrónicos, manifestam uma nova configuração da ideia de nação etíope, que se compõe agora de três partes confluentes: bet-agar (pátria); wutch-agar (diáspora); e sayber-agar (ciberespaço). Abstract in english Conventional theories trace nationalism to modern Western Europe, usually following the French Revolution. However, markers of nationalism used by most scholars are attested by evidence of Ethiopias nationhood as early as sixth century C.E. This requires revisions in both conventional notions of na [...] tionhood and views of those who find Ethiopianness a recent invention. Moreover, the experience of Ethiopians in their recent Diaspora warrants rethinking the very notions of nationhood. Continuing ties of Ethiopian expatriates with their homeland and communication through electronic media manifest a new configuration of Ethiopias nationhood, consisting now of three confluent parts: bet-agar (homeland); wutch-agar (diaspora); and sayber-agar (cyberspace).
Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso
This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics
Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firms value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia. The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.
Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo
We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,
The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using
The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.
Eticha, Tadele; Mesfin, Kalkidan
Background Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Mekelle from February to March 2013. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection to assess self-medication practices. Data were analyzed using of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results Among self-medicated study participants, 199(73.7%) were males and 71(26.3%) were females with mean age of 28.65 years. The most frequently reported illnesses or symptoms of illnesses that prompted self-medication of study participants were headache/fever (20.7%), gastrointestinal diseases (17.3%) and respiratory tract infections (15.9%) with the main reasons being mildness of the disease, prior experience and less expensive. The majority of drug consumers made their requests by telling their symptoms, by mentioning specific names of the drugs and by showing old samples. Analgesics/antipyretics, gastrointestinal drugs, respiratory drugs and oral rehydration salt were the most frequently requested categories of drugs. Pharmacists followed by other healthcare providers were the most frequently reported source of drug information for self-medication. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that self-medication practices were common for a wide range of illnesses. Health professionals, especially community pharmacists need to educate people on the benefits and risks of self-medication to encourage responsible self-medication. PMID:24820769
Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of the total collection comprised of An. gambiae. Different cytogenetic studies have shown that An. arabiensis is more predominant species than An. quadriannulatus. Malaria Control: The major vector control measure that is being used in the country is in-door residual insecticide (DDT) spraying. As a result An. arabiensis has developed resistance to DDT in some areas. In such cases malathion is used as an alternative. Other vector control measures such as source reduction, chemical larviciding and very recently use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are also used in selected areas.
Drawing upon unique transaction-level data from rural Ethiopia, this paper tests for general forms of imperfect competition among rural wholesale traders. These traders are key to the grain distribution system as they purchase from farmers and perform interregional trade. Tests show that traders in a typical source market engage in imperfectly competitive behavior in purchasing from farmers, driving down the price paid to farmers approximately 3%. In contrast, there is no conclusive eviden...
Thijssen, M.H.; Bishaw, Z.; Beshir, A.; Boef, W.S., de
Ethiopia is characterized by an enormous diversity in agro-ecosystems, crops and varieties, with the informal seed systems dominant in seed supply for almost all crops. The book addresses strategies and approaches through which professionals can support informal seed supply, and links these with the conservation and use of the huge genetic resource base of crops and local varieties. The book looks at informal seed supply from a number of different angles, introduces key concepts and strategie...
Early marriage is a violation of the fundamental rights of the child. In 2006, Pathfinder International/Ethiopia conducted a study on the incidence, reasons for, and the personal and social consequences of early marriage in both urban and rural areas of the Amhara region. Understanding the forces at work at the community and family levels that drive parents to marry their girl-children off is essential in the development of effective programmes to tackle this traditional practice. A total of ...
Bevan, David L.
In 1991, the new Government of Ethiopia faced a triple fiscal challenge. First, a major effort was required to overhaul and modernize the tax system. Second, the need to switch expenditure from military to civilian uses had to take place within a potentially severely reduced resource total. The severity of the general financing problem was however ameliorated by a rise in aid flows. Third, there was the political imperative to press on with the process of fiscal decentralization that was the ...
Kaleab Habte Michael Mamo; Manoj K. Jain
This study was undertaken to examine the applicability of the SWAT model in Gumera river basin upstream of Lake Tana, Ethiopia for simulating stream runoff and sediment load. The area of river basin was discretized into 24 sub-catchments using ArcSWAT interface of the model. The semi automated Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI2) and fully automated Parameter Solution (ParaSol) calibration process built in SWAT calibration and uncertainty program (SWAT-CUP) were used to calibrate the model ...
Beyene, Berhe Mekonnen
I studied the determinants of migration from urban Ethiopia to other countries, to rural areas and to other urban areas. In general, the result differs by migration type. For international migration, wealth and network variables are found to be important. It is mainly those households who have the network and/or the capacity to finance migration who send household members abroad. Human capital variables like age and education matter only for the two internal migrations. While the social capit...
Nalenga, Georges Z.
Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in many countries, especially in developing countries. Numerous prevention strategies have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, the adolescent unwanted pregnancy still increasing in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. It is why the researcher would like to assess the risk factors influencing the raise of this issue. The aim of the study was to identify th...
Beyene, Abebe Damte; Koch, Steven F.
The heavy dependence and inefficient utilization of biomass resources have contributed to the depletion of forest resources in Ethiopia, while the use of traditional cooking technology has also been linked to indoor air pollution and poor health. In response, the government and other institutions have pushed for the adoption of new cooking technologies, with limited success. This research examines the reasons underpinning the lack of widespread adoption, via duration analysis, cor...
Block, P. J.
Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.
A.M. Tronsmo; Brurberg, M. B.; A. Chala
A two year survey was conducted to determine incidence and severity of sorghum anthracnose in different sorghum growing regions in Ethiopia. A total of 487 fields in 49 districts were surveyed in each of the 2005 and 2007 production season. Incidence of sorghum anthracnose was assessed as the percentage of plants with visible symptoms in a field and anthracnose severity was evaluated as the percentage of leaf area with symptoms. Also, the relationship of the incidence and severity of the dise...
Dercon, S.; Hodinnott, J.; Woldehanna, T
Improving our understanding of risk and vulnerability is an issue of increasing importance for Ethiopia as it is for much of Africa. A small, but growing, body of evidence, points to the role that risk, shocks and vulnerability in perpetuating poverty. Specifically, uninsured shocks ¿ adverse events that are costly to individuals and households in terms of lost income, reduced consumption, or the sale of destruction of assets ¿ are a cause of poverty, Further, the threat of such events may ca...
Gedamu, Kalewongel Minale
The border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea was concluded in 2000 with the signing of the Algiers agreement. Under the Algiers agreement, the two parties established a border commission to delimit and demarcate the borderline In April 2002; the commission delivered its delimitation decision. However, 6 years after the commissions decision was delivered, the conflict between the two countries is not yet settled. Tensions between the two countries are still high and the possibility for another...
Bell, Clive; Koukoumelis, Anastasios
An AIDS epidemic threatens Ethiopia with a long wave of premature adult mortality, and thus with an enduring setback to capital formation and economic growth. The authors develop a two-sector model with three overlapping generations and intersectorally mobile labor, in which young adults allocate resources under rational expectations. They calibrate the model to the demographic and economic data, and perform simulations for the period ending in 2100 under alternative assumptions about mortali...
Robinson, Oliver James Kaldor
Cases of a novel form of liver disease, localised to a cluster of villages in the Tigray region of Northern Ethiopia, were first reported in 2001. Up to January 2010, 591 cases were recorded, including 228 deaths. Symptoms include epigastric and abdominal swelling. Children are particularly susceptible, with some children having died within three months of the onset of symptoms, whereas some adults report living with the disease for many years. The pattern of spread suggested an environmental...
This study presents the extent, history and process of forest decline in Awassa watershed, south central Ethiopia. By combining different data sources such as satellite images, social surveys and historical documents, forest decline is described quantitatively and qualitatively and the main causes behind this process are identified. Forest decline in the study area is interpreted as the result of a combination of socio-political changes, economic activities, population growth, cultural patter...
Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine
This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from primary and secondary sources and to provide separate case descriptions of the five regions and two city administrations studied. The studys ma...
Biressu, Abiyot Negera
This thesis deals with resettlement and local livelihoods in Nechsar National Park, in Southern Ethiopia. It asks three main questions: Why is resettlement of the Guji out of Nechsar National Park emphasized? What are the arguments? What is the relation between the park and its natural resources and the Guji livelihoods? What is the place and right of local communities in natural resource management in the national political context? To answer these questions, data was collected through fi...
Massebo, Fekadu; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt
We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of ...
Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture,...
The Health Extension Program is one of the most innovative community-based health programs in Ethiopia. It is based on the assumption that access to and quality of primary health care in rural communities can be improved through transfer of health knowledge and skills to households. Since it became operational in 2004-2005, the Program has had a tangible effect on the thinking and practices of rural people regarding disease prevention, family health, hygiene and environmental sanitation. It h...
Negash, Martha; Swinnen, Johan
This paper provides microeconomic evidence on food security impacts of privately organized biofuel outgrower schemes in Ethiopia. We conducted a household and community level survey and evaluated the impact of castor bean firming. We use endogenous switching regressions to analyze the impact on food security. Food security (as measured by a ?food gap?) and food caloric intake is significantly better in households producing castor beans. ?Fuel? and ?food? are complements rather than substitute...
Seboxa, T; Snow, RW
Malaria remains a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, yet our knowledge of the epidemiology of malaria in terms of patterns of mortality and morbidity is limited. To examine the clinical and epidemiological presentation of severe life-threatening malaria in Humera, north western Ethiopia studies were conducted among the childhood population in the community, those presenting to out-patient facilities and those admitted to the district hospital. The overall P. falciparum paras...
Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter
Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switc...
The 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia gathered considerable information of linguistic interest, notably the number of speakers of seventy-seven languages which it recognized. The Censuss list is largely consistent with lists of languages recognized in current research by Ethiopianist linguists. However, problems of two sorts arise in the Census list: dialects counted as languages and languages counted as dialects. Survey of research in Ethiopian linguistics supports instead the ...
Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.; Wondafrash, Melaku; Demissew, Sebsebe
Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dellEtiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osser...
Molla, Yordanos B.; Tomczyk, Sara; Amberbir, Tsige; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail
Podoconiosis is non-infectious elephantiasis that affects barefoot people that have prolonged exposure to red clay soil. It is common in tropical Africa, central America and northern India. Podoconiosis presents as bilateral below knee swelling. Podoconiosis can be both prevented and controlled by consistently washing feet, wearing shoes, and using antiseptics and emollients. This survey is the biggest conducted to date in Ethiopia: 17,553 households in East and West Gojam Zones of northern E...
Tendayi GONDO; Edson MBEDZI
Fiscal decentralization is one component of decentralization that gives authority to local governments to collectrevenue through taxes and responsibility over spending decisions. Even though fiscal decentralization has givenrevenue raising and spending decision powers to lower levels of government, the implementation process hasoften been a daunting task for many local authorities in the developing world. In the case of Ethiopia,decentralization has been implemented since 1991. However, reven...
Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Berg, Stefan
A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission ...
Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Shaw, Vincent; Braa, Jørn
This paper addresses the IFIP 9.4 conference theme for papers that take stock of the development of ICT in the health sector, and in particular how infrastructure and human resource factors influence the implementation of e-development initiatives. Using case studies from the Health Information Systems Programme in Nigeria and Ethiopia, the interdependencies between three spheres are identified as being important in scaling health information systems. The three spheres that are explored are the ...
This paper presents childrens experiences and perceptions of poverty. It draws on survey and qualitative data from the Young Lives study of poor children in Ethiopia. Through group exercises, discussions and interviews, children and young people aged 13-17 collectively and individually provided their perceptions of the causes, indicators and consequences of poverty in their communities. They felt that they were more victims of the consequences of poverty while they rarely contributed to its ...
Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.
In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect ho...
People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions spec...
Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.
In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC and RPSS validation scores.
Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera
An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 ?g m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 ?g m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 ?g m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 ?g m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.
This paper describes the chemical analysis for the major constituents and trace (contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that re...
Nega, Fredu; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Josef; Tollens, Eric
This paper investigates the interactions between gender, social capital and empowerment in the rural areas of northern Ethiopia. We define empowerment narrowly as the power of households to make important decisions that change their course of life. Depending on the degree of control over decisions, the response of households is classified into passive, active and full control. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze empowerment levels of the rural households, first for the full sample of...
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...
Alemu, Daniel S.
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led
Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.
The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language
Yates, Brian James
This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...
Since the 1990s, war in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia has claimed thousands of lives. The conflict between the Government of Ethiopia and the insurgent Ogaden National Liberation Front has impoverished the communities of Ethiopias Somali Regional State, swollen the refugee population in Kenya, and added to insecurity in the Somali territories of the Horn of Africa. Talking Peace in the Ogaden is the outcome of extensive research in Ethiopia, East Africa and the global Ogaadeeni diaspora. It analyses the evolution of the conflict, the changing balance of forces, and the current prospects for peace.
Tilson, D; Larsen, U
Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce. PMID:10979229
Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohouová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad
Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (PTheileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645
Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.
This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year?1 and downward trends in rainfall of ? 0.4 mm month?1 year?1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.
Elias, Daniel; Akuffo, Hannah
Summary Background: The incidence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa is one of the highest in the world. This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence, annual risk of tuberculous infection and the associated risk factors in rural Ethiopia. Methods: A tuberculin skin test was performed on 2,743 individuals in a rural community of Ethiopia around Ginci town, 90 km west of the capital Addis Ababa, in order to estimate the prevalence of tuberculin reactivity, to assess factors associated with tuberculous infection and to estimate the risk of TB infection. Results: Among 2,743 volunteers involved in the study, test results were available for 2,640 individuals. Among these, 691 (26.2%) had a clearly identifiable BCG scar while 221 (8.3%) reported close household contact with a known tuberculosis case. The overall prevalence of tuberculin reactions of 10 mm or more was 29.7 %. The annual risk of tubercuous infection was estimated at 1.7%. Tuberculin reactivity varied significantly with age, sex, income and historyof household contact with a known TB case. The presence of BCG scar was not significantly related to tuberculin reactivity. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that despite the efforts of the National TB control program, there is still a high rate of transmission of tuberculous infection in rural Ethiopia. Provision of INH prophylaxis in close contacts of active TB cases in the poorest segment of the population may reduce the incidence of TB.
Full Text Available The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe grown in two places in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa and Butajira was also analyzed for comparison. Morphological study on the leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan and A. absinthium (from Europe was also conducted. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 76 to 94% of the oils were identified. The composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: yogomi alcohol (13.5-37.6%, artemisyl acetate (12.7-35.5%, and artemisia ketone (2.3-13.2%. The composition of the oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan however, differs from the other three species in having camphor (21.2-28.3% and davanone (21.3-26.5% as major components. The composition of A. absinthum (Europe was found to have ?-thujone (42.3-66.4% and chamazulene (11.3-24.2% as major components. The study indicated that the composition of the essential oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan is not only different from the other three species but also from A. absinthium from Europe and does not belong to any of the chemotypes described for the species in the literature. The morphological study on the leaves also showed that it differs from that of A. absinthium from Europe. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.11
Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; den Boer, Margriet; Aseffa, Abraham; Jorge, Alvar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is one of the growing public health challenges in Ethiopia with over 3.2 million people at risk and estimated up to 4000 new cases per year. Historically, VL was known as the diseases of the lowlanders; in the lower and upper Kola agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. The 2005-07 out breaks in highlands of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, in the Woina Degas, that affected thousands and claimed the life of hundreds misdiagnosed as drug resistance malaria marked that VL is no more the problem of the lowlanders. The Kola (lower and upper) and the Woina Dega are the most productive agroecological zones, supporting both the ongoing and planned expansions of large or small scale agriculture and/or agriculture based industries. Thus, the (re)emergence of VL is not only a public health and social problem but also have a direct implication on the country's economy and further development. Thus is high time for its control and/or elimination. Yet, the available data seem incomplete to plan for a cost-effective and efficient VL control strategy: there is a need to update data on vector behaviour in specific ecosystems and the roles of domestic animals need to be ascertained. The effectiveness and social acceptability of available vector control tools need be evaluated. There is a need for identifying animal reservoir(s), or establish the absence of zoonosis in Ethiopia. The planning of prevention of (re)emergence and spread of VL to areas adjacent to endemic foci need be supported with information from spatio-temporal mapping. In affected communities, available data showed that their knowledge about VL is generally very low. Thus, well designed studies to identify risk factors, as well as better tools for social mobilization with the understanding of their knowledge, aptitude and practice towards VL are necessary. PMID:26187584
Ayele, Berhan; Gebre, Teshome; House, Jenafir I.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; McCulloch, Charles E.; Porco, Travis C; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Paul M Emerson; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D.
During a cluster-randomized clinical trial for trachoma in Ethiopia, two rounds of adverse event surveillance were performed in a random sample of communities after community-wide mass azithromycin treatment. The prevalence of any reported adverse event ranged from 4.9% to 7.0% in children 19 years of age and from 17.0% to 18.7% in persons ? 10 years of age. Adverse events appeared to cluster by household and perhaps by village. Mass azithromycin distributions were well tolerated in this set...
Abebe Fekadu; Bjune Gunnar; Gele Abdi A
Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under cont...
Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne
Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for outgrowers who contributed rain-fed land. We provide several explanations and discuss policy implications.
Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.; Aro, A. R.
Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of ...
Feleke Hailemichael; Mirkuzie Woldie; Fikru Tafese
Background: Women are more liable to die during or following delivery than during pregnancy but use of both delivery services and post-partum care is low.Objective: To find out the prevalence and predictors of institutional delivery in Wolaita Sodo(Sodo) town, southern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to look at 844 women who had given birth in the previous five years in Sodo town. The study employed a multistage-sampling scheme. Codes were given for all identified women in ...
Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie
Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dellEtiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, e questi informazioni sono utilizzati qui: dopo una revisione di tutto il materiale di Etiopia e Eritrea, e un comparazione con materiale di Africa tropicale orientale, si è concluso che P. truncata è conspecifi ca con P. dawei, nota per lUganda, Kenya, Tanzania e Madagascar, e che unaltra specie conosciuta per lAfrica tropicale orientale (Kenya e Tanzania), P. montis-elgonis, é stata raccolta anche in due stazioni nel sud-ovest dellEtiopia. In Etiopia, le due specie rare, P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis, sono limitate alle aree originariamente coperti da foresta umida: P. dawei si trova nella foresta pluviale di transizione (Transitional Rain Forest) e anche nella foresta fluviale (Riverine Forest), ma P. montis-elgonis si trova nella zona più bassa della foresta afromontana umida sempreverde (Moist Afromontane Evergreen Forest), secondo i tipi di vegetazione defi niti da Friis, Sebsebe Demissew e van Breugel. La distribuzione ed ecologia di P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis in Africa orientale e il Madagascar viene riesaminata, utilizzando i dati quantitativi disponibili. La distribuzione è stata ottenuta da dati derbario, mentre sono state valutate anche la distribuzione potenziale e lo stato di conservazione generale delle due specie. Malgrado loro rarità, almeno in Etiopia, le due specie siano da attribuire alla categoria IUCN Least Concern (LC) se si basi la stima sulla dimensione del EOO o sulla dimensione del AOO con grande cellule. Inoltre viene riproposto un nuovo trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species. In the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 5, published in 2006, only two indigenous species were accounted for: the widespread and common P. zeylanica and a new species, P. truncata, restricted to south-western Ethiopia. The name P. truncata was not formally validated. Since then more collections and field observations of Plumbago have been made in Ethiopia: after revision of the entire material it is concluded that P. truncata is conspecific with P. dawei, known from Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar, and that another tropical East African species, P. montis-elgonis, known from Kenya and Tanzania, also occurs in south-western Ethiopia. In Ethiopia the two species are restricted to areas originally covered by moist forest: P. dawei to Transitional Rain Forest and Riverine Forest, while P. montis-elgonis to the lowermost zone of the Moist Afromontane Forest, as these vegetation types have been defi ned by Friis, Sebsebe Demissew and van Breugel. The distribution and ecology of P. dawei and P. montis-elgonis in eastern Africa and Madagascar is also reviewed, using quantitative data available: the distribution as documented by herbarium material is shown, the potential distribution of the species is modelled, and the conservation status of the species is estimated. In spite of their rarity, the two species are attributed to the IUCN category Least Concern (LC) when the category is estimated using EOO and AOO with moderate or large cell size. A rewritten account of the genus Plumbago is provided in the format of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, taking account of the new findings.
Haile, H.B.; Bock, B.B.
This paper is attempted to explore the potential effects of microfinance targeted at married women on intra-household expenditure roles and womens economic power taking the cases of two microfinance institutions in Ethiopia
En analyse af fordelingen af artsrigdom og endemisme på de floristiske regioner, der har været anvendt ved udarbejdelsen af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; artiklen er baseret på en tidligere udgivet analyse af floraen på hele Afrikas Horn.
Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term. PMID:24488085
Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in timebefore the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.
Blessing Uchenna Mberu
Full Text Available Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled, no statistical significant independent association exists between migration status and living conditions. Government policies of resettlement in the 1980s and ethnic federalism of the 1990s may have engendered stress migration and exacerbated poor living outcomes for return migrants. The resort to migration and/or resettlement as an individual or government policy response to periodic unfavorable conditions in places of origin is not strongly supported by this analysis as the key to improved living conditions. Promoting higher education and opportunities for employment outside the agricultural sector are more likely to yield improved living conditions in Ethiopia.
Full Text Available A two year survey was conducted to determine incidence and severity of sorghum anthracnose in different sorghum growing regions in Ethiopia. A total of 487 fields in 49 districts were surveyed in each of the 2005 and 2007 production season. Incidence of sorghum anthracnose was assessed as the percentage of plants with visible symptoms in a field and anthracnose severity was evaluated as the percentage of leaf area with symptoms. Also, the relationship of the incidence and severity of the disease to the altitude of the fields and weather conditions were determined. Results from the 2 years survey revealed that sorghum anthracnose is present in most (84% of the survey districts. However, both incidence and severity of the disease varied significantly (p<0.0001 among the survey areas. Anthracnose incidence ranged from 0 to 77% and severity of the disease varied between 0 and 59% on average for the two years. The two year average anthracnose severity classes ranged from trace (<5% to severe (up to 59% and the disease was generally more severe in the Southwest and South regions. However, some districts in the East and North Ethiopia also had fields with severe anthracnose infection. It was also found out that the prevailing weather conditions especially rainfall has a significant impact on both anthracnose incidence and severity.
Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa
Rising oil prices, concerns about climate change, and future energy supplies have contributed to growing interest in the use of liquid biofuels in the transport sector which, in turn, has driven large-scale land acquisitions in developing countries for biofuel feedstock production, mainly jatropha. The increasing trend of land acquisition for biofuels has led to the widespread debate about food versus biofuel because of the perceived competition for land and water. To avoid the food versus fuel debate, the use of marginal land for biofuel feedstock production (jatropha) has emerged as a dominant narrative. But both the availability and suitability of marginal land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study indicates that moisture stress is the key factor in the failure of many large-scale jatropha plantations in Ethiopia.
Frank van Steenbergen
Full Text Available This paper explores the role of politics in water management, in particular, comparing groundwater management in Yemen and Ethiopia. It tries to understand the precise meaning of the often-quoted term 'political will' in these different contexts and compares the autocratic and oligarchic system in Yemen with the dominant party 'developmental state' in Ethiopia. The links between these political systems and the institutional domain are described as well as the actual management of groundwater on the ground. Whereas the Ethiopian state is characterised by the use of hard power and soft ideational power, the system in Yemen relies at most on soft negotiating power. There is a strong link between the political system, the positioning of different parties and access to power, the role of central and local governments, the propensity to plan and vision, the effectiveness of government organisations, the extent of corruption, the influence of informal governance mechanisms, the scope for private initiative and the political interest in groundwater management and development in general. More important than political will per se is political capacity the ability to implement and regulate.
There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers food security. We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. Impact is heterogeneous across groups. Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel
Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.
Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P. C.; Gastel, A.J.G., van
Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the functioning of the wheat seed system in four major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. A total of 304 wheat growers were interviewed in Arsi, West Shoa, North Shoa, and East Gojam zones. Most wheat growers w...
Production and productivity of potato in Ethiopia are very low because of poor quality seed tubers and unavailability of seed tubers of improved varieties. These poor quality seed tubers and unavailability of seed tubers of improved varieties are caused by economic and agronomic factors. This thesis deals with economic and agronomic aspects that affect quality and availability of seed potatoes in Ethiopia. It encompasses analysis of strengths and weaknesses of seed potato systems currently op...
Engberg-Pedersen, Rebecca Ejigayehu; Dobel, Ea Maj; Felding, Morten
Our hypothesis investigates the political, legal and social spaces for Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) working with refugees in Ethiopia. The thesis assesses the implications for a highly controlled and restricted civil society. The nations legislation, use of control and surveillance are among the conditions that form and challenge the work of the CSOs in Ethiopia. We also focus on the construction and discourses that surrounds people on the move. A theoretical framework...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.
Dias, Alexandra Magnólia
The border between Eritrea and Ethiopia changed status frequently from the 19th century up to Eritreas independence (Triulzi, 2006: 7). With the creation of Eritrea as an Italian colony and prior to the incorporation of Ethiopia into the Italian East African Empire the border was defined according to colonial treaties. However, the border waxed and waned over the decades of their political coexistence. Indeed, the border's status shifted from a mere internal-administrative marker to a coloni...
Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw
This paper has analyzed the challenges of sustainability and scalability of HIS. The empirical analysis was conducted in a backward and disadvantaged region of Ethiopia. An ongoing process of HISP (Health Information System Program) was addressed and the main challenges in the implementation of sustainable and scalable district-based health information system in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC) sector in Ethiopia were identified. Human resource, infrastructure, and HIS related problems a...
Ethiopias new political climate (since 1991) has enhanced the Muslims opportunities for religious expressions, clearly seen through the surfacing of several Islamic reform movements. These movements; the Salafi movement, the Tabligh movement and an Intellectualist revivalist movement have proven crucial for a certain process of objectification of religious affiliation, and have moreover served as channels for the search for belonging and coherent meaning among the Muslims. Discussing the mo...
This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts ofEthiopia, the responses of irrigators to such interventions have never been studied. The main concern of this study therefore is to document how irrigation intervention interfaces with the life-worlds of small-scale irr...
Zorloni, A.; Penzhorn, Barend Louis; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas
Calpurnia aurea extracts are used in southern Ethiopia to protect stock against ticks. Acetone, hexane and water leaf extracts of C. aurea collected in southern Ethiopia were tested for repellent/attractant and acaricidal properties on unfed adult Rhipicephalus pulchellus ticks. In contrast to many other plant species evaluated, C. aurea extracts did not have repellent properties, but rather had a slight attractant capacity. With 20% and 10% acetone extracts, all ticks were either killed or t...
Shiferaw Yitayal; Abebe Tamrat; Mihret Adane
Abstract Background Healthcare wastes contain a wide range of microorganisms among which hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the most significant pathogens. No data about the prevalence of HBV among medical waste handlers is available in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore; this study was conducted to describe the prevalence of HBV infection among medical waste handlers in Government hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted among 252 medical and non-medical wast...
Deribe Kebede; Meribo Kadu; Gebre Teshome; Hailu Asrat; Ali Ahmed; Aseffa Abraham; Davey Gail
Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indica...
Misganaw, Awoke; Mariam, Damen Haile; Ali, Ahmed; Araya, Tekebash
Impact of non-communicable diseases is not well-documented in Ethiopia. We aimed to document the prevalence and mortality associated with four major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Associated risk factors: hypertension, tobacco-use, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, and khat-chewing were also studied. Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature between 1960 and 2011 was done using ...
Yirdaw, Kesetebirhan Delele; Hattingh, Susan
Immunological monitoring is part of the standard of care for patients on antiretroviral treatment. Yet, little is known about the routine implementation of immunological laboratory monitoring and utilization in clinical care in Ethiopia. This study assessed the pattern of immunological monitoring, immunological response, level of immunological treatment failure and factors related to it among patients on antiretroviral therapy in selected hospitals in southern Ethiopia. A retrospective longit...
Kufi, Endalew Fufa
Quality education is an everyday quest in Ethiopia, for both the educated and the lay. It has also become an issue of big scrutiny among both government and private institutions. But, the type and extent of roles to be played by different stakeholders are not yet clearly ascertained. One of the centers of attention in Ethiopia is health institution under the private holding. In this research, hence, attention was given to the role of stakeholders in improving education quality in private heal...
Assefa Dereje; Shibre Teshome; Asher Laura; Fekadu Abebaw
Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu
Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/o...
Gezahegn Tesfaye; Mitiku Teshome Hambisa; Agumasie Semahegn
Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit ...
Elias, Daniel; Akuffo, Hannah; Abate, Ebba; Mekonnen, Yared; Aseffa, Abraham; Britton, Sven
Background: The incidence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa is one of the highest in the world. This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence, annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARI) and the associated risk factors in rural Ethiopia. Methods: A tuberculin skin test was performed on 2,743 individuals in a rural community of Ethiopia around Ginci town west of Addis Ababa, in order to estimate the prevalence of tuberculin reactivity and to assess factors associated with tuberculous infection. Resu...
Large informal (hard to tax) sectors are an integral part of the economies of developing countries (Ethiopia included). In much of Africa, the informal, or gray economy that escapes tax collectors and government regulators, is the hidden dynamic driving economic growth. The informal economy is an important contributor to employment and production in Ethiopia but also to fiscal and regulatory evasion and, as such, is an intensely debated issue. Informality has a direct impact...
Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot
The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopias national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian live...
Olsen, Mette; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Tesfaye, Markos; Holm, Lotte
PURPOSE: The WHOQOL instruments are intended for cross-cultural studies of quality of life (QoL) but African countries have been poorly represented in its development. This study aimed to explore the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: The fieldwork included home visits, interviews, and focus group discussions with HIV patients and caregivers. RESULTS: We found that although WHOQOL-HIV includes many relevant facets, its applicability has several limitations in the Ethiopia...
The article touches on a number of themes relevant to the topic of complementarity of cities. Two cities of Eastern Ethiopia are being considered, Harar, an ancient and religious centre of Islam, also called a holy city of Islam in the Horn of Africa, and Dire Dawa, founded as a railway station, which further developed into a commercial and industrial centre and a second chartered city of Ethiopia after the capital city of Addis Ababa. Statistical data presented in the articl...
Allen, Mary; Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann
The World Health Organization's multicountry study of the prevalence rates of intimate partner violence found extremely high rates of violence against women in Ethiopia. This article seeks to develop an understanding of this violence further. By drawing on focus group research conducted with women in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, it explores the types of domestic violence experienced by these women, the impact of this violence, the reasons for it, and the multiple resistanc...
Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed
Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health (MOH started to implement a national antiretroviral treatment (ART program. Using data in the monthly HIV/AIDS Updates issued by the MOH, this paper examines the spatial and temporal distribution of ART on a population basis for Ethiopian towns and administrative zones and regions for the period February to December 2006. Results The 101 public ART hospitals treated 44,446 patients and the 91 ART health centers treated 1,599 patients in December 2006. The number of patients currently receiving ART doubled between February and December 2006 and the number of female patients aged 15 years and older surpassed male patients, apparently due to increased awareness and provision of free ART. Of 58,405 patients who ever started ART in December 2006, 46,045 (78.8% were adhering to treatment during that month. Population coverage of ART was highest in the three urban administrative regions of Addis Ababa, Harari and Dire Dawa, in regional centers with referral hospitals, and in several small road side towns that had former mission or other NGO-operated hospitals. Hospitals in Addis Ababa had the largest patient loads (on average 850 patients and those in SNNPR (Southern Nations and Nationalities Peoples Republic (212 patients and Somali (130 patients regions the fewest patients. In bivariate tests, number of patients receiving treatment was significantly correlated with population size of towns, urban population per zone, number of hospitals per zone, and duration of ART services in 2006 (all p Conclusion The sharp increase in ART uptake in 2006 is largely due to the rapid increase in the provision of free treatment at more sites. The marked variation in ART utilization patterns between urban and rural communities and among zones and regions requires further studies. Recommendations are made for further expansion and sustainability of the ART scale-up.
Full Text Available Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species followed by pteridophyta (16 species; the least represented being the gymnosperms (represented by 2 exotic and 2 indigenous species. To provide a better management and monitoring as well as to maintain the biodiversity, cultural and economic values of the forest unsustainable utility of the forest would be controlled with the various conservation activities in place.
Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa, Illubabor and Wollega administrative regions. Much of the country has been examined by geologists, but it would be premature to say that there are no further deposits of useful minerals awaiting discovery. Only a comparatively small part of the country has been geologically mapped so far on a systematic basis. Geologic maps at scales of 1:100,000 to 1:25,000 should be prepared for areas where mineral deposits are to be prospected for and where known deposits are to be developed or exploited. At present the best available geological map is one at a scale of 1:250, 000. This and other programs of mineral exploration basically call, among others, for: - Equipment and funds from bilateral, multilateral and local sources; - A national program geared towards uranium mineral exploration; - Heavy investment in infrastructure to get to many of the deposits, which are located in remote parts of the country; - International and regional cooperation in uranium mineral resources research. Finally, participation in international conferences such as this organized by the IAEA will give us, researchers in developing countries, good impetus to get moving and do useful research in uranium exploration and its uses. Research collaboration with scientists in the developed world is very essential to accelerate forward the creeping research in developing countries. (author)
Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey played a leading role in conducting a National Workshop that designed the programme's basic features. (author)
Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M
Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215
Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)
Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mengistu Asnake Kibret
Full Text Available ABSTRACTObstetric fistula (OF is one of the major potential complications of childbirth mostly young women in developing countries including Ethiopia. Though few scientific studies have been conducted related to its causes and consequences, it is challenging to find a comprehensive figure about obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper sought that to review the causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. A number of relevant obstetrics and gynaecology websites and journals were reviewed. Google, Pubmed, and Hinari searching engines were used to find out relevant references. Year of publication, location, language and its type of publication were the inclusion criteria used for reviewing literatures. It is observed that obstetric fistula has been a major burdened mainly for women in the rural Ethiopian and its causes and consequences are very deep and diverse. The great majority of obstetric fistula causes in Ethiopia is due to Obstetric labour. Distance to the health care facility, transportation access, economic factors (poverty, poor knowledge related to the problem, poor health seeking behaviour of the affected women and age at first marriage are the other triggering factors. Stigma and discrimination of obstetric fistula patients by their husbands and families, economic dependency and psychological disorder are often mentioned as consequences for OF patients in Ethiopia.
Berhe, S.M.; Desta, B.; Teferra, M.; Nicoletti, M.
New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia.
New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia
Full Text Available Fiscal decentralization is one component of decentralization that gives authority to local governments to collectrevenue through taxes and responsibility over spending decisions. Even though fiscal decentralization has givenrevenue raising and spending decision powers to lower levels of government, the implementation process hasoften been a daunting task for many local authorities in the developing world. In the case of Ethiopia,decentralization has been implemented since 1991. However, revenue raising and expenditure management arenot efficiently and effectively exercised, especially in lower level government units of Ethiopia. Insufficient revenuecollection and reprehensible expenditure management leads to financial incapability such that public infrastructureand services could not be financed amply. Dangila municipality faces the problem of financial capacity to deliverinfrastructure and services to its citizens. While a number of studies have documented the financial incapacities ofEthiopian municipalities, they have been very shy to articulate the discrepancies and deficiencies that linkfinancing to service delivery. It is interesting to know what the driving factors are in this case. Therefore, the mainfocus of this paper is to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of revenue collection and expendituremanagement of Dangila Municipality. To obtain edifying data the paper used a positivist survey study. Municipalityfinancial documentation and questionnaires were the main sources of secondary and primary data respectively.Parametric descriptive statistical methods were applied in the analysis of data to arrive at measures of efficiencyand effectiveness in revenue collection and expenditure management of the municipality. The study revealed thatthe municipality is not efficient and effective in its revenue collection and expenditure management. The mainexplanation for such inefficiency comprise; derisory assessment of taxable sources, poor organizational structure,inadequate accounting system, absence of clear operational guidelines, poor planning and data basemanagement, lack of awareness by taxpayers and lack of skilled manpower. To resolve such challenges, werecommend the following actionable measures; widening the revenue base of local sources of revenue, improvingplanning and implementing capacity, establishing adequate data base systems, continuous awareness creation fortaxpayers, establishing appropriate guidelines and methods of revenue collection, revision of the tariff structureregularly, installing accounting system that produces timely and reliable information, encouraging communityparticipation in planning and resource allocation and municipal restructuring that take into account needs andwelfare of employees.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systematic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified macroscopically during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability were determined. CE was observed in 21 (8.02% sheep and 17 (6.80% goats. In sheep 13 (4.96% of the lungs, 10 (3.81% livers and 1 (0.381% heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. Involvement of lung and liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0% and 8 (3.2% respectively, with no cysts recorded in the heart. Of the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33 (42.85% and 15 (31.91% respectively were fertile. Viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts in sheep (29 [87.87%] was higher than in goats (6 [40.0%]. For humans, retrospective analysis covering five years of case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa between January 2008 and December 2012 showed that of the total of 25 840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately 0.18 cases per 100 000 population. Liver was the major organ affected in humans (81.5% in affected patients followed by spleen (11.1% and kidney (7.4%. Logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of CE varied significantly in relation to host age in the small ruminants (OR = 3.93, P < 0.05 as well as in humans (95% CI, R = 4.8. This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia, emphasising the need for integrated approaches to controlling this neglected preventable disease.
Kippie Kanshie, T.
Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely populated Gedeo country (500 persons per km 2) covers highlands (range 1200 to 3000m asl) between 5 oand 7 oNorth and 38 oand 40 oEast, in the escarpment of the Rift Valley facing Lake Abaya. Based on perennial cropping, emphasis on tre...
Kandari, Laxman S; Yadav, Hiranmai R; Thakur, Ashok K; Kandari, Tripti
Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopias second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmers income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to survey an...
Blomne Sopov, M.; Sertse, Y.
This project built on the previous work of the Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR in the soy sector development in Ethiopia. As processors were linked more and more to producers in the soy sector, the need arose to explore options to enhance household nutrition security of producers in soy growing areas. One of such option was setting up a pilot microenterprise based on the VitaGoat system at the most successful soy growing cooperative in Ethiopia. The VitaGoat system has been a...
Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.
Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting to expose the issue and not knowing where to go.
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, motor pump irrigation is at an earlier stage than in Asia but is growing rapidly in many countries. The focus of both policy and research in Africa to date has been on facilitating supply chains to make pumps available at a reasonable price. In Africa, pump irrigation is mainly based on two sources: shallow groundwater aquifers and small streams and rivers. Both usually have limited and variable yields. We present a case study from Ethiopia where pump irrigation based on small rivers and streams is expanding rapidly, and draw parallels to experiences in Asia and other African countries. We show that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share with policymakers a narrow understanding of pump irrigation as being primarily 'technical'. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the 'social' limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over the limited water resource. We analyse the wider implications for Africa of this blindness to the social dimension of pump irrigation and offer suggestions on future policy and applied research to address the problem before it becomes a widespread crisis.
Mebratie, Anagaw D; Sparrow, Robert; Yilma, Zelalem; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun S
Low contract renewal rates have been identified as one of the challenges facing the development of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes. This article uses longitudinal household survey data gathered in 2012 and 2013 to examine dropout in the case of Ethiopia's pilot CBHI scheme. We treat dropout as a function of scheme affordability, health status, scheme understanding and quality of care. The scheme saw enrolment increase from 41% 1 year after inception to 48% a year later. An impressive 82% of those who enrolled in the first year renewed their subscriptions, while 25% who had not enrolled joined the scheme. The analysis shows that socioeconomic status, a greater understanding of health insurance and experience with and knowledge of the CBHI scheme are associated with lower dropout rates. While there are concerns about the quality of care and the treatment meted out to the insured by providers, the overall picture is that returns from the scheme are overwhelmingly positive. For the bulk of households, premiums do not seem to be onerous, basic understanding of health insurance is high and almost all those who are currently enrolled signalled their desire to renew contracts. PMID:25616670
A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural district of North West Ethiopia between February and April 1997 to determine the magnitude of marriage through abduction ('Telefa') and identify problems associated with it. Randomly selected and currently married 1,168 women were interviewed. The prevalence of marriage through abduction was 6.2% (72/1168). All the abductions reported were only once in lifetime during the first marriage. The median age at first marriage of abducted women was 13 years with a range of 13 (Minimum = 7 and Maximum 20). About two third (66.7%) of abducted women had been married more than once in their life time. Following a multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model abducted women were likely to be victims of abortion [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.10-3.05)], marital instability [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.10-3.18)], rape [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 7.77 (3.78-15.95)] and domestic violence [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.69 (1.11-2.81)]. The recognition of the magnitude and the associated health problems of marriage through abduction (Telefa) is important. Appropriate strategies that address the health needs of abducted women must be designed. Enforcing the judiciary system to discourage this harmful practice and empowerment of young girls and rural women is needed. PMID:11501287
Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.
In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal
Full Text Available Background: Women are more liable to die during or following delivery than during pregnancy but use of both delivery services and post-partum care is low.Objective: To find out the prevalence and predictors of institutional delivery in Wolaita Sodo(Sodo town, southern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to look at 844 women who had given birth in the previous five years in Sodo town. The study employed a multistage-sampling scheme. Codes were given for all identified women in selected kebeles (neighbourhoods and a simple randomsampling technique was used after generating random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. SPSS was then used to carry out binary- and multiple logistic regressions. A 95% CI for the odds ratio was applied to judge the presence of relationships between variables.Results: The prevalence of institutional delivery-service utilisation in Sodo town was 62.2%. Husband educational status, parity, number of antenatal clinic visits, perceived quality of care and knowledge regarding pregnancy danger signs were independent predictors of utilisation of institutional delivery services.Conclusion: Institutional delivery service utilisation in Sodo town was much higher than the national figure. Findings in this study showed that promotion of antenatal care, involvement of men in maternal healthcare, provision of health education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and improvement of service quality are recommended in order to sustain or even improve the current level of utilisation in the town.
Getachew, M; Innocent, G T; Trawford, A F; Reid, S W J; Love, S
A cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. The overall prevalence of the infection was 44.4% in coprologically examined donkeys, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined post-mortem was 41.9%. The infection prevalence was significantly higher in Bereh and Ada regions than in Akaki and Boset regions. Bereh with 72.6% and Boset with 21.5% showed a significantly higher and lower infection prevalence, respectively, than the rest of the regions (P0.05) but infection intensity was significantly higher in donkeys 8 years old and above (P<0.0001). Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were identified. PMID:20138432
Young, Matthew; Williams, Charles; Chiu, Christine; Maidment, Ross; Chen, Shu-Hua
Reliable satellite precipitation estimates are vital over many regions of Africa because of the importance of rainfall monitoring for rain-fed agriculture and water resources. In particular, regions with mountainous terrain pose a major challenge for satellite-based rainfall algorithms because retrievals based upon thermal infrared and microwave observations tend to miss orographic precipitation, often associated with warm temperatures and a weak scattering signal. To investigate the skill of satellite rainfall retrievals over mountainous terrain, we evaluate several satellite-based rainfall algorithms against rain gauge measurements over the mountainous Oromia region in Ethiopia. In particular, we assess the skill of rainfall retrieved from algorithms that only use thermal infrared observations and algorithms that combine both thermal infrared and microwave observations. We also investigate the dependency of retrievals on topography by classifying the relationship between the retrieval errors and elevation. Furthermore, we conduct high resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) during days with significant retrieval errors to determine how the errors relate to the characteristics of precipitation. A qualitative assessment of the vertical atmospheric structure and microphysical content of simulations reveals the potential sources of underestimation and overestimation in the rainfall algorithms. This study will highlight the importance of understanding regional precipitation systems causing uncertainties in satellite rainfall estimates, with a view toward using this knowledge to improve rainfall algorithms.
Bekele, Getachew; Palm, Bjoern [Department of Energy Technology, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)
The wind energy potential at four different sites in Ethiopia - Addis Ababa (09:02N, 38:42E), Mekele (13:33N, 39:30E), Nazret (08:32N, 39:22E), and Debrezeit (8:44N, 39:02E) - has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve (DC) for all four selected sites. In brief, for measurements taken at a height of 10 m, the results show that for three of the four locations the wind energy potential is reasonable, with average wind speeds of approximately 4 m/s. For the fourth site, the mean wind speed is less than 3 m/s. This study is the first stage in a longer project and will be followed by an analysis of solar energy potential and finally the design of a hybrid standalone electric energy supply system that includes a wind turbine, PV, diesel generator and battery. (author)
Full Text Available How to cite this article: Philpott J, Derbew M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2010;2(1, Art. #155,3 pages, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.155
Svoboda, Ji?í; Said, H.; Novák, Martin; Desse, A.; Sázelová, S.
Ro?. 51, ?. 3 (2013), s. 431-436. ISSN 0323-1119 R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0181 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : settlement archaeology * Middle Stone Age * Blue Nile * Oromia * Ethiopia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology
The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia
Adebo, Senait M.; Eckerle, Judith K.; Andrews, Mary E.; Howard, Cynthia R.; JOHN, CHANDY C.
We screened 52 children adopted from Ethiopia for malaria because they had previously lived in a disease-endemic region or had past or current hepatomegaly or splenomegaly. Seven (13.5%) children had asymptomatic malaria parasitemia by microscopy (n = 2) or PCR (n = 5). Our findings suggest that adoptees at risk for asymptomatic malaria should be screened, preferably by PCR.
Information based on all available sources about full name, nationality, profession, area and period of collection, with whom they are known to have made joint collections, herbaria in which the collections have been deposited etc., for all collectors mentioned in vol. 1-7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa.
Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...
Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine
The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries
Admasu Gebru, Demewoz
Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other
The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This
Hersi, Afra Ahmed
This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.
Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.
In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children
Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females
The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...
Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...
Waktola, Daniel Kassahun
Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the
Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi
Full Text Available Land together with its fixtures is the single most important asset in almost all societies. In Ethiopia land is also playing a pivotal role for sustainable development. Large scale cadastral projects supporting sustainable development and increased investments are planned all over the country as part of the countrys five years growth and transformation plan. But cadastral and registration proclamation is not enacted to facilitate and guide the implementation of cadastral projects. There is a consensus on the importance of cadastral and registration proclamation in Ethiopia, but there is no clear methodology for its development. The purpose of the study was to extend the land administration toolbox RRR edition to guide the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for the implementation of second level certification (mapping of parcels in Ethiopia. Field surveys, focused group discussions, expert panels, and desk work with special emphasis to the review of legal documents and state of the art experiences from other countries, were the major inputs for the study. The toolbox will be used for the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for rural land administration in Ethiopia and may guide the law development in other developing countries with a similar situation.
Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura
This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of
Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo
The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.
Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi
Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show
Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie
The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The
Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine
This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural
Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele
The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household
This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by
It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major
Tessema, Kedir Assefa
In this paper, the author argues that the pre-service secondary teacher education "paradigm shift" or "system overhaul" that has been implemented during the 2003-2005 time period in Ethiopia reflects the pursuit of pathways which the author refers to as a managerial approach. Grounded mainly on personal narratives of a key self-narrator and views
Tufa, Gemechu Beker
The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were
Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.
Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based
Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats
En taxonomisk og floristisk redegørelse for alle de nyfundne eller nybeskrevne arter fra Etiopien og/eller Eritrea, der er blevet opdaget efter deadline for bindene 2-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, men medens floraværket var under udgivelse.
Informationer baseret på alle tilgængelige kilder om fulde navn, nationalitet, profession, område og periode i hvilke vedkommende har indsamlet planter inden for floraens område, men hvem de vides at have foretaget fælles indsamlinger, herbarier i hvilke dubletter af indsamlingerne er deponeret, o.s.v., for alle indsamlere af planter nævnt i bindene 1-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Review: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (eds.): Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution (2007) Buchbesprechung: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (Hrsg.): Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution (2007)
Review of the edited volume: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (eds.): Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution, Vienna, Zurich, Berlin, Münster: LIT Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-03735-937-2 (Switzerland); 978-3-8258-9795-6 (Germany), 290 pages. Besprechung des Sammelbandes: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (Hrsg.): Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution, Wien, Zürich, Berlin, Münster: LIT Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-03735-937-2 (Schweiz); 978...
Review: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012 Buchbesprechung: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012
Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback, ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover, xviv + 209 pp. + maps and illustrationsBesprechung der Monographie:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback, ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover, xviv + 209 Seiten + Karten und Illustrationen
Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie
Land degradation and related processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are global phenomena. Their economic consequences however are more severe in developing countries, which lack resources for prevention and mitigation. In Ethiopia, therefore, gully erosion as a form of land degradation is a prime issue. Over the past decade, gullies have formed in the foothills of the Minizr sub-catchment in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia. Local extension workers have reported increased gully growth rates in the past five years in the downslope foothill areas. This study answers the following questions: has the gully growth rate indeed increased over the past five years compared to historical rates? What is the mechanism behind gully formation in the study area? In addition, this study looked at three possible root causes for increased erosion rates: changing land use, an increase in the ground water level, and the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the watershed of the study area. The merit of this study is twofold. First, it shows the applicability of a fast, accessible and accurate way to digitally represent gullies through the use of video footage and photogrammetry. Secondly, it shows the dominant processes in gully formation in the area, allowing for a justified selection of measures to halt further gully growth and rehabilitate existing gullies. Two medium and one large gully were selected for detailed analysis. All gullies were located in gently-sloped areas (0-5%), with Vertisol-dominated soils. Gully shape and volume were derived using terrestrial photogrammetry in AgiSoft PhotoScan Professional. Still frames exported from video footage served as input. Approximately 30 points per gully were sampled weekly for soil moisture content over the course of September, November, and December 2014. In addition, the sites were checked for signs of subsurface flow at the end of the rainy season and again 3 months into the dry season. We expect that erosion rates have increased compared to historical rates. Gully formation in the study area is primarily driven by subsurface flow, leading to dispersion and bank collapse. Extensive signs of subsurface flows are visible in and around all research gullies. Land use has not changed significantly over the past decade, so will not have played a role in the increased erosion rates. The influence of the change in groundwater level since reservoir construction (2011) is pending analysis of current groundwater levels. With the implementation of stone bunds and fanja yuu on all fields on every hillslope surrounding the study area, infiltration will have increased significantly. Although this has decreased overland runoff, it will have increased ground water flows toward the study area and therefore made the area more susceptible to erosion through subsurface flow mechanisms.
Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.
En redegørelse for den videnskabelige udforskning af floraen i Etiopien og Eritrea, i væsentlig grad baseret på iagttagelser gjort under arbejdet med udgivelsen af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og med inddragelse af den nyeste litteratur.
Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie
Full Text Available There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals and plants for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since the distant past. In Ethiopia, many ethnic communities which are dispersed all over the country has been totally dependent on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. Thus, the aim of this study was to take an ethno zoological field survey among Tigray people (main tribal group of Degu'a Tembien. In order to document the ethno zoological information about animal and their products prevalent among the people in Degu'a Tembien district, a study was carried out from September, 2010 to January, 2011. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 purposively selected respondents. Then the name of animal and other ethno zoological information were documented. Based on the ethno zoological survey, a total of 23 animal species were used in 45 different medicinal purposes including cold, weakness, burn, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious/and ritual purposes. Based on the ethno zoological survey, 9 mammals, 7 birds, 1 reptile, 5 arthropods are used in traditional zootherauptics in the study area. Furthermore, the meat of cow used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96% and House fly has the lowest FL (20% used to treat. Some endemic and rare species such as Abyssinian black winged love bird (Agapornis taranta and Ethiopian Highland Hare (Lepus starcki are also mentioned as important medicinal resources in trado-zootherauptic practices. The results showed that ethno zoological practices have been an important alternative medicinal practice for the people residing in the study area. So, there is an urgent need to properly document to keep a record of the ethno zoological knowledge of the area. It is hoped that this information will be useful for further research in the field of ethno zoology, ethno pharmacology and conservation point of view.
Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs
Pobocik Rebecca S; Haidar Jemal A
Abstract Background In Ethiopia, the existence of iron deficiency anemia is controversial despite the fact that Ethiopia is one of the least developed in Africa with a high burden of nutrient deficiencies. Methods The first large nutrition study of a representative sample of women in Ethiopia was conducted from June to July 2005 and a systematically selected sub-sample of 970 of these subjects, 15 to 49 years old, were used in this analysis of nutritional anemia. Hemoglobin was measured from ...
Gusdal, Annelie Karin; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran; Peterson, Stefan; Ekstrom, Anna Mia; Thorson, Anna; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe
Abstract This paper explores HIV patients adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited contexts in Uganda and Ethiopia where ART is provided free of charge. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counsellors and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Interviewees voiced their experiences of, and views on ART adherence both from an individual and a system level perspective. Two main...
Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick
Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 1317 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified ran...
Hadley, Craig; Drew A. Linzer; Belachew, Tefera; Mariam, Abebe Gebre; Tessema, Fasil; Lindstrom, David
The global food crisis of 2008 led to renewed interest in global food insecurity and how macro-level food prices impact household and individual level wellbeing. There is debate over the extent to which food price increases in 2008 eroded food security, the extent to which this effect was distributed across rural and urban locales, and the extent to which rural farmers might have benefited. Ethiopias food prices increased particularly dramatically between 2005 and 2008 and here we ask whethe...
Angassa, A.; Oba, G.; Treydte, A.C.; Weladji, R.B.
Grazing management and seasonality strongly influence the recovery potential of herbaceous vegetation in semi-arid rangelands of southern Ethiopia after history of heavy grazing. We investigated effects of management (enclosures versus grazed landscapes), age of enclosures and seasonality related to rainfall (i.e., independent variables) on herbaceous biomass, grass basal cover, herbaceous species abundance, species richness and diversity in a savanna rangeland of southern Ethiopia. We furthe...
Garcia-Rojas, Jose Adrian
Federalism is one of the most common solutions are offered to solve the problems in divided societies. Only a few countries have federal experiences conducted in Africa. Among them, Nigeria is the only one maintained in its Constitution federalism since its independence. These institutional arrangements are slowly extended to other countries from the mid 90s. Ethiopia and the Union of the Comoros. Ethiopia and the Union of Comoros introduced federalism in their constitutions as...
Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Burgin, Joanna; Campbell, Oona M. R.
Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative. By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) and contrasting situations regarding health care provision an...
Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.
Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and dissipation of the resource rent. An alternative to this is assigning a private property institution. In this paper, we examine the consumer welfare effects of a change in the institutional setting on ...
Land degradation has become a critical problem in many parts of highland Ethiopia. There is great need for rehabilitation and conservation works in such areas. The aim of this study is to empirically determine the magnitude and rate of land degradation and identify factors affecting farmers¿ acceptance and adoption of newly introduced land management technologies, with emphasis on SWC measures, in a typical microwatershed in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Changes in land cover/use an...
The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation i...
Balana, Bedru Babulo
Environmental degradation and the deterioration of the natural resource base have become serious problems in Ethiopia. The existing biophysical, environmental and socio-economic indicators provide sufficient testimonies for the severity of the problem of natural resources deterioration in Ethiopia. Most forms of the nations environmental problems are directly or indirectly attributable to the rapid dwindling of the countrys vegetation cover and the consequent degradation of its land resourc...
Alemu, Hibret; Mariam, Damen Haile; Belay, Kassahun Abate; Davey, Gail
Ethiopia is a developing country with a demographic profile dominated by a young population. Due to biological, psychological, sociocultural and economic factors, young people, particularly those aged 1524 years, are generally at a high risk of HIV/AIDS and other reproductive health problems. This paper presents results of a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia, to assess factors that predispose out-of-school youths to HIV/AIDS-related risk behavi...
Birhan Wubet; Mathewos Biniam; Teklu Takele; Shiferaw Yitayal; Addis Zelalem; Atnafu Asmamaw; Alemu Abebe; Gebretsadik Simon; Gelaw Baye
Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cr...
Belayneh Anteneh; Asfaw Zemede; Demissew Sebsebe; Bussa Negussie F
Abstract Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around ...
Woldie Mirkuzie; Assefa Tsion; Birhanu Zewdie; Morankar Sudhakar
Abstract Background In primary health care, provider-patient interaction is fundamental platform and critically affects service delivery. Nevertheless, it is often ignored in medical research and practice and it is infrequently subjected to scientific inquiry, particularly in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess patient satisfaction with health care provider interactions and its influencing factors among out-patients at health centers in West Shoa, Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional ...
Alem Gebremariam; Adamu Addissie
Background. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancies but the contraceptive choice and utilization in Ethiopia are highly dominated by short term contraceptives. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptives of married women and men in Northern Ethiopia. Method. A qualitative method was conducted in Adigrat on January, 2012. Four focus group discussions with married women and men and six ...
Coleman, Jr., Sterling Joseph; Central State University, Wilberforce, OH
This article examines how Emperor ?aylä ??llase I succeeded in removing the British military occupation of Ethiopia during World War II with only a minimum of bloodshed. It outlines the various strategies and tactics the Emperor of Ethiopia employed to regain control over his empire. The text also asserts that he engaged in a pre-Cold War variant of the policy of flexible response which permitted him to resist British military rule without provoking a violent response from his occupier. The t...
Berhane Yemane; Lulu Kidest
Abstract Background Information on adult mortality is essentially non-existent in Ethiopia particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying causes of adult death in a rural population of Ethiopia using a simplified verbal autopsy instrument. Methods All deaths in the age-group 1549 years during the period of 199599 were taken from computerized demographic surveillance database maintai...
Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele; Woldehanna, Tassew
This paper examines efforts to bridge multi-disciplinary research, policy engagement and practice to improve the lives of children living in poverty in a sample of developing countries. The paper is based on the experiences of Young Lives and draws on insights from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. It pays particular attention to the work of the Young Lives team in Ethiopia to make childrens issues central to the Ethiopian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process. The paper first discu...
Ali Ahmed; Deressa Wakgari
Abstract Background Malaria remains to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and children in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the local perceptions, practices and treatment seeking behaviour for malaria among women with children under the age of five years. Methods This community-based study was conducted in 2003 in an area of seasonal malaria transmission in Adami Tulu District, south-central Ethiopia. Total samples of 2087 rural women with chil...
Kabeta, Tadele; Deresa, Benti; Tigre, Worku; Ward, Michael P; Mor, Siobhan M.
Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. We found generally high levels of knowledge about rabies. Participants recognized domestic dogs as the source and identified a range of appropriate preventive measures, including avoidance of bites and the need for dog confinement. Despite this reasonable level of knowledge, attitudes and pr...
Sahalu, Atalel Getu
The high rate of urbanization coupled with population growth has caused changes in land use and land cover in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Therefore, understanding and quantifying the spatio- temporal dynamics of urban land use and land cover changes and its driving factors is essential to put forward the right policies and monitoring mechanisms on urban growth for decision making. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze land use and land cover changes in Bahir Dar area, Ethiopia by applying...
Cheru, Fantu; Pausewang, Siegfried
The two papers present proposals for the economic reconstruction of Ethiopia, based on the interests of the peasants and other poor groups. In the first paper, Fantu Cheru outlines a reform programme combining the market based efficiency model of the World Bank, the long term adjustment with transformation strategy of the ECA, and the human development approach of the UNDP. The second paper by Siegfried Pausewang refers to experience in rural Ethiopia during the last 15 years, and argues that...
Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.
During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hyparrhenia diplandr var. mutica. Recent field work by Sebsebe Demissew and Pierre Dubeau resulted in one new generic record for the Flora area: Syyngonanthus wahlbergii. Field work by Ib friis and Sebsebe Demissew documented the cultivation of Elaeis guineensis in southwestern Ethiopia.
Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis are two important milk-borne zoonoses that have been shown to be prevalent to various degrees in Ethiopian cattle. The study was carried out in four Woredas (districts) around Asella town, Arsi Zone between October 2011 and March 2012 and included 318 small-holders in 13 dairy cooperatives that marketed the delivered milk. The aims of the study were i) to assess the prevalence of the two diseases in cattle in a cross-sectional study, ii) to assess potential risk factors of BTB and brucellosis to humans as well as the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) among these farmers towards these diseases. Results BTB testing using the comparative intradermal skin test (CIDT) was done on 584 milking cows, out of which 417 were serologically tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test and reactors confirmed with an indirect ELISA test (PrioCHECK®). The individual animal prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.3%) for BTB, 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% to 3.5%) for brucellosis and 8.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 11.5%) for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex). Of the 13 milk cooperatives, two had at least one positive BTB reactor and five had animals positive for brucellosis. Cross-breeds accounted for 100% and 71.4% of the BTB and brucellosis reactors respectively. For both diseases, there were prevalence variations depending on Woreda. No animal was concomitant reactor for BTB and brucellosis. Raw milk was consumed by 55.4% of the respondents. 79.2% of the respondents reported touching the afterbirth with bare hands. The latter was fed to dogs in 83% of the households. One cow among the herds of the 130 interviewees had aborted in the last 12 months. Among the interviewees, 77% stated knowing tuberculosis in general but 42 out of the 130 respondents (32.3%) did not know that BTB was transmitted by livestock. Less than half (47.7%) of the respondents knew about brucellosis. Conclusions Low prevalence of both diseases reflected the potential for the area to compete with the growing milk demand. The authors discussed the possible control strategies for the area. PMID:23941112
Wild, S.; Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.
Variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales substantially influence interannual variability of precipitation in Ethiopia and the surrounding countries. Previous studies have revealed links between ENSO and summer rainfall in East Africa. As this region has been frequently affected by severe droughts during the last few decades, most recently in 2011, improving understanding of these influences is crucial for developing prediction methods for seasonal precipitation variability. More than half of the Ethiopian precipitation occurs during the Kiremt season (JJAS), which is therefore closely related to drought events. In the northwestern part the Kiremt rains are most prominent whereas the Belg precipitation (FMAM) is important for the southeastern part. We here objectively define homogenous rainfall regions in East Africa and analyse links between the rainfall in these regions with global SST. PCA of the gridded GPCP dataset (1979-2010), which includes station records and satellite data, reveals a dipole structure with two precipitation regimes divided geographically by the Ethiopian Rift Valley. We will show the response of precipitation in these regions to changes in Pacific SST, using the HadSST2 dataset. First results of concurrent relationships between Ethiopian precipitation (for the total over the whole country and for the northwestern part) and SST are consistent with an ENSO signal with positive correlation in the north- and southwestern Pacific, as well as negative correlation in the central eastern Pacific. Further investigations will also include lagged correlations. These findings corroborate the results of previous studies but extend them by using cross-validated principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) models to estimate NW-, SE- and total Ethiopian rainfall from Pacific SST. It has already been shown by Eden et al. (see Poster in Session CL3.3/NP5.4, EGU2012-10302) that spring variability of an individual precipitation record from Addis Ababa can be partly estimated from Pacific SST. Considering our findings in seasonal prediction models may improve drought forecasting across East Africa.
Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)
Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias
Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L?, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that O. niloticus is in a healthy state, while C. gariepinus show signs of growth overfishing (when both exploitation rate (E) and size indicators were considered). In case of C. carpio, the low exploitation rate encountered would point to underfishing, while the size indicators of the catches would suggest that too small fish are harvested leading to growth overfishing. We concluded that fisheries production in Lake Koka could be enhanced by increasing E toward optimum level of exploitation (Eopt) for the underexploited C. carpio and by increasing the size at first capture (Lc) toward the Lopt, range for all target species. PMID:26666131
Dessie, T; Ogle, B
Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table leftovers, small grain supplements and anything edible from the immediate environment. PMID:11770206
Full Text Available Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 m elevation to the hot and dry Blue Nile gorge that includes areas below 1000 m elevation, and contain a diversity of slope forms and soil types. This physical diversity and accompanying socio-economic contrasts demand diverse strategies for enhanced climate resilience and adaptation to climate change. To support development of locally appropriate climate resilience strategies across the Blue Nile Highlands, we present here an agroecosystem analysis of Choke Mountain, under the premise that the agroecosystemthe intersection of climatic and physiographic conditions with agricultural practicesis the most appropriate unit for defining adaptation strategies in these primarily subsistence agriculture communities. To this end, we present two approaches to agroecosystem analysis that can be applied to climate resilience studies in the Choke Mountain watersheds and, as appropriate, to other agroecologically diverse regions attempting to design climate adaptation strategies. First, a full agroecoystem analysis was implemented in collaboration with local communities. It identified six distinct agroecosystems that differ systematically in constraints and adaptation potential. This analysis was then paired with an objective landscape classification trained to identify agroecosystems based on climate and physiographic setting alone. It was found that the distribution of Choke Mountain watershed agroecosystems can, to first order, be explained as a function of prevailing climate. This suggests that the conditions that define current agroecosystems are likely to migrate under a changing climate, requiring adaptive management strategies. These agroecosystems show a remarkable degree of differentiation in terms of production orientation and socio-economic characteristics of the farming communities suggesting different options and interventions towards building resilience to climate change.
Full Text Available Ethiopia has embarked upon a rapid growth and development trajectory aiming to become a middleincome country by 2025. To achieve this goal, an agricultural development led industrialization strategy is being implemented which aims to intensify and transform agriculture, thereby boosting yields and, subsequently, economic returns. At the same time, the energy use which currently consists of more than 90% traditional biomass use is shifting towards increasing electricity production predominantly from large-scale hydropower plants, with the aim to improve access to modern energy sources. While the targets are commendable it is not clear that either all direct impacts or potential conflicts between goals have been considered. In this paper we evaluate and compare the impacts of alternative development trajectories pertaining to agriculture, energy and environment for a case-study location, the Lake Tana Subbasin, with a focus on current national plans and accounting for cross-sector interlinkages and competing resource use: the food-energy-environment nexus. Applying a nexus toolkit (WEAP and LEAP in participatory scenario development we compare and evaluate three different future scenarios. We conclude that the two processes agricultural transformation and energy transition are interdependent and could be partly competitive. As agriculture becomes increasingly intensified, it relies on more energy. At the same time, the energy system will, at least in the foreseeable future, continue to be largely supported by biomass, partly originating from croplands. Two outstanding dilemmas pertaining to resources scarcity were identified. Water needed for energy and agricultural production, and to sustain ecosystem services, sometimes exceeds water availability. Moreover, the region seems to be hitting a biomass ceiling where the annual increments in biomass from all terrestrial ecosystems are in the same order of magnitude as biomass needs for food, fodder and fuel. We propose that a stakeholder-driven nexus approach, underpinned by quantitative and spatially explicit scenario and planning tools, can help to resolve these outstanding dilemmas and can support more consistent policy and decision making, towards improved resource productivities, lower environmental pressures and enhanced human securities.
Full Text Available Many observers view Jatropha as a miracle plant that grows in harsh environments, halts land degradation and provides seeds for fuel production. This makes it particularly attractive for use in Ethiopia, where poverty levels are high and the degradation of agricultural land is widespread. In this article, we investigate the potentials and limitations of a government-initiated Jatropha project for smallholders in northeastern Ethiopia from a green economy perspective. Data are based on a 2009 household survey and interviews with key informants, as well as on a 2012 follow-up round of interviews with key informants. We conclude that the project has not contributed to a greener economy so far, but has the potential to do so in the future. To maximize Jatrophas potential, interventions must focus mainly on smallholders and pay more attention to the entire biofuel value chain.
Gonsalves, Lianne; Donovan, Samuel E; Ryan, Victoria; Winch, Peter J
In rural Ethiopia, environmental degradation and a shortage of arable land impose a major toll on the population. Population, health, and environment (PHE) programs, such as that of the Ethio-Wetlands and Natural Resources Association (EWNRA), have evolved to address these issues. This article examines the community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning commodities in rural Ethiopia through EWNRA's large, multisectoral PHE program. Participants indicated that the integrated program encouraged acceptance of family planning and reduced geographic barriers to access. Through peer education and collaboration across government ministries, EWNRA leveraged integrated population-environment messages to garner support for its network of CBD providers. These integration strategies are a model for PHE programs worldwide, especially amid the global response to climate change. Because of the complex nature of PHE organizations, researchers often find it difficult to effectively document and evaluate their programs. With this in mind, we propose a framework to assess PHE integration. PMID:25753058
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes to, and exposure to tobacco advertisements among adolescents. Results Of the 1868 respondents, 4.5% males and 1% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Ethiopia is lower than in many other African countries. There is however need to strengthen anti-tobacco messages especially among adolescents.
Osman, M. [Debre Zeit (Ethiopia); Sauerborn, P. [Seminar fuer Geographie und ihre Didaktik, Univ. zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany)
The article shows results of an international and interdisciplinary project with the title 'Rainfall and its Erosivity in Ethiopia'. Rainfall variability affects the water resource management of Ethiopia. The influence of rainfall variability on flow regimes was investigated using five gauging stations with data availability from 1982-1997. It was confirmed that the variability in rainfall has a direct implication for surface runoff. Surface runoff declined at most of the gauging stations investigated. Therefore, effective water resource management is recommended for the study area. Future research should focus on watershed management which includes land-use and land cover. The question posed here is whether the variability in rainfall significantly affected surface flow in the study area. (orig.)
In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)
Gabreyohannes, Emmanuel [Ethiopian Civil Service College, P.O.Box 5648, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)
Gebrehiwot, K.; Heyn, M; Reubens, B.; Hermy, M.; B. Muys
Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute ...
Tufa, A.H.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; van der Lans, I A; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A; Struik, P. C.
A low adoption of recommended seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) technologies in Ethiopia could be due to a lack of alternative seed potato production methods compatible with farmers economic and agro-ecological conditions. A conjoint analysis (a technique used to measure relative contribution of product attributes) was conducted to elicit farmers opinions on management attributes that they believed to affect yield and quality of potato. The study involved interviewing 324 farmers who grew ...
Chilalo, M.; Wiersum, K.F.
The use of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) has received attention in light of their perceived potential to address both poverty reduction and tropical forest conservation. Based on a survey amongst 145 households, this paper describes the role and significance of NTFPs in the livelihoods of rural communities in the mid-hills and uplands of Southwest Ethiopia. The local people are engaged in multiple household activities including annual and perennial crop production, collection of forest p...
Sanjay Kumar Jha
In 1994, Ethiopian constitutions underwent an amendment in which each regional state was given a right to choose, use, and diffuse its language from both cultural and educational perspectives. This amendment marked the welcoming sign of multilingual education in Ethiopia, but the current pattern of multilingual education has caused more harm than good to the end users (students) in terms of learning and mastering English language to an optimal level. The paper hypothesizes that multilingual e...
Gelaye, Mesfin Tilahun
Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst is a multipurpose deciduous tree species with high economic, cultural and environmental values. Frankincense from this tree species is a traded commodity used in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and chemical industries, for clerical services in different religions, and as a fragrance during coffee ceremonies in Ethiopia. However, the resource has been declining due to unsustainable management, which includes shifting to crop cultivation, free grazing and i...
Ngufor L. Atanga; Anna C. Treydte; Regina Birner
Livestock production is a key income source in eastern Africa, and 80% of the total agricultural land is used for livestock herding. Hence, ecological and socio-economically sustainable rangeland management is crucial. Our study aimed at selecting operational economic, environmental and social sustainability indicators for three main pastoral (P), agro-pastoral (AP), and landless intensive (LI) small scale livestock production systems for use in sustainability assessment in Ethiopia. Quanti...
This paper examines the linkage between privatization and social spending in the least developed African economies with reference to Ethiopia. Many previous studies have proved that privatisation has had a direct and positive effect on social welfare. The study used data over ten years, 1994/95-2003/04, and simple econometrics model to test whether or not there is any connectivity between privatisation and social spending. Four major overheads are selected for this study: Education, health, r...
Tilahun, Mastewal Alemu
In these days environmental issues are critical. Environmental concerns mainly rise from energy productions. Fortunately Ethiopia is trying to use renewable energy sources as a means for electrical power production and it is a great start for a long, tiresome green energy journey. The basic job to be done in green energy sectors is to maximize the capacity of renewable technologies to fulfil the best efficiency. Intermittent nature of the energy production and their inefficiency to meet peak...
Bishop, C; Hilhorst, D.
Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) is an attempt to bring food security to 5 million people by providing them with social security to close the yearly hunger gap, coupled with development projects to lift them permanently out of poverty. The programme is an example of the new policy arrangements that aim to link relief to social security and development. This paper analyses the early implementation of the PSNP in two villages of the Amhara Region. The paper shows how the progra...
BOYDEN, Jo; Pankhurst, Alula; Tafere, Yisak
This article explores divergent perspectives on female early marriage and genital modification in Ethiopia. It contrasts international norms and research evidence with local understandings, the latter focusing on the part these practices play in securing family social heritage, wellbeing of girls, and their transition to adulthood. The article explains persistence of these practices in the face of campaigns to eliminate them and questions assumptions behind the international child protection ...
Belachew Tefera; Lindstrom David; Gebremariam Abebe; Jira Challi; Hattori Megan; Lachat Carl; Huybregts Lieven; Kolsteren Patrick
Abstract Background Evidence on the differential impacts of the global food crisis as it translates into chronic food insecurity locally is essential to design food security interventions targeting the most vulnerable population groups. There are no studies on the extent of chronic food insecurity or its predictors among adolescents in developing countries. In the context of increased food prices in Ethiopia, we hypothesized that adolescents in low income urban households are more likely to s...
Befikadu Legesse; Teferi Gedif
Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the malignant diseases taking the lions share role in the devastating effects caused by cancer. BC related awareness and practice of females are known to have crucial contribution in the prevention and control efforts. The worst aspects of the disease in Ethiopia include absence of research and thus very limited information on any aspect. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 845 women. The sample size wa...
Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Conlong, D E; Muirhead, K A
Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is used as a classical biological control agent against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious exotic pest of cereal crops in eastern and southern Africa. This parasitoid has been introduced into several African countries for the control of C. partellus in maize, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), but it has never been released in Ethiopia. It is hypothesized that it spread into Ethiopia from populations released in Kenya and Somalia to become the predominant parasitoid of C. partellus in maize and sorghum fields of the country. In recent surveys conducted in Ethiopia, C. flavipes was recovered from C. partellus in sugarcane, Saccharum L. spp. hybrids, at a site >2,000 km from the nearest known release sites in Kenya and Somalia. These findings question published hypotheses that estimate the dispersal rate of C. flavipes to be 60 km per year in Africa, and they suggest that since its release in Africa this parasitoid has developed strains adapted to searching particular host plants infested by particular stem borers. The anomalies between our results and previous reports evoked the hypothesis that C. flavipes in Ethiopian sugarcane might be a different strain. To test this hypothesis, we compared partial COI gene sequences of C. flavipes collected from sugarcane in Ethiopia and those of specimens from other African countries to determine the origin of the Ethiopian population. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for C. flavipes from other continents. The C. flavipes population established in Ethiopian sugarcane is most closely related to the populations released against C. partellus in maize in other parts of Africa, which were derived from the original population imported from Pakistan. The dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be >200 km per year. PMID:18613566
Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the country in 1973, the international community and the Ethiopian government began to carry out massive conservation measures that covered extensive areas. Since then, the conservation movement has cont...
M. Temesgen; Hoogmoed, W. B.; J. Rockstrom; Savenije, H.H.G.
Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia practice traditional tillage systems using an ard plow called Maresha. Traditional tillage systems that involve repeated cultivations with the Maresha plow have caused land degradation (a.o. formation of a plow pan) and poor utilization of rainwater that led to low crop productivity. Experience in other countries has shown that conservation tillage systems could improve utilization of rain water through increased infiltration. However, the implements used for c...
Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; van der Graaf, M; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.
The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from these rivers and probably developed a new strategy of lacustrine spawning (macro-spatial segregation). One species (L....
Asebe Regassa Debelo
This article discusses the contention between the state and local Guji people on issues of development and conservation of a Protected AreaNech Sar National Park in southern Ethiopia. The park, which covers over 514 square kilometers, is a contested space between different actors, not only for its economic values, but it is also an arena of contestation over development and conservation perspectives. Since its inception as a national park in 1974, it has been administered with strict protect...
Jørgensen, Stine Lise
This thesis is the outcome of a fieldwork which I carried out among the Mursi people of Southwestern Ethiopia from January until June 2010. The Mursi are transhumant agropastoralists and inhabit an area marked by long periods of drought. Over the past few decades they and their neighbors` livelihood have first and foremost been threatened by the growing shortage of water in dry-season grazing areas. As a result there has been a northward migration within Mursiland. Moreover, there are also ot...
Peter Byass1; Mesganaw Fantahun; Anders Emmelin; Mitike Molla; Yemane Berhane
Background: Mortality in a population may be clustered in space and time for a variety of reasons, including geography, socio-economics, environment and demographics. Analysing mortality clusters can therefore reveal important insights into patterns and risks of mortality in a particular setting. Objective and design: To investigate the extent of spatio-temporal clustering of mortality in the Butajira District, Ethiopia, from 1987 to 2008. The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS)...
Abebe, T.; F Bongers
In many tropical countries homegardens sustain large numbers of people. Households depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own gardens. Such homegardens combine production with the maintenance of biodiversity. Long-term sustainability of the system is crucial for the long-term wellbeing of the population, including food security. The enset-coffee system of Southern Ethiopia is an example of such agroforestry ho...
Worldwide degradation and conversion of tropical forests affects many species and their provided ecosystem services. Among them are birds, responsible for pollination, seed dispersal, pest control and scavenging. This study, conducted in southwest Ethiopia, compares species composition and bird functional diversity between forest and homegardens close to and far from forest, both in terms of species numbers and bird abundances. Point counts and mist netting were used to obtain data. While the...
Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman), are examples of...
Abdo Abdurahman; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S.
Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes ...
Jurgen Burkhardt; Taye Kufa
The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the only known centres of origin and genetic diversity for Coffea arabica. However, the remnant coffee forest environments with the spontaneously grown wild coffee populations are under continuous threat of genetic erosion, largely due to anthropogenic activities. The study was conducted with the objective to investigate stomatal characteristics in Arabica coffee accessions under contrasting shade regimes at Jimma (7°46? N and 36°0? E,...
MOHAMMAD SHAMIM; WOINSHET MEBRATU
Migration is one the fundamental elements in determining population growth and structure. People migrate to urban centers for many reasons among which economic factors are most important. However underlying these is also the desire for social and cultural change in a new environment. These days Migration of people from rural to urban center has become a common feature in developing countries. Ethiopia is one of the less developed and an agrarian countries where agriculture is the backbone of ...
Introduced plant species may lead to negative consequences for the local community by outcompeting other species, and in extreme situations decrease biodiversity. It is well known that once an invasive species becomes firmly established, its control might be difficult and eradication may be more or less impossible. Benshangul Gumuz National Regional State in Western Ethiopia inhabits several endemics, and is not very well studied, so far. Features of Tagetes patula and Zinnia elegans, two in...
Gizaw, S.; van Arendonk, J. A. M.; Komen, J.; Windig, J. J.; Hanotte, O.
We investigated genetic and morphological diversity and population structure of 14 traditional sheep populations originating from four ecological zones in Ethiopia (sub-alpine, wet highland, sub-humid lowland and arid lowland). All animals (n = 672) were genotyped for 17 microsatellite markers and scored for 12 morphological characters. The sheep were initially classified as fat-tailed (11 populations), thin-tailed (one population) and fat-rumped sheep (two populations). These classifications...
Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.
Proper understanding of the relationship among concern for the environment, waste separation and disposal can contribute to good waste management and safer environment. This is particularly vital in cities of developing countries (such as Ethiopia) where waste separation is poor and there is widespread illegal dumping, with dire consequences for the environment. In this study, household data are collected in the city of Mekelle in order to identify and analyze the relationship among concern f...
Gutu Tesso; Bezabih Emana; Mengistu Ketema
This article analyzes the vulnerability and resilience levels of farm households in North Shewa, Ethiopia, using a survey of 452 households. Agro ecological based classification was done to analyze vulnerability to climate change induced shocks. Integrated vulnerability analysis approach was employed to develop indexes for socioeconomic and biophysical indicators. The indicators have been classified into adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity to climate change impact. Then Principal Comp...
Usman Muhammed Umer
The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of capital structure of large taxpayer share companies in Ethiopia. In this paper, econometric analysis were performed for a panel of 37 listed companies in Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority (ERCA) large taxpayers branch office in Addis Ababa for the study period of 20062010. Nine conventional explanatory variables were adopted in this study, including profitability, size, age, tangibility, liquidity, non-debt tax shield, growt...
Brixiova, Zuzana; Ncube, Mthuli
Since mid-2000s, Ethiopia has been one of the fastest growing countries in the world. However, productive entrepreneurship in high-value added activities has made limited contributions to this growth, in part because of a weak business environment. Moreover, the low-productive firms in the informal sector still account for a large share of employment. Reflecting these facts, this paper presents a model of costly entrepreneurial start-ups in an economy with a large informal sector and rigid bu...
The aim of the study is to analyse the learning process of the Dorze weaving in Ethiopia and its implications on Education for Sustainable Development, ESD. My two main questions are: 1. How do the Dorze understand their learning process in weaving? 2. What conclusions concerning education for sustainable development applied on textile handicraft can be drawn from the findings of my case study? In order to answer these questions I have made a field study on the Dorze (the weavers) in Addis ...
Boavida, Isabel; Pennec, Hervé; Ramos, Manuel João
In the rural plateaux of northern Ethiopia, one can still find scattered ruins of monumental buildings alien to the country's ancient architectural tradition. This little-known and rarely studied architectural heritage bears silent witness to a fascinating if equivocal cultural encounter that took place in the 16th-17th centuries between Orthodox Ethiopians and Catholic Europeans. The Indigenous and the Foreign explores the enduring impact of the encounter on the religious, politi...
In Ethiopia industrial effluents containing high contents of organic matter, nitrogen and heavy metals are discharged into inland surface waters with little or no pre-treatment. Significant pollution concerns related to these effluents include dissolved oxygen depletion, toxicity and eutrophication of the receiving waters. This has not only forced the government to formulate regulations and standards for discharge limits but also resulted in an increasing interest and development of methods a...
Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibilities of implementing integrated watershed management (IWM) approach. A typical highland watershed (the Chemoga watershed) was selected for the research, and multifaceted investigations were condu...
This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practic...
Abegaz Yimer, A.
Key Words: nutrient dynamics, fertility management, feed availability and quality and livestock production, Northern Highlands of EthiopiaIn the Northern Highlands of Ethiopiaone of the least-favored areas inEast Africa,farming systems are characterized by the integrated management of crop and livestock components, in which resources, such as nutrients and energy are cycled within the system.The overall objective of this study was to increase insight in the functioning of these farming system...
Fernández, Víctor M.
A summary is presented of the recent archaeological research led by the University Complutense of Madrid on the residences and monuments of the Jesuit missions in Ethiopia, most of them built at the end of the Mission period, between 1621 and 1632. The paper examines the known mission sites in turn, concentrating on the most important ones located in the region of Dembya, north of lake Tana. The emphasis has been put on the contrast between the information available from historical sources, m...
Mekonnen, Y.; Sanders, E.; Aklilu, M; Tsegaye, A; Rinke de Wit, TF; A Schaap; Wolday, D.; Geskus, R.; Coutinho, RA; Fontanet, AL
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in sexual behaviours among male factory workers in Ethiopia. DESIGN: Open cohort studies in two factories near Addis Ababa. DATA AND METHODS: At intake and biannual follow-up visits, data were collected on sexual behaviours including casual sex, sex with commercial sex workers (CSW), condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as indicated by genital discharge and genital ulcer. Health education, HIV testing, and counselling were offered to all...
Joseph Kweku Assan; Fikirte Regassa Beyene
In an era where climate change and environmental variability is having an overwhelming impact on the livelihoods and well-being of poor rural households, ecological conservation and development interventions that ensure sustainable livelihood security of such households have been posited as the most effective approach in addressing both environmental degradations and household well-being in the rural communities of Ethiopia. This study investigated the impact of the Tree Gudifecha ecologica...
Ecological sanitation (ecosan) is analyzed from a holistic system?s perspective on the example of two case studies. In the case study Ethiopia, a business idea for the production of plastic toilet slabs applicable under the ecosan approach is drafted. In the case study Ghana, an economic analysis of building or modifying toilets for the separate collection of urine and feces, transportation of urine to its storage locations, urine storage and subsequently selling it to farmers to be applied a...
Woldehanna, T; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.
The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household survey data results highlight the importance of household wealth and assets, family composition and access to education services, while the qualitative ...
Jebessa, Naod Duga; Alemayehu, Henok Getachew
This paper presents a development paradigm for Ethiopia, based on appropriate services and innovative use of mobile communications technologies via applications tailored for sectors like business, finance, healthcare, governance, education and infotainment. The experience of other developing countries like India and Kenya is cited so as to adapt those to the Ethiopian context. Notable application areas in the aforementioned sectors have been outlined. The ETC 'next generatio...
Abebe, Adem Kassie
This article analyses the legal regime governing standing to enforce constitutional rights in Ethiopia. It reiterates the direct link between standing rules and the right of access to justice. It observes that, although the laws of several states still require a personal interest in the action one wants to litigate, there is a developing trend towards the liberalisation of standing rules, particularly regarding human rights issues. It considers the activism of the Indian judiciary and the inn...
Tadis Brhane; Berihun Assefa; Nigusie Birhan
Background: Street youth are predisposed to sexual and reproductive health challenges. Most of the street children live in severe deprivation, which make them liable to various forms of health risks. Street youth have risky sexual behaviours that increase the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health consequences. Aim: This study was conducted to assess reproductive health behaviour and needs of street youth in Gondar city, North West Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitat...
Sjöström, Margareta; Sjöström, Rolf
The problem of illiteracy has been the object of many studies during recent decades. In Ethiopia, a country which reports one of the lowest literacy rates in Africa, the Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign (YDLC) was started in 1962. Its activities were concentrated to rural areas and directed primarily towards adults. The present study is an evaluation of the Campaign. The investigation was conducted between 1974-1976 with the purpose of describing and analysing Campaign activities, focussing...
Vordermeier, Martin; Ameni, Gobena; Berg, Stefan; Bishop, Richard; Robertson, Brian D; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas B.
Bovine tuberculosis in domestic livestock such as cattle is an economically important disease with zoonotic potential, particularly in countries with emerging economies. We discuss the findings of recent epidemiological and immunological studies conducted in Ethiopia on host susceptibility differences between native zebu and the exotic HolsteinFriesian cattle that are increasingly part of the Ethiopian National herd, due to the drive to increase milk yields. These findings support the hypoth...
Kedir, Abdu Abdurazak
Modern parliaments are mostly compared to the top echelon of the society.The unfairness of the representation still holds true even where free, fair and periodic democratic elections are held. PWDs constitue the largest minority group accounting for 15.6% of the world's population. In Ethiopia approximately the same percentage of the population is disabled though nor fairly represented in the political system.
Gildemacher, P.R.; Demo, P.; I. Barker; Kaguongo, W.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W.W.; Wakahiu, M.; Leeuwis, C.; Struik, P.C.
Seed potato systems in East Africa are described and opportunities for improvement identified on the basis of interviews with potato producers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia, and an assessment of Ralstonia solanacearum and virus disease levels in Kenya. 3% of seed potato sold in Kenyan markets was virus free. Ralstonia solanacearum was found in 74% of potato farms. Less than 5% of the farmers interviewed source seed potato from specialized seed growers. Over 50% rely entirely on farm-saved see...
Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.
Deressa Wakgari; Azazh Aklilu
Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their trainin...
Information on the traditional tick control methods used in Keffa, Illubabor and Wellega Provinces in western Ethiopia was obtained from 86 veterinary clinics and 865 peasant farmers through a questionnaire survey. Latexes of Euphorbia obovalifolia and Ficus brachypoda, juice of crushed leaves of Phytolaca dodecandra and Vernonia amygdalina, fruit juice of Solanum incanum, crushed seeds of...
Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman
Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 615 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 pri...
Vieider, Ferdinand M.; Beyene, Abebe; Bluffstone, Randall; Dissanayake, Sahan; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; Martinsson, Peter; Mekonnen, Alemu
Risk aversion has generally been found to decrease in income or wealth. This may lead one to expect that poor countries will be more risk averse than rich countries. Recent comparative findings with students, however, suggest the opposite, giving rise to a riskincome paradox. We test this paradox by measuring the risk preferences of over 500 household heads spread over the highlands of Ethiopia. We do so using certainty equivalents, which have rarely been used in developing countries, but per...
Abstract Background Contraception is a major component of reproductive health. Assessing the levels of contraceptive awareness and use helps to identify potential areas of intervention. Hence, this study was conducted to assess awareness, practice and associated factors of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 204 street women from Gondar and Bahir Dar cities. Participants were recruited from cluster sites such as m...
The potential of quality early childhood and primary education to help break inter-generational poverty cycles is widely recognised. My focus is on how far this potential is being translated into reality, through implementing positive early childhood policies in practice. The paper summarises evidence from Young Lives research into early transitions, based on both survey and in-depth qualitative research with 2,000 Young Lives younger cohort children in Ethiopia, Andhra Pradesh (India) and Pe...
Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H. M. J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, A.J. van der
This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional stratified random survey of 180 households, and farm recording of 131 households. Rural poultry significantly contributed to the livelihoods of poor households: economically as starter capital, as ...
Eguavoen, Irit; Tesfai, Weyni
For the past years, Ethiopia has been moving toward making better use of the waters from the Blue Nile. The Koga project is the first new large]scale irrigation scheme in the river basin since the 1970s. The article analyzes the social]economic outcome of development]induced relocation of 500 relocated households, in particular the sub]set which moved to the nearby town. The delay in land re]allocation had left households without livelihood base for muc...
Misganaw Awoke; Mariam Damen; Araya Tekebash; Ayele Kidane
Abstract Background Ethiopia is encountering a growing burden of non-communicable diseases along with infectious diseases, perinatal and nutritional problems that have long been considered major problems of public health importance. This retrospective analysis was carried out to examine the mortality patterns from communicable diseases and non communicable diseases in public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods Approximately 47,153 deaths were captured over eight years (20022010) in...
CECCHI, F.; Bulte, E.H.
We organize a field experiment with sesame farmers and brokers in northern Ethiopia to explore whether market experience fosters rational behaviorproxied by fewer Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference (GARP) violations in a simple choice experiment. In the baseline study, farmers and brokers performed equally well or badly, which is consistent with qualitative evidence that the prior trading experience of our brokers is not obtained in a competitive setting. Following random assignment ...
Hagos, Seifu; Lunde, Torleif Markussen; Mariam, Damen H; Woldehanna, Tassew; Lindtjørn, Bernt
Background: The amount and distribution of rainfall and temperature influences household food availability, thus increasing the risk of child under nutrition. However, few studies examined the local spatial variability and the impact of temperature and rainfall on child under nutrition at a smaller scale (resolution). We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of weather variables on child under nutrition and the variations in effects across the three agro ecologies of Ethiopia.<...
Mekibib Kassa; Eleni Tesfaye; Zelalem Alamrew
Background: Risky sexual behaviors are the major factors in rising sexually transmitted infections among adolescents and young adults. In Ethiopia construction industry is on increasing and deriving young people from rural area to the cities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour and factors associated with among construction workers. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in March 2012 among construction workers in Bahir Dar city. ...
Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh
Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders. PMID:26119541
Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Mideksa, Gemechu; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; De Silva, Mary J.
Background Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is a multi-sectoral strategy to improve the functioning and quality of life of people with disabilities. The RISE (Rehabilitation Intervention for people with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia) trial will evaluate the effectiveness of CBR for people with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the components of CBR that are both feasible and likely to prove effective in low and middle-income countries such as Ethiopia are unclear. Methods In this study intervention development work was undertaken to design a CBR intervention that is acceptable and feasible in the local context. The development work consisted of five phases. 1: Identify potential components of CBR for schizophrenia, 2: Situational analysis, 3: Determine feasibility of CBR (Theory of Change workshops with experts and local stakeholders), 4: Determine acceptability of CBR (16 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with people with schizophrenia, caregivers, health workers and community leaders) and 5: Synthesise results to finalise intervention. A Theory of Change map was constructed showing the causal pathway for how we expect CBR to achieve its impact. Results People with schizophrenia in rural Ethiopia experience family conflict, difficulty participating in work and community life, and stigma. Stakeholders perceived CBR to be acceptable and useful to address these problems. The focus of CBR will be on the individual developing the skills and confidence to perform their previous or desired roles and activities. To ensure feasibility, non-health professionals will be trained to deliver CBR and provide supervision, rather than mental health specialists. Novel components of CBR for schizophrenia included family intervention and dealing with distressing symptoms. Microfinance was excluded due to concerns about stress and exploitation. Community mobilisation was viewed as essential to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of CBR. Conclusion Extensive formative research using a variety of methods has enabled the design of a culturally appropriate CBR intervention for people with schizophrenia that is acceptable and feasible. PMID:26618915
Graaff, N.A. de
Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic distribution, origin, resistance to CBD, chemical control and control through resistance.Experimental part. Coffee trees (mother trees) were selected that showed a low level of CBD in areas with s...
Mitike Getnet; Deyessa Negussie; Negash Ashenafi; Enquselassie Fikre; Firew Aynalem; Jones Donna; Scharff Jennifer; Zaidi Irum; Rolle Italia V; Sunderland Nadine; Nsubuga Peter
Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI) course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examin...
The Capacity Building Project was implemented 2005/2007. The overall aim of the project was to improve the quality of the project cycle management by building the capacity of the church's Development And Social Service (DASSC) structure in Southern Ethiopia and provide professional and technical backing to facilitate the implementation of the NLM supported projects/programmes as required by the back donors and the Ethiopian government.The ideas behind the project have been mainly carried out ...
T. Alemayehu; A. TekeleSellasie; S.A. Kassa
We conducted a cross sectional study from October 2009 to March 2010 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with the objective of identifying prevalence of poultry coccidiosis in small and large scale production systems. A total of 384 fecal samples from female Rod Island Red chickens were taken and a flotation technique was employed to harvest coccidian oocysts. The result revealed that 89 (23.1%) are positive for coccidia oocysts. Unlike Yeka and Akaki kality sub cities, Kolfe sub city showed significant...
Katharina Welle; Josephine Tucker; Alan Nicol; Barbara Evans
A study in three countries (Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda) assessed progress against the Paris Principles for Aid Effectiveness (AE) in three sectors water, health and education to test the assumption that the water sector is lagging behind. The findings show that it is too simplistic to say that the water sector is lagging, although this may well be the case in some countries. The study found that wider governance issues are more important for AE than having in place sector-specific me...
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Abebech; Friis, Henrik; Rasch, Vibeke
BACKGROUND: Interventions for curing most diseases and save lives of pregnant and delivering women exist, yet the power of health systems to deliver them to those in most need is not sufficient. The aims of this study were to design a participatory antenatal care (ANC) strengthening intervention and assess the implementation process and effectiveness on quality of ANC in Jimma, Ethiopia. METHODS: The intervention comprised trainings, supervisions, equipment, development of health education mater...
Brück, Tilman; Workneh Kebede, Sindu
This study aims to explore poverty measures, its dynamics and determinants using Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) and consumption poverty. Our results show that the two measures assign similar poverty status to about 52 percent of households and that both approaches confirm poverty is mainly transient in rural Ethiopia. However, we find that the trend in adjusted head count poverty is different when using these two poverty measures. In terms of determinants of poverty dynamics, we find th...
Olsen, M F; Kæstel, P; Tesfaye, M; Abdissa, A; Yilma, D; Girma, T; Mølgaard, C; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Christensen, D L; Brage, S; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Friis, H
SUMMARY We described levels of habitual physical activity and physical capacity in HIV patients initiating antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia and assessed the role of HIV and nutritional indicators on these outcomes. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and activity levels were measured with combined heart rate and movement sensors. Physical capacity was assessed by grip strength, sleeping heart rate and heart rate economy. Grip strength data was also available from a sex- and age-match...
Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile
This article investigates the long-run macroeconomic effects of aid and disaggregated aid flows in Ethiopia, currently the world's largest recipient of official development assistance, for the period 1960-2009. The results show that aid affects gross domestic product (GDP), investment and imports positively, whereas it is negatively associated with government consumption. Our results concerning the impacts of disaggregated aid stand in stark contrast to earlier work. Bilateral aid increases inve...
Charlene Watson; Susana Mourato; Milner-Gulland, E. J.
The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exem...
Hölscher Michael; Gürkov Robert; Fekadu Sintayehu; Tadesse Zelalem; Berens-Riha Nicole; Eshetu Teferi; Löscher Thomas; Miranda Isabel
Abstract Background The emergence of drug resistance is a major problem in malaria control. Combination of molecular genotyping and characterization of mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) correlated with drug resistance can provide information for subsequent surveillance of existing and developing drug resistance patterns. The introduction of artemether/lumefantrine (AL) as first-line treatment, never used before in Ethiopia, allowed the collection of baseline data of molecula...
Crewett, Wibke; Ayalneh, Bogale; Korf, Benedikt
Ethiopia experiences a fierce political debate about the appropriate land tenure policy. After the fall of the socialist derg regime in 1991, land property rights have remained vested in the state and only usufruct rights have been alienated to farmers to the disappointment of international donor agencies. This has nurtured an antagonistic debate between advocates of the privatization of land property rights to individual plot holders and those supporting the governments position. This deb...
Cherie Amsale; Berhane Yemane
Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A mul...
This Dissertation tried to provide insights into the influences of individual and contextual factors on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) teachers learning and professional development in Ethiopia. Specifically, this research focused on identifying and determining the influences of teachers self perception as learners and professionals, and investigates the impact of the context, process and content of their learning and experiences on their professional development. Th...
Amare Bemnet; Moges Beyene; Moges Feleke; Fantahun Bereket; Admassu Mengesha; Mulu Andargachew; Kassu Afework
Abstract Background There is paucity of data on the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban Ethiopians which necessitates comprehensive nutritional assessments. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban residents in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods This cross-sectional community based nutrition survey was conducted by involving 356 participants (71.3% female and 28.7% male with mean age of 37.3?years). Subjects were selected by r...
Jibba, K.B.; Duvel, G.H. (Gustav Heinrich)
Against the background of frequent organisational changes and restructuring, often based on impulsive decisions rather than structured feasibility studies or evaluations, this article examines the influence of decentralization on the performance of an extension organization. Based on a survey of 353 respondents from Oromia region, one of the nine regions in Ethiopia, representing various agro ecological zones and managerial positions, it examines the current level of organizational performanc...
Although donor discourse on international development policy places less emphasis on civil society than formerly this paper present evidence from Tanzania, Ethiopia and Central America that aid for civil society has had a positive effect on the capacity of Southern civil society. As a result of international pressure, civil society in these developing states now face a more open environment for both advocacy and service provision, while financial support has allowed a much greater level of a...
John Butterworth; Sally Sutton; Lemessa Mekonta
Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family w...
This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given
The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels
Berhane Yemane; Gelaye Bizu; Terasaki Dale J; Williams Michelle A
Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. Th...
Midekisa Alemayehu; Senay Gabriel; Henebry Geoffrey M; Semuniguse Paulos; Wimberly Michael C
Abstract Background Malaria is one of the leading public health problems in most of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Almost all demographic groups are at risk of malaria because of seasonal and unstable transmission of the disease. Therefore, there is a need to develop malaria early-warning systems to enhance public health decision making for control and prevention of malaria epidemics. Data from orbiting earth-observing sensors can monitor environmental risk factors that trigger...
Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, A
ABSTRACT In order to combat land degradation in the form of water erosion and fertility depletion in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia farmers are of crucial importance. If they perceive land degradation as a problem they will be more willing to invest in land management measures. This study presents farmers perceptions of land degradation, respective investments, and factors influencing their investments in land. In this study, water erosion and fertility depletion are taken as main...
Maes, Kenneth; Kalofonos, Ippolytos
Many global health practitioners are currently reaffirming the importance of recruiting and retaining effective community health workers (CHWs) in order to achieve major public health goals. This raises policy-relevant questions about why people become and remain CHWs. This paper addresses these questions, drawing on ethnographic work in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, between 2006 and 2009, and in Chimoio, a provincial town in central Mozambique, between 2003 and 2010. Participant obse...
Based on ethnographic research in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper describes NGO efforts to encourage AIDS care volunteers to eschew material returns for their labor and instead reflect on the goodness of sacrificing to promote the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consensus analysis of motivational survey data collected from a sample of AIDS care volunteers (n=110) suggests that they strongly share a sacrificial and prosocial motivational model. These results may be explained by seve...
Tessema, Zewditu Kebede
A cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was carried out in Assosa Town, Ethiopia (2001-2002) to investigate what proportion of couples were discussing about family planning, if there was any association between husband wife communication and contraception, and couple? s opinion about the subject. Among the 264 couples interviewed 10% had never heard about family planning. Among those who had heard about family planning in 98% of couples both wife and husband...
Lemma Seblewngel; Gelaye Bizu; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu; Williams Michelle A
Abstract Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universitie...
Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros; Breno, Matteo; Tomas, Zewdneh; Kidane, Dawit; Girmay, Kokob; de Bellocq, Joëlle Gouÿ
More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852?bp of the Bartonella RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene. We used a generalized linear mixed model to relate the probability of Bartonella infection to species, season, locality, habitat, sex, sexual condition, wei...
Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, C.A.; Stroosnijder, L.
In Ethiopia, not only farmers but also the public and private sector partners are still hesitant to invest in sustainable land management (SLM). This study focuses on the Central Rift Valley and explores the potential for co-investments in SLM, where public and private sector partners support farmers with material, capital, knowledge, etc. A survey revealed current bottlenecks for co-investments and requirements needed to collaboratively invest in SLM. It covered 165 public sector partners (m...
Boansi, David; Crentsil, Christian
The objective of this study was to analyze the performance of Ethiopia in its exports of coffee and to estimate the magnitude and effects of key economic determinants of coffee exports, producer price and production. In analyzing the competitiveness of the country in its exports of coffee, three distinct periods were considered, namely, years under the imperial regime (1961-73), under the military rule (1974-1991) and under the reformist government (1992-2010). The Revealed Comparative Advant...
Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: email@example.com; Wodaje Kebede, Worku [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)
The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels.
The currently population of more than 70 million people in Ethiopia is expected to double within the next 30 years. Almost 80% of the populations are living in the countryside while the rest situated in urban area. An estimated five million people are suffering from lack of vitamins and essential minerals, of which 80% are children for the next generation. Every year, on the average, about five million people have problems securing enough food for them and need assistance. Preliminary surveys...
Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya; Berhe, Gebrehiwot; Asmelash, Tsehaye; Gebrehiwot, Haftu; Bauer, Hans
The degradation and fragmentation of the northern Ethiopian highlands has resulted in frequent encounters of large carnivores with humans and their livestock. We interviewed 500 randomly selected households to estimate economic impact of livestock predation by spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), leopard (Panthera pardus) and jackal (Canis aureus aureus) in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. The annual mean economic loss per household was approximately U.S.$ 20.2, about 7% of the average annual in...
Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba
Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited.
Changes in Flora-information over time can be divided into three different categories: (1) Real changes (species enter the region by natural dispersal or become extinct). (2) Floristic changes (species known from elsewhere are discovered). (3) Taxonomic changes (species are discovered and described, taxonomic revisions change the status of previously known species). The Linnaean taxonomic methods for describing and naming plant species, which we still use today in a refined form, were developed in the middle of the 18th century. The Nordic flora was one of the first that was subjected to the Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period with a more steady level of activities followed. The Ethiopian Flora Project, which has been active between 1980 and 2009, has resulted in more than 470 species being described as new during the period, and more than 440 species described from elsewhere have been discovered to occur inside the Flora area. Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the future.
On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251
Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)
Olsen, Mette; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch
PURPOSE: The WHOQOL instruments are intended for cross-cultural studies of quality of life (QoL) but African countries have been poorly represented in its development. This study aimed to explore the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: The fieldwork included home visits, interviews, and focus group discussions with HIV patients and caregivers. RESULTS: We found that although WHOQOL-HIV includes many relevant facets, its applicability has several limitations in the Ethiopian setting. The most salient shortcomings of the instrument relate to the Social, Environmental and Religion/Spirituality/Personal Beliefs domains of the instrument. Themes not captured by the instrument include family responsibilities, disease disclosure, exclusion from common resources, basic needs, adequate food, and job opportunities. In addition, several of the tool's facets such as dependence on medicine seem less relevant. Also, the role of religion is more complex than captured in WHOQOL-HIV. We found that the tool is based on an individualist focus, which tends to overlook the social context of the patient. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV is only partially attained for use in Ethiopia. The findings from this qualitative study are used in the further process of developing and validating a QoL instrument for use in Ethiopia.
Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed
Sisay Alemahu, Yeshanew.
Full Text Available Making human rights domestically justiciable by clearly defining their content and subjecting them to judicial and quasi-judicial mechanisms of enforcement is important for their effective protection. Although a legal framework for the justiciability of human rights exists in Ethiopia, the judicial [...] practice reveals some problems. Lawyers and courts tend to avoid invoking and applying human rights provisions in the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and ratified international human rights treaties which form part of the law of the land. There is confusion regarding the mandate of the House of Federation to 'interpret' the Constitution. Procedurally, the basic laws of the country limit 'standing' in human rights litigation to those with a vested interest, failing to make public interest litigation possible and hence limiting the justiciability of rights. The article examines the justiciability of human rights in Ethiopia from a substantive, jurisdictional and procedural perspective. It juxtaposes law and practice in an attempt to show the extent to which rights are justiciable in the Ethiopian legal system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR?=?5.67; 95% CI?=?2.30, 13.00; p? Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.
Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, in quantitative terms, Ethiopia has expanded and universalized the enrolment of school aged children in primary schools in line the International Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural rights in order to minimize the irregularities that have existed over the years. However, when the existing primary schooling is visualized in terms of quality and equity, it is sad to observe that privately run-ultra-modern primary schools seem to be mushrooming in Ethiopia in order to serve the sons and daughters of a newly emerging privileged class. On the other hand, the sons and daughters of the poor and disadvantaged are confined to over crowded classes manned by semi-qualified teachers and equipped with inadequate teaching materials. Stated differently, it is unbelievable to observe that primary schools in Ethiopia are sliding into a class-based education. Thus, if the government believes in equity and fairness, it needs to completely redesign and better equip the public primary school.
Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)
Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)
Getu, E; A Overholt, W; Kairu, E; Omwega, C O
Three lepidopteran cereal stemborers, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae), Busseola fusca Fuller, and Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Noctuidae) were collected from maize and sorghum in Ethiopia. The noctuid stemborers are indigenous to Africa while C. partellus is an introduced species from Asia. In 1999, the Asian stemborer parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Braconidae) was found to be widespread in Ethiopia, even though it had never been released in the country. In addition to attacking Chilo partellus, Cotesia flavipes was reared from B. fusca and S. calamistis. The origin of C. flavipes in Ethiopia may have been Somalia where it was released in 1997 near the border with eastern Ethiopia. Percent parasitism of borers by C. flavipes was higher in eastern Ethiopia than other surveyed regions, and parasitism was higher in 2000 than 1999. Parasitism was higher when cereals were intercropped with other plants and when wild grass hosts of stemborers were present. PMID:12699533
Full Text Available The motives, instruments and effects of Chinas Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the competitive pressure that Chinas growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one of the most important countries in Chinese as well as European cooperation with Africa. Yet, Chinese and European policies toward Ethiopia differ greatly. The EU mainly engages Ethiopia as an aid recipient, whereas China has developed a comprehensive political and economic partnership with the East African state. China has thereby become an alternative partner to the Ethiopian government, a development that both sheds light on the gap between European rhetoric and policy practice and puts pressure on the EU to make more efforts to reform its development policy system.
The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea are outlined, as well as the big enterprises after the Second World War, e.g. the Kenya-Ethiopia Boundary Commission, the Desert Locust Service, and the achievement of an increasing number of individuals, both Ethiopian and foreign, is reviewed. The Ethiopian Flora Project purchased over the years a number of sturdy wehicles that allowed collecting activity in remote parts of the Flora areas, especially in western, southern and Eastern Ethiopia.
Full Text Available Demewoz Haile,1 Tesfaye Setegn,2 Sibhatu Biadgilign31Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 3Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Breastfeeding reduces major causes of infant mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, it is a major mode of vertical HIV transmission. In developing countries like Ethiopia, HIV positive mothers are advised to continue breastfeeding up to 12 months. But there is scarce literature regarding the mothers' adherence to continued breastfeeding recommendations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess HIV positive mothers' adherence to the infant feeding recommendations of the new World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for HIV-exposed infants aged ?6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in health institutions with antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission facilities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Health institutions were considered as clusters and cluster sampling technique was employed. A total of 184 HIV positive mothers with their infants registered at respective health institutions were recruited and assessed for their infant breastfeeding practices. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation were computed to describe the breastfeeding practices of HIV positive mothers. Result: Almost all (181 [98.4%] of the HIV-exposed infants were ever breastfed. Among those mothers who had ever breastfed, 158 (87.3% initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery and 157 (85.8% had fed their babies colostrum while 31 (16.8% gave prelacteal food to their infants. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding at 1 year was (54.5% (46.9% for urban mothers and 75% for rural mothers. Seventy-one percent (70.9% of HIV positive mothers practiced on demand breastfeeding. Twenty nine percent of infants aged 611 months and 47.8% of infants aged ?12 months were no longer breastfed. The mean (± standard deviation duration of breastfeeding was 7.8 (±3.1 months (95% confidence interval: 6.98.7. Conclusion: The 2010 WHO guidelines and recommendations on breastfeeding duration for HIV positive mothers was not adhered to after 6 months of age. Promotion and counseling of optimal breastfeeding practice for HIV positive mothers based on the updated WHO guideline is an appropriate intervention. However, further research is recommended to evaluate the acceptance of the new 2010 WHO guideline by the health professionals and HIV positive mothers. Keywords: HIV-exposed, infants, breastfeeding, initiation
Williams, A. Park; Funk, Christopher C.
An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.
Review: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (eds.: Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution (2007 Buchbesprechung: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (Hrsg.: Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution (2007
Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (eds.: Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution, Vienna, Zurich, Berlin, Münster: LIT Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-03735-937-2 (Switzerland; 978-3-8258-9795-6 (Germany, 290 pages. Besprechung des Sammelbandes: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (Hrsg.: Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution, Wien, Zürich, Berlin, Münster: LIT Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-03735-937-2 (Schweiz; 978-3-8258-9795-6 (Deutschland, 290 Seiten.
Tadesse, Tsegaye; Demisse, Getachew Berhan; Zaitchik, Ben; Dinku, Tufa
An experimental drought monitoring tool has been developed that predicts the vegetation condition (Vegetation Outlook) using a regression-tree technique at a monthly time step during the growing season in Eastern Africa. This prediction tool (VegOut-Ethiopia) is demonstrated for Ethiopia as a case study. VegOut-Ethiopia predicts the standardized values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at multiple time steps (weeks to months into the future) based on analysis of "historical patterns" of satellite, climate, and oceanic data over historical records. The model underlying VegOut-Ethiopia capitalizes on historical climate-vegetation interactions and ocean-climate teleconnections (such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) expressed over the 24 year data record and also considers several environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover and elevation) that influence vegetation's response to weather conditions to produce 8 km maps that depict future general vegetation conditions. VegOut-Ethiopia could provide vegetation monitoring capabilities at local, national, and regional levels that can complement more traditional remote sensing-based approaches that monitor "current" vegetation conditions. The preliminary results of this case study showed that the models were able to predict the vegetation stress (both spatial extent and severity) in drought years 1-3 months ahead during the growing season in Ethiopia. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and satellite-observed vegetation condition range from 0.50 to 0.90. Based on the lessons learned from past research activities and emerging experimental forecast models, future studies are recommended that could help Eastern Africa in advancing knowledge of climate, remote sensing, hydrology, and water resources.
Shiferaw Yitayal; Alemu Agersew; Girma Amanuel; Getahun Afera; Kassa Andarge; Gashaw Alemayehu; Alemu Abebe; Teklu Takele; Gelaw Baye
Abstract Background The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern in the country, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in 2002. Although the epidemic is currently stable, HIV/AIDS remains a major development challenge for Ethiopia. The spread of HIV in any community is in part determined by the knowledge of attitude towards sexuality of its members and by their actual sexual practices. T...
Leta Tesfaye H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 1559?years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ?44?years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected mens level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.
Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid
Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are multidimensionally worse off. The needs of these women should be addressed through elimination of out-of-pocket costs and revision of the formula for resource allocation between regions as Ethiopia moves towards universal health coverage. PMID:26419910
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of community-based practitioner programmes in Ethiopia, Indonesia and Kenya. Methods Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the three programmes were estimated from a government perspective. Cost data were collected for 2012. Life years gained were estimated based on coverage of reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health services. For Ethiopia and Kenya, estimates of coverage before and after the implementation of the programme were obtained from empirical studies. For Indonesia, coverage of health service interventions was estimated from routine data. We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate the number of lives saved from changes in reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health-service coverage. Gross domestic product per capita was used as the reference willingness-to-pay threshold value. Findings The estimated incremental cost per life year gained was 82 international dollars ($in Kenya, $999 in Ethiopia and $3396 in Indonesia. The results were most sensitive to uncertainty in the estimates of life-years gained. Based on the results of probabilistic sensitivity analysis, there was greater than 80% certainty that each programme was cost-effective. Conclusion Community-based approaches are likely to be cost-effective for delivery of some essential health interventions where community-based practitioners operate within an integrated team supported by the health system. Community-based practitioners may be most appropriate in rural poor communities that have limited access to more qualified health professionals. Further research is required to understand which programmatic design features are critical to effectiveness.
Theodros Getachew, Alemayehu Bayray and Berhe Weldearegay
Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB is an increasing global problem. The extent and burden of MDR-TB varies significantly from country to country. Survival of MDR-TB treatment is not described in Ethiopia. Therefore, examining a cohort who received second-line therapy for MDR-TB to determine overall survival has a great importance.Objectives: To assess survival and predictors of mortality among patients under MDR-TB treatment in Ethiopia: St Peters specialized TB Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective analysis of records was conducted from Oct, 2011 - May, 2012 among cohorts of MDR-TB patients in St. Peters specialized TB hospital that starts treatment from February 2009. Data were collected using checklist from 188 patients record that is determined and analyzed using the STATA Statistical package, Version 11.0. Risk was estimated for the entire follow-up time corresponding to each event occurrence using Kaplan-Meier method and the covariates are fitted to Cox proportional hazard regression model.Result: The 188 patients were followed for a total of 79,600 person-days. Median follow up time was 466.5 days or 1.28 years. Among the total subjects, 87 (46.28% are male and the rest 101 (53.72% are female with a median age of 27 years. There were 29 (15.43 % known deaths (incidence rate: 3.6 per 10,000 person-days. Survival rate at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment were 88.53 %, 85.83 %, 82.71 % and 78.95 % respectively. The mean survival time for patients under MDR-TB was 9.7 years. Comparison of the groups showed that there is a significant difference in the probability of surviving between HIV status, smoking status, therapeutic delay, No. of first line resistant drugs at initiation, co-morbidities, region and clinical complication. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression, factors independently associated with mortality of patients were smoking (HR: 4.01, 95% CI 1.42 - 11.37, P = 0.009, therapeutic delay > 1 month (HR: 3.61, 95% CI 1.41 - 9.20, P = 0.007, HIV seropositive (HR: 5.94, 95% CI 2.40 - 14.72, P < 0.0001 and clinical complication (HR: 1.90, 95% CI 1.52 - 2.39, P < 0.001.Conclusion and recommendation: Survival of patients was higher and higher hazard of death was noted in patients who started treatment after a month, smoker, HIV positive and patients who develop a clinical complication. Although survival is good, reinforcing the existing treatment program will further improve patients survival in Ethiopia.
Full Text Available Wondu Teshome,1 Mihretu Belayneh,1 Mathewos Moges,1 Misganu Endriyas,2 Emebet Mekonnen,2 Sinafiksh Ayele,2 Tebeje Misganaw,2 Mekonnen Shiferaw,2 Palanivel Chinnakali,3 Sven Gudmund Hinderaker,4 Ajay MV Kumar5 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Research Technology Transfer Process Unit, SNNP Regional Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India; 4Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 5The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, South-East Asia Regional Office, New Delhi, India Background: Treatment adherence is critical for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART for people living with HIV. There is limited representative information on ART drug adherence and its associated factors from Southern Ethiopia. We aimed at estimating the level of adherence to ART among people living with HIV and factors associated with it in 20 randomly selected ART clinics of Southern Ethiopia.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed consecutive HIV patients on first-line antiretroviral regimen attending the clinics in June 2014 using a pretested and structured questionnaire. For measuring adherence, we used 4-day recall method based on The AIDS Clinical Trial Group adherence assessment tool. Patients were classified as Incomplete adherence if they missed any of the doses in the last 4 days. Data were singly entered using EpiData and descriptive analysis, and unadjusted odds ratios were calculated using EpiDataStat software. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata v12.0.Results: Of 974 patients interviewed, 539 (56% were females, and mean age was 35 years. The proportion of patients with incomplete adherence was 13% (95% confidence interval: 11%15%. In multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with incomplete adherence included young age, being Protestant Christian, consuming alcohol, being single, and being a member of an HIV association. Psychosocial factors like stigma, depression, and satisfaction to care were not associated with incomplete adherence in the current context.Conclusion: The overall adherence to ART was good. However, there were certain subgroups with incomplete adherence who need special attention. The health care providers (especially counselors need to be aware of these subgroups and tailor their counseling to improve adherence among these groups. Exploratory qualitative studies may help uncover the exact reasons for incomplete adherence. Keywords: operational research, SORT IT, treatment compliance
Mesganaw Fantahun Afework
Full Text Available Background: The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives: To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results: A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1% had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3% attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9% delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91. Conclusion: This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is located even when not included in the surveillance system.
Fekadu Wolde-Giorgis, Daniel
Background: Child labour is a very common global problem. There are an estimated over 250 million in the world, and about 7.5 million child labourers in Ethiopia. Most of the studies available to date focus on the social, political, and economical issues, but very little on mental health or psychosocial problems of child labourers. There is no study describing the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among this group of children. Aims: 1. to assess the level of awareness and attitude of an u...
Stifel, David; Woldehanna, Tassew
We use Arndt and Simler's utility-consistent approach to calculating poverty lines to analyse poverty in Ethiopia in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Poverty reduction was steady but uneven, with gains greatest in urban areas in the first half of the decade, and in rural areas in the latter half. Other monetary and non-monetary measures of well-being confirm the general pattern of persistent improvements, though the large declines in poverty are not entirely supported by the magnitudes of change in othe...
Velappagoundar Ramaswamy and Hardeep Rai Sharma
A retrospective study was conducted in Gondar city of Ethiopia for six years (2004/05 to 2009/10) to observe the impact of plastic bags usage on environment and cattle health. Paper packaging is vanishing slowly in the city and limited to small shops only. Open dumping of plastic bags containing wastes is observed commonly near road side, open plots, river side, in drains and public places however, it is prohibited under Ethiopian law. Winds carry bags to distant areas sometimes found entangl...
Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Heinzelin, J. de (Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels (Belgium)); Schick, K.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Hart, W.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)); WoldeGabriel, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walter, R.C. (Institute of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Suwa, G. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Asfaw, B. (Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)
Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.
Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; Woldegabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane
The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6-1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714
MARTINEZ D'ALOS-MONER, Andreu
This study focuses on the Jesuit mission in Ethiopia (1557-1632). It presents a comprehensive history of the mission, from its inception during the reign of the Portuguese King Dom Manuel I, through its phase of expansion up to the expulsion of the Jesuit missionaries. Being the first mission personally conceived by the founder of the Society of Jesus, Ignatius of Loyola, the Ethiopian was also the last of the 'imperial' undertakings of the Society to fall, after the collapse of the projects ...
Molalegne Bitew; Yosef Deneke; Hassen Chaka; Heyradin Hussen
A cross-sectional survey on gastrointestinal helminths was conducted on 124 chickens raised under traditional management system in two selected districts namely Adaa and Adamitulu of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 111 (89.5%) were found to harbor one of the five different helminth parasites and 13 (10.48%) were free of helminths parasites. The study also found that 103 (83.0%) and 72 (58.0%) of the examined chickens were invariably infected by diverse species of cestodes an...
Seid Hussen; Zeru Yimer
Production potentials and constraints of mango were assessed at Bati wereda, Oromiya zone, Ethiopia in 2013 using data from sixty randomly selected mango producers in the area. Data were collected using questionnaire and focus group discussion. The result revealed that most of the producers belonged to the age group of 41-50 (28.3%) and 31-40 (266.7%). 95% of the producers were male and the rest 5% were female. Analysis of production system revealed that 90% of the respondents do not use fert...
Full Text Available Fluorosis, either dental or skeleton, is often due to the high fluoride content of well waters. In this work, using solutions which contain different amounts of fluoride, natural zeolites from Ethiopia and Mexico were tested. It is shown that, although zeolites are known to be cationic exchangers, their extra-framework aluminum and their high calcium contents determine their performance. A mechanism involving adsorption and ion exchange is proposed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.5
Valk, O.M.C., van der
Despite this large number of animals in Ethiopia, the consumption of milk per capita is amongst the lowest in the continent. There is an unmet and growing demand for fresh milk in urban centres whilst processing plants still operate at under-capacity. To ease this problem, donors and NGOs undertake various support efforts aimed at strengthening production an improving access to markets; however there is hardly any rise in production and volume of marketed milk. While in the urban retail mark...
Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter
Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium, self-selection into the informal sector and sectorally-distinct wage determination mechanisms.
Woldie, Getachew Abebe; Siddig, Khalid
In the poorest countries like Ethiopia the spillover effects of a soaring food price is unbearable. To mitigate the recent rise in food prices and the burden on urban poor consumers, policy makers have considered various measures. A recent shift from subsidizing oil to grain to ease the spiraling cost of food is one attempt the Ethiopian government has made so far. To this end, the government has removed an $800m annual subsidy on petroleum products and used the money to combat rising grain p...
Full Text Available Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women's health.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (1549 years, in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5% of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1% reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9% respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]. Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1% respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003, illiteracy (P = 0.01, and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012. The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3% were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM.Conclusion: In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it. Local healers were the main performers of FGM. Some of the women knew about the negative reproductive health effects of FGM and some had also experienced these themselves. However, only a few had tried to stop the practice and the majority had taken no steps to do so. This may be attributable to the fear of becoming alienated from the cultural system and fear of isolation.Keywords: female genital mutilation, reasons, health consequences, Ethiopia
Grego, Elena; Meneghi, Daniele de; TOMASSONE, Laura
Between May 2006 and January 2007, blood samples and ticks were randomly collected from 220 nomadic animals from Filtu and Dollo Odo districts, Libaan zone, in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Overall, 81.5% cattle, 98.2% camels, 53.4% goats and 61.1% sheep were infested by Ixodid ticks. Collected ticks (n=1,036) were identified as Rhipicephalus pulchellus (40.1%), R. pravus (25.8%), Amblyomma gemma (9.4%), Hyalomma rufipes (13.3%), H. truncatum (2.8%), H. impeltatum (1.2%) and H. dromedari...
Gella, Asrat Ayalew
There appears to be a paradox in Ethiopia. On the one hand, the country's development policy emphasises the central role of the agricultural sector and the need of cultivating a new generation of young, literate, and capable farmers who can embrace new technologies and methods in order to transform the sector. On the other, this commitment on the side of the state to ensure the majority of rural youth become the new generation of literate and capable farmers appears to be counter to the aspir...
Nantongo, Mary Gorreth
This study provides insight into the implementation of the most recent land law reform in Tigray, Ethiopia. I use a two round panel of data from 2006 when the law was passed and 2010, four years after enactment, to explore the knowledge and perceptions of the new law, and to study the impact the legal knowledge (as a proxy for the value of the policy) on conservation investments. Results reveal mixed perceptions of the law and an increase in legal knowledge between 2006 and 2010 although this...
This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the candidature of ten foreign companies for the introduction of natural gas in 1996 and the first enhanced recovery contract will relate to Rhourde El Baguel natural gas field (Algeria). New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Gabon, Ethiopia and Libya. Iraq has restarted its petroleum exports and Iranian production has diminished
Yonatan Tesfaye, Fessha.
Full Text Available The success of a federal arrangement in accommodating ethnic diversity cannot be measured solely on the basis of its language rights regime. However, it is generally agreed that a well-designed language rights regime goes a long way in contributing either to the effective reconciliation, unity and d [...] iversity or to the eventual polarisation of cultural communities. This article focuses on the challenges of adopting an inclusive language policy in multi-lingual states. Using two case studies, South Africa and Ethiopia, it examines the different policy alternatives for accommodating linguistic communities.
Since 1993, the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) has been empowered by the 'Radiation Protection Proclamation no. 79/1993' to authorize and inspect regulated activities, issue guidelines and standards and enforce the legislation and regulations. The report describes the status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia and the progress made towards building a sound and effective national regulatory infrastructure. Also, the report highlights the challenges and difficulties encountered and concludes by indicating the way forward towards the strategic goals. (author)
Negussie Deyessa; Yemane Berhane; Mary Ellsberg; Maria Emmelin; Gunnar Kullgren; Ulf Högberg
Objective: This study explores violence against women in a low-income setting in relation to residency and literacy. Setting: The study was conducted within the Butajira Rural Health Programme (a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site), which includes rural and semi-urban settings in south-central Ethiopia. Design: This is a community-based cross-sectional study and is part of the WHO Women's Health and Life Events multi-country study. It included 1,994 randomly selected married wome...
The issues that children in Ethiopia face are some of the most challenging in the World. The situation for millions of Ethiopian children can only be described as a crisis. As a result many thousands of Ethiopian children have been placed into institutions because their parents are either no longer living or are unable to care for them. The study sought to focus on childrens institutions. Specifically, the study aimed at discovers how childrens institutions were built up and organized. How ...
Joleen A. Timko
Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africas rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each countrys broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.
Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the standard of care for children suffering from noncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to develop a comprehensive linear programming (LP) tool to create novel RUTF formulations for Ethiopia. A systematic approach that surveyed inter...
Gelaye, Esayas; Belay, Alebachew; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Loitsch, Angelika; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama; Lamien, Charles Euloge
Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia. Retrospective outbreak data were compiled and isolates collected from thirteen outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle at various geographical locations and years were analyzed and compared to the vaccine strain. Isolates of GTPV and LSDV genotypes were responsible for the capripox outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle, respectively, while SPPV was absent. Pathogenic isolates collected from vaccinated cattle were identical to those from the non-vaccinated ones. The vaccine strain, genetically distinct from the outbreak isolates, was not responsible for these outbreaks. This study shows capripox to be highly significant in Ethiopia due to low performance of the local vaccine and insufficient vaccination coverage. The development of new, more efficient vaccine strains, a GTPV strain for small ruminants and a LSDV for cattle, is needed to promote the acceptance by farmers, thus contribute to better control of CaPVs in Ethiopia. PMID:25907637
Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.
Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent hundreds of
Nine case studies divided over four disciplinary parts (urban design & planning, building techology, building physics, monument care) of the architectural profession are being analysed in the context of the encounter between modern European architecture and Afrtican architectural culture. Volume I: Modern Architecture in Africa Volume II: Critical reflections on architectural practice in Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Ethiopia (1984-1999)
Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.
In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest
The severity and temporal dynamics of anthracnose on susceptible (BTx623 and AL70) and resistant lines (2001PWColl#022 and 2001HararghieColl#12) were studied in field plots during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in southern Ethiopia. The initial, final, and mean anthracnose severities and area un...
Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a measure that is used to display the achievement of college students in Ethiopia. It also serves as a key yardstick in career and scholarship assessment. In recent time there has been a rapid massification of higher educational institutions (HEIs). Many academics believe that the expansion has increased a
Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry
This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child
Twenty isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex; ODonnell et al., Fungal Genet. Biol. 41:600-623, 2004) were isolated from ground wheat samples collected in two different geographic areas in Ethiopia. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay (Ward ...
Gondo, Tendayi; Dafuleya, Gift
Technical vocational education and training (TVET) programmes have recently received increased attention as an area of priority for stimulating growth in developed and developing countries. This paper considers the situation in Ethiopia where the promotion of micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs) has been central to the development and
The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive
Much research has suggested that focusing on the determinants of female enrolment and dropout tells us little about girls' experiences of schooling in developing countries and cannot explain variation in their educational trajectories. This paper draws on quantitative (n = 1177) and qualitative data (n = 15) collected by "Young Lives" in Ethiopia
This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs
Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; TersbØl, Britt Pinkowski
Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health education, and lack of training of health professionals. Conclusions. Health system trials are needed to study the feasibility of ANC strengthening in the study area. Nationally and internationally, the leadership needs to be strengthened with supportive supervision geared towards building trust and mutual respect to protect maternal and infant health.
Full Text Available Knowledge of Rhynchosporium secalis variability and host response to scald is important in the context of breeding for resistance. The variation in R. secalis isolates from barley in different agroecological zones of Ethiopia was investigated with respect to colony and conidial morphology, colony growth rate, sporulation and virulence spectrum on a set of ten barley differentials. The R. secalis isolates differed markedly in several cultural characteristics but no correlation was found between these characteristics and isolate virulence. Five R. secalis pathotypes were selected from a total of 19 pathotypes and used to screen 35 barley lines in a glasshouse and also under natural infection in the field. Discriminant analysis revealed considerable divergence in host response, as well as in R. secalis virulence. Percent leaf area affected (PLAA and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC were negatively correlated with grain yield and 1000-grain weight and more closely reflected host resistance than apparent infection rate (r. High yielding barley lines such as HB-100 that showed resistance to all five pathotypes in the glasshouse and had low AUDPC, r and PLAA values in the field appear promising as donors of quantitative resistance genes in scald resistance breeding in the high altitude zones of Ethiopia.
West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.
Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.
Fekadu Gurmu, Ersulo Lire, Asrat Asfaw, Fitsum Alemayehu, Yeyis Rezene, Daniel Ambachew
Full Text Available A Genotype x Environment (GxE interaction study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 using 16 faba bean genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s. A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1. Genotypic difference was found to be significant (P < 0.05 and (P < 0.001 for each environment and across environments, respectively. Location main effect was also highly significant (P < 0.001, but year main effect was not significant. Genotype x Locations (GL and Location x Years (LY were significant. Genotypes G3 and G8 were specifically adapted to Hossana and Waka while G11 was specifically adapted to Angacha and Bule. G5 was the most stable genotype with wider adaptation to all the test environments and can be recommended for wider production in similar high land environments of the Southern Region of Ethiopia.
Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma
A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (p?market price, high market demand, immediate return, ease of management, equilibrium between benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized feed resources like fish meal and poultry litter were some of the opportunities for sheep production in the area. PMID:25997416
Aweke M. Gelaw
Full Text Available Population growth and increasing resource demands in Ethiopia are stressing and degrading agricultural landscapes. Most Ethiopian soils are already exhausted by several decades of over exploitation and mismanagement. Since many agricultural sustainability issues are related to soil quality, its assessment is very important. We determined integrated soil quality indices (SQI within the surface 015 cm depth increment for three agricultural land uses: rain fed cultivation (RF; agroforestry (AF and irrigated crop production (IR. Each land use was replicated five times within a semi-arid watershed in eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Using the framework suggested by Karlen and Stott (1994; four soil functions regarding soils ability to: (1 accommodate water entry (WE; (2 facilitate water movement and availability (WMA; (3 resist degradation (RD; and (4 supply nutrients for plant growth (PNS were estimated for each land use. The result revealed that AF affected all soil quality functions positively more than the other land uses. Furthermore, the four soil quality functions were integrated into an overall SQI; and the values for the three land uses were in the order: 0.58 (AF > 0.51 (IR > 0.47 (RF. The dominant soil properties influencing the integrated SQI values were soil organic carbon (26.4%; water stable aggregation (20.0%; total porosity (16.0%; total nitrogen (11.2%; microbial biomass carbon (6.4%; and cation exchange capacity (6.4%. Collectively, those six indicators accounted for more than 80% of the overall SQI values.
Osete, María Luisa; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Chauvin, Annick; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Roperch, Pierrick; Fernández, Víctor M.
First archaeointensity determinations have been obtained from Ethiopia. Seven bricks (34 specimens) from the Däbsan archaeological remains were subjected to archaeointensity determination by means of classical Thellier-Thellier experiment including tests for magnetic anisotropy and magnetic cooling rate dependency. The age of the Däbsan Palace is well controlled by historical information: between 1603, when land grants were conceded to the Jesuits and the Catholicism was established as the official religion in Ethiopia, and the age of the Palace foundation in 1626-27. Successful archaeointensity determinations were obtained in 27 specimens from five individual bricks revealing an average field value of 33.5 ± 1.1 ?T, which is 11-26% lower than expected values from global geomagnetic models based on historical and archaeomagnetic data. Global models for 1615 AD predict a low in central-southern Africa related to past location of the present Southern Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Our results suggest that the field intensity in central Africa may have been slightly lower than global model predictions. This would indicate that the low could be probably more extended towards central-eastern Africa (or more intense) than previously considered. Further data from this region are especially welcome to delineate the evolution of the SAA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity (FI has been shown to be associated with poor health both in developing and developed countries. Little is known about the relation between FI and neurological disorder. We assessed the relation between FI and risk for neurologic symptoms in southwest Ethiopia. Methods Data about food security, gender, age, household assets, and self-reported neurologic symptoms were collected from a representative, community-based sample of adults (N = 900 in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. We calculated univariate statistics and used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between FI and risk of neurologic symptoms including seizures, extremity weakness, extremity numbness, tremors/ataxia, aphasia, carpal tunnel syndrome, vision dysfunction, and spinal pain. Results In separate multivariate models by outcome and gender, adjusting for age and household socioeconomic status, severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, movement abnormalities, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, spinal pain, and comorbid disorders among women. Severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, extremity numbness, movement abnormalities, difficulty speaking, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, and comorbid disorders among men. Conclusion We found that FI was associated with symptoms of neurologic disorder. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, the directionality of these associations is unclear. Future research should assess causal mechanisms relating FI to neurologic symptoms in sub-Saharan Africa.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A woman's satisfaction with the delivery service may have immediate and long-term effects on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Providing satisfying delivery care increases service utilization. The objective of this study is to assess the satisfaction of mothers with referral hospitals' delivery service and identify some possible factors affecting satisfaction in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional survey that involved an exit interview was conducted from September to November 2009 in three referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A total of 417 delivering mothers were enrolled in the study. Client satisfaction was measured using a survey instrument adopted from the Donabedian quality assessment framework. We collect data systematically from every other postnatal woman who delivered in the referral hospitals. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was applied to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome (satisfaction. Results The proportion of mothers who were satisfied with delivery care in this study was 61.9%. Women's satisfaction with delivery care was associated with wanted status of the pregnancy, immediate maternal condition after delivery, waiting time to see the health worker, availability of waiting area, care providers' measure taken to assure privacy during examinations, and amount of cost paid for service. Conclusions The overall satisfaction of hospital delivery services in this study is found to be suboptimal. The study strongly suggests that more could be done to assure that services provided are more patient centered.
Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman
Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6-15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 primary schools. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal samples were examined using direct, concentration, and the Kato-Katz methods. Urine specimens were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66-76%). The prevalence of anaemia, stunting, and thinness were 11% (95% CI: 8-13%), 35% (95% CI: 31-38%), and 34% (95% CI: 30-38%), respectively. Poor personal hygiene habits were generally associated with anaemia and nutritional deficiency (low body mass index). Multivariate logistic regression models related Schistosoma mansoni infection with boys. Boys were also more likely to be malnourished. Hookworm infection was associated with anaemia and unhygienic finger nails. Access to clean water and latrines, with some hygiene and sanitation communication activities, could improve health of children in Ethiopia. The use of smartphone technology in demographic data collection proved to be successful. The potential advantage offered by this technology for parasitological field surveys merits further investigation. PMID:23683331
Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu
Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1??g/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987
Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examined the impact of the training on trainees' skills and the strengths and weaknesses of the course. The evaluation consisted of surveys and focus groups. Findings Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E. Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia. Conclusion The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings.
Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
This study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 to address the occurrence and genotypes of Coxiella burnetii using molecular methods in ticks collected from domestic animals in Ethiopia. Ticks were tested for C. burnetii by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting two different genes followed by multispacer sequence typing (MST). An overall prevalence of 6.4% (54/842) of C. burnetii was recorded. C. burnetii was detected in 28.6% (14/49) of Amblyomma gemma, 25% (31/124) of Rhipicephalus pulchellus, 7.1% (1/14) of Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, 3.2% (2/62) of Am. variegatum, 3.1% (4/128) of Am. cohaerens, 1.6% (1/63) of Rh. praetextatus, and 0.6% (1/153) of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus. Significantly higher overall frequencies of C. burnetii DNA were observed in Am. gemma and Rh. pulchellus than in other tick species (Mantel-Haenszel [MH], P Ethiopia. PMID:26392155
Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.
As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.
L, Phillips; N, Allen; B, Phillips; A, Abera; E, Diro; S, Riley; Y, Tadesse; J, Williams; A, Phillips.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key objective of the Nephrology Sister Centre Programme between the renal units in Cardiff and Addis Ababa, sponsored by the International Society of Nephrology, is to facilitate development of the local clinical service in Ethiopia specifically focused on the management of acute kidne [...] y injury (AKI). OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between AKI risk factor recognition and monitoring of renal function in three hospitals in Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were gathered regarding renal function monitoring, recording the presence of AKI risk-associated comorbidities and prescription of nephrotoxic medications across the disciplines of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology. RESULTS: Patients were more likely to have their renal function checked at the hospital with specialist services. Across all centres, the highest proportion of patients who had renal function measurements were those admitted to a medical ward. There was a positive relationship between documented comorbidities and the measurement of renal function but not between the prescription of nephrotoxic drugs and measurement of renal function. CONCLUSION: There was great variability in the extent to which doctors recognised the presence of risk factors for the development of AKI. Failure to identify these risk factors represents a lost opportunity to identify patients at high risk of developing renal injury who would benefit from renal function monitoring.
Adem K, Abebe.
Full Text Available This article analyses the legal regime governing standing to enforce constitutional rights in Ethiopia. It reiterates the direct link between standing rules and the right of access to justice. It observes that, although the laws of several states still require a personal interest in the action one w [...] ants to litigate, there is a developing trend towards the liberalisation of standing rules, particularly regarding human rights issues. It considers the activism of the Indian judiciary and the innovative changes introduced by the South African Constitution, recognising public interest litigation. With regard to Ethiopia, the article considers the rules governing standing in ordinary courts, the House of Federation and the Council of Constitutional Inquiry, the Human Rights Commission and the institution of the Ombudsman. It concludes that the current standing law regime is too restrictive as it requires the actual violation of personal rights and interests in a particular claim. The issue of standing is still governed by archaic rules which do not take into account the interest at stake and the individual circumstances of the victims. It recommends the liberalisation of standing rules to ensure that the constitutional guarantees can be enforced via, amongst others, public interest litigants.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of special aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.
Sanjay Kumar Jha
Full Text Available In 1994, Ethiopian constitutions underwent an amendment in which each regional state was given a right to choose, use, and diffuse its language from both cultural and educational perspectives. This amendment marked the welcoming sign of multilingual education in Ethiopia, but the current pattern of multilingual education has caused more harm than good to the end users (students in terms of learning and mastering English language to an optimal level. The paper hypothesizes that multilingual education is one of the determinants for impairing the quality of English education in Eastern Ethiopia. So this research took the shape of an ethnographic perception-study not only to explore the adverse impacts of multilingual education on the quality of English education but also to seek mass views on reversing the current trend of multilingual (trilingual education from (Mother Tongue + Amharic + English to (English + Amharic + Mother Tongue as a remedy. In this pursuit, 150 participants comprising 50 students, 50 teachers, and 50 government employees were selected using convenience sampling. The data were collected through unstructured interview and participant observation; whereas, the analysis of the data was made through analytic induction and percentile. As a part of findings, the paper presents six adverse impacts of multilingual education on English Education; and the participants varied degree of consent on reversing the current pattern of trilingual education. The paper finally forwards apposite recommendations to streamline English in mainstream education to enhance the quality of English education.
Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen
Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national policy documents and an analysis of the Ethiopian educational, economic and social context. Focused group and one-to-one interviews were conducted with policy researchers, experts from the Ministry of Education, adult educators and coordinators at different levels. It emerged that some of the existing policy provisions and contexts reflecting the highly formalised and structured educational opportunities available to Ethiopian youth and adults require re-conceptualisation. Despite the enormous progress made in increasing children's access to primary school, more than two million children remain out of school and adult literacy rates are still far from reaching the targets set both by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by national educational programmes. Moreover, as many youth drop out after completing primary education, and as the quality of learning appears to have suffered due to efforts of expansion, it is necessary to revisit the responsiveness of Ethiopia's formal educational provisions in the face of these challenges. Based on the opportunities and challenges identified, the authors explore some major considerations believed to be fundamental in creating a platform for the conceptualisation of Lifelong Learning in the Ethiopian context and conclude with some suggestions for the way forward.
Pfeiffer Dirk U
Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Methods We explored the spatial distribution of PPR in Ethiopia and we investigated risk factors for positive serological status. Intracluster correlation coefficients (?, were calculated for 43 wereda (administrative units. Results Seroprevalence was very heterogeneous across regions and even more across wereda, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 52.5%. Two groups of weredas could be distinguished on the basis of the estimated ?: a group with very low ? (? 0.37. Conclusion The results indicate that PPRV circulation has been very heterogeneous, the values for the ? may reflect the endemic or epidemic presence of the virus or the various degrees of mixing of animals in the different areas and production systems. Age appears as a risk factor for seropositive status, the linear effect seeming to confirm in the field that PPRV is highly immunogenic. Our estimates of intracluster correlation may prove useful in the design of serosurveys in other countries where PPR is of importance.
Teka, Daniel; Van Wesemael, Bas; Vanacker, Veerle; Hallet, Vincent
To address water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid part of developing countries, accurate estimation of surface runoff is an essential task. In semi-arid catchments runoff data are scarce and therefore runoff estimation using hydrological models becomes an alternative. This research was initiated in order to characterize runoff response of semi-arid catchments in Tigray, North Ethiopia to evaluate SCS-CN for various catchments. Ten sub-catchments were selected in different river basins and rainfall and runoff were measured with automatic hydro-monitoring equipments for 2-3 years. The Curve Number was estimated for each Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) in the sub-catchments and runoff was modeled using the SCS-CN method at ? = 0.05 and ? = 0.20. The result showed a significant difference between the two abstraction ratios (P =0.05, df = 1, n= 132) and reasonable good result was obtained for predicted runoff at ? = 0.05 (NSE = -0.69; PBIAS = 18.1%). When using the CN values from literature runoff was overestimated compared to the measured value (e= -11.53). This research showed the importance of using measured runoff data to characterize semi-arid catchments and accurately estimate the scarce water resource. Key words: Hydrological response, rainfall-runoff, degraded environments, semi-arid, Ethiopia, Tigray
Demissew Abakemal; Shimelis Hussein; John Derera; Mark Laing
Maize (Zea mays L.) plays a critical role in smallholder food security in Ethiopia. Its production is rapidly increasing to the Highlands of Ethiopia where it has been a minor crop in the past. This study aimed to assess the magnitude and production systems of Highland maize, farmers production constraints, and their implications for the adoption of new maize cultivars in two zones of the Oromia Regional State representing the Highland sub-humid agro-ecology of Ethiopia. A participatory rura...
Animut Abebe; Mohamed Hussen; Tadese Gemechu; Kassa Moges; Assefa Ashenafi; Mengesha Tesfayae
Abstract Background Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem®) has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection since 2004 in Ethiopia. In the present study the therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection at Kersa, Jima zone, South-west Ethiopia, has been assessed. Methods A 28 day therapeutic efficacy study was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008, in accordance with the 2003 WHO guide...
Tileye Feyissa; Mesfin Teshome
Ethiopia is one of the center of origin and diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The genus Sorghum has been divided into three subspecies, namely, bicolor, verticilliflorum and drummondii. The study of the genetic diversity of the wild species of sorghum significantly contributes to the improvement of Sorghum. The aim of study was to investigate the genetic diversity of wild Sorghum from Ethiopia using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat markers (ISSR) markers. ISSR were used to estimate ...
Fikre Lemessa; Girma Adugna; Sihen Getachew; H. Hindorf
Coffee diseases are presumed to be less important in the forest coffee as compared to the garden and plantation systems of coffee production in Ethiopia. In this article, the results of a study conducted on the occurrence and incidence of Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD) and the major factors influencing the disease in four major forests coffee sites in southwest and southeast Ethiopia are discussed. In each forest coffee site, coffee wilt syndrome was assessed in three systematically selected sampl...
Sewnet ,Tadesse Chanie; Tuju, Fassil Assefa
In a first step to understand the interactions between Coffea arabica L. trees and mycorrhizae in Ethio¬pia, an investigation of the current mycorrhizal colonization status of roots was undertaken. We sampled 14 shade tree species occurring in coffee populations in Bonga forest, Ethiopia. Milletia fer¬ruginea, Schefflera abyssinica, Croton macrostachyus, Ficus vasta, F. sur, Albizia gummifera, Olea capensis, Cordia africana, Ehretia abyssinica, Pouteria adolfi-friederici, Pavetta oliveriana, ...
The current study aims to explore womens and health workers experiences and perceptions on barriers and facilitators for health facility delivery in Northern Ethiopia. Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world and few women give birth in a health facility. The World Health Organization states that the most efficient strategy to reduce maternal mortality is to secure skilled attendance at birth, which involves the assistance of skilled health workers in an ena...
Kebede B; Gebeyehu A; Andargie G
Bekana Kebede,1 Abebaw Gebeyehu,2 Gashaw Andargie11Department of Health Services Management, 2Department of Reproductive Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, EthiopiaBackground: Maternal mortality rates are unacceptably high in Ethiopia. Institutional delivery with skilled care of the mother is one of the interventions proven to reduce the risk of complications that can cause maternal and neonatal mortality. Quality of service given during antenatal visits and childbirth ...
Alem Atalay; Hanlon Charlotte; Erko Berhanu; Amberbir Alemayehu; Medhin Girmay; Belyhun Yeshambel; Venn Andrea; Britton John; Davey Gail
Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are widespread in underdeveloped countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence and distribution of helminth infection varies by place and with age. We therefore investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for STH infection in mothers and their one year-old children living in Butajira town and surrounding rural areas in southern Ethiopia. Methods In 2005-2006, 1065 pregnant women were recruited in their third trimester of pregnancy. In 2006-20...
This report describes the findings of the industrial minerals sub-project of the Industrial Minerals and Artisanal Mining Study, one of three projects carried out by the British Geological Survey for the Ethiopia Energy Access Project Mineral Component, under funding from the World Bank. The current status of the industrial minerals sub-sector in Ethiopia has been assessed through a survey of producers and users, data on domestic production and imports, and reference to conventional pub...
Bonnen, K. I.; Tuijje, D. N.; Rasch, V.
Background: In 2005 Ethiopia took the important step to protect women's reproductive health by liberalizing the abortion law. As a result women were given access to safe pregnancy termination in first and second trimester. This study aims to describe socio-economic characteristics and contraceptive experience among women seeking abortion in Jimma, Ethiopia and to describe determinants of second trimester abortion. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted October 2011 - April 2012 in Jimma Town...
Pastoral, agro-pastoralism and transhumanance cattle production systems are important determinants of livelihoods in the semi-arid areas of north-western, southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia. The highlands are important for mixed crop-livestock enterprise, while the arid to semi-arid lowlands, that occupy 61% of the land area, are dominated by livestock production. The livestock species and breeds in these production systems have been traditionally selected, over millennia, to adapt to the challenges of the agro-ecologies. This initiative was undertaken in the arid to semi-arid lowlands of Metema district, which shares a 60 Km border with the Sudan, in North Gondar Zone of Amhara Region. The total area of the district is 440,000 ha, and 72% is covered with forest and rangeland, while 23.6% is cultivated. The cattle population is estimated at 136,910. Sesame-livestock followed by cotton-livestock production are the dominant farming systems. Although the Gumuz people are native in the district, most of the land is occupied by settlers from the highlands of Amhara and Tigray Regions. As a result, the dominant cattle population is the highland Zebu (mainly Fogera cattle breed crossed with other highland Zebu) brought by the highlanders. Rutana and Felata cattle breeds constitute a smaller proportion of the total cattle population. As a result, there is a mismatch between the cattle genotype and the environment. The major problems associated with cattle production are diseases and biting flies, water shortage, heat stress, long distance to watering points and grazing areas. Cattle production is therefore, characterized by high pre-weaning calf mortality (35-40%), slow growth rates, low fertility and calving rates, low milk yield and carcass weight. Breeding is entirely based on natural mating, and farmers' selection is based on milk yield, body conformation and colour; with considerations to disease resistance, heat tolerance and draft power potential. Table I presents the productive and reproductive performances of highland Zebu cows in the lowland agro-ecology. There is an evolving market-oriented cattle-fattening system in the district due to the increased domestic demand for meat and also the expanding export opportunity of live animals to the Sudan and other neighbouring countries. As a result, farmers are demanding for more adapted and productive animals. In response to this challenge, the Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) project of ILRI examined the performance of a number of indigenous lowland breeds and decided to introduce and test the most promising indigenous Borana cattle breed in Metema. The Borana cattle breed is found in the semi-arid lowland areas of Borana in Ethiopia and the adjoining areas of Kenya. The production system is a pastoral and semi-pastoral that makes use of marginal resources in the area. The Borana cattle is known for its heat and drought tolerance, good walking capacity, faster growth rate, higher fertility and superior meat production potential. With an overall aim of enhancing a market-oriented cattle production system under a tropical environment, the IPMS project introduced pure Borana bulls for natural mating with highland Zebu cows. In addition, over 400 highland Zebu cows were hormonally oestrus synchronized and artificially inseminated with Borana semen. This paper explains the new approach, the processes involved and the results achieved so far in an attempt to match genotype with the environment through introduction of the indigenous Borana cattle into the lowlands of north western Ethiopia. (author)
Full Text Available Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age are advised to use valid contraceptive methods for reducing unwanted pregnancy and its complications. However, contraceptive use among these segments of the population had not been previously assessed in Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess contraceptive use and associated factors among diabetic and hypertensive women of reproductive age on chronic follow-up care at University of Gondar and Felege Hiwot Hospitals.Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2012 among diabetic and hypertensive women on follow-up at the chronic illness care center. The sample size calculated was 403. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were collected using interview supplemented by chart review. The data were entered using EPI info Version 2000 and analyzed using SPSS Version 16. Frequencies, proportion, and summary statistics were used to describe the study population in relation to relevant variables. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were run to see the association of each independent variable with contraceptive practice.Results: A total of 392 married women on chronic follow-up care were interviewed making the response rate of 93.3%. The contraceptive prevalence rate was found to be 53.8%. Factors such as age 2534 years (adjusted odds ratio, AOR [95% confidence interval, CI] =3.60 [1.0512.36], (AOR [95% CI] =2.29 [1.154.53], having middle- and high-level incomes (AOR [95% CI] =2.12 [1.193.77], (AOR [95% CI] =5.03 [2.1911.54], receiving provider counseling (AOR [95% CI] =9.02 [4.4018.49], and controlled disease condition (AOR [95% CI] =4.13 [2.357.28] were significantly associated with contraceptive practice.Conclusion: The contraceptive utilization of women on diabetes and hypertension follow-up care was found to be low. Hence, strengthening counseling and education about family planning and controlling their medical conditions would help increase the contraceptive uptake of women on chronic follow-up. Keywords: family planning, chronic disease, pregnancy
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7% than in both the lowland (0% and midland (1.9% was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011 and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000 than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191 amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.
Mengesha Zelalem Birhanu
Full Text Available Abstract Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal calls for a reduction of maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. A key indicator to measure this goal is the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel. The maternal mortality ratio of Ethiopia is 676 deaths per 100,000 live births. Skilled birth attendance is correlated with lower maternal mortality rates globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proportion of births with a skilled attendant is only 10% in Ethiopia. Therefore identifying the determinants of skilled attendance for delivery is a priority area to give policy recommendations. Methods A community based nested case control study was conducted from October 2009 August 2011 at the University of Gondar health and demographic surveillance systems site located at Dabat district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the infant mortality prospective follow up study conducted to identify the determinants of infant survival. A pretested and structured questionnaire via interview was used to collect data on the different variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of skilled birth attendance. Strength of the association was assessed using odds ratio with 95% CI. Results A total of 1065 mothers (213 cases and 852 controls were included in the analysis. Among the cases, 166 (77.9% were from urban areas. More than half (54% of the cases have secondary and above level of education. Secondary and above level of education [AOR (95%CI = 2.8 (1.29, 3.68] and urban residence [AOR (95%CI?=?8.8 (5.32, 14.46] were associated with skilled attendance for delivery. Similarly, women who had ANC during their pregnancy four or more times [AOR (95%CI?=?2.8 (1.56, 4.98] and who own TV [AOR (95%CI?=?2.5 (1.32, 4.76] were more likely to deliver with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Conclusions Womens education, place of residence, frequency of antenatal care visit and ever use of family planning were found to be determinants of skilled birth attendance. Encouraging women to complete at least secondary education and to have antenatal care frequently are important to increase skilled attendance during delivery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background At the dawn of the third millennium, while the control of the second biggest infectious killer in the world (tuberculosis [TB] is an international priority, millions of pastoralist communities in the Horn of Africa are struggling to access TB care. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of pastoralist TB patients remain to be a challenge in TB control programs in many countries in this region, where pastoralism is a common means of livelihood. Better understanding of community perceptions of TB and its management could help identify reasons for the delay in diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities. The aim of this study is to explore barriers delaying diagnosis among pastoralist TB patients in the Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study, including 19 respondents was conducted in the SRS of Ethiopia. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA and informal interview techniques were employed to explore pastoralists' migration patterns, their perceptions of TB and their access to TB services. The influence of these factors on the delay of TB patients in receiving biomedical diagnosis was then assessed. Results We found that lack of access to formal health services as well as traditional beliefs leading to self treatment were barriers to prompt bio-medical diagnosis of TB among pastoralist TB patients in the SRS of Ethiopia. This study highlights that limited access to TB control programs is the most important barrier in early seeking of biomedical diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities with nomadic pastoralist being the most affected. Conclusions Diagnostic and treatment facilities should be established in strategic villages that pastoralist can reach in both dry and wet seasons. Such facilities may alleviate the observed long distance to health facilities and thus long delay in diagnosis of TB. This strategy should be compounded with a community based TB control approach, whereby basic medical training on TB management such as provision of health education, drug distribution and observations is provided to local traditional healers and religious leaders. This approach may improve pastoralists' perceptions of TB, hence eliminating the observed traditional believes associated with TB in pastoralists' context of the SRS.
Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie
This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized opportunities created through rural electrification. Though necessary for development, rural electrification alone is insufficient, and requires strong government commitment and political will to invest in public services and infrastructure, and encourage private sector participation. Keywords: rural electrification, modern energy services, Sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia, energy transition, Poverty Reduction, Rural Development.
Faris, Solomon Belay
It has been repeatedly observed that home and local context matter in the education of children. A smooth transition between home and classroom prepares children for enjoyable and meaningful life-long learning. Knowledge building in children is influenced by previous experience, values, beliefs and sociocultural factors associated with community. Against this theoretical background, the thesis examined the integration of local spiritual and cultural values to improve science education in Ethiopia. This autoethnographic research used in-depth interviews, supplementary observations and focus group discussion and my biography to identify the perception and practice of common and unique spiritual and cultural values. The study examined whether these values were included and/or excluded in the school curriculum and explored the possibilities for incorporating values in science education and the anticipated tensions resulting from their inclusion. Students, science teachers, parents, employers, curriculum experts, policymakers, elders, and religious leaders participated in the research, conducted in a randomly selected secondary school in Addis Ababa. The sampling followed a kind of snowball method, with a total of twenty key informants participating in interviews, fifteen classroom observations, and one focus group discussion. The data collection aimed at generating stories, which underlie the auto-ethnography methodology. Findings indicated that belief in and fear of God animated and sustained the Ethiopian way of life. Although spiritual teachings derived from sacred writings were the initial foundation for Ethiopian cultural norms, the two merged together later, creating a mosaic pervading every aspect of life in Ethiopia. Education was sustained on this merger of spiritual and cultural norms and values. It was also shown that the now century-old system of formal education did not incorporate those local spiritual and cultural values. Current science education also has little relationship to Ethiopian spiritual and cultural norms and is, therefore, in need of restoration. Findings showed that efforts to recapture local spiritual and cultural values in the curriculum may encounter obstacles and tensions. Clearly, the future of a more prosperous Ethiopia depends on the extent to which curriculum stakeholders can overcome these obstacles and put in place a relevant, contextual, and holistic education.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Results Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7% and non-literates (83.6%. Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7% belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS. Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4 were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5% of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. Conclusion The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate in Ethiopia. A large scale study on the genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia is crucial to understand transmission dynamics, identification of drug resistant strains and design preventive strategies.
Full Text Available We conducted a cross sectional study from October 2009 to March 2010 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with the objective of identifying prevalence of poultry coccidiosis in small and large scale production systems. A total of 384 fecal samples from female Rod Island Red chickens were taken and a flotation technique was employed to harvest coccidian oocysts. The result revealed that 89 (23.1% are positive for coccidia oocysts. Unlike Yeka and Akaki kality sub cities, Kolfe sub city showed significantly higher (P0.05 between age groups in both SSPS and LSPS. Variation in management system and objective of the farms might be accounted for the observed variation in the prevalances mentioned above.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam. The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Results Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5% children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3% for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2% for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5% for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32 and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 0.84, 6.88. A classification tree revealed insights in the importance of the dam as a risk factor for malaria. Assuming that the relationship between the dam and malaria is causal, 43% of the malaria occurring in children was due to living in close proximity to the dam. Conclusion This study indicates that children living in close proximity to a man-made reservoir in Ethiopia are at higher risk of malaria compared to those living farther away. It is recommended that sound prevention and control programme be designed and implemented around the reservoir to reduce the prevalence of malaria. In this respect, in localities near large dams, health impact assessment through periodic survey of potential vectors and periodic medical screening is warranted. Moreover, strategies to mitigate predicted negative health outcomes should be integral parts in the preparation, construction and operational phases of future water resource development and management projects.
Stork, A. L.; Stuart, G. W.; Henderson, C. M.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.
The Afar Depression, Ethiopia, offers unique opportunities to study the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading because the process is occurring onland. Using traveltime tomography and data from a temporary seismic deployment, we describe the first regional study of uppermost mantle P-wave velocities (VPn). We find two separate low VPn zones (as low as 7.2 km s-1) beneath regions of localized thinned crust in northern Afar, indicating the existence of high temperatures and, potentially, partial melt. The zones are beneath and off-axis from, contemporary crustal magma intrusions in active magmatic segments, the Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo and Erta'Ale segments. This suggests that these intrusions can be fed by off-axis delivery of melt in the uppermost mantle and that discrete areas of mantle upwelling and partial melting, thought to characterize segmentation of the uppermost mantle at seafloor spreading centres, are initiated during the final stages of break-up.
Behrman, Julia Andrea
Demographic scholarship suggests that schooling plays an important role in transforming fertility preferences in the early stages of fertility decline. However, there is limited evidence on the relationship between schooling and fertility preferences that addresses the endogeneity of schooling. I use the implementation of Universal Primary Education (UPE) policies in Malawi, Uganda, and Ethiopia in the mid-1990s to conduct a fuzzy regression discontinuity analysis of the effect of schooling on women's desired fertility. Findings indicate that increased schooling reduced women's ideal family size and very high desired fertility across all three countries. Additional analyses of potential pathways through which schooling could have affected desired fertility suggest some pathways--such as increasing partner's education--were common across contexts, whereas other pathways were country-specific. This analysis contributes to demographic understandings of the factors influencing individual-level fertility behaviors and thus aggregate-level fertility decline in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25951799
Alelign, Tilahun; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu
Identifying determinants of soil transmitted helminth infection is vital to design control strategy for the disease. This study assessed the prevalence of STH infections and associated factors among schoolchildren in Durbete town, northwestern Ethiopia. Data about the sociodemographic and socioeconomic status of the children were collected using a questionnaire and stool samples were diagnosed using thick Kato-Katz smear. STH infection was more common among school-age children in Durbete town. Hookworm was the most frequent helminth species detected. The prevalence of STH infection was more in children who did not practice wearing shoes and washing hands before eating and in those who were older in age. Deworming of school-age children in the study area would be important. In addition, provision of health education about helminths and the importance of wearing shoes and washing hands before eating would be important to reduce the burden of STH infection in the study area. PMID:26161265
ASTER succeeded in acquiring this image at night, which is something Visible/Near Infrared VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) sensors cannot do. The scene covers the Red Sea coastline to an inland area of Ethiopia. White pixels represent areas with higher temperature material on the surface, while dark pixels indicate lower temperatures. This image shows ASTER's ability as a highly sensitive, temperature-discerning instrument and the first spaceborne TIR multi-band sensor in history.The size of image: 60 km x 60 km approx., ground resolution 90 m x 90 m approximately.The ASTER instrument was built in Japan for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint United States/Japan Science Team is responsible for instrument design, calibration, and data validation. ASTER is flying on the Terra satellite, which is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.
Full Text Available Cheru Tesema,1 Takele Tadesse,2 Mulat Gebrehiwot,2 Azanaw Tsegaw,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal4 1College of Medical and health science, Debremarkos Universitty, Debremarkos, 2Institute of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 3College of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 4Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical laboratory Science, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Each year, one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB. Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia.Methods: A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2. Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community.Results: A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.315.76, households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.074.61, living space <4 m2 per person (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 2.094.63, a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.995.35, history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.353.12, a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.072.21, and absence of windows (AOR 4.42, 95% CI 2.467.95 were independently associated with the development of TB.Conclusion: This study identified that the number of family members in the household, educational status, room space per person, history of contact with a TB patient, availability and number of windows, location of kitchen facilities within the house, and whether or not the house had a ceiling were independently associated with contracting TB. Every community should construct houses with the kitchen separated from the main living room, and include a ceiling and more than one window. Cigarette smoking should be avoided since this also contributed to the risk of transmission of TB. Further research focusing on coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus, helminth burden, and malnutrition is important for the control and prevention of TB. Keywords: determinants, tuberculosis, Metema district, north-west Ethiopia
The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With some $2.5 million of Agency support received, Ethiopia ranks 54th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), complemented by expert services (16%) and training (29%). The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (88%), the remainder was made available through assistance in kind (6%), UNDP and extrabudgetary contributions (3% each). During the past ten years, project disbursements went to four major areas: agriculture (45%), nuclear medicine (35%), nuclear safety (14%) and nuclear engineering and technology (6%)
Nasir Tajure Wabe
Full Text Available AIM: Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials occurs among the population in Ethiopian. We studied to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in Ethiopia and evaluate factors associated with self-medications. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 households, selected from Silte Zone in South Ethiopia, using a random sampling technique by employing a pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Chi-square test was used to observe the association of variables. RESULT: The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics/ antimalarials in this study was 14.5%. Twenty seven (6.7% participants were self medicated with antibiotics, 2.7% used antimalarials drugs while 21 (5.2% used both. Level of monthly income and educational status significantly influence pattern of antibiotics and antimalarials self medication (P<0.05.The top three diseases that led to self medication in this study were headache (38.5%, fever (35.9%, and cough (14.1%. Among self-medicated antibiotics, Amoxicillin (13.5% followed by Ciprofloxacin (8.5% were the most commonly used class of drug. From antimalarials chloroquine (10.1% were highly abused. The main source of antibiotics /antimalarials was pharmacies (59.0% followed by shops (Kiosks (17.9%. The majority (20.5% of the respondents practiced self medication to avoid waiting time at health facilities. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of self-medication with anti-biotic/ antimalarials in the study community was low. Self medication tended to be higher in people with a higher education and those on higher monthly incomes. The major reason for self-medication is found to be to avoid waiting time at health facility. Community pharmacies are the major source drugs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 529-536
Nguyen, Nga; Fashing, Peter J; Boyd, Derek A; Barry, Tyler S; Burke, Ryan J; Goodale, C Barret; Jones, Sorrel C Z; Kerby, Jeffrey T; Kellogg, Bryce S; Lee, Laura M; Miller, Carrie M; Nurmi, Niina O; Ramsay, Malcolm S; Reynolds, Jason D; Stewart, Kathrine M; Turner, Taylor J; Venkataraman, Vivek V; Knauf, Yvonne; Roos, Christian; Knauf, Sascha
Parasitism is expected to impact host morbidity or mortality, although the fitness costs of parasitism have rarely been quantified for wildlife hosts. Tapeworms in the genus Taenia exploit a variety of vertebrates, including livestock, humans, and geladas (Theropithecus gelada), monkeys endemic to the alpine grasslands of Ethiopia. Despite Taenia's adverse societal and economic impacts, we know little about the prevalence of disease associated with Taenia infection in wildlife or the impacts of this disease on host health, mortality and reproduction. We monitored geladas at Guassa, Ethiopia over a continuous 6½ year period for external evidence (cysts or coenuri) of Taenia-associated disease (coenurosis) and evaluated the impact of coenurosis on host survival and reproduction. We also identified (through genetic and histological analyses) the tapeworms causing coenurosis in wild geladas at Guassa as Taenia serialis. Nearly 1/3 of adult geladas at Guassa possessed ?1 coenurus at some point in the study. Coenurosis adversely impacted gelada survival and reproduction at Guassa and this impact spanned two generations: adults with coenuri suffered higher mortality than members of their sex without coenuri and offspring of females with coenuri also suffered higher mortality. Coenurosis also negatively affected adult reproduction, lengthening interbirth intervals and reducing the likelihood that males successfully assumed reproductive control over units of females. Our study provides the first empirical evidence that coenurosis increases mortality and reduces fertility in wild nonhuman primate hosts. Our research highlights the value of longitudinal monitoring of individually recognized animals in natural populations for advancing knowledge of parasite-host evolutionary dynamics and offering clues to the etiology and control of infectious disease. PMID:25716944
Full Text Available Water is widely used as a raw material, ingredient, and solvent in the processing, formulation, and manufacture of pharmaceutical products, and assessing its quality is of paramount importance. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, there hasnt been any baseline assessment made with regard to the implementation status of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP principles in water treatment systems of pharmaceutical industries in Ethiopia. Hence, to assess the level of compliance to GMP in water treatment systems of pharmaceutical industries in Ethiopia, a national survey was conducted in all pharmaceutical industries of the country. Data were collected by employing quantitative and qualitative methods. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to nine pharmaceutical industries and the response rate was 8 (88.5%. According to the results, none of the industries had an influent and effluent total organic carbon monitoring system. Among the available storage tanks for purified water and water for injection, 7 (87.5% of them were of a sanitary material. However, in 4 (50% industries pipes were not made of sanitary material, purified water was not kept circulating at 70-80 oC and there were dead legs in the water lines. The validation results were investigated and corrective action was taken only in 1 (12.5% of the industries. The compliance of the water treatment systems of most of the industries to WHO GMP principles was found to be below the standard in many aspects. Therefore, it is recommended that the industries should exert maximum efforts to comply with GMP principles.
Background In Ethiopia the average fertility rate in rural areas is about 6 children per woman, while it is 2.4 children per woman in urban areas. It is with this concept in mind that the investigators of this study wanted to correlate the promotion of after-child-birth-use of family planning and desire to limit childbearing in Ethiopia. Postpartum amenorrhea signifies the interval between childbirth and the return of menstruation. Objectives The specific objective is to examine the desire to limit family size, along with cases of sterilized, fecund, postpartum amenorrhoea, declared in-fecund and menopausal women within the study area. Methods The study is based on the analysis of secondary data obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). This study is concentrated on couples because we need to know more about married peoples desire to limit their family size. The bivariate, ANOVA, and multivariate analyses were used to analyse the association. Results The total number of respondents was 6,745 (78.3% rural and 21.7% urban), with 93.6% of them being currently married and 6.4% of them living with a partner. The mean duration of amenorrhea among women who gave birth in the five years preceding the survey is 16 months. Women with equal numbers of sons and daughters were found to be 75.4% (OR?=?0.25) less likely to desire more children, compared to women with more sons than daughters. Conclusion Achievable resolutions include increasing females ages at marriage, avoiding unwanted teenage pregnancies, completely eradicating home delivery, and inspiring young people to use modern methods of family planning to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 & 5. PMID:25026977
Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the integrated and complex nature of the systems.
Brown, Douglas R.; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa
Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementationthe Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefitsfacilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this projectempowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands.
Tesfaye, Kindie; Jaleta, Moti; Jena, Pradyot; Mutenje, Munyaradzi
Conservation agriculture (CA) is being promoted as an option for reducing soil degradation, conserving water, enhancing crop productivity, and maintaining yield stability. However, CA is a knowledge- and technology-intensive practice, and may not be feasible or may not perform better than conventional agriculture under all conditions and farming systems. Using high resolution (?1 km(2)) biophysical and socioeconomic geospatial data, this study identified potential recommendation domains (RDs) for CA in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Malawi. The biophysical variables used were soil texture, surface slope, and rainfall while the socioeconomic variables were market access and human and livestock population densities. Based on feasibility and comparative performance of CA over conventional agriculture, the biophysical and socioeconomic factors were first used to classify cultivated areas into three biophysical and three socioeconomic potential domains, respectively. Combinations of biophysical and socioeconomic domains were then used to develop potential RDs for CA based on adoption potential within the cultivated areas. About 39, 12, and 5% of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and socioeconomic potential while 50, 39, and 21% of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and medium socioeconomic potential for CA in Malawi, Kenya, and Ethiopia, respectively. The results indicate considerable acreages of land with high CA adoption potential in the mixed crop-livestock systems of the studied countries. However, there are large differences among countries depending on biophysical and socio-economic conditions. The information generated in this study could be used for targeting CA and prioritizing CA-related agricultural research and investment priorities in the three countries. PMID:25331642
Gari, G; Grosbois, V; Waret-Szkuta, A; Babiuk, S; Jacquiet, P; Roger, F
A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in the different agro-climatic zones prevailing in Ethiopia. A total of 2368 serum samples were collected from 42 kebeles located in 15 districts and tested using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The herd and animal true LSD serological prevalence were estimated in each agro-climate zone using a Bayesian model. The intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) was evaluated using a random-effect model. According to the serological prevalence estimations, LSD affected differently the three agro-climatic zones considered. Herd level seroprevalence was higher in the midland agro-climate zone 64% (95% CI: 53-74) as compared to the highland 26% (95% CI: 17-36) and the lowland 50% (95% CI: 40-60) agro-climates. Animal level seroprevalence in infected herds was also higher in the midland agro-climate zone 31% (95% CI: 24-40) than in the highland and lowland zones (24% (95% CI: 18-31) and 23% (95% CI: 18-29), respectively). Higher ICC value in the highland agro-climate zone implies that increased sample sizes should be particularly required for this zone in future studies to estimate LSD prevalence or incidence with a desired precision level. This seroprevalence study also suggests that the prevalence of LSD infection in Ethiopia is higher than what has been previously reported. In the light of these updated estimations, we discuss options to trigger appropriate control measures in the future. PMID:22569562
Background Malaria is one of the leading public health problems in most of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. Almost all demographic groups are at risk of malaria because of seasonal and unstable transmission of the disease. Therefore, there is a need to develop malaria early-warning systems to enhance public health decision making for control and prevention of malaria epidemics. Data from orbiting earth-observing sensors can monitor environmental risk factors that trigger malaria epidemics. Remotely sensed environmental indicators were used to examine the influences of climatic and environmental variability on temporal patterns of malaria cases in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods In this study seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were used to quantify the relationship between malaria cases and remotely sensed environmental variables, including rainfall, land-surface temperature (LST), vegetation indices (NDVI and EVI), and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) with lags ranging from one to three months. Predictions from the best model with environmental variables were compared to the actual observations from the last 12 months of the time series. Results Malaria cases exhibited positive associations with LST at a lag of one month and positive associations with indicators of moisture (rainfall, EVI and ETa) at lags from one to three months. SARIMA models that included these environmental covariates had better fits and more accurate predictions, as evidenced by lower AIC and RMSE values, than models without environmental covariates. Conclusions Malaria risk indicators such as satellite-based rainfall estimates, LST, EVI, and ETa exhibited significant lagged associations with malaria cases in the Amhara region and improved model fit and prediction accuracy. These variables can be monitored frequently and extensively across large geographic areas using data from earth-observing sensors to support public health decisions. PMID:22583705
Yirdaw, Kesetebirhan Delele; Hattingh, Susan
Immunological monitoring is part of the standard of care for patients on antiretroviral treatment. Yet, little is known about the routine implementation of immunological laboratory monitoring and utilization in clinical care in Ethiopia. This study assessed the pattern of immunological monitoring, immunological response, level of immunological treatment failure and factors related to it among patients on antiretroviral therapy in selected hospitals in southern Ethiopia. A retrospective longitudinal analytic study was conducted using documents of patients started on antiretroviral therapy. Adequacy of timely immunological monitoring was assessed every six months the first year and every one year thereafter. Immunological response was assessed every six months at cohort level. Immunological failure was based on the criteria: fall of follow-up CD4 cell count to baseline (or below), or CD4 levels persisting below 100 cells/mm3, or 50% fall from on-treatment peak value. A total of 1,321 documents of patients reviewed revealed timely immunological monitoring were inadequate. There was adequate immunological response, with pediatric patients, females, those with less advanced illness (baseline WHO Stage I or II) and those with higher baseline CD4 cell count found to have better immunological recovery. Thirty-nine patients (3%) were not evaluated for immunological failure because they had frequent treatment interruption. Despite overall adequate immunological response at group level, the prevalence of those who ever experienced immunological failure was 17.6% (n=226), while after subsequent re-evaluation it dropped to 11.5% (n=147). Having WHO Stage III/IV of the disease or a higher CD4 cell count at baseline was identified as a risk for immunological failure. Few patients with confirmed failure were switched to second line therapy. These findings highlight the magnitude of the problem of immunological failure and the gap in management. Prioritizing care for high risk patients may help in effective utilization of meager resources. PMID:25961732
Adino D. Lulie
Full Text Available Background: Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA is a competency-based management training programme. Assessing health professionals views of SLMTA provides feedback to inform program planning, implementation and evaluation of SLMTA's training, communication and mentorship components.Objectives: To assess laboratory professionals and hospital chief executive officers (CEOs perceptions and attitudes toward the SLMTA programme in Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in March 2013 using a structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data from 72 laboratory professionals and hospital CEOs from 17 health facilities, representing all regions and two city administrations in Ethiopia. Focus groups were conducted with laboratory professionals and hospital administration to gain insight into the strengths and challenges of the SLMTA programme so as to guide future planning and implementation.Results: Ethiopian laboratory professionals at all levels had a supportive attitude toward the SLMTA programme. They believed that SLMTA substantially improved laboratory services and acted as a catalyst for total healthcare reform and improvement. They also noted that the SLMTA programme achieved marked progress in laboratory supply chain, sample referral, instrument maintenance and data management systems. In contrast, nearly half of the participating hospital CEOs, especially those associated with low-scoring laboratories, were sceptical about the SLMTA programme, believing that the benefits of SLMTA were outweighed by the level of human resources and time commitment required. They also voiced concerns about the cost and sustainability of SLMTA.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for stronger engagement and advocacy with hospital administration and the importance of addressing concerns about the cost and sustainability of the SLMTA programme.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies from high-income countries have shown intimate partner violence to be associated with depression among women. The present paper examines whether this finding can be confirmed in a very different cultural setting in rural Ethiopia. Method A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in Ethiopia among 1994 currently married women. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, cases of depressive episode were identified according to the ICD-10 diagnosis. Using a standardized questionnaire, women who experienced violence by an intimate partner were identified. A multivariate analysis was conducted between the explanatory variables and depressive status of the women, after adjusting for possible confounders. Results The 12-month prevalence of depressive episode among the women was 4.8% (95% CI, 3.9% and 5.8%, while the lifetime prevalence of any form of intimate partner violence was 72.0% (95% CI, 70.0% and 73.9%. Physical violence (OR = 2.56, 95% CI, 1.61, 4.06, childhood sexual abuse (OR = 2.00, 95% CI, 1.13, 3.56, mild emotional violence (OR = 3.19, 95% CI, 1.98, 5.14, severe emotional violence (OR = 3.90, 95% CI, 2.20, 6.93 and high spousal control of women (OR = 3.30, 95% CI, 1.58, 6.90 by their partners were independently associated with depressive episode, even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Conclusion The high prevalence of intimate partner violence, a factor often obscured within general life event categories, requires attention to consider it as an independent factor for depression, and thus to find new possibilities of prevention and treatment in terms of public health strategies, interventions and service provision.
Ayelet, G; Gelaye, E; Negussie, H; Asmare, K
This study was designed to describe the status of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Ethiopia, through analysis of FMD outbreak reports and the detection of antibodies, to address the possibility of establishing a disease-free zone. Serum samples collected from cattle between 2003 and 2006 for the serosurveillance of rinderpest were used for this study. The records of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2002 to 2006 indicate that FMD outbreaks occurred each year in Ethiopia during this period, with the highest number in 2004, when 134 outbreaks took place. The highest rates were from the North Shoa zones of both the Oromia and Amhara regions. The serum samples were tested using the 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, to identify antibodies against FMD. From a total of 4,465 sera, 10.5% (n = 467) tested positive. The highest seroprevalence was detected in samples from the Eastern zone of Rgray with 41.5%; followed by the Guji zone of Oromia and Yeka district of the city of Addis Ababa, with 32.7% and 30%, respectively. Antibodies specific to FMD virus were not detected in Gambella or Benishangul. The effects of cattle, sheep and goat density, both separately and together, were analysed with a spatial regression model, but did not have a significant effect on seroprevalence. This indicates that other factors, such as farming systems and livestock movement, play a significant role in the occurrence of FMD. Based on these study findings, it might be appropriate to establish disease-free zones in Gambella and Benishangul. PMID:23520733
Full Text Available The levels of essential and non-essential metals in niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica (L. f. Cass. cultivated in different parts of Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion using 2.5 mL of HNO3 (69.5%, 1 mL HClO4 (60% and 0.5 mL of 30% H2O2 at 210 oC for 150 min. Sampling was carried out randomly from nine different sites from Ethiopia and one sample from Eretria for comparison. The following metal concentration ranges (?g/g were determined in niger seed samples, respectively: Na (159736, K (55948203, Ca (340680, Mg (24044656, Mn (13.434.3, Fe (31.6370, Cu (9.561.2, Zn (23.446.2, Cr (4.016.8, Co (4.927.3, Ni (13.032.4, Pb (15.519.3 and Cd was not detected in all the samples. The analysis of variance indicated the presence of significance difference at 95% confidence level among niger seeds collected from different sites. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that there were significant correlations among some metals in the niger seed. The study revealed that niger seed is good source of essential metals and free from toxic metal such as Cd and hence safe for human consumption. Generally, the metal concentration in niger seed is comparable with other oil seeds.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.2
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.