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Malaria prevalence and mosquito net coverage in Oromia and SNNPR regions of Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and seasonal, with the majority of the country's population living in malaria-prone areas. Results from DHS 2005 indicate that the coverage of key malaria interventions was low. The government of Ethiopia has set the national goal of full population coverage with a mean of 2 long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) per household through distribution of about 20 million LLIN by the end of 2007. The aim of this study was to generate baseline information on malaria parasite prevalence and coverage of key malaria control interventions in Oromia and SNNPR and to relate the prevalence survey findings to routine surveillance data just before further mass distribution of LLINs. Methods A 64 cluster malaria survey was conducted in January 2007 using a multi-stage cluster random sampling design. Using Malaria Indicator Survey Household Questionnaire modified for the local conditions as well as peripheral blood microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests, the survey assessed net ownership and use and malaria parasite prevalence in Oromia and SNNPR regions of Ethiopia. Routine surveillance data on malaria for the survey time period was obtained for comparison with prevalence survey results. Results Overall, 47.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.5–61.9%) of households had at least one net, and 35.1% (95% CI 23.1–49.4%) had at least one LLIN. There was no difference in net ownership or net utilization between the regions. Malaria parasite prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI 1.6–3.5%) overall, but differed markedly between the two regions: Oromia, 0.9% (95% CI 0.5–1.6); SNNPR, 5.4% (95% CI 3.4–8.5), p Conclusion Household net ownership exhibited nearly ten-fold increase compared to the results of Demographic and Health Survey 2005 when fewer than 5% of households in these two regions owned any nets. The results of the survey as well as the routine surveillance data demonstrated that malaria continues to be a significant public health challenge in these regions–and more prevalent in SNNPR than in Oromia.

Shargie Estifanos B; Gebre Teshome; Ngondi Jeremiah; Graves Patricia M; Mosher Aryc W; Emerson Paul M; Ejigsemahu Yeshewamebrat; Endeshaw Tekola; Olana Dereje; WeldeMeskel Asrat; Teferra Admas; Tadesse Zerihun; Tilahun Abate; Yohannes Gedeon; Richards Frank O

2008-01-01

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Community-based survey of podoconiosis in Bedele Zuria woreda, west Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease resulting in progressive bilateral swelling of the lower legs in barefoot individuals exposed to red-clay soil derived from volcanic rocks. It is a considerable public health problem in countries across tropical Africa, Central America and northern India. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical features of podoconiosis, and patients' experience of disease prevention and treatment, in Bedele Zuria woreda (district), west Ethiopia. METHODS: The study was conducted during 2011 and involved a house-to-house survey in all 2285 households of five randomly selected rural kebeles (villages). RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis was 5.6% (379/6710) (95% CI 5.1-6.2%) and was significantly greater among women than men (6.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.001). A total of 311 (16.9%) households had at least one member with podoconiosis, and 128 (33.8%) study participants reported having a blood relative with podoconiosis. Two hundred and forty-three (76.4%) podoconiosis patients were in the economically productive age group of 15-64 years. On average, a patient experienced at least six episodes of adenolymphangitis per year resulting in a loss of 25 working days per year. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed a high burden of podoconiosis in west Ethiopia, and suggests that disease prevention and treatment programmes are needed.

Tekola Ayele F; Alemu G; Davey G; Ahrens C

2013-06-01

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Effects of Drought on Pastoral Household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available This study adopted the survey research design to investigate the effect of drought on Pastoral household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The aim was to give information about drought pattern in the study area, create an understanding of the menace as well as identify appropriate and relevant local level response mechanisms. A household survey was conducted with 134 households and this was complemented by interviews with informants. Meteorological data were also used to map out the time line of drought events in the area. It was observed that severe and recurrent drought of the present time has brought about declining range land resources, poor productivity and declining survival of livestocks. The results indicate that the frequency of drought has been on the increase from year to year. Increased severity of drought has caused huge moisture deficit and has posed multi-dimensional adverse effects on households' livelihood sources. However, households have developed various strategies to deal with the challenges of severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities.

Abera Bekele; Aklilu Amsalu

2012-01-01

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Physicochemical characteristics of the rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa in Ethiopia have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from four different localities, viz. Awaro, Senkele, Meja and Guder, and their edaphic characteristics are determined. The soils are dominated by clay (40.4-45.8%) along with coarse particles of sand. Bulk density, organic carbon (1.52-1.81%) and electrical conductivity (1.3-1.9 dSm) are low in all the soil samples. The soils are acidic with pH varying from 6.2 to 6.7. There are similarities in the relatively low content of available phosphorus (1.4-2.4 mg kg-1) and high available nitrogen content (480-986 mg kg-1) in all the soil samples while available potassium content (240-496 mg kg-1) is found to be medium in Awaro soil but high in the other three soil samples. Deficiencies are observed in the levels of available micro-nutrients (Cu: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1, Zn: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1 and Mn: 3.2-3.8 µg g-1) while the Fe content is sufficient in all the soil samples (340-496 µg g-1). With proper soil management, the farmlands studied are recommended for the cultivation of cereal crops.

Louis E. Attah

2010-01-01

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High Fluoride, Modest Fluorosis: Investigation in Drinking Water Supply in Halaba (SNNPR, Ethiopia)  

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In Halaba district in Southern Ethiopia fluoride levels from boreholes are high (2.6 to 7.0 mg/l), yet the incidence of fluorosis is modest. Drinking water users living in the vicinity of four drinking water systems that have been in operation for more than 35 years were surveyed. Out of 625 persons...

Frank van Steenbergen; Redda Tekle Haimanot; Aschalew Sidelil

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Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is a global priority which is particularly relevant to developing countries like Ethiopia. One of the key strategies for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is increasing institutional delivery service utilization of mothers under the care of skilled birth attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the level of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 1-20, 2011, among mothers who gave birth 12 months before the study began in Munesa Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Southeast Ethiopia. A stratified cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 855 participants. RESULTS: Out of all deliveries, only 12.3% took place at health facilities. Women who were urban residents (AOR?=?2.27, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.40), women of age at interview less than 20 years (AOR?=?6.06, 95%CI: 1.54, 23.78), women with first pregnancy (AOR?=?2.41, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.97) and, women who had ANC visit during the last pregnancy (AOR?=?4.18, 95%CI: 2.54, 6.89) were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education had also a significant effect on health institution delivery with AOR?=?4.31 (95%CI: 1.62, 11.46) and AOR?=?2.77 (95%CI: 1.07, 7.19) respectively. CONCLUSION: Institutional delivery service utilization was found to be low in the study area. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education, urban residence and ANC visit were amongst the main factors that had an influence on health institution delivery. Increasing the awareness of mothers and their partners about the benefits of institutional delivery services are recommended.

Amano A; Gebeyehu A; Birhanu Z

2012-01-01

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Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district), Oromia regional state, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC) service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. Methods A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10–30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs). Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P? Conclusion Institutional Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of the ANC services need to be investigated.

Fikre Addis Alem; Demissie Meaza

2012-01-01

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Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district), Oromia regional state, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC) service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10-30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs). Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. RESULTS: Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P?

Fikre AA; Demissie M

2012-01-01

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Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. DESIGN: Community based cross-sectional survey SETTING: Four kebeles of Samre Woreda (2 urban & 2 rural kebeles) METHODS: Four hundred lactating mothers were recruited from 400 randomly selected households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, feeding practices, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity was collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using calibrated equipments and standardized techniques. A one-day weighed food record was also collected from randomly selected sub sample (n=60) of mothers. The nutrient and energy content of foods consumed by the mothers was calculated by using ESHA Food Processor and the Ethiopian Food Composition Tables. To investigate the socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the nutritional status of the women, logistic regression was used. ANOVA and t-test were also used to see if there was a mean difference in nutritional status among the lactating mothers. RESULTS: Majority (71.2%) of the participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of the study participants was 5 out of 14 food groups. The prevalence of underweight, chronic energy deficiency and stunting were 31%, 25% and 2.2% respectively. Using logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants (as determined by BMI and MUAC) were size of farm land, length of years of marriage, maize cultivation, frequency of antenatal care visit and age of breastfeeding child. CONCLUSIONS: The feeding practices, dietary intakes and nutritional status of the lactating women were short of the national and international recommendations. Therefore, sustained health and nutrition education is recommended to the women and their families and communities on increased food intake, proper dietary practices and dietary diversification during lactation in order to improve health and nutrition outcomes of lactating women.

Haileslassie K; Mulugeta A; Girma M

2013-01-01

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Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas) of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 medicinal plants distributed in 64 families were documented in this study. The most frequently used plant part was leaf while the growth form with the highest number (43.82%) of representatives among the plants encountered in this study were herbs. About 57.9% medicinal plants were collected from wild while 24.1% were cultivated and 18.5% were both cultivated and collected from wild. A total of 62 human and 27 veterinary diseases were documented in the study. However, only 58% of the traditional healers exercised their indigenous knowledge on treating both human and livestock diseases, while 41.96% practiced treatment of only human diseases. The medicinal plant resources and the associated knowledge of herbal medicine need to be used in a sustainable way and developed for more effective use in the future.

Mathewos Agize; Sebsebe Demissew; Zemede Asfaw

2013-01-01

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Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia : a cross sectional study  

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Background: Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia...

Setegn, Tesfaye; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Lema, Tefera Belachew

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A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS), and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8) of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4) of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0). Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7%) were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8%) of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6%) reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7). Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1). Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little maintenance by their owners. With the global move towards malaria elimination it makes sense to aim for sustained high coverage of LLINs. However, in the current economic climate, it also makes sense to hark back to simple tools and messages on the importance of careful net maintenance, which could increase their lifespans.

Batisso Esey; Habte Tedila; Tesfaye Gezahegn; Getachew Dawit; Tekalegne Agonafer; Kilian Albert; Mpeka Betty; Lynch Caroline

2012-01-01

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Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. RESULTS: More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94]) and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]). The majority (67.02%) of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child's age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47) and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73) and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88]), but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]). CONCLUSION: The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community based behavior change communications using multiple channels including radio and folk media is recommended to reduce sub-optimal breast feeding practices and associated consequences among children in the study area.

Tamiru D; Belachew T; Loha E; Mohammed S

2012-01-01

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Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. Results More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94]) and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]). The majority (67.02%) of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child’s age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47) and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73) and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88]), but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]). Conclusion The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community based behavior change communications using multiple channels including radio and folk media is recommended to reduce sub-optimal breast feeding practices and associated consequences among children in the study area.

Tamiru Dessalegn; Belachew Tefera; Loha Eskindir; Mohammed Shikur

2012-01-01

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An outbreak of liver disease in Tahtay Koraro Woreda, Tigray region of Ethiopia: a case-control study for the identification of the etiologic agent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of fatal liver disease of unidentified origin in Tahtay Koraro Woreda, Tigray Region was reported at the end of 2005. In response to this report, a team of investigators was deployed from the EHNRI to assess the situation in the affected area. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the trip was to investigate the probable etiological agent(s) for the stated health problem and to suggest possible means of containing the outbreak. METHOD: A case-control epidemiological method was employed in collecting information from the affected (case) area and a non-affected adjacent area (control) using structured questionnaire. Qualitative data was also collected through focus group discussion (FGD) at community as well as woreda level. Samples of biological and environmental nature were also collected from both case and control areas for a subsequent laboratory analysis in order to identify the causative agent of the outbreak. RESULT: The comparative analysis of the various variables and possible exposure factors between the two sites (case vs control village) revealed that both villages were similar in terms of their exposure to most of the suspected factors including exposure to chemicals, food storage and handling practices, and to the use of traditional herbal medicines or consumption of wild edible plants. However, it was observed that the residents in the affected site (over 96%) relied more on unprotected or protected well as a source of drinking water and other household purposes while most in the non-affected depended on fresh water from river or unprotected spring. This difference was significant, p = 0.000 (OR = 840, 95% CI = 50.1, 14095.7). CONCLUSION: Though several of the possible exposure factors to the epidemic appear to be similar for both the case and control villages, the water source they use for drinking and other household purposes differed markedly. It therefore seems plausible that the problem in the case area could be linked to this water source.

Abebe D; Debella A; Tekabe F; Mekonnen Y; Degefa A; Mekonnen A; Tefera A; Mamo H; Tsegaye B

2012-04-01

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Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future.

Karunamoorthi K; Bekele M

2009-01-01

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Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future. PMID:20701879

Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Bekele, Mammo

2009-11-06

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Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%). PMID:11732422

Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

2001-12-01

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Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P < 0.001) during the wet season than during the dry season and higher (P = 0.002) in Adami-Tulu-Jido-Kombolcha woreda (74%) than in Ada'a woreda (60%). Area and season had no significant effect on the seroprevalence of ND, IBD, and PM, indicating the widespread presence of those pathogens throughout the year in the study area. Of all the chickens tested, 85.6% had antibodies concurrently to more than one of the pathogens investigated. Birds were concurrently seropositive to more diseases during the wet season (median = 3) than during the dry season (median = 2; P = 0.002). As serology is not able to distinguish between strains, further studies are warranted to better understand the circulating strains, their interactions, and their economic effect on backyard poultry production in Ethiopia.

Chaka H; Goutard F; Bisschop SP; Thompson PN

2012-04-01

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Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia.

Biadglegne F; Tesfaye W; Anagaw B; Tessema B; Debebe T; Anagaw B; Mulu A; Sack U; Rodloff AC

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozo...

Józef Razowski; Pasquale Trematerra

22

Light for Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the aid of small island PV systems, a German-based aid foundation is bringing light in the huts of Ethiopia's rural population. The solar energy is also awakening the energy of the people themselves. (orig.)

Dany, Christian

2009-07-01

23

THE IMPLICATIONS OF FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALISATION ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN ETHIOPIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we will show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data.In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits.The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

Petra Zimmermann-Steinhart; Yakob Bekele

2012-01-01

24

The implications of federalism and decentralisation on socio-economic conditions in Ethiopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we will show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both c (more) ases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

Zimmermann-Steinhart, P; Bekele, Y

2012-08-01

25

Self-supply as a complementary water services delivery model in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP) aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS) face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

John Butterworth; Sally Sutton; Lemessa Mekonta

2013-01-01

26

The impact of podoconiosis on quality of life in Northern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases, which untreated, causes considerable physical disability and stigma for affected individuals. Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) of patients with podoconiosis. This study aimed to assess the QoL of patients with podoconiosis in comparison with healthy controls in Ethiopia. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2012, among 346 clinically confirmed adult patients with podoconiosis, and 349 healthy adult neighbourhood controls in Dembecha woreda (district) in northern Ethiopia. QoL was assessed using the validated Amharic version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) scale; in addition, mental health and stigma were assessed by the Kessler-10 scale and podoconiosis stigma scale respectively. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with QoL. RESULTS: Patients with podoconiosis had significantly lower mean overall QoL than the controls (52.05 versus 64.39), and this was also true in all four sub domains (physical, psychological, social and environmental). Controls were 7 times more likely to have high (above median) QoL (Odds Ratio = 6.74, 95% Confidence Interval 4.62 to 9.84) than cases. Factors associated with lower QoL were: experiencing high levels of stigma, living in an urban area, being illiterate, having additional co-morbidities, and being unmarried. Mental illness was associated with lower scores in psychological and physical domains. CONCLUSIONS: Programs targeting podoconiosis interventions should include QoL as an indicator for monitoring progress. Interventions targeting improvement of QoL among patients with podoconiosis should address depression, stigma and other co-morbidities.

Mousley E; Deribe K; Tamiru A; Davey G

2013-01-01

27

Magnitude of Anemia and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Shalla Woreda, West Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem in developing countries and affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women. METHODS: Facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted from June to August, 2011 on 374 pregnant women. Mothers who came for ANC during the study period and who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed and a capillary blood sample was taken. Hemoglobin level was determined by using HemoCue photometer, and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were cleaned, coded and fed into SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. RESULT: The mean hemoglobin concentration was 12.05±1.5 g/dl and prevalence of anemia was 36.6%. Family sizes (COR=2.67, CI (1.65, 4.32), third trimester (COR=1.45, CI (1.11, 2.23), meat consumption <1x/wk (COR=3.47, CI (1.58, 7.64) and pica (COR=2.33, CI (1.52, 3.58) were significantly associated with anemia. Having five or more children (AOR=5.2, CI [1.29, 21.09]), intake of vegetables and fruits less than once per day (AOR= 6.7, CI [2.49, 17.89]), intake of tea always after meal (AOR = 12.83.CI [45-28.9]), and recurrence of illness during pregnancy (AOR=7.3, CI [2.12-25.39]) were factors associated with anemia. CONCLUSION: This study showed that anemia is a moderate public health problem. Less frequent meat and vegetable consumption, parity ?5 are risk factors for anemia. Therefore, reducing parity, taking balanced diet and use of mosquito nets during pregnancy are recommended.

Obse N; Mossie A; Gobena T

2013-07-01

28

Ethiopia: Land Opportunity?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 2008, many foreign companies have been attracted to invest in Ethiopian land, Karuturi is one of the largest land investors in Ethiopia and it also claimed its Corporate Social Responsibility strategy. As a developing country with high ranking in corruption, there might be potential risk for i...

Tommerup, Emil; Valciukaite, Silvestra; Gulbinaite, Simona; Wang, Yizhuo

29

Country programme review. Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development.

1991-01-01

30

Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was found between the prevalence rates of helminth parasites in the different agro-ecological zones; the highest prevalence was observed in the lowland areas. This suggests that agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Nematodes recovered included Heterakis gallinarum (17.28%), Subulura brumpti (17.60%), Ascaridia galli (35.58%), Cheilospirura hamulosa (0.75%) and Dyspharynx spiralis (2.62%). The principal cestode species encountered were Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%).

Eshetu Y; Mulualem E; Ibrahim H; Berhanu A; Aberra K

2001-12-01

31

Cancer in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethiopia has a population of more than 84 million people and is expected to become the ninth most populous country in the world by 2050. The growing population coupled with lifestyle changes will mean an increasing burden of cancer. However, oncology services are wholly inadequate--no cancer registry exists, and only one cancer centre, with a handful of doctors and nurses, struggles to serve the entire country.

Woldeamanuel YW; Girma B; Teklu AM

2013-04-01

32

Use of previous maternal health services has a limited role in reattendance for skilled institutional delivery: cross-sectional survey in Northwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality rates are unacceptably high in Ethiopia. Institutional delivery with skilled care of the mother is one of the interventions proven to reduce the risk of complications that can cause maternal and neonatal mortality. Quality of service given during antenatal visits and childbirth are important measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of skilled institutional delivery and its repeat use during a subsequent pregnancy and to identify any reasons why women avoid institutional delivery. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2012 in Chilga Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were collected from women who gave birth during the year preceding the survey. Information was entered and cleaned using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was used to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome. RESULTS: A total of 402 (84.2%) women gave birth at home. Previous experience of skilled institutional delivery had a limited role in subsequent acceptance or use of institutional delivery. Most mothers who had previously had institutional delivery gave birth at home. Although 111 (40.8%) women visited the health facility during their pregnancy only because of illness, 184 (38.8%) did not know when to visit for antenatal care. In multivariate analysis, lower maternal education, being a rural resident, previous use of institutional delivery, remoteness of the health facility, and multiparity were factors significantly associated with less likelihood of institutional delivery. Number of months pregnant at the time of the first antenatal visit had no role in increasing the likelihood of institutional delivery. CONCLUSION: The quality of the obstetric services presently available for women living in Ethiopia needs review.

Kebede B; Gebeyehu A; Andargie G

2013-01-01

33

Determinants of inter birth interval among married women living in rural pastoral communities of Southern Ethiopia: a case control study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women's of child bearing age in Yaballo Woreda, Borena zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based unmatched case-control study with multi stage sampling technique was conducted from January to March 2012. Cases were women with two subsequent birth intervals of less than three years and controls were women with two subsequent birth intervals between three and above years. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select six hundred fifty two (326 cases and 326 controls) study subjects. All explanatory variables that were associated with the outcome variable (birth interval) during bivariate analysis were included in the final logistic model. Multivariable backward logistic regression when P values less than or equal to 0.05 and 95% CI were used to determine independent determinants for the outcome of interest. RESULTS: The median duration of birth interval was 31 & 40 months among cases and controls respectively. Variables such as number of children (AOR 3.73 95% CI: (1.50, 9.25), use of modern contraceptives (AOR 5.91 95% CI: (4.02, 8.69), mothers' educational status (AOR 1.89 95% CI: (1.15, 3.37), and sex of the child (AOR 1.72 95% CI: (1.17, 2.52) were significantly associated with birth intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Concerted efforts to encourage modern contraceptive use, women education, and breastfeeding should be made.

Begna Z; Assegid S; Kassahun W; Gerbaba M

2013-01-01

34

Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The literature on schistosomiasis in Ethiopia is reviewed with the objective of bringing together in one paper diverse sources which may not be available to those interested in schistosomiasis. Particular attention is given to the influence of altitude and climate, snail ecology and government economic programs on the distribution of schistosomiasis. Out of 365 communities studied between 1961 and 1986 for Schistosomiasis mansoni, cases were reported from 225 (62%), and in 85 (23%) the prevalence ranged from 10 to 92%. Most transmission sites and S. mansoni infections are in agricultural communities along streams between 1300 and 2000 m altitude infested with Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the major snail intermediate host. S. mansoni transmission above 2200 m and below 800 m is precluded in many parts of Ethiopia by low and high water temperatures, respectively. Schistosomiasis haematobium cases have been reported from 30 of the 54 communities studied, 17 of them with infection rates between 14 and 75%. Endemic S. haematobium appears to be confined in its distribution to lowlands below 800 m altitude. The highly focal distribution of S. haematobium transmission is largely due to the nonsusceptibility of most bulinine snails to the Ethiopian strain of the parasite and low water temperatures in the highlands. Water resources development, resettlement programs, refugee migration and other population movements may result in the spread of endemic S. mansoni. Lack of information on snail host/parasite relationships and the ecology of proven and suspected snail hosts does not permit predictions on the spread of endemic S. haematobium. Past and present schistosomiasis control programs in Ethiopia are reviewed and recommendations made for the national control program.

Kloos H; Lo CT; Birrie H; Ayele T; Tedla S; Tsegay F

1988-01-01

35

Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature on schistosomiasis in Ethiopia is reviewed with the objective of bringing together in one paper diverse sources which may not be available to those interested in schistosomiasis. Particular attention is given to the influence of altitude and climate, snail ecology and government economic programs on the distribution of schistosomiasis. Out of 365 communities studied between 1961 and 1986 for Schistosomiasis mansoni, cases were reported from 225 (62%), and in 85 (23%) the prevalence ranged from 10 to 92%. Most transmission sites and S. mansoni infections are in agricultural communities along streams between 1300 and 2000 m altitude infested with Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the major snail intermediate host. S. mansoni transmission above 2200 m and below 800 m is precluded in many parts of Ethiopia by low and high water temperatures, respectively. Schistosomiasis haematobium cases have been reported from 30 of the 54 communities studied, 17 of them with infection rates between 14 and 75%. Endemic S. haematobium appears to be confined in its distribution to lowlands below 800 m altitude. The highly focal distribution of S. haematobium transmission is largely due to the nonsusceptibility of most bulinine snails to the Ethiopian strain of the parasite and low water temperatures in the highlands. Water resources development, resettlement programs, refugee migration and other population movements may result in the spread of endemic S. mansoni. Lack of information on snail host/parasite relationships and the ecology of proven and suspected snail hosts does not permit predictions on the spread of endemic S. haematobium. Past and present schistosomiasis control programs in Ethiopia are reviewed and recommendations made for the national control program. PMID:3131881

Kloos, H; Lo, C T; Birrie, H; Ayele, T; Tedla, S; Tsegay, F

1988-01-01

36

Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia, 2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty species of Tortricidae from Ethiopia, Oromia Region, are recorded of which Olethreutes didessae sp. n., Ancylis colaccii sp. n., and Gypsonoma giorgiae sp. n. are described as new; Eucosma thalameuta Meyrick, 1918, is transferred to the genus Cosmetra

J. Razowski; P. Trematerra

37

Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hübner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.

Józef Razowski; Pasquale Trematerra

2010-01-01

38

Dermatopathology practice in ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Dermatologic diseases are extremely common among the Ethiopian population and are a significant cause of morbidity. However, few studies exist in the literature that describe the incidence and clinical and histologic features of biopsied cutaneous lesions. OBJECTIVES: To categorize the cutaneous diseases observed in skin biopsies at the All African Leprosy Rehabilitation and Training Center (ALERT) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and to describe the clinical and histologic features of dermatopathologic diagnoses most frequently encountered in this practice setting. DATA SOURCES: Pathology reports of 2342 cutaneous specimens received at ALERT in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, were reviewed to determine the range and frequency of cutaneous diseases and dermatoses diagnosed from January 2007 through December 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The range of cutaneous diseases observed in skin biopsies at ALERT was varied and included inflammatory dermatoses (27%), infectious diseases (24%), and malignant and benign cutaneous neoplasms (22% and 20%, respectively). The most common conditions observed in this study were squamous cell carcinoma (8% of total cases), eczema (6% of total cases), leishmaniasis (6% of total cases), tuberculosis (6% of total cases), and benign nevi (4% of total cases).

Gimbel DC; Legesse TB

2013-06-01

39

Patients' perceptions of podoconiosis causes, prevention and consequences in East and West Gojam, Northern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a form of non-filarial elephantiasis that affects barefoot individuals in highland tropical areas. The disease presents with bilateral, asymmetric swelling of the legs, usually confined to below the knee. This study aimed to assess podoconiosis patients' perceptions of prevention, control, causes and familial clustering of the disease, and to document physical, social and economic impairments associated with the disease, with the ultimate aim of enabling development of tailored interventions in this region. METHODS: This descriptive study is part of the largest cross-sectional community-based household survey yet conducted on podoconiosis. It was completed in November and December, 2011, in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha Woredas of East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia, and consisted of a house-to-house census by community health workers followed by interviews of identified patients using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: In the 17,553 households surveyed, 1,319 patients were identified. More male as compared to female patients were married (84.6% vs. 53.6%, ?(2) = 157.1, p < 0.0001) while more female as compared to male patients were divorced (22.5% vs. 3.6%, ?(2) = 102.3, p < 0.0001). Less than half of the study subjects believed podoconiosis could be prevented (37.5%) or controlled (40.4%) and many (41.3%) did not know the cause of podoconiosis. Two-fifths of the study subjects had a relative affected with podoconiosis. Approximately 13% of the respondents had experienced one or more forms of social stigmatization. The coping strategies adopted by patients to mitigate the physical impairments caused by podoconiosis were: working only occasionally (44.9%), avoiding physically demanding tasks (32.4%), working fewer hours (21.9%) or completely stopping work (8%). Most study subjects (96.4%) had noticed a decline in their income following the development of podoconiosis, and 78% said they were poorer than their healthy neighbours. CONCLUSION: This study shows that podoconiosis has strong psychosocial, physical and economic impacts on patients in East and West Gojam Zones of northern Ethiopia. Concerns related to familial clustering, poor understanding of the causes and prevention of podoconiosis all add to the physical burden imposed by the disease. Strategies that may ease the impact of podoconiosis include delivery of tailored health education on the causes and prevention of disease, involving patients in intervention activities, and development of alternative income-generating activities for treated patients.

Molla YB; Tomczyk S; Amberbir T; Tamiru A; Davey G

2012-01-01

40

Visceral leishmaniasis in northern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been well documented by the Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) VL treatment programmeme in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, but reports are limited from other facilities in this region where this disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of VL in a government hospital in Axum, Ethiopia. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 111 patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis. SETTING: Saint Mary's Hospital, Axum, Ethiopia. SUBJECTS: One hundred and Eleven patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis in a government hospital in Axum, Ethiopia. RESULTS: All patients were male and most reported travel history to Humera, a known endemic area. Patients presented with classic signs and symptoms, including fever, weight loss, splenomegaly and anaemia. Almost one third (15/53) of patients who underwent HIV testing had a positive result. Crude death rate at six months was 13.5 per 100 patients (95% CI: 6.7 - 20.3 per 100 patients). Presence of HIV and other co-infections were associated with increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes in this setting were comparable to that of the MSF programmeme in Tigray, Ethiopia and highlight the importance of HIV testing for patients presenting with visceral leishmaniasis.

Haile T; Anderson SD

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Uranium exploration in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)

2009-01-01

42

Presence and use of legislative guidelines for the distribution of decentralized decision making authority in the jimma zone health system, southwest ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Decentralization ultimately involves the execution of most health care activities at lower levels of the health system. However, when poorly implemented, decentralization can create confusion about roles and responsibilities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the presence and use of legislative guidelines depicting the distribution of decentralized authority for decision making in the Jimma Zone health system, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study employing both qualitative and quantitative methods was undertaken from 16(th) January to 15(th) March 2007 in Jimma Zone. Health managers at relevant departments of the Federal Ministry of Health, Oromia Regional Health Bureau (RHB), Jimma Zonal Health Department, 13 Woreda Health Offices of Jimma Zone and the health centers and health posts in these districts were included in the study. Data was collected using interview guides and self administered structured questionnaires prepared for each level of the health system. Tape-recorded qualitative data was transcribed and analyzed using thematic framework approach while SPSS for windows version 12.0.1 was used to analyze the quantitative data obtained. RESULTS: According to the regional guidelines, ensuring achievement of regional health service targets is the responsibility of the RHB. This was clear to 97 (97.9%) of the health managers included in this study. However, almost equivalent proportion of the respondents, 95 (95.9%) agreed that the FMOH should be responsible for this. Similarly, 71 (73.9%) of the health managers knew that approval of health budgets and efforts for local resource generation is the responsibility of the Woreda Administrative Council while the remaining 27.1% were uncertain or disagreed about this regional direction. Such confusions were observed in almost every functional area. Moreover, legislative guidelines were not available in most of the district health offices and health facilities. CONCLUSION: Legislative guidelines depicting the distribution of decentralized authority in decision making in the health system were prepared at national and regional levels. However, the findings of this study suggested that health managers in the Jimma Zone health system did not appear to have the right perceptions about roles and responsibilities of the various levels. It is, therefore, very important to clarify such confusions along with capacity building efforts to match the changing roles of each level.

Woldie M; Jirra C; Azene G

2011-08-01

43

Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia, 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty species of Tortricidae from Ethiopia, Oromia Region, are recorded of which Olethreutes didessae sp. n., Ancylis colaccii sp. n., and Gypsonoma giorgiae sp. n. are described as new; Eucosma thalameuta Meyrick, 1918, is transferred to the genus Cosmetra Diakonoff, 1977.

J. Razowski; P. Trematerra

2012-01-01

44

Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

Casale, Carolyn Frances

2010-01-01

45

Wind energy survey in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results are presented of a wind energy survey made for one country in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia) using mean wind speed data obtained from meteorological observations. The paper also presents reasons for expecting the calculated energy estimates to be potentially useful around most of the sites considered in the study.

Wolde-Ghiorgis, W.

1988-01-01

46

Floods and health in Gambella region, Ethiopia: a qualitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of coping mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Floods are the most frequent and devastating type of natural disaster worldwide, causing unprecedented deaths, diseases, and destruction of property and crops. Flooding has a greater impact in developing countries due to lack of sufficient disaster management structures and a lack of economic resources. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted with the aim of contributing to the knowledge base of development strategies that reduce flood-related health risks in developing countries. The study focused particularly on assessing the flood risks and health-related issues in the Gambella region of Ethiopia; with the intent of producing relevant information to assist with the improvements in the efficacy of the current flood coping strategies in the region. METHODS: Data were gathered through interviews with 14 officers from different government and non-governmental organizations and a questionnaire survey given to 35 flood victims in Itang woreda. A qualitative approach was applied and the data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: It was found that flooding is a common problem in Gambella region. The findings also indicate that the flood frequency and magnitude has increased rapidly during the last decade. The increase in floods was driven mainly by climate change and changes in land use, specifically deforestation. The reported main impacts of flooding on human health in Gambella region were deaths, injuries, and diseases such as malaria and diarrhea. Another notable consequence of flooding was crop destruction and subsequent malnutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Three weaknesses that were identified in the current coping strategies for flood-related health impacts in Gambella region were a lack of flood-specific policy, absence of risk assessment, and weak institutional capacity. This study recommends new policy approaches that will increase the effectiveness of the current flood coping strategies to sustainably address the impact of flooding on human health.

Wakuma Abaya S; Mandere N; Ewald G

2009-01-01

47

HISTORY OF HR MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ETHIOPIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many countries the development of HR management not well articulated and documented and even difficult to write about it. Ethiopia is one of those countries with difficult documentation and written facts to clearly picture the development of HR management. Even though this article fallowing world trend in HR management practice described the HR management practice of Ethiopia. Ethiopia economic and administration structure mostly described by categorizing it in to three periods. The period between before 1974, the period between1974 to 1991, and the period after 1991. It can be concluded that all prominent HR behaviour in all periods can be described by administrative HR practice in Ethiopia institutions.

TAREKEGN DEA LERA

2013-01-01

48

Analysis of Obstetric Fistula in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To study the association between social, demographic, cultural and maternal care practice variables and obstetric fistula status in Ethiopia. "nMaterials and Methods: The most recent Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2005 is used to study the association between soc...

Thankam Sunil; Marguerite Sagna

49

Polio outbreak response in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia had been polio-free for almost four years until December 2004. However, between December 2004 and February 2006, 24 children were paralysed as a result of infection with wild poliovirus imported from the neighbouring country of Sudan. In response, the country has attempted to document the impact of various response measures on the containment of wild poliovirus transmission. OBJECTIVES: This study aims at systematic and epidemiological assessment of the extent of the outbreak, its determinants, and the lessons learned as well as the implications for future control strategies to interrupt wild poliovirus transmission. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design with qualitative and quantitative data collection approaches was used to conduct the epidemiologic assessment. SUBJECTS: All confirmed wild poliovirus cases, and reported acute flaccid paralysis cases in close proximity to the confirmed polio cases were the study subjects. Child caretakers and health service providers were interviewed as part of the investigation. RESULTS: Between December 2004 and February 2006, eight children from Tigray Regional State, nine children from Amhara Regional State and seven children from Oromia Regional State were paralysed as a result of infection with wild poliovirus type 1. Genetic sequencing demonstrated two separate importations to Ethiopia. Risk factors that may have facilitated spread of the outbreak within the country included gaps in vaccination coverage and interruption of the cold chain system, gaps in acute flaccid paralysis surveillance performance, high population mobility, poor environmental sanitation, crowded living conditions and unsafe drinking water. In response to the outbreak, Ethiopia conducted detailed outbreak investigations within two days of confirmation of the index cases. Large-scale, house-to-house vaccination campaigns were also implemented. As a result, the three regions interrupted the wild poliovirus transmission within the regions within one year of confirmation of the index case. CONCLUSION: Outbreak response activities were successful in interrupting the imported wild poliovirus transmission in Tigray, Amhara and Oromia Regional States of Ethiopia within a one-year period of time. In Ethiopia, programme strategies should be intensified to contain further spread and prevent future importation of wild poliovirus. Large-scale immunisation campaigns should reach every child, including those isolated by geography, poverty and security.

Mesfin G; Schluter W; Gebremariam A; Benti D; Bedada T; Beyene B; Yigzaw A; Taddess Z; Mbakuliyemo N; Babaniyi O

2008-05-01

50

Implications of adopting new WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy initiation in Ethiopia/ Implications de l'adoption de nouvelles directives de l'OMS pour le lancement du traitement antirétroviral en Éthiopie/ Consecuencias de la adopción de las nuevas directrices de la OMS para el inicio de la terapia antirretroviral en Etiopía  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar las consecuencias de la implementación de las directrices de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) de 2010 para el inicio de la terapia antirretroviral (TAR) en adultos y adolescentes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), que recomiendan comenzar la TAR con un umbral de linfocitos CD4+ T (CS4+) igual o superior a 350 células/mm³ en lugar del umbral igual o superior a 200 células/mm³ empleado anteriormente. MÉTODOS: Entr (more) e abril y mayo de 2010, se recopilaron los resultados de las pruebas de CD4+ de todos los pacientes infectados por el VIH registrados en los archivos pre-TAR y TAR de 19 centros de salud con un volumen alto de pacientes en Addis Abeba, Etiopía y las regiones de Amara, Oromía, SNNPR (Naciones, Nacionalidades y Pueblos del Sur) y Tigray. En 12 centros, se examinaron de manera independiente los archivos de los pacientes para evaluar la exactitud de los datos. Para calcular el número total de pacientes que necesitarían una TAR en los centros de salud si Etiopía adoptara las nuevas directrices de la OMS, se sumó el número de pacientes que necesitan una TAR en base a las directrices actuales al número de pacientes asintomáticos inscritos en la pre-TAR con un recuento de CD4+ superior a 200 pero igual o inferior a 350 células/mm³. RESULTADOS: La adopción de las nuevas directrices de la OMS aumentaría el número total de pacientes en TAR en los 19 centros de salud de Etiopía en torno a un 30%: de 3583 a 4640. CONCLUSIÓN: El cambio en el umbral de CD4+ para comenzar la TAR aumentará de manera considerable la demanda de TAR en Etiopía. Dado que con los sistemas actuales sólo el 60% de los pacientes en Etiopía que necesitan una TAR recibe la medicación, el aumento de los programas de TAR para satisfacer la demanda mayor de medicamentos no será posible a menos que también aumenten el apoyo y la financiación gubernamental al mismo tiempo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the implications of implementing the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in adults and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which recommend initiating ART at a CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+) threshold of (more) nts recorded in the pre-ART and ART registers of 19 high-patient-load health centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and the regions of Amhara, Oromia, SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region) and Tigray. At 12 centres patient records were independently reviewed to assess data accuracy. To estimate the total number of patients who would need ART at health centres if Ethiopia adopted the new WHO guidelines, the number of patients needing ART based on current guidelines were added to the number of asymptomatic patients enrolled in pre-ART with a CD4+ count > 200 but

Konings, Elke; Ambaw, Yirga; Dilley, Katherine; Gichangi, Peter; Arega, Tesfaye; Crandall, Bud

2012-09-01

51

Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting the traditional bean production practices. Surveys identified five major ...

Habtu Assefa

52

Recent drought and precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011, drought in the Horn of Africa again made news headlines. This study aims to quantify the meteorological component of this and other drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971. A monthly precipitation data set for 14 homogeneous rainfall zones was constructed based on 174 gauges, and the standardized precipitation index was calculated on seasonal, annual, and biannual time scales. The results point to 2009 as a year of exceptionally widespread drought. All zones experienced drought at the annual scale, although in most zones, previous droughts were more extreme. Nationally, 2009 was the second driest year, surpassed only by the historic year 1984. Linear regression analysis indicates a precipitation decline in southern Ethiopia, during both February-May and June-September. In central and northern Ethiopia, the analysis did not provide evidence of similar tendencies. However, spring droughts have occurred more frequently in all parts of Ethiopia during the last 10-15 years.

Viste, Ellen; Korecha, Diriba; Sorteberg, Asgeir

2013-05-01

53

Health and Disease in Rural Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethiopia, among the world's poorest countries, suffers from a full spectrum of health problems. A plastic surgeon and a public health physician present their experiences in Sidamo province in the Rift Valley.

Finseth, Katherine Alden; Finseth, Frederick

54

Medical doctors profile in Ethiopia: production, attrition and retention. In memory of 100-years Ethiopian modern medicine & the new Ethiopian millennium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although the practice of western medicine in Ethiopia dates back to the time of King Libne Dengel (1520-1535), organized and sustainable modern medical practice started after the battle of Adwa (1896). OBJECTIVE: To review hospitals construction, medical doctors production and attrition, and to suggest alternative medical doctors retention mechanisms in the public sector and production scale up options. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this article, 100 years Ethiopian modern medical history is revised from old and recent medical chronicles. Until December 2006 primary data was collected from 87 public hospitals. Much emphasis is given to medical doctors profile (1906-2006), hospitals profile (1906-2005), medical doctors to population and hospitals ratio (1965-2006), Ethiopian public medical schools 42 years attainment (1964-2006), annual attrition rate (1984-2006), organizational structure of medical faculties & university hospitals, medical doctors remuneration by the Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Education (MOE), NGOs and private health institutions. This article also addresses the way forward from physician training and retention perspectives, multiple alternate mechanisms to increase physicians' motivation to work in government institutions and reveres the loss. Medical doctors production scale up option is also given much emphasis. Most data are presented using line and bar graphs. RESULTS: Literature review showed that the first three hospitals were constructed in 1896 (Russian hospital), 1903 (Harar Ras Mekonnen hospital) and 1906 (Menelik II hospital). In 2005, 139 hospitals (87 public and 52 others) were reported. Remarkable hospital construction was done between 1935 and 1948, and recently between 1995 and 2005; however, in the latter case, private hospitals construction took the lions share. By the time MOH was established (1948), 110 Ethiopian and expatriate medical doctors were working, mainly in the capital, and 46 hospitals constructed. Physician number increment was very slow till 1980 at which time it started to get doubled every five years and reached peak (1658 medical doctors of all type) in 1989 in the public sector. As there was sharp increment in physician number, on the contrary, there was sharp decline in the last 15 years (1990-2006) to nadir 638 doctors in 2006 in the public sector. The last 25 years of Ethiopian modern medical history, in reference to physician number, forms a triangle with the lower and upper base 1980 and 2006, respectively. Since MOH of Ethiopia started registering health professionals with qualifications in 1987, 5743 (76.5% Ethiopian and 23.5% expatriate) medical doctors were registered for the first time. Out of these, 3717 were general practitioners. The three prestigious medical schools (Addis Ababa, Gondar, Jimma) were established in 1964, 1978 and 1984, respectively. Since establishment till 2006, about 3728 medical doctors were graduated with MD degree from the three medical schools. Addis Ababa university medical faculty alone graduated 1890 general practitioners (1964-2006) and 862 clinical specialists (1979-2006). In the 23 years period (1984-2006), the highest and lowest physician to population ratios in the public sector were found to be in 1989 (1:28,000) and 2006 (1:118,000), respectively. In 2006, the physician to population ratio in Amhara, Oromia and SNNPR regional states was computed to be 1:280,000, 1:220,000, and 1:230,000, respectively. The physician deficit analysis in the last 23 years in relation to the WHO standard for developing countries (1:10,000) revealed the lowest record at the national and regional states in the last 12-years. Average physician to hospital ratio in five regional states in December 2006 was 3.6 (Tigray), 4.3 (Amhara), 6.1 (Oromia) and 5.3 (SNNPR). As the December 2006 direct interview with 76 public hospitals outside Addis Ababa showed, there was no specialist in 36 hospitals and no doctor at all in 3 hospitals. Seven public hospitals located in big regional states' town took the lions share of medical doctors.

Berhan Y

2008-01-01

55

Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

González Ruibal, Alfredo

2005-01-01

56

Analysis of Obstetric Fistula in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the association between social, demographic, cultural and maternal care practice variables and obstetric fistula status in Ethiopia. "nMaterials and Methods: The most recent Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2005 is used to study the association between social, demographic, cultural and maternal care practice and obstetric fistula. We use both univariate and bivariate analyses to describe the association between the selected variables on obstetric fistula status. "nResults: A number of social, demographic and maternal care practice variables are found to be significantly (p<0.05) associated with obstetric fistula status. These include level of education, age at first birth, place of residence, antenatal services and place of delivery. "nConclusion: The study results emphasize the significance of both treatment and prevention activities in eradicating this highly preventable health condition of women in Ethiopia.

Thankam Sunil; Marguerite Sagna

2009-01-01

57

Influence of Agro-ecologies, Traditional Storage Containers and Major Insect Pests on Stored Maize (Zea mays L.) in Selected Woredas of Jimma Zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is a versatile cosmopolitan crop cultivated in diverse climate and used as sources of energy for humans and animals, raw materials for diverse industries, construction materials and fuel in rural areas. Worldwide demand for maize crop, its production and land coverage are increasing despite many biological, physical and environmental constraints. Impact of two agro-ecologies, two traditional storage structures, storage periods and major insect pests on maize variety BH-660 were studied in two selected Zones of Jimma, South Western Ethiopia in 2010. Three factors, the first two each at two levels and the other at four levels were arranged in Completely Randomized Design replicated twice. Number of insects, insect damaged kernels and percentage germination showed significant differences (pSitophilus zeamais M.) and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella (O.)) were the two major insect pests identified from maize samples. Storage of maize grain for more than one moth demands eco-friendly maize weevil and grain moth management in both agro-ecologies and storage containers.

B. Dubale; S. Waktole; A. Solomon; B. Geremew; M.R. Sethu

2012-01-01

58

Household-level risk factors for Newcastle disease seropositivity and incidence of Newcastle disease virus exposure in backyard chicken flocks in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P<0.001). The risk of NDV exposure was shown to be higher with larger flock size at the beginning of the observation period (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.25, 10.39; P=0.02). Using an open water source (pond or river) for poultry compared to closed sources (tap or borehole) was associated with increased risk of NDV exposure (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.8; P=0.03). The use of a grain supplement (OR=0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.69; P=0.03) and hatching at home for flock replacement (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P=0.005) were associated with a lower risk of NDV exposure. Newcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens.

Chaka H; Goutard F; Roger F; Bisschop SP; Thompson PN

2013-05-01

59

Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined.

Boutellis A; Mediannikov O; Bilcha KD; Ali J; Campelo D; Barker SC; Raoult D

2013-05-01

60

Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined. PMID:23648147

Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Moisture Transport and Precipitation in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With little irrigation and a diverse climate, Ethiopia is a country where the effects of too little precipitation are frequently seen. While the generation of precipitation also depends on local ascent and cooling of the air, the main focus of this thesis has been on the transport of moisture int...

Viste, Ellen Marie

62

Borrelia recurrentis in Head Lice, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined.

Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

63

Ethiopia - energy situation 1985. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

1986-10-01

64

Ethiopia - energy situation 1984. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Remarks on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Important figures are presented on external trade and the balance of payments. (UA).

1985-11-01

65

Ethiopia - energy situation 1982/83  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and on the balance of payments.

1984-02-01

66

Bargaining over Fertility in Rural Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) reveal that women in Ethiopia prefer fewer children than men, which can be explained by the greater costs that women have to incur from pregnancy, delivery and care for children. In view of differing preferences it is yet not clear which factors det...

Seebens, Holger

67

Transhumance in the Tigray highlands (Ethiopia).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds occurring between two points and following precise routes repeated each year, is practiced on a broad scale in the open field areas of Tigray (North Ethiopia). This article presents a characterization of the practice, factors that explain its magnitude, a...

Nyssen, Jan; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zenebe, Amanuel; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku

68

Raising public awareness of glaucoma in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Ethiopia, glaucoma is the fifth most common cause of blindness and the disease caused irreversible blindness in an estimated 62,000 people in 2006.1Due to the nature of the disease, an inadequate and inaccessible eye care service, and a very poor level of public awareness, glaucoma patients tend to come for help after they have become either unilaterally or bilaterally blind. Even among some health professionals in Ethiopia, awareness and understanding of glaucoma is low. There are many instances of parents being told that their child does not have an eye problem when in fact they are suffering from congenital glaucoma, and I have seen many people with acute angle-closure glaucoma who have been treated for conjunctivitis!

Mabeba T Giorgis

2012-01-01

69

Economic Prospects for Ethiopia and Challenges for Poverty Reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The report analyses Ethiopia’s economic performance and expected future development. The economic growth rate is likely to remain high despite large fluctuations in agricultural production. Projections indicate, however, that Government’s target of 7 % growth for 2006 is around 2 percentage points t...

Villanger, Espen

70

Christianity in northern Ethiopia : missiological observations following a visit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A visit to Ethiopia revealed that enlightenment derived from travel is worth while. This article illustrates this by introducing the reader to the people and ancient Christian tradition of the northern highlands of Ethiopia. There is much in the history of this area, and the monuments of this tradit...

Kritzinger, J.J. (Johan Jakob)

71

The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.

Friis, Ib

2009-01-01

72

The Re-establishment of the Ethiopia’s monetary and banking systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study is concerned with a crucial period of the banking history of Ethiopia, almost untouched so far by the specializing literature, in which the banking industry was affected by important changes. The paper describes and analyses the reconstruction process of the banking system and the reorgani...

MAURI, ARNALDO

73

Incidence of epilepsy in rural central Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To study the incidence of epilepsy in a rural area of Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based study was performed in a random sample of villages with 61,686 inhabitants in a rural area of central Ethiopia. In a door-to-door survey, all inhabitants in the study area were interviewed about seizures. A standardized protocol was used. All new cases with epilepsy that had occurred since a previous study was made 3.5 years earlier were included. Fifty-three of the subjects were investigated with EEG. RESULTS: One-hundred thirty-nine incident cases were identified, corresponding to an annual incidence of 64 in 100,000 inhabitants [95% confidence interval (CI) 44-84]. The corresponding rate for males was 72 (CI 42-102); for females, it was 57 (CI 31-84). The highest age-specific incidence occurred in the youngest age groups (0-9 years); the next highest was in the group aged 10-19 years. Generalized convulsive seizures occurred in 69%, partial seizures occurred in 20%, and unclassifiable seizures occurred in 11%. Seizures occurred daily in 10% and weekly in another 14%; 33% had monthly seizures. Twenty-two percent had a family history of epilepsy. A history of head trauma was ascertained in 5.7% and was the most common possible etiologic factor identified. Thirteen percent were treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of epilepsy in Ethiopia is high. A high incidence in combination with a prevalence of epilepsy in the study area comparable to that in the rest of the world may be explained by a high degree of spontaneous remission of epilepsy and/or a high mortality due to epilepsy. Despite health education on epilepsy given to the community, a minority of subjects were treated with AEDs, which may reflect the inadequacies of the health services and transportation difficulties faced by the patients.

Tekle-Haimanot R; Forsgren L; Ekstedt J

1997-05-01

74

Mapping Cropland in Ethiopia Using Crowdsourcing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial distribution of cropland is an important input to many applications including food security monitoring and economic land use modeling. Global land cover maps derived from remote sensing are one source of cropland but they are currently not accurate enough in the cropland domain to meet the needs of the user community. Moreover, when compared with one another, these land cover products show large areas of spatial disagreement, which makes the choice very difficult regarding which land cover product to use. This paper takes an entirely different approach to mapping cropland, using crowdsourcing of Google Earth imagery via tools in Geo-Wiki. Using sample data generated by a crowdsourcing campaign for the collection of the degree of cultivation and settlement in Ethiopia, a cropland map was created using simple inverse distance weighted interpolation. The map was validated using data from the GOFC-GOLD validation portal and an independent crowdsourced dataset from Geo-Wiki. The results show that the crowdsourced cropland map for Ethiopia has a higher overall accuracy than the individual global land cover products for this country. Such an approach has great potential for mapping cropland in other countries where such data do not currently exist. Not only is the approach inexpensive but the data can be collected over a very short period of time using an existing network of volunteers.

Linda See; Ian McCallum; Steffen Fritz; Christoph Perger; Florian Kraxner; Michael Obersteiner; Ujjal Deka Baruah; Nitashree Mili; Nripen Ram Kalita

2013-01-01

75

Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland.

Semaw S; Simpson SW; Quade J; Renne PR; Butler RF; McIntosh WC; Levin N; Dominguez-Rodrigo M; Rogers MJ

2005-01-01

76

Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland. PMID:15662421

Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

2005-01-20

77

Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book takes stock of political reform in Ethiopia and the transformation of Ethiopian society since the adoption of multi-party politics and ethnic federalism in 1991. Decentralization, attempted democratization via ethno-national representation, and partial economic liberalization have reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party has embarked upon a technocratic ‘developmental state’ trajectory ostensibly aimed at ‘depoliticizing’ national policy and delegitimizing alternative courses. The contributors analyze the dynamics of authoritarian state-building, political ethnicity, electoral politics and state-society relations that have marked the Ethiopian polity since the downfall of the socialist Derg regime. Chapters on ethnic federalism, 'revolutionary democracy', opposition parties, the press, the judiciary, state-religion, and state-foreign donor relations provide the most comprehensive and thought-provoking review of contemporary Ethiopian national politics to date.

2013-01-01

78

First record of Phlebotomus (Synphlebotomus) vansomerenae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Male Phlebotomus (Synphlebotomus) vansomerenae, specimens were collected together with two other members of the same subgenus between August 2010 and December 2011 in Melka Guba village near Dawa River in Liben district, southeastern Ethiopia. This is the first record of the species in Ethiopia and the first time it has been found outside of Kenya where it was originally described, extending the known distribution of this species in East Africa.

Gebre-Michael T; Balkew M; Yimer M; Hailu A

2013-05-01

79

Adamantinoma of tibia in Ethiopia: the first bone transplant in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Adamantinoma of long bones is an extremely rare tumor with no report, to authors' knowledge from neither Ethiopia nor Africa. We are reporting a 25 year old female college student with one and half years history of right mid leg pain and swelling with radiologically and histologically proven adamantinoma of right tibia. At CURE Hospital, she had undergone complete excision of the tumor with histologically documented clean margins. The limb was salvaged by reconstructing with a fresh frozen tibial allograft obtained from the USA and an interlocking intramedullary nail (SIGN nail). Such insertion and incorporation of huge allograft using SIGN nail and saving a limb is the first surgery in Ethiopia. The gradual incorporation of the allograft at different months during follow-up is elucidated with clinical signs of healing. CONCLUSION: At times, limb salvage surgery and technology should be offered to selected patients with a chosen type of bone tumor.

Hailu S; Gokcen E; Lambisso B; Schenider J; Admassie D; Hussein J

2012-04-01

80

Molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia: new phylogenetic lineages found in Northwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world's 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typing and spoligotyping methods to determine phylogenetic lineages and perform cluster analysis. Clusters of strains with identical genotyping patterns were considered as an indicator for the recent transmission. RESULTS: Of 244 isolates, 59.0% were classified into nine previously described lineages: Dehli/CAS (38.9%), Haarlem (8.6%), Ural (3.3%), LAM (3.3%), TUR (2.0%), X-type (1.2%), S-type (0.8%), Beijing (0.4%) and Uganda II (0.4%). Interestingly, 31.6% of the strains were grouped into four new lineages and were named as Ethiopia_3 (13.1%), Ethiopia_1 (7.8%), Ethiopia_H37Rv like (7.0%) and Ethiopia_2 (3.7%) lineages. The remaining 9.4% of the isolates could not be assigned to the known or new lineages. Overall, 45.1% of the isolates were grouped in clusters, indicating a high rate of recent transmission. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms a highly diverse M. tuberculosis population structure, the presence of new phylogenetic lineages and a predominance of the Dehli/CAS lineage in Northwest Ethiopia. The high rate of recent transmission indicates defects of the TB control program in Northwest Ethiopia. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening laboratory diagnosis of TB, intensified case finding and treatment of TB patients to interrupt the chain of transmission.

Tessema B; Beer J; Merker M; Emmrich F; Sack U; Rodloff AC; Niemann S

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cost Estimate of Bovine Tuberculosis to Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been eliminated in some industrialized countries, it prevails worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Ethiopia, BTB is prevalent as numerous studies have shown its occurrence in livestock and in abattoirs but it has not been demonstrated in wildlife and only very few cases have been found in humans. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of BTB to Ethiopia with the aim of informing Ethiopian policy on options for BTB control. BTB in livestock affects both animal productivity and herd demographic composition. The Livestock Development Planning System (LDPS2, FAO) was modified to allow for stochastic simulation of parameters. We performed an incremental cost of disease analysis, comparing livestock production with and without BTB. For the rural scenario we considered an endemically stable 4 % comparative intradermal test (CIDT) prevalence and for the urban scenario an endemically stable 32 % CIDT prevalence among cattle. The net present value of rural Ethiopian livestock products in 2005 is estimated at 65.7 billion (thousand million) Ethiopian Birr (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 53.8-77.7 billion Birr), which is the equivalent of 7.5 billion US$ (95 %CI 6.1-8.9 billion US$) at a rate of 8.7 Birr per US$ in 2005. The cost of BTB ranges from 646 million Birr (75.2 million US$) in 2005 to 3.1 Billion Birr in 2011 (358 million US$) but is within the range of uncertainty of our estimate and can thus not be distinguished from zero. The cost of disease in the urban livestock production ranges from 5 to 42 million Birr (500,000-4.9 million US$) between 2005 and 2011 but is also within the range of uncertainty of our estimate. Our study shows no measurable loss in asset value or cost of disease due to BTB in rural and urban production systems in Ethiopia. This does not mean that there is not a real cost of disease, but the variability of the productivity parameters and prices are high and would require more precise estimates. This study does not preclude in any way the urgent need to control BTB in the urban dairy herd of Addis Ababa for other than financial reasons.

Tschopp R; Hattendorf J; Roth F; Choudhoury A; Shaw A; Aseffa A; Zinsstag J

2012-07-01

82

Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response to a unimodal rainfall regime. The selection of mesic locations ensured that the trees did not respond to intra-seasonal weather anomalies. Crossdating was achieved by comparison of the wood anatomy directly on the surface of the core samples and purpose-adapted skeleton plotting. Wood-anatomical anomalies, such as false and indistinct rings, were regarded as potentially replicated features and used in crossdating. COFECHA yielded site-specific mean series inter-correlations between 0.52 and 0.59. AMS radiocarbon dating during the bomb era indicated that dating uncertainty is ±1 year.

Wils TommyHG; Robertson Iain; Eshetu Zewdu; Touchan Ramzi; Sass-Klaassen Ute; Koprowski Marcin

2011-02-01

83

Genetic divergence among barley accessions from Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was done with the objective of assessing the genetic diversity existing among Ethiopian and ICARDAbarley germplasm using multivariate data analyses. The experiment was conducted at Asasa and Ambo in Ethiopia, in 10 x 10simple lattices with two replications. To quantify the differentiation among genotypes canonical discriminant analysis, clusteringanalysis and Mahanalobis (D2) distance were used. The study indicated that the first two canonical variates explained 95%and 91% of the total variation at Asasa and Ambo, respectively. At both the locations, genotypes showed maximum differentiationon days to maturity, grain filling period, tiller per plant and spike per plant. Analysis of clustering grouped the 100 genotypesinto four cluster groups at Asasa and six clusters at Ambo. Ethiopian landraces and genotypes from ICARDA grouped in thesame cluster groups indicated the germplasm exchange between the Ethiopian and ICARDA barley breeding programs.

Tesfahun Alemu Setotaw; Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias; Robson Fernando Missio

2010-01-01

84

Colloquium. Jacques Faitlovitch and the Jews of Ethiopia: a century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To mark the centennial, day for day, of Jacques Faitlovitch’s first trip to discover the Falashas (Jews of Ethiopia) the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem in collaboration with Ben-Zvi Institute and Tel-Aviv University (Department of Middle Eastern and African History) organized a conference titled Jacques Faitlovitch and the Jews of Ethiopia: a century. In fact, it is a young masters’ student from Tel-Aviv University, Haïm Admor, who took the initative to plan this colloquium. More t...

Lisa Anteby-Yemini

2007-01-01

85

Ethiopia's health extension program: improving health through community involvement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The Health Extension Program is one of the most innovative community-based health programs in Ethiopia. It is based on the assumption that access to and quality of primary health care in rural communities can be improved through transfer of health knowledge and skills to households. Since it became operational in 2004-2005, the Program has had a tangible effect on the thinking and practices of rural people regarding disease prevention, family health, hygiene and environmental sanitation. It has enabled Ethiopia to increase primary health care coverage from 76.9% in 2005 to 90% in 2010.

Banteyerga, Hailom

2011-07-01

86

Causes of visual impairment in central Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey conducted on a stable, mainly rural population of 60,820 in Central Ethiopia revealed an overall blindness prevalence of 1.1%. A follow up study was carried out to accurately determine the etiologies and causes of visual loss and impairment. A detailed ophthalmic evaluation was done on 523 out of 872 individuals identified as being visually impaired. The results showed that 194 (37%) were blind (Categories 3, 4, and 5 = maximum visual acuity less than 3/60 in the better eye). One hundred and seven (21%) (Categories 1 & 2 = maximum visual acuity better than 3/60 to less than 6/18 in the better eye using the WHO categories of visual impairment). The rest 222 (43%) were blind in one eye only. The commonest anatomical cause of blindness is corneal (32%). Cataract (25%), atrophied globe(s) (20%) and glaucoma (17%) follow as the other leading causes. Trachoma (35%), degenerative conditions (35%) and other infections (9%) were the major etiologies of blindness. Similar pattern of anatomical causation was observed in those classified under categories of visual impairment 1 and 2, referred to as "low vision". The most important etiologies of low vision were trachoma (30%), degenerative (24%), trauma (13%) and other infections (8%). Trauma was the most important etiology of monocular blindness (39%). Blindness was either preventable or curable in 74% of the cases.

Alemayehu W; Tekle-Haimanot R; Forsgren L; Erkstedt J

1995-07-01

87

Causes of visual impairment in central Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey conducted on a stable, mainly rural population of 60,820 in Central Ethiopia revealed an overall blindness prevalence of 1.1%. A follow up study was carried out to accurately determine the etiologies and causes of visual loss and impairment. A detailed ophthalmic evaluation was done on 523 out of 872 individuals identified as being visually impaired. The results showed that 194 (37%) were blind (Categories 3, 4, and 5 = maximum visual acuity less than 3/60 in the better eye). One hundred and seven (21%) (Categories 1 & 2 = maximum visual acuity better than 3/60 to less than 6/18 in the better eye using the WHO categories of visual impairment). The rest 222 (43%) were blind in one eye only. The commonest anatomical cause of blindness is corneal (32%). Cataract (25%), atrophied globe(s) (20%) and glaucoma (17%) follow as the other leading causes. Trachoma (35%), degenerative conditions (35%) and other infections (9%) were the major etiologies of blindness. Similar pattern of anatomical causation was observed in those classified under categories of visual impairment 1 and 2, referred to as "low vision". The most important etiologies of low vision were trachoma (30%), degenerative (24%), trauma (13%) and other infections (8%). Trauma was the most important etiology of monocular blindness (39%). Blindness was either preventable or curable in 74% of the cases. PMID:7588655

Alemayehu, W; Tekle-Haimanot, R; Forsgren, L; Erkstedt, J

1995-07-01

88

Notes on Euphorbia subgenus Euphorbia in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Precursory notes on Euphorbia subgen. Euphorbia for the Flora of Ethiopia are given. Revised synonymies are given for E. abyssinica, E. ampliphylla and E. polyacantha. Six species: E. burgen M.G. Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.G. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.G.Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.G. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert and E. awashensis M.G. Gilbert, and one subspecies: E. septentrionalis subsp. gamugofana M.G. Gilbert, are described as new.Es presenten unes notes preliminars per a la Flora d'Etiòpia sobre Euphorbia L. subgen. Euphorbia. Es do nen les sinonímies revisades per a E. abyssinica, E. Ampliphylla i E. poJyacantha. Es descriuen sis espècies noves (E. Burgeri M.a . Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.O. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.a . Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.O. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert i E. awashensis M.G. Gilbert) i una subespècie (E. septentrionalis subsp. gamugofana M.G. Gilbert).

Gilbert, M. G.

1992-01-01

89

Revisiting resistance in Italian-occupied Ethiopia: the Patriots' Movement (1936-1941) and the redefinition of post-war Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1936-1941) a significant indigenous resistance movement, the Patriots' Movement, emerged. The nature and impact of this resistance is reconsidered by highlighting aspects of its role in 'redefining Ethiopia', its internal policy and its position in the glob...

Berhe,A.

90

Mycobacterial lineages causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa.

Firdessa R; Berg S; Hailu E; Schelling E; Gumi B; Erenso G; Gadisa E; Kiros T; Habtamu M; Hussein J; Zinsstag J; Robertson BD; Ameni G; Lohan AJ; Loftus B; Comas I; Gagneux S; Tschopp R; Yamuah L; Hewinson G; Gordon SV; Young DB; Aseffa A

2013-03-01

91

Notes on Euphorbia subgenus Euphorbia in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Precursory notes on Euphorbia subgen. Euphorbia for the Flora of Ethiopia are given. Revised synonymies are given for E. abyssinica, E. ampliphylla and E. polyacantha. Six species: E. burgen M.G. Gilbert, ...

Gilbert, M. G.

92

Colloquium. Jacques Faitlovitch and the Jews of Ethiopia: a century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To mark the centennial, day for day, of Jacques Faitlovitch’s first trip to discover the Falashas (Jews of Ethiopia) the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem in collaboration with Ben-Zvi Institute and Tel-Aviv University (Department of Middle Eastern and African History) organized a conference...

Lisa Anteby-Yemini

93

Evaluation of groundwater resources in the Geba basin, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents an assessment of the groundwater resources in the Geba basin, Ethiopia. Hydrogeological characteristics are derived from a combination of GIS and field survey data. MODFLOW groundwater model in a PMWIN environment is used to simulate the movement and distribution of groundwater...

Tesfagiorgis, Kibrewossen; Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; De Smedt, Florimond; Moeyersons, Jan; Hagos, Miruts; Nyssen, Jan

94

What Community Participation in Schooling Means: Insights from Southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…

Swift-Morgan, Jennifer

2006-01-01

95

Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999.

Balcha, Berhanu

2001-01-01

96

Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

2011-01-01

97

Ethiopia ’s nationhood reconsidered A nação etíope reconsiderada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional theories trace nationalism to modern Western Europe, usually following the French Revolution. However, markers of nationalism used by most scholars are attested by evidence of Ethiopia’s nationhood as early as sixth century C.E. This requires revisions in both conventional notions of nationhood and views of those who find Ethiopianness a recent invention. Moreover, the experience of Ethiopians in their recent Diaspora warrants rethinking the very notions of nationhood. Continuing ties of Ethiopian expatriates with their homeland and communication through electronic media manifest a new configuration of Ethiopia’s nationhood, consisting now of three confluent parts: bet-agar (homeland); wutch-agar (diaspora); and sayber-agar (cyberspace).As teorias convencionais associam o nacionalismo à Europa ocidental moderna, em geral a um período subsequente à Revolução Francesa. No entanto, no caso etíope, os indicadores de nacionalismo usados pela maior parte dos investigadores encontram-se atestados desde o século vi da nossa era. Este facto põe em causa as perspectivas convencionais sobre a ideia de nação, e questiona os que encaram o sentimento nacional etíope como uma invenção recente. Para mais, a experiência da recente diáspora etíope permite-nos repensar a própria ideia de nação. Os laços permanentes entre etíopes expatriados e a sua pátria, e a comunicação através de meios electrónicos, manifestam uma nova configuração da ideia de nação etíope, que se compõe agora de três partes confluentes: bet-agar (pátria); wutch-agar (diáspora); e sayber-agar (ciberespaço).

Donald N. Levine

2011-01-01

98

Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

2008-01-01

99

Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

2010-01-01

100

Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

Teitz, H.H.

1991-01-01

102

Spatial distribution of malaria problem in three regions of Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The transmission of malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. From the total area of Ethiopia, more than 75% is malarious. The aim of this study was to identify socio-economic, geographic and demographic risk factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results and produce the prevalence map of the area illustrating variation in malaria risk. METHODS: This study accounts for spatial correlation in assessing the effects of socio- economic, demographic and geographic factors on the prevalence of malaria in Ethiopia. A total of 224 clusters of about 25 households each were selected from the Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People's (SNNP) regions of Ethiopia. A generalized linear mixed model with spatial covariance structure was used to analyse the data where the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the RDT. RESULTS: The results showed that households in the SNNP region were found to be at more risk than Amhara and Oromiya regions. Moreover, households which have toilet facilities clean drinking water, and a greater number of rooms and mosquito nets in the rooms, have less chance of having household members testing positive for RDT. Moreover, from this study, it can be suggested that incorporating spatial variability is necessary for understanding and devising the most appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of malaria.

Ayele DG; Zewotir TT; Mwambi HG

2013-01-01

103

Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

Wolela, Ahmed

2006-10-01

104

Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1 : 2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

Tadesse, S.; Milesi, J.P.; Deschamps, Y. [University of Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). Dept. for Geology & Geophysics

2003-05-01

105

Outlook of future climate in northwestern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change is described as the most universal and irreversible environmental problem facing the planet Earth. While climate change is already manifesting in Ethiopia through changes in temperature and rainfall, its magnitude is poorly studied at regional levels. The objective of this paper was to assess and quantify the magnitude of future changes of climate parameters using Statistical Downscaling Mode (SDSM) version 4.2 in Amhara Regional State which is located between 8°45‘N and 13°45‘N latitude and 35°46‘E and 40°25‘E longitude. Daily climate data (1979- 2008) of rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures were collected from 10 observed meteorological stations (predictand). The stations were grouped and compared using clustering and Markov chain model, whereas the degree of climate change in the study area was estimated using the coupled HadCM3 general circulation model (GCM) with A2a emission scenarios (Predictors). Both maximum and minimum temperatures showed an increasing trend; the increase in mean maximum temperature ranges between 1.55°C and 6.07°C and that of the mean minimum temperature ranges from 0.11°C and 2.81°C. While the amount of annual rainfall and rainy days decreased in the study Regions in the 2080s. The negative changes in rainfall and temperature obtained from the HadCM3 model in the current study are alarming and suggest the need for further study with several GCM models to confirm the current results and develop adaptation options.

Dereje Ayalew; Kindie Tesfaye; Girma Mamo; Birru Yitaferu; Wondimu Bayu

2012-01-01

106

Water implications of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethiopia is often highlighted as a country in which a lot of foreign land acquisition is occurring. The extent to which these investments also constitute significant acquisitions of water is the subject of this paper. It is apparent that water availability is a strong driver of the recent surge of investments in agricultural land globally, and in general the investments occur in countries with significant 'untapped' water resources. Ethiopia is no exception. We propose that the perception of unused and abundant water resources, as captured in dominant narratives, that drives and justifies both foreign and domestic investments, fails to reflect the more complex reality on the ground. Based on new collections of lease information and crop modelling, we estimate the potential additional water use associated with foreign investments at various scales. As a consequence of data limitations our analyses provide only crude estimates of consumptive water use and indicate a wide range of possible water consumption depending on exactly how foreign direct investment (FDI) development scenarios unfold. However, they do suggest that if all planned FDI schemes are implemented and expanded in the near future, additional water consumption is likely to be comparable with existing water use in non-FDI irrigation schemes, and a non-trivial proportion of the country’s water resources will be effectively utilised by foreign entities. Hence, additional water use as well as local water scarcity ought to be strong considerations in regulating or pricing land leases. If new investments are to increase local food and water security without compromising local and downstream water availability they should be designed to improve often very low agricultural water productivity, and to safeguard access of local populations to water.

Deborah Bossio; Teklu Erkossa; Yihun Dile; Matthew McCartney; Franziska Killiches; Holger Hoff

2012-01-01

107

Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of the total collection comprised of An. gambiae. Different cytogenetic studies have shown that An. arabiensis is more predominant species than An. quadriannulatus. Malaria Control: The major vector control measure that is being used in the country is in-door residual insecticide (DDT) spraying. As a result An. arabiensis has developed resistance to DDT in some areas. In such cases malathion is used as an alternative. Other vector control measures such as source reduction, chemical larviciding and very recently use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are also used in selected areas.

2001-01-01

108

The Short Life of the Bank of Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bank of Abyssinia, established in 1905, was given a 50-years concession by theEmperor Menelek II. This institution was engaged in issuing notes as well as in any kind ofcommercial banking business. Haile Sellassie, after acceding to the throne in 1930, could not acceptthat the country’s issuing bank was a foreign-owned share company and decided for nationalization.The change was implemented, however, in a soft way, providing an adequate compensation toshareholders, and in agreement with the main foreign shareholder, the National Bank of Egypt. TheBank of Abyssinia went, therefore, into liquidation and a new institution, the Bank of Ethiopia, wasestablished in 1931. The new bank, although under full Government control, retained management,staff, premises and clients of the ceased financial institution. Italian occupation of the country, in1936, brought the liquidation of the Bank of Ethiopia.

Arnaldo Mauri

2010-01-01

109

Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (pEthiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

2013-09-01

110

Medication prescribing errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia  

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Asrat Agalu1, Yemane Ayele2, Worku Bedada2, Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Wollo University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Dessie, Ethiopia; 2Jimma University, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: A number of studies indicated that prescribing errors i...

Agalu A; Ayele Y; Bedada W; Woldie M

111

The Question of Becoming:Islamic Reform-Movements in Contemporary Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethiopia’s new political climate (since 1991) has enhanced the Muslims’ opportunities for religious expressions, clearly seen through the surfacing of several Islamic reform movements. These movements; the Salafi movement, the Tabligh movement and an Intellectualist revivalist movement have proven c...

Østebø, Terje

112

76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...

2011-10-03

113

Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia

Yates, Brian James

2009-01-01

114

78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2013-03-13

115

Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP) regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT). Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.

Ayele Dawit G; Zewotir Temesgen T; Mwambi Henry G

2012-01-01

116

Food insecurity, childhood illness and maternal emotional distress in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between food insecurity, maternal emotional distress and childhood morbidity in resource-poor settings is not well clarified. The present study aimed to assess independent associations between household food insecurity and childhood morbidity and potential modifications by maternal emotional distress. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. A food security scale was used to assess household food insecurity; maternal reports were used to assess recent childhood illness; and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist was used to assess symptoms of emotional distress among mothers. SETTING: The Oromia Region, Ethiopia (rural area). SUBJECTS: A total of 936 mother-child pairs. RESULTS: Of 936 children assessed, 22·4% had experienced diarrhoea, 20·7% had cough and 21·5% had fever in the 2 weeks preceding the interview. Household food insecurity was reported by 39% of mothers. Greater food insecurity and greater maternal emotional distress were each independently associated with higher prevalence of cough and fever. Among mothers with low emotional distress, food insecurity was associated with a 2·3 times greater odds of diarrhoea in their children. CONCLUSIONS: Household food insecurity may increase the risk of childhood illness in rural Ethiopia, and children having mothers with greater emotional distress may be at highest risk. These findings highlight the importance of strengthening policy initiatives aimed at reducing the high prevalence of food insecurity and emotional distress in Ethiopia.

Anderson LC; Tegegn A; Tessema F; Galea S; Hadley C

2012-04-01

117

English in Eastern Ethiopia is Learnt; Not Mastered  

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Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT) has undergone immense changes over the years in terms of using different methods, but none of the methods till this date have proved what they had proclaimed. The paper believes in the hypothesis that learning is understanding the linguistic components of a language, whereas mastering is the part of using them in a well structured way with perfection and ease. Viewing this dichotomy between learning and mastering, the paper examines a problematic discourse: English in Eastern Ethiopia is often learnt; but not mastered. The broad concern of the paper is to draw the attention of the local and global ELT practitioners towards the dismal state of English in Eastern Ethiopia. In this pursuit, the paper set three prime objectives: (i) exploring global and local uses of ELT methods, (ii) exploring major linguistic and non-linguistic impediments in mastering English, and (iii) proposing an empirical approach to overcome the impediments from remedial perspective. Participant observation, unstructured Interview, and document analysis were employed to gather the data, whereas analytic induction was used to analyze the data. Under findings, seventeen linguistic and non-linguistic impediments were found as serious deterrents in mastering English. From remedial perspective, the paper proposes an empirical Integrated Iconic Approach to overcome the linguistic impediments followed by seventeen apposite recommendations to pave the path of quality English education in Eastern Ethiopia.

Sanjay Kumar Jha

2013-01-01

118

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-01-01

119

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-12-31

120

Barriers to cataract surgical uptake in central ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the factors that delay surgical intervention in patients suffering from age related mature cataract in Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A short term descriptive study was performed that evaluated patients with mature cataract presenting to outreach eye care clinics in rural central Ethiopia. Patients were interviewed to determine the reasons for delay in their cataract surgeries. RESULT: A total of 146 subjects (57 male and 89 females) with operable age related cataract were evaluated at 31 outreach clinics. Over 86% of the respondents were above 55 years of age, (range, 45-78 years). The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 and 30.2% of the subjects were blind bilaterally (best corrected visual acuity <3/60). The majority of the respondents were farmers (53.4%) and 86.3% were illiterate. The major factors that delayed cataract surgery included: Cost of surgery (91.8%), insufficient family income (78.1%), good vision in the fellow (unaffected) eye (39.7%), and the distance to hospital from their village (47.9%). CONCLUSION: Surgical cost, insufficient family income, and the distance to an eye care centre were the major factors delaying cataract surgery in rural Ethiopia.

Mehari ZA; Zewedu RT; Gulilat FB

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Epilepsy, poverty and early under-nutrition in rural Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The incidence of epilepsy in Ethiopia is high compared with industrialised countries, but in most cases the cause of epilepsy is unknown. Childhood malnutrition remains widespread. We performed a case-control study to determine whether epilepsy is associated with poverty and markers of early under-nutrition. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy (n=112), aged 18-45years, were recruited from epilepsy clinics in and around two towns in Ethiopia. Controls with a similar age and gender distribution (n=149) were recruited from patients and relatives attending general outpatient clinics. We administered a questionnaire to define the medical and social history of cases and controls, and then performed a series of anthropometric measurements. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate adjusted odds ratios. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate adjusted case-control differences for continuously distributed outcomes. RESULTS: Epilepsy was associated with illiteracy/low levels of education, odds ratio=3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.6), subsistence farming, odds ratio=2.6 (1.2-5.6) and markers of poverty including poorer access to sanitation (p=0.009), greater overcrowding (p=0.008) and fewer possessions (p<0.001). Epilepsy was also associated with the father's death during childhood, odds ratio=2.2 (1.0-4.6). Body mass index was similar in cases and controls, but patients with epilepsy were shorter and lighter with reduced sitting height (p<0.001), bitrochanteric diameter (p=0.029) and hip size (p=0.003). Patients with epilepsy also had lower mid-upper arm circumference (p=0.011) and lean body mass (p=0.037). CONCLUSION: Epilepsy in Ethiopia is strongly associated with poor education and markers of poverty. Patients with epilepsy also had evidence of stunting and disproportionate skeletal growth, raising the possibility of a link between early under-nutrition and epilepsy.

Vaid N; Fekadu S; Alemu S; Dessie A; Wabe G; Phillips DI; Parry EH; Prevett M

2012-11-01

122

Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended or not. Data were collected by lay interviewers using uniform questionnaire. Odds Ratio, with 95% confidence interval using multiple and multinomial logistic regression were calculated to detect level of significance. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.9% (578/2072) of the study subjects. Out of which, 440 were mistimed and 138 were not wanted. Unintended pregnancy was associated with family wealth status (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14, 1.90), high parity (7 +) (OR 5.18; 95% CI 3.31, 8.12), and a longer estimated time to walk to the nearest health care facility (OR 2.24; 95% CI: 1.49, 3.39). In the multinomial regression, women from poor family reported that their pregnancy was mistimed (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.25). The longer estimated time (80 + minutes) to walk to the nearest health care facility influenced the occurrence of mistimed pregnancy (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 4.02). High parity (7+) showed a strong association to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12) and (OR 14.34; 95% CI 5.72, 35.98), respectively. Conclusions The economy of the family, parity, and walking distance to the nearest health care institution are strong predictors of unintended pregnancy. In order to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy Efforts to reach rural women with family planning services should be strengthened.

Kassa Nega; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu

2012-01-01

123

The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, e questi informazioni sono utilizzati qui: dopo una revisione di tutto il materiale di Etiopia e Eritrea, e un comparazione con materiale di Africa tropicale orientale, si è concluso che P. truncata è conspecifi ca con P. dawei, nota per l’Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania e Madagascar, e che un’altra specie conosciuta per l’Africa tropicale orientale (Kenya e Tanzania), P. montis-elgonis, é stata raccolta anche in due stazioni nel sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. In Etiopia, le due specie rare, P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis, sono limitate alle aree originariamente coperti da foresta umida: P. dawei si trova nella foresta pluviale di transizione (Transitional Rain Forest) e anche nella foresta fluviale (Riverine Forest), ma P. montis-elgonis si trova nella zona più bassa della foresta afromontana umida sempreverde (Moist Afromontane Evergreen Forest), secondo i tipi di vegetazione defi niti da Friis, Sebsebe Demissew e van Breugel. La distribuzione ed ecologia di P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis in Africa orientale e il Madagascar viene riesaminata, utilizzando i dati quantitativi disponibili. La distribuzione è stata ottenuta da dati d’erbario, mentre sono state valutate anche la distribuzione potenziale e lo stato di conservazione generale delle due specie. Malgrado loro rarità, almeno in Etiopia, le due specie siano da attribuire alla categoria IUCN Least Concern (LC) se si basi la stima sulla dimensione del EOO o sulla dimensione del AOO con grande cellule. Inoltre viene riproposto un nuovo trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species. In the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 5, published in 2006, only two indigenous species were accounted for: the widespread and common P. zeylanica and a new species, P. truncata, restricted to south-western Ethiopia. The name P. truncata was not formally validated. Since then more collections and field observations of Plumbago have been made in Ethiopia: after revision of the entire material it is concluded that P. truncata is conspecific with P. dawei, known from Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar, and that another tropical East African species, P. montis-elgonis, known from Kenya and Tanzania, also occurs in south-western Ethiopia. In Ethiopia the two species are restricted to areas originally covered by moist forest: P. dawei to Transitional Rain Forest and Riverine Forest, while P. montis-elgonis to the lowermost zone of the Moist Afromontane Forest, as these vegetation types have been defi ned by Friis, Sebsebe Demissew and van Breugel. The distribution and ecology of P. dawei and P. montis-elgonis in eastern Africa and Madagascar is also reviewed, using quantitative data available: the distribution as documented by herbarium material is shown, the potential distribution of the species is modelled, and the conservation status of the species is estimated. In spite of their rarity, the two species are attributed to the IUCN category Least Concern (LC) when the category is estimated using EOO and AOO with moderate or large cell size. A rewritten account of the genus Plumbago is provided in the format of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, taking account of the new findings.

Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie

2012-01-01

124

Cholera in Ethiopia in the 1990 s: epidemiologic patterns, clonal analysis, and antimicrobial resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1993, after 6 years of absence, cholera re-emerged in the Horn of Africa. Following its introduction to Djibouti, the disease spread to the central and southern areas of Ethiopia reaching Somalia in 1994. Cholera outbreaks persisted in Ethiopia with a recrudescence of cases in 1998. Twenty-two Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, selected to represent the 1998 history of cholera in Ethiopia, were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, BglI ribotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. All isolates showed a unique amplified DNA pattern and a prevalent ribotype B8a. All strains were multidrug-resistant and harboured an IncC plasmid which conferred resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. These findings indicate that a group of closely related V. cholerae O1 strains was responsible for the cholera epidemic in Ethiopia in 1998. PMID:19121605

Scrascia, Maria; Pugliese, Nicola; Maimone, Francesco; Mohamud, Kadigia A; Ali, Imran A; Grimont, Patrick A D; Pazzani, Carlo

2009-01-01

125

Cholera in Ethiopia in the 1990 s: epidemiologic patterns, clonal analysis, and antimicrobial resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1993, after 6 years of absence, cholera re-emerged in the Horn of Africa. Following its introduction to Djibouti, the disease spread to the central and southern areas of Ethiopia reaching Somalia in 1994. Cholera outbreaks persisted in Ethiopia with a recrudescence of cases in 1998. Twenty-two Vibrio cholerae O1 strains, selected to represent the 1998 history of cholera in Ethiopia, were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns, BglI ribotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. All isolates showed a unique amplified DNA pattern and a prevalent ribotype B8a. All strains were multidrug-resistant and harboured an IncC plasmid which conferred resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. These findings indicate that a group of closely related V. cholerae O1 strains was responsible for the cholera epidemic in Ethiopia in 1998.

Scrascia M; Pugliese N; Maimone F; Mohamud KA; Ali IA; Grimont PA; Pazzani C

2009-06-01

126

Patients satisfaction with laboratory services at antiretroviral therapy clinics in public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Despite the fact that Ethiopia has scale up antiretroviral treatment (ART) program, little is known about the patient satisfaction with ART monitoring laboratory services in health facilities. We therefore aimed to assess patient satisfaction with laboratory serv...

Mindaye Tedla; Taye Bineyam

127

Plasmodium vivax malaria in Duffy-negative individuals from Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax and polymorphisms in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene in patients with suspected malaria from eastern (Harar) and southwestern (Jimma) Ethiopia. METHODS: Plasmodium presence and species was assessed by microscopy in 1304 and 627 febrile patients in Harar and Jimma, respectively, during October-November 2009. All microscopy-positive samples were confirmed by PCR. DARC gene polymorphisms were identified by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Plasmodium vivax was the dominant species in Harar (74/98, 76%) and P. falciparum was more common in Jimma (70/107, 65%). We found 17/98 (17%) and 24/107 (22%) homozygous Duffy-negative patients in Harar and Jimma, respectively. Unexpectedly, three Duffy-negative patients from Harar had P. vivax malaria. CONCLUSION: This study documents the emergence of P. vivax malaria in Duffy-negative individuals in Ethiopia. The Duffy-negative blood group does not appear to provide absolute protection against P. vivax infection in this region.

Woldearegai TG; Kremsner PG; Kun JF; Mordmüller B

2013-05-01

128

Outbreak of tungiasis following a trip to Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungiasis is a skin disease caused by the ectoparasite sand flea Tunga penetrans. Although tungiasis is an important health problem in endemic areas, mainly South America and sub-Saharan Africa, it is reported uncommonly in travelers. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in a group of travelers to Ethiopia. Following the diagnosis of tungiasis in a member of a group of 17 Israeli travelers to Ethiopia, other affected members were identified by photograph assisted self diagnosis. The characteristics, including relevant demographic and epidemiologic data were recorded using a telephone interview and computerized questionnaire, and analyzed subsequently. The attack rate of tungiasis in the travel group was 53% (9 patients). Most of the patients (89%) wore open sandals during prolonged periods of their journey, but the pattern of shoeware use was similar in unaffected group members. An insect bite was not felt by any patient. The median number of skin lesions was one, and most lesions were located on the foot (7 of 9 travelers), but the hands were also affected in 2 travelers. All skin lesions healed without a need for a major intervention and without major sequela within 5 weeks of their appearance. Tungiasis may be underdiagnosed in travelers. Medical personnel should include tungiasis in pre-travel recommendations, and post-travel assessment. PMID:23031181

Grupper, M; Potasman, I

2012-09-30

129

Outbreak of tungiasis following a trip to Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tungiasis is a skin disease caused by the ectoparasite sand flea Tunga penetrans. Although tungiasis is an important health problem in endemic areas, mainly South America and sub-Saharan Africa, it is reported uncommonly in travelers. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in a group of travelers to Ethiopia. Following the diagnosis of tungiasis in a member of a group of 17 Israeli travelers to Ethiopia, other affected members were identified by photograph assisted self diagnosis. The characteristics, including relevant demographic and epidemiologic data were recorded using a telephone interview and computerized questionnaire, and analyzed subsequently. The attack rate of tungiasis in the travel group was 53% (9 patients). Most of the patients (89%) wore open sandals during prolonged periods of their journey, but the pattern of shoeware use was similar in unaffected group members. An insect bite was not felt by any patient. The median number of skin lesions was one, and most lesions were located on the foot (7 of 9 travelers), but the hands were also affected in 2 travelers. All skin lesions healed without a need for a major intervention and without major sequela within 5 weeks of their appearance. Tungiasis may be underdiagnosed in travelers. Medical personnel should include tungiasis in pre-travel recommendations, and post-travel assessment.

Grupper M; Potasman I

2012-09-01

130

Incidence and Severity of Sorghum Anthracnose in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A two year survey was conducted to determine incidence and severity of sorghum anthracnose in different sorghum growing regions in Ethiopia. A total of 487 fields in 49 districts were surveyed in each of the 2005 and 2007 production season. Incidence of sorghum anthracnose was assessed as the percentage of plants with visible symptoms in a field and anthracnose severity was evaluated as the percentage of leaf area with symptoms. Also, the relationship of the incidence and severity of the disease to the altitude of the fields and weather conditions were determined. Results from the 2 years survey revealed that sorghum anthracnose is present in most (84%) of the survey districts. However, both incidence and severity of the disease varied significantly (p<0.0001) among the survey areas. Anthracnose incidence ranged from 0 to 77% and severity of the disease varied between 0 and 59% on average for the two years. The two year average anthracnose severity classes ranged from trace (<5%) to severe (up to 59%) and the disease was generally more severe in the Southwest and South regions. However, some districts in the East and North Ethiopia also had fields with severe anthracnose infection. It was also found out that the prevailing weather conditions especially rainfall has a significant impact on both anthracnose incidence and severity.

A. Chala; M.B. Brurberg; A.M. Tronsmo

2010-01-01

131

Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance.

Habte D; Asrat K; Magafu MG; Ali IM; Benti T; Abtew W; Tegegne G; Abera D; Shiferaw S

2013-09-01

132

The Anopheles gambiae complex: a new species from Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historically, members of the Anopheles gambiae complex from Ethiopia have been identified chromosomally as either A. arabiensis or A. quadriannulatus. Recent collections from the Jimma area in Ethiopia, southwest of Addis Ababa, revealed 29 specimens of A. quadriannulatus based on the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification method. 'Wild' females were induced to lay eggs and the progeny reared as individual families. Resulting adults were cross-mated to a laboratory colony strain of A. quadriannulatus originating from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Hybrid progeny were obtained only from the colony female x Ethiopian male cross. This cross produced a female/male sex ratio of 0.48. Male offspring were sterile and ovarian polytene chromosomes from hybrid females showed typical asynapsis as expected in interspecific crosses within the A. gambiae complex. The X chromosomes, although apparently having homosequential banding patterns, were usually totally asynapsed. All autosomes were homosequential. The lack of inversion heterozygotes, in both the wild and hybrid samples, may simply be a reflection of the small sample size. Until such time as the Ethiopian species can be formally described and assigned a scientific name, it is provisionally designated Anopheles quadriannulatus species B because of its close similarity to this species.

Hunt RH; Coetzee M; Fettene M

1998-03-01

133

The Anopheles gambiae complex: a new species from Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, members of the Anopheles gambiae complex from Ethiopia have been identified chromosomally as either A. arabiensis or A. quadriannulatus. Recent collections from the Jimma area in Ethiopia, southwest of Addis Ababa, revealed 29 specimens of A. quadriannulatus based on the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification method. 'Wild' females were induced to lay eggs and the progeny reared as individual families. Resulting adults were cross-mated to a laboratory colony strain of A. quadriannulatus originating from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Hybrid progeny were obtained only from the colony female x Ethiopian male cross. This cross produced a female/male sex ratio of 0.48. Male offspring were sterile and ovarian polytene chromosomes from hybrid females showed typical asynapsis as expected in interspecific crosses within the A. gambiae complex. The X chromosomes, although apparently having homosequential banding patterns, were usually totally asynapsed. All autosomes were homosequential. The lack of inversion heterozygotes, in both the wild and hybrid samples, may simply be a reflection of the small sample size. Until such time as the Ethiopian species can be formally described and assigned a scientific name, it is provisionally designated Anopheles quadriannulatus species B because of its close similarity to this species. PMID:9764342

Hunt, R H; Coetzee, M; Fettene, M

134

Pregnancy rates and pregnancy loss in Eastern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine pregnancy, pregnancy loss and fertility rates in a rural community of Ethiopia. DESIGN: A prospective population-based pregnancy surveillance. SETTING: Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, a demographic surveillance site in Eastern Ethiopia. POPULATION: For pregnancy rates, the study included 7738 women of reproductive age permanently residing in the field research site. For pregnancy loss, 2072 pregnant women were included. METHOD: Pregnancy screening was done every third month from 1 December 2009 to 30 November 2010 using a questionnaire and a urine pregnancy test. Descriptive analysis was done to calculate the pregnancy rate and pregnancy loss. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pregnancy rate and pregnancy loss. RESULT: The pregnancy rate was 227/year/1000 women of reproductive age. During the study period, 1438 pregnancies ended, with 1295 live births and 143 pregnancies that did not yield a live birth (116 due to bleeding and 27 stillbirths). The incidence of pregnancy loss was 220/year/1000 pregnancies. Based on the one-year data, the total fertility rate was found to be 5.52. The overall pregnancy loss and stillbirth ratio were 11 and 2.1/100 live births, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study identified a high fertility rate that is probably accentuated by a high proportion of pregnancy loss in the study population. Improving access to family planning service to limit the number of pregnancies and access to antenatal care (to identify higher risk women) is essential.

Assefa N; Berhane Y; Worku A

2013-06-01

135

Monetary Developments and Decolonization in Ethiopia (1941-1952)  

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Full Text Available The article analyses the reorganization process of the monetary setting in Ethiopia which started in 1941 along with decolonization, when the Italian colonial rule came to an end. The country regained independence and the former Ethiopian empire was restored. The monetary reform in Ethiopia after the liberation during World War II, was a necessary measure to be adopted. Different paths however could have been followed at that moment by the Ethiopian government. The crucial choice made in money matter was to re-establish a national monetary unit instead of keeping the country inside the East African shilling area, as it was envisaged in British designs for the post-war setting of the Horn of Africa. The Ethiopian project unpredictably prevailed at the end of a weary negotiation, due to the chiefly American support in the framework of a new role gained by the United States in this area. The Ethiopian Authorities were, as a consequence, enabled to free themselves from dependence on Great Britain.

Arnaldo Mauri

2010-01-01

136

Investigation on Infectious Bursal Disease Outbreak in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available An outbreak of infectious bursal disease affecting 20-45 days old broiler and layer chickens was investigated for the first time in Ethiopia in the months of March and April 2002. Death of chickens started at the 30th day of age and continues to the 55th day. The mortality rate of the disease in different poultry houses ranges from 45-50 %. The over all mortality rate was 49.89%. Broiler mortality was 56.09% while 25.08% for layer chickens. The major clinical symptoms were sudden drop in feed and water consumption, sever depression, white watery droppings and mass death. Grossly, hemorrhages in leg muscles, degeneration of the pectoral muscle, white mass (Urate deposit) in kidneys and in Cloaca were frequently observed during post mortem examination. In addition, haemorrhagic & swollen bursas filled with straw colored fluid were identified in few cases. Histopathology revealed hyperplasia of the reticulo-endothelia cells and interfollicular tissue of affected bursa of fabricius. The Agar Gel Immuno Diffusion (AGID) Test detected precipitating antibodies against Infectious Bursal disease virus in sera collected from convalescent chicken. Virus cytopathic effect was observed in chicken fibroblast cells (CFC) inoculated with bursa and spleen tissue suspension of sick chicken. Vaccination failures were encountered to Newcastle disease vaccine (Clone 30). This paper probably is the first to report the occurrence of infectious bursal disease in Ethiopia as the country has been known to be free from Infectious Bursal Disease(IBD).

Aschalew Zeleke; Esayas Gelaye; Teshale Sori; Gelagay Ayelet; Asegedech Sirak; Bereket Zekarias

2005-01-01

137

Incidence of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, northern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in Dabat District, northern Ethiopia. METHODS: Using a population-based longitudinal design, a TB surveillance system was initiated among 46,165 residents at the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site. Trained field workers visited each household every third month and interviewed all individuals aged ?14 years using a uniform questionnaire to detect suspected cases of TB (cough ?15 days), at which time two sputum (spot-morning) samples were collected for smear microscopy. RESULTS: A total of 281,820 person-months were observed during the 1-year period, which generated 74 smear-positive TB cases. The incidence of smear-positive TB was calculated at 311 per 100,000 person-years (95%CI 240-382). Higher rates were observed among females (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.08, 95%CI 1.24-3.52), persons with no schooling (IRR 2.74, 95%CI 1.11-6.78) and urban residents (IRR 2.39, 95%CI 1.39-4.12). CONCLUSION: The incidence of smear-positive TB is high in Dabat District, suggesting a high risk of transmission in the communities. TB control programmes thus need to improve case-finding mechanisms at the community level in Ethiopia, with greater emphasis on risk groups.

Tadesse T; Demissie M; Berhane Y; Kebede Y; Abebe M

2013-05-01

138

Performance of small-scale photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic systems is tested under the climatic conditions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. With climatic data obtained at a station in the Rift Valley, the photovoltaic systems performance is estimated for those climatic conditions. The economics of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic system applications under Ethiopian conditions are analysed. The potential of photovoltaics for the rural electrification of Ethiopia is discussed. (Author)

Stutenbaeumer, Ulrich; Negash, Tesfaye; Abdi, Amensisa [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

1999-09-01

139

The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.

Deribe Kebede; Meribo Kadu; Gebre Teshome; Hailu Asrat; Ali Ahmed; Aseffa Abraham; Davey Gail

2012-01-01

140

Survey of surgery and anesthesia infrastructure in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Information regarding surgical capacity in the developing world is limited by the paucity of available data regarding surgical care, infrastructure, and human resources in the literature. The purpose of this study was to assess surgical and anesthesia infrastructure and human resources in Ethiopia as part of a larger study by the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative examining surgical and anesthesia capacity in ten low-income countries in Africa. METHODS: A comprehensive survey tool developed by the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative was used to assess surgical capacity of hospitals in Ethiopia. A total of 20 hospitals were surveyed through convenience sampling. Eight areas of surgical and anesthesia care were examined, including access and availability, access to human resources, infrastructure, outcomes, operating room information and procedures, equipment, nongovernmental organization delivery of surgical services, and pharmaceuticals. Results were obtained over a 1-month period during October 2011. RESULTS: There is wide variation in accessibility, with hospital-to-population ratios ranging from 1:99,010 to 1:1,082,761. The overall physician to population ratio ranges from 1:4715 to 1:107,602. The average hospital has one to two operating rooms, 4.2 surgeons, one gynecologist, and 4.5 anesthesia providers-although in all but three hospitals anesthesiology was provided by nonphysician personnel only (i.e., a nurse anesthetist). Access to continuous electricity, running water, essential medications, and monitoring systems is very limited in all hospitals surveyed, although such access did vary across regions. CONCLUSIONS: This survey of Ethiopia's hospital resources attempts to identify specific areas of need where resources, education, and development can be targeted. Because the major surgical mortality comes from late presentations, increasing accessibility through infrastructure development would likely provide a major improvement in surgical morbidity and mortality rates. Infrastructure limitations of electricity, water, oxygen, and blood banking do not prove to be significant barriers to surgical care. The increasing number of physicians is promising, although efforts should be directed specifically toward increasing the number of anesthesiologists and surgeons in the country.

Chao TE; Burdic M; Ganjawalla K; Derbew M; Keshian C; Meara J; McQueen K

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Conceptual design of first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Aluto-Langano Geothermal Pilot Plant will be the first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia. Its purpose is to utilize existing wells, drilled about a decade ago, to generate additional electricity for the power system and to prove the capability of the Aluto-Langano field to support expansion to 30 MWe. This paper discusses the evaluation of possible production wells, in combination with three power cycle options, leading to selection of a preferred development concept. Despite the small size of the pilot plant, the high elevation of the site, and the very high gas content of the field, a condensing unit was selected. Particular design features proposed for the steamfield and power plant are explained, including those that reflect the pilot plant nature of the project.

Mills, T.D.; Melaku, M.; Betemariam, G. [and others

1996-12-31

142

Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

M. Ketema; S. Bauer

2012-01-01

143

A review of uranium minerals exploration in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa, Illubabor and Wollega administrative regions. Much of the country has been examined by geologists, but it would be premature to say that there are no further deposits of useful minerals awaiting discovery. Only a comparatively small part of the country has been geologically mapped so far on a systematic basis. Geologic maps at scales of 1:100,000 to 1:25,000 should be prepared for areas where mineral deposits are to be prospected for and where known deposits are to be developed or exploited. At present the best available geological map is one at a scale of 1:250, 000. This and other programs of mineral exploration basically call, among others, for: - Equipment and funds from bilateral, multilateral and local sources; - A national program geared towards uranium mineral exploration; - Heavy investment in infrastructure to get to many of the deposits, which are located in remote parts of the country; - International and regional cooperation in uranium mineral resources research. Finally, participation in international conferences such as this organized by the IAEA will give us, researchers in developing countries, good impetus to get moving and do useful research in uranium exploration and its uses. Research collaboration with scientists in the developed world is very essential to accelerate forward the creeping research in developing countries. (author)

2005-01-01

144

Rapid trachoma assessment in kersa district, southwest ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Though trachoma can be treated with antibiotics (active trachoma) or surgery (trachomatous trichiasis), it is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. Despite the prevalence of this infectious disease in different parts of the country, district level data is lacking. This study was thus conducted to assess the prevalence estimate of trachoma and its risk factors in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross sectional Rapid Assessment of Trachoma was conducted using a WHO guideline. Six sub-districts were selected from Kersa District based on primary high risk assessment and from each sub-district; 21-27 households were randomly selected. Active trachoma for children aged 1-9 years, trachomatous trichiasis for people above 15 years old and environmental risk factors for trachoma were assessed. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. RESULTS: The overall prevalence estimate of active trachoma was 25.2% (95% CI: 20.7-30.4%). Forty three percent of children had unclean faces, 11.5% of households had water source at more than half hour walking distance, 18.2% did not have functional latrine, and 95.3% of the households had solid waste disposal within a distance of 20 meters. Households with environmental risk factors were at an increased risk to active trachoma, but the association was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The prevalence estimate of trachomatous trichiasis inclusive of "trachoma suspects" was 4.5%. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is endemic in Kersa District with active trachoma being a public health problem in the studied sub-districts. Hence, SAFE strategy should be implemented.

Ejigu M; Kariuki MM; Ilako DR; Gelaw Y

2013-03-01

145

Ethiopia before the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies  

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Full Text Available Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known – together with their additional protocols – as the coreinternational human rights instruments:- The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination;- The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;- The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women;- The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment;- The Convention on the Rights of the Child;- The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in internationalhuman rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining thetreaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years). The international committees examine the reports submitted bythe state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nationsmaterials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of thisprocess the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state –Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system.

E. Brems

2007-01-01

146

Factors associated with place of death in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dying at home is highly prevalent in Africa partly due to lack of accessibility of modern health services. In turn, limited infrastructure and health care deliveries in Africa complicate access to health services. A weak infrastructure and limited health facilities with lower quality in Ethiopia resulted poor health service utilization and coverage, high morbidity and mortality rates. We examined whether people in Addis Ababa died in health facilities and investigated the basic factors associated with place of death. METHODS: We used verbal autopsy data of 4,776 adults (age>14 years) for the years 2006-2010 from the Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program (AAMSP). The main data source of AAMSP is the burial surveillance from all cemeteries in Addis Ababa. We provide descriptive statistics of place of adult deaths and discussed their covariates using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Only 28.7% died at health facilities, while the remaining died out of health facilities. There was an increase trend in the proportion of health facility deaths from 25.3% in 2006 to 32.5% in 2010. The risk of health facility death versus out of health facility deaths decreased with age. Compared with those who had no education educated people were more likely to die at health facilities. The chance of in health facility death was a little higher for females than males while religion, occupational status and ethnicity of the deceased had no any significance difference in place of death. CONCLUSION: Both demographic and social factors determine where adults will die in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The majority of people in Addis Ababa died out of health facilities. The health system should also give special attention to the emerging non communicable diseases like cancer for effective treatment of patients.

Anteneh A; Araya T; Misganaw A

2013-01-01

147

Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU). In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of JUSH from February 7 to March 24, 2011. All medication interventions administered by the nurses to all patients admitted to the ICU during the study period were included in the study. Data were collected by directly observing drug administration by the nurses supplemented with review of medication charts. Data was edited, coded and entered in to SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive statistics was used to measure the magnitude and type of the problem under study. Results Prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU of JUSH was 621 (51.8%). Common administration errors were attributed to wrong timing (30.3%), omission due to unavailability (29.0%) and missed doses (18.3%) among others. Errors associated with antibiotics took the lion's share in medication administration errors (36.7%). Conclusion Medication errors at the administration phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Supervision to the nurses administering medications by more experienced ICU nurses or other relevant professionals in regular intervals is helpful in ensuring that medication errors don’t occur as frequently as observed in this study.

Agalu Asrat; Ayele Yemane; Bedada Worku; Woldie Mirkuzie

2012-01-01

148

Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU). In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Prospective observation based cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of JUSH from February 7 to March 24, 2011. All medication interventions administered by the nurses to all patients admitted to the ICU during the study period were included in the study. Data were collected by directly observing drug administration by the nurses supplemented with review of medication charts. Data was edited, coded and entered in to SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive statistics was used to measure the magnitude and type of the problem under study. RESULTS: Prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU of JUSH was 621 (51.8%). Common administration errors were attributed to wrong timing (30.3%), omission due to unavailability (29.0%) and missed doses (18.3%) among others. Errors associated with antibiotics took the lion's share in medication administration errors (36.7%). CONCLUSION: Medication errors at the administration phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Supervision to the nurses administering medications by more experienced ICU nurses or other relevant professionals in regular intervals is helpful in ensuring that medication errors don't occur as frequently as observed in this study.

Agalu A; Ayele Y; Bedada W; Woldie M

2012-01-01

149

Relatively low primary drug resistant tuberculosis in southwestern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Ethiopia in general, and Jimma area in particular, is not well documented. We conducted a study at Jimma University specialized hospital in southwest Ethiopia among new cases of smear positive TB patients to determine the pattern of resistance to first-line drugs. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to September 2011. Any newly diagnosed smear positive TB patient 18?years and above was included in the study. Demographic and related data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. Mycobacterial drug susceptibility testing (DST) to the first line drugs isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB) and streptomycin (STM) was performed on cultures using the indirect proportion method. M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) was identified with the Capilia TB-Neo test. Results 136 patients were enrolled in the study. Resistance to at least one drug was identified in 18.4%. The highest prevalence of resistance to any drug was identified against INH (13.2%) followed by STM (8.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of any resistance by sex, age, HIV status and history of being imprisoned. The highest mono resistance was observed against INH (7.4%). Mono resistance to streptomycin was associated with HIV infection (crude OR 15.63, 95%CI: 1.31, 187). Multidrug-resistance TB (MDR-TB) was observed in two patients (1.5%). Conclusion Resistance to at least one drug was 18.4% (INH-13.2% and STM-8.1%). STM resistance was associated with HIV positivity. There was relatively low prevalence of MDR-TB yet INH resistance was common around Jimma. The capacity of laboratories for TB culture and DST should be strengthened, in order to correctly manage TB patients and avoid amplification of drug resistance.

Abebe Gemeda; Abdissa Ketema; Abdissa Alemseged; Apers Ludwig; Agonafir Mulualem; de-Jong Bouke C; Colebunders Robert

2012-01-01

150

Relatively low primary drug resistant tuberculosis in southwestern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Ethiopia in general, and Jimma area in particular, is not well documented. We conducted a study at Jimma University specialized hospital in southwest Ethiopia among new cases of smear positive TB patients to determine the pattern of resistance to first-line drugs. METHODS: A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to September 2011. Any newly diagnosed smear positive TB patient 18?years and above was included in the study. Demographic and related data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. Mycobacterial drug susceptibility testing (DST) to the first line drugs isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB) and streptomycin (STM) was performed on cultures using the indirect proportion method. M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) was identified with the Capilia TB-Neo test. RESULTS: 136 patients were enrolled in the study. Resistance to at least one drug was identified in 18.4%. The highest prevalence of resistance to any drug was identified against INH (13.2%) followed by STM (8.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of any resistance by sex, age, HIV status and history of being imprisoned. The highest mono resistance was observed against INH (7.4%). Mono resistance to streptomycin was associated with HIV infection (crude OR 15.63, 95%CI: 1.31, 187). Multidrug-resistance TB (MDR-TB) was observed in two patients (1.5%). CONCLUSION: Resistance to at least one drug was 18.4% (INH-13.2% and STM-8.1%). STM resistance was associated with HIV positivity. There was relatively low prevalence of MDR-TB yet INH resistance was common around Jimma. The capacity of laboratories for TB culture and DST should be strengthened, in order to correctly manage TB patients and avoid amplification of drug resistance.

Abebe G; Abdissa K; Abdissa A; Apers L; Agonafir M; de-Jong BC; Colebunders R

2012-01-01

151

Women’s Education and Modern Contraceptive Use in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Women’s education and modern contraceptive use are two central issues highlighted in the Ethiopian government’s current development strategy. While the link between education and contraceptive use has been widely established in the background literature, there are few quantitative studies that explore how and why education affects the use of contraception. This study investigates the relationship between education and modern contraceptive use among a sample of 1,200 sexually active women from across Ethiopia. It uses secondary analysis of a survey conducted by Marie Stopes International Ethiopia in 2008. Through structural equation modelling it demonstrates that educational effects are fully mediated by attitudes, knowledge and access to health services. Of these, knowledge and access emerge as having the most considerable explanatory power.

Charlie Gordon; Ricardo Sabates; Rod Bond; Tsedey Wubshet

2011-01-01

152

Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey played a leading role in conducting a National Workshop that designed the programme's basic features. (author)

2001-01-01

153

Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)

Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

2007-11-22

154

Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Esayas Kebede Gudina,1 Yadani Michael,1 Sahilu Assegid2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a common medical condition worldwide. It is an important public health challenge be...

Gudina EK; Michael Y; Assegid S

155

Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and diss...

Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

156

Exploring new political alternatives for the Oromo in Ethiopia. Report from Oromo workshop and its after-effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report is intended to stimulate a debate on political alternatives for the Oromo, an ethnic and social group in Ethiopia. It makes documents from an Oromo conference in Bergen at CMI available for the discourse among the Oromo in exile and also in Ethiopia. It argues that it is necessary to co...

Pausewang, Siegfried (ed.)

157

Handling Hierarchy in Decentralized Settings: Governance Underpinnings of School Performance in Tikur Inchini, West Shewa Zone, Oromia Region. Africa Region Working Paper Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper provides a survey-based analysis of the governance of school performance in Tikur Inchina, a "woreda" (a sub-national unit of government) in Ethiopia's Oronia Region. A World Bank team piloted the "assessing constraints" survey tool to collect quantitative and perception data on the governance underpinnings of primary schooling. The…

Girishankar, Navin; Alemayehu, Abebaw; Ahmad, Yusuf

158

Causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia: A literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACTObstetric fistula (OF) is one of the major potential complications of childbirth mostly young women in developing countries including Ethiopia. Though few scientific studies have been conducted related to its causes and consequences, it is challenging to find a comprehensive figure about obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper sought that to review the causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. A number of relevant obstetrics and gynaecology websites and journals were reviewed. Google, Pubmed, and Hinari searching engines were used to find out relevant references. Year of publication, location, language and its type of publication were the inclusion criteria used for reviewing literatures. It is observed that obstetric fistula has been a major burdened mainly for women in the rural Ethiopian and its causes and consequences are very deep and diverse. The great majority of obstetric fistula causes in Ethiopia is due to Obstetric labour. Distance to the health care facility, transportation access, economic factors (poverty), poor knowledge related to the problem, poor health seeking behaviour of the affected women and age at first marriage are the other triggering factors. Stigma and discrimination of obstetric fistula patients by their husbands and families, economic dependency and psychological disorder are often mentioned as consequences for OF patients in Ethiopia.

Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mengistu Asnake Kibret

2013-01-01

159

Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia.

Berhe, S.M.; Desta, B.; Teferra, M.; Nicoletti, M.

1987-03-01

160

Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Power sector reforms in Ethiopia: options for promoting local investments in rural electrification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An estimated 13% of Ethiopia's population has access to electricity. Almost all electrified centres are urban, with rural areas as well as most small rural towns largely unelectrified. Rural electrification (RE) thus remains a major challenge to the power sector of Ethiopia. The national power utility (EEPCO) has traditionally been assigned the task of electrifying rural demand centres. EEPCO has, however, concentrated on the more developed and profitable urban areas. The objective of this article is to present the findings of a study that examined whether the ongoing power sector reforms in Ethiopia can attract private investment in RE as an alternative to the sole reliance on EEPCO. Initial findings of the study indicate that private investment in RE can be enhanced with some improvement in the legal and regulatory provisions, along with extension of technical assistance from EEPCO to private investors. (Author)

Teferra, Mengistu [Ministry of Economic Development and Co-operation, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

2002-09-01

162

The clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001) spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

Tadesse T; Demissie M; Berhane Y; Kebede Y; Abebe M

2013-01-01

163

Genotype diversity of Mycobacterium isolates from children in Jimma, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is poorly addressed in Ethiopia and information about its magnitude and the genotype distribution of the causative Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains responsible for its spread are scanty. METHODS: Gastric lavage or sputum samples were collected from consecutively enrolled TB suspect children visiting Jimma University Hospital in 2011 and cultured on Middlebrook 7H11 and Lowenstein-Jensen media. Acid fast bacterial (AFB) isolates were subjected to molecular typing targeting regions of difference (RDs), 16S rDNA gene and the direct repeat (DR) region using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), gene sequencing and spoligotyping, respectively. Molecular drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis isolates was performed by Genotype(R)MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) (Hain Life Sciences, Germany). RESULTS: Gastric lavage (n = 43) or sputum (n = 58) samples were collected from 101 children and 31.7% (32/101) of the samples were positive for AFB by microscopy, culture and/or PCR. Out of 25 AFB isolates, 60% (15/25) were identified as M. tuberculosis by PCR, and 40% isolates (10/25) were confirmed to be non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) by genus typing and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Lineage classification assigned the M. tuberculosis strains into Euro-American (EUA, 66.7%; 10/15), East-African-Indian (EAI; 2/15), East-Asian (EA; 1/15) and Indio-Oceanic (IO; 1/15) lineages. Seven M. tuberculosis strains were new to the SpolDB4 database. All of the M. tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), except for one strain (of spoligotype SIT-149 or T3_ETH family) which had a mutation at the inhA locus which often confers resistance to INH (low level) and ethionamide. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the genetic population structure of paediatric M. tuberculosis strains suggested similarity with that of adults, indicating an on-going and active transmission of M. tuberculosis from adults to children in Ethiopia. There were no multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) strains among the isolates.

Workalemahu B; Berg S; Tsegaye W; Abdissa A; Girma T; Abebe M; Aseffa A

2013-09-01

164

Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes in Ethiopia: Growth and Feed Utilization Potentials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth performances and feed utilization potentials of six chicken populations were investigated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. Five local ecotypes originated from different Agro-ecologies and corresponding market sheds in Ethiopia, namely, Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, and the Fayoumi breed was used as a reference breed. Ecotype had a significant (pChefe (heaviest locals at this age) ecotype, Jarso (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age) ecotype and mean daily gain of all local ecotypes, respectively at six weeks of age. Chefe chicks ecotypes showed 76.8% positive deviation over chicks from Jarso market sheds in terms of total body weight gain per bird at this age. The Fayoumi chicks consumed 41, 115 and 65% more feed than chicks from Chefe ecotype (highest body weight gain and feed intake among locals at this age), Jarso ecotype (lowest body weight gain and least feed intake among the locals at this age) and the mean feed intake of all local ecotypes, at six weeks of age, respectively. Among the local ecotypes, Jarso and Tepi had the smaller body weight gains while Chefe and Tilili had larger weight gains. The result from the analysis of variance showed a highly significant (pTilili growers. The Fayoumi chicks were 28, 77 and 52% heavier than chicks from Tilili ecotypes (heaviest locals at this age), Tepi ecotypes (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age) and mean body weight gain of local birds, respectively. Male growers from Tilili ecotype (heaviest locals at this age), Tepi ecotype (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age) and mean body weight gain of local birds, were 22, 30 and 33% heavier in body weight gain per bird over female chicken at twelve weeks of age, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was also significantly (pTepi and Horro chicks and the lowest feed requirement per units of gain was recorded for Tilili and Chefe chicks with feed conversion ratio of 4.95g and 5.2g feed per unit of gain, respectively.

D. Tadelle; C. Kijora; K. J. Peters

2003-01-01

165

FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN DANGILA MUNICIPALITY, ETHIOPIA. PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fiscal decentralization is one component of decentralization that gives authority to local governments to collectrevenue through taxes and responsibility over spending decisions. Even though fiscal decentralization has givenrevenue raising and spending decision powers to lower levels of government, the implementation process hasoften been a daunting task for many local authorities in the developing world. In the case of Ethiopia,decentralization has been implemented since 1991. However, revenue raising and expenditure management arenot efficiently and effectively exercised, especially in lower level government units of Ethiopia. Insufficient revenuecollection and reprehensible expenditure management leads to financial incapability such that public infrastructureand services could not be financed amply. Dangila municipality faces the problem of financial capacity to deliverinfrastructure and services to its citizens. While a number of studies have documented the financial incapacities ofEthiopian municipalities, they have been very shy to articulate the discrepancies and deficiencies that linkfinancing to service delivery. It is interesting to know what the driving factors are in this case. Therefore, the mainfocus of this paper is to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of revenue collection and expendituremanagement of Dangila Municipality. To obtain edifying data the paper used a positivist survey study. Municipalityfinancial documentation and questionnaires were the main sources of secondary and primary data respectively.Parametric descriptive statistical methods were applied in the analysis of data to arrive at measures of efficiencyand effectiveness in revenue collection and expenditure management of the municipality. The study revealed thatthe municipality is not efficient and effective in its revenue collection and expenditure management. The mainexplanation for such inefficiency comprise; derisory assessment of taxable sources, poor organizational structure,inadequate accounting system, absence of clear operational guidelines, poor planning and data basemanagement, lack of awareness by taxpayers and lack of skilled manpower. To resolve such challenges, werecommend the following actionable measures; widening the revenue base of local sources of revenue, improvingplanning and implementing capacity, establishing adequate data base systems, continuous awareness creation fortaxpayers, establishing appropriate guidelines and methods of revenue collection, revision of the tariff structureregularly, installing accounting system that produces timely and reliable information, encouraging communityparticipation in planning and resource allocation and municipal restructuring that take into account needs andwelfare of employees.

Edson MBEDZI; Tendayi GONDO

2010-01-01

166

Entomologic Inoculation Rates of Anopheles arabiensis in Southwestern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density. PMID:23878184

Massebo, Fekadu; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

2013-07-22

167

Entomologic Inoculation Rates of Anopheles arabiensis in Southwestern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density.

Massebo F; Balkew M; Gebre-Michael T; Lindtjørn B

2013-09-01

168

Attitudes of rural people in central Ethiopia towards epilepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the farming community of the sub-district of Meskan and Mareko in central Ethiopia, where the prevalence of epilepsy is known to be 5.2/1000, a door-to-door survey was undertaken in 1546 sampled households to find out public attitudes to epilepsy. Nearly 64% of the respondents were in the age group of 14-50 years, and 58.6% were women. The majority (86%) were illiterate, and 94% had incomes of a subsistence level; 89% had heard or witnessed seizures. Traditional views on the association of evil spirits and superstition was prevalent. By 45% of the interviewees, the disease was believed to be contagious through physical contacts during an attack. Although there was sympathetic concern in the community for the person suffering from epilepsy, negative attitudes were strong on matrimonial associations, sharing of accommodation and physical contacts with affected persons, particularly when there were obvious signs and frequent attacks by seizures. The study demonstrates that the rural community has very poor knowledge of the causes and nature of epilepsy, and this has resulted in social deprivations and at times, rejection of the sufferers.

Tekle-Haimanot R; Abebe M; Forsgren L; Gebre-Mariam A; Heijbel J; Holmgren G; Ekstedt J

1991-01-01

169

A survey of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) were measured in 1,580 Ethiopian subjects representing urban and rural populations. Sera found positive by a repeated second generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were subjected to three additional confirmatory tests. The overall confirmed seroprevalence was 2.0%. Less than 1% were confirmed to be seropositive in rural communities, with 1.4% positive among blood donors, 1.6% positive among patients with dermatologic disorders, 3.6% among leprosy patients, and 6.0% among patients attending a University Hospital clinic for neurologic disorders. The patients in the groups with leprosy and neurologic disorders have most likely been in ill health for many years and have sought relief by traditional healers or treatment at poorly equipped clinics. This group of patients demonstrated a high prevalence of antibodies to HCV. In Ethiopia, especially in small clinics, there is a shortage of syringes and needles and they have to be reused many times often with inadequate sterilization. Therefore, these syringes and needles may be contaminated, thus being a risk factor for HCV and HIV infection. PMID:7692753

Frommel, D; Tekle-Haimanot, R; Berhe, N; Aussel, L; Verdier, M; Preux, P M; Denis, F

1993-10-01

170

A survey of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) were measured in 1,580 Ethiopian subjects representing urban and rural populations. Sera found positive by a repeated second generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were subjected to three additional confirmatory tests. The overall confirmed seroprevalence was 2.0%. Less than 1% were confirmed to be seropositive in rural communities, with 1.4% positive among blood donors, 1.6% positive among patients with dermatologic disorders, 3.6% among leprosy patients, and 6.0% among patients attending a University Hospital clinic for neurologic disorders. The patients in the groups with leprosy and neurologic disorders have most likely been in ill health for many years and have sought relief by traditional healers or treatment at poorly equipped clinics. This group of patients demonstrated a high prevalence of antibodies to HCV. In Ethiopia, especially in small clinics, there is a shortage of syringes and needles and they have to be reused many times often with inadequate sterilization. Therefore, these syringes and needles may be contaminated, thus being a risk factor for HCV and HIV infection.

Frommel D; Tekle-Haimanot R; Berhe N; Aussel L; Verdier M; Preux PM; Denis F

1993-10-01

171

Attitudes of rural people in central Ethiopia towards epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the farming community of the sub-district of Meskan and Mareko in central Ethiopia, where the prevalence of epilepsy is known to be 5.2/1000, a door-to-door survey was undertaken in 1546 sampled households to find out public attitudes to epilepsy. Nearly 64% of the respondents were in the age group of 14-50 years, and 58.6% were women. The majority (86%) were illiterate, and 94% had incomes of a subsistence level; 89% had heard or witnessed seizures. Traditional views on the association of evil spirits and superstition was prevalent. By 45% of the interviewees, the disease was believed to be contagious through physical contacts during an attack. Although there was sympathetic concern in the community for the person suffering from epilepsy, negative attitudes were strong on matrimonial associations, sharing of accommodation and physical contacts with affected persons, particularly when there were obvious signs and frequent attacks by seizures. The study demonstrates that the rural community has very poor knowledge of the causes and nature of epilepsy, and this has resulted in social deprivations and at times, rejection of the sufferers. PMID:2014416

Tekle-Haimanot, R; Abebe, M; Forsgren, L; Gebre-Mariam, A; Heijbel, J; Holmgren, G; Ekstedt, J

1991-01-01

172

Estimation of solar radiation energy of Ethiopia from sunshine data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface, for nine meteorological stations in Ethiopia, are compared with their corresponding values computed based on Angstroem relations. Regression coefficients are obtained and correlation equations are determined to predict the global solar radiation. The results shows that Angstroem relations are valid for Ethiopian locations, and the correlation equations can be used to predict the monthly mean daily global solar radiation in the locations considered in this study. This study also proves that the results made by ENEC et al, using the generalised Frere`s coefficients, is unsatisfactory for the prediction of monthly mean daily global solar radiation. On the other hand, the work of Dogniaux and Lemoine, using the regression coefficients a and b as a function of latitude and atmospheric turbidity and grouping large range latitudes to extend the application, can give better estimation. However, for more accurate estimation, several additional meteorological stations have to be evaluated and their regression coefficients have to be determined before grouping in to one relationship to express the variations of a and b under any conditions of equipment and location. (author) 1 fig., 11 tabs., 22 refs.

Argaw, N. [Tampere Univ., Dep. of Civil Engineering, Tampere (Finland)

1996-12-31

173

Isotope Hydrology Projects in Ethiopia Provide Valuable Information and Training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.

2011-09-29

174

Volcanic outcrops of southeast Ethiopia and the Ogaden Dyke Swarm  

Science.gov (United States)

A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter-­-supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon-­-filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro-­-Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW-­-directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.

Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane

2013-04-01

175

Wind energy potential assessment at four typical locations in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wind energy potential at four different sites in Ethiopia - Addis Ababa (09:02N, 38:42E), Mekele (13:33N, 39:30E), Nazret (08:32N, 39:22E), and Debrezeit (8:44N, 39:02E) - has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve (DC) for all four selected sites. In brief, for measurements taken at a height of 10 m, the results show that for three of the four locations the wind energy potential is reasonable, with average wind speeds of approximately 4 m/s. For the fourth site, the mean wind speed is less than 3 m/s. This study is the first stage in a longer project and will be followed by an analysis of solar energy potential and finally the design of a hybrid standalone electric energy supply system that includes a wind turbine, PV, diesel generator and battery. (author)

Bekele, Getachew; Palm, Bjoern [Department of Energy Technology, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-03-15

176

The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (15 077 km², Nile basin, Ethiopia) was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed in a GIS system. It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and -metry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes. The scale is 1:500 000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and ultimately sculpted by (mainly water) erosion. Lake Tana emerged by the combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. Since the time that the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive floodplains were created, river valleys have been filled with sediment and higher laying topography has been eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased lake extent (3041 km² now) as compared to the ancient maximum (6602 km²). Dominant processes today are merely fluvial and denudative. Recent (1886-2010) changes in lake coast are small with exception of the delta of the major feeding river, Gilgel Abay, which increased disproportionally the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.

Poppe, Ludwin; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Frankl, Amaury

2013-04-01

177

Ethiopia: from a centralised monarchy to a federal republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the Ethiopian state traces its roots back to the empire of Axum in the first centuries AD, the modern Ethiopian state took shape in the second half of the 19th century. During that period the territory of the Ethiopian empire expanded considerably. Several ethnic groups were incorporated into the empire and the foundations for a strong, centralised state were laid. Centralisation of authority in the hands of the emperor and a strategy of nation building that denied the ethnic diversity of Ethiopian society characterised the rule of Emperor Haile Selassie. At the same time, these elements contributed to its decline. Haile Selassie was ultimately deposed by a military committee in 1974. This announced the end of the Ethiopian monarchy and the transformation of the Ethiopian state, following the Marxist model. Inspite of Marxist-Leninist attention to the 'nationalities issue', Ethiopia remained a centralised state, dominated by one ethnic identity. This gave rise to increasing resistance from various regional and ethnic liberation movements. The combined effort of these movements caused the fall of military rule in May 1991. The new regime, which was dominated by ethnically organised parties, initiated a radical transformation of the Ethiopian state structure that leads to the establishment of a federation in 1995.

C. Van der Beken

2007-01-01

178

Decline of Glossina morsitans ugadensis in Gambella, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gambella is the only area where sleeping sickness is endemic in Ethiopia. Four species of Glossina had been reported from Gambella out of the five species found in the country in surveys made before 1985. These are Glossina morsitans ugadensis, G. pallidipes, G. fuscipes and G. tachinoides. A tsetse fly survey was carried out in parts of Gambella owing to the fact that the area is undergoing ecological changes due to massive deforestation (because of resettlement and development programmes), poaching, and introduction of domestic animals into tsetse infested parts of Gambella after 1985. Tsetse populations were sampled for one year, March 1993-April 1994, using biconical traps and hand catches. The survey has reported all Glossina spp which were previously reported except G. morsitans ugadensis. It seems that a combination of factors, such as, lack of host and increase in human population have forced G. morsitans ugadensis to decline. This study has consolidated the fact that tsetse flies of the morsitans group specially G. morsitans, are easily affected by human interference while the palpalis group is resistant to this factor. In addition, this study has also indicated, villagization and rural development could be practised where G. morsitans is the only species in a certain area to alleviate pressure on already impoverished land in parts of Africa.

Hadis M; Endeshaw T; Kebede A; Asfaw T; Tilahun T

1995-06-01

179

Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

2008-01-01

180

Assessing the management of healthcare waste in Hawassa city, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inadequate management of healthcare waste is a serious concern in many developing countries due to the risks posed to human health and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate healthcare waste management in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in nine healthcare facilities (HCFs) including hospitals (four), health centres (two) and higher clinics (three) in two phases, first to assess the waste management aspect and second to determine daily waste generation rate. The result showed that the median quantity of waste generated at the facilities was 3.46 kg bed(-1) day(-1) (range: 1.48-8.19 kg bed(-1) day(-1)). The quantity of waste per day generated at a HCF increased as occupancy increased (p waste legislation was prevalent amongst staff. The study showed that management of healthcare waste at HCFs to be poor. Waste management practices need to be improved through improved legislation and enforcement, and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Hawassa. PMID:20686051

Israel Deneke Haylamicheal; Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie; Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw; Hanibale Atsbeha Zegeye

2010-08-04

 
 
 
 
181

Transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parasitological, malacological and transmission studies were made for a period of one year in the town of Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni in residents of Kebeles 8, 9 and 10 was 12%. The prevalence in Sertse Dengel school children was 45% and that in Dil Chibo school children was 32%. The peak prevalence in both sexes in school and non-school populations occurred in the age group 10-14 years. Intensity of infection showed a similar pattern of age variation as prevalence. Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail density peaked towards the end of the rainy season (September) in Lake Tana and around the middle of the dry season (January) on the shore of the River Abay. In September, infected snails were recovered from all collection sites. Of mice immersed in four water contact sites in September, schistosome infections developed in those immersed in three sites. Parasitological findings suggested that schistosomiasis infection rates depended on age and sex of individuals and geographical location of the place from the potentially infective water bodies. Snail population density and associated schistosomal infection in a human population depended on rainfall and associated ecological changes such as fluctuation in water level and vegetation density. As malacological findings and sentinel mouse immersion results indicated, it appeared that the main transmission season in Lake Tana region is towards the end of the rainy season although low level intermittent transmission may take place throughout the year.

Erko B; Tedla S; Petros B

1991-10-01

182

Transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitological, malacological and transmission studies were made for a period of one year in the town of Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni in residents of Kebeles 8, 9 and 10 was 12%. The prevalence in Sertse Dengel school children was 45% and that in Dil Chibo school children was 32%. The peak prevalence in both sexes in school and non-school populations occurred in the age group 10-14 years. Intensity of infection showed a similar pattern of age variation as prevalence. Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail density peaked towards the end of the rainy season (September) in Lake Tana and around the middle of the dry season (January) on the shore of the River Abay. In September, infected snails were recovered from all collection sites. Of mice immersed in four water contact sites in September, schistosome infections developed in those immersed in three sites. Parasitological findings suggested that schistosomiasis infection rates depended on age and sex of individuals and geographical location of the place from the potentially infective water bodies. Snail population density and associated schistosomal infection in a human population depended on rainfall and associated ecological changes such as fluctuation in water level and vegetation density. As malacological findings and sentinel mouse immersion results indicated, it appeared that the main transmission season in Lake Tana region is towards the end of the rainy season although low level intermittent transmission may take place throughout the year. PMID:1954954

Erko, B; Tedla, S; Petros, B

1991-10-01

183

Spoligotyping of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SETTING: St Peter Tuberculosis (TB) Specialized Hospital and the Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To genotype multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates and assess the magnitude of their clustering. DESIGN: A total of 183 consecutive MDR-TB isolates collected between September 2009 and February 2012 were characterised using molecular typing. Prior to the study, the isolates were confirmed as MDR-TB using GenoType MTBDRplus. Recent transmission index was used to analyse the clusters. RESULTS: Spoligotyping identified 43 different patterns, of which 17 consisted of at least two isolates forming clusters, while 26 had only a single isolate. The most frequent patterns were spoligo international typing (SIT) number 21 and 149. Twenty-four patterns did not match existing patterns in the SpolDB4 database. The strains belonged to three lineages, the predominant lineages being Euro-American and Indo-Oceanic, each consisting of 65 isolates. High proportions (86%) of patients were infected with clustered strains, suggesting probable recent transmission of MDR-TB in the study area. CONCLUSION: The observation of cluster formation of the spoligotype patterns of MDR-TB isolates could suggest transmission of MDR-TB strains among the population, thus warranting further attention.

Diriba B; Berkessa T; Mamo G; Tedla Y; Ameni G

2013-02-01

184

Assessment of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge level among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia  

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Introduction: In Ethiopia, more adolescents are in school today than ever before; however, there are no studies that have assessed their comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Thus, this study tried to assess the level of this knowledge and the factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in...

Lemessa Oljira; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

185

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p...

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Abdissa, Alemseged; Trape, Jean-François; Mediannikov, Oleg; Richet, Hervé

186

Ixodid ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and species composition of ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in and around Hawassa in southern Ethiopia. In total, 200 dogs and 100 cats were examined from November 2008 to April 2009. Of the dogs and cats examined, 99.5% and 91.5%, re...

Bersissa E. Kumsa; Shewit Mekonnen

187

Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather info...

Yineger, Haile; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

188

Appendix : Additions to Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea volumes 2 - 7  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En taxonomisk og floristisk redegørelse for alle de nyfundne eller nybeskrevne arter fra Etiopien og/eller Eritrea, der er blevet opdaget efter deadline for bindene 2-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, men medens floraværket var under udgivelse.

Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

2009-01-01

189

Wild edible plants in Ethiopia: a review on their potential to combat food insecurity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work reviews literature on ethnobotanical knowledge of wild edible plants and their potential role in combating food insecurity in Ethiopia. Information on a total of 413 wild edible plants belonging to 224 genera and 77 families was compiled in this review. Shrubs represented 31% of species followed by trees (30%), herbs (29%) and climbers (9%). Families Fabaceae (35 species), Tiliaceae (20) and Capparidaceae (19) were found to be represented by the highest number of edible species. About 56% (233) of species have edibility reports from more than one community in Ethiopia. Fruits were reported as the commonly utilized edible part in 51% of species. It was found that studies on wild edible plants of Ethiopia cover only about 5% of the country’s districts which indicates the need for more ethnobotanical research addressing all districts. Although there have been some attempts to conduct nutritional analyses of wild edible plants, available results were found to be insignificant when compared to the wild edible plant wealth of the country. Results also show that wild edible plants of Ethiopia are used as supplementary, seasonal or survival food sources in many cultural groups, and hence play a role in combating food insecurity. The presence of anthropogenic and environmental factors affecting the wild plant wealth of the country calls for immediate action so as to effectively document, produce a development plan and utilize the plants.

Lulekal, Ermias; Asfaw, Zemede; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Van Damme, Patrick

2011-01-01

190

Yellow Fever Epidemic Sites Revisited: Possible Areas of Yellow Fever Endemicity in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yellow fever antibody of apparently recent origin has been found in two areas studied by the Institute Pasteur during the 1961-1962 yellow fever outbreak in Ethiopia. Yellow fever antibody in an eight year old child in Kulo Konta Awrajah would indicate th...

O. L. Wood V. H. Lee

1975-01-01

191

Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda  

Science.gov (United States)

This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

2007-01-01

192

Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia  

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The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from in...

Balemie, Kebu; Kebebew, Fassil

193

Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands of Northern Ethiopia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands in relation to season, management and soil depth in Ethiopia. We studied 43 woody species in 52 plots in three areas. All woody species were colonized by AM fungi,...

Birhane, E.; Kuyper, T.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

194

The potential of pathogens as biological control of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

P. hsyterophorus is an exotic invasive annual weed now causing severe infestation in Ethiopia. Studies on diagnosis, incidence and distribution of pathogens associated with parthenium weed in Ethiopia were carried out from 1998-2002. Several fungal isolates were obtained from seed and other parts of parthenium plants. Among them were putative pathogenic fungal species of the genus Helminthosporium, Phoma, Curvularia, Chaetomium, Alternaria, and Fusarium. However, pathogenecity test of the isolates obtained showed no or non-specific symptoms. It was concluded that these pathogens could be opportunistic with insignificant potential for biological control of parthenium. Two most important diseases associated with parthenium were a rust disease, caused by Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, and a phyllody disease, caused by a phytoplasma of fababean phyllody (PBP) phytoplasma group. The rust was commonly found in cool mid altitude (1500-2500 m) areas while phyllody was observed in low to mid altitude regions (900-2500 m) of Ethiopia, with a disease incidence up to 100% and 75%, respectively, in some locations. Study of the individual effects of the rust and phyllody diseases under field conditions showed a reduction on weed morphological parameters (plant height, leaf area, and dry matter yield). Parthenium seed production was reduced by 42% and 85% due to rust and phyllody, respectively. Phyllody and rust diseases of parthenium showed significant potential for classical biological control of parthenium after further confirmation of insect vectors that transmit phyllody and host range of phyllody disease to the related economic plants in Ethiopia. PMID:12696408

Taye, T; Gossmann, M; Einhorn, G; Büttner, C; Metz, R; Abate, D

2002-01-01

195

Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How to cite this article: Lutala P.M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1), Art. #226, 2 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm. v3i1.226

Prosper M. Lutala

196

Detection of a new Borrelia species in ticks taken from cattle in Southwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We collected 284 ticks in Ethiopia (109 Amblyomma cohaerens, 173 Rhipicephalus decoloratus, and 2 Rhipicephalus praetextatus). We found no rickettsiae and bartonellae. In 7.3% of the A. cohaerens, we found a Borrelia sp. that may represent a new species distant from both relapsing fever group and Lyme borreliae.

Mediannikov O; Abdissa A; Socolovschi C; Diatta G; Trape JF; Raoult D

2013-04-01

197

Cultural Politics and Education in Ethiopia: A Search for a Viable Indigenous Legend  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history of modern education in Ethiopian is short. What is not so short, however, is the history of traditional education, temehert. It goes back as far as the introduction of Christianity to Ethiopia – fourth century EC. Since its inception, education had a close, if ambivalent, relationship wi...

Mohammed Girma

198

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana genotype C in head lice, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014).

Angelakis E; Diatta G; Abdissa A; Trape JF; Mediannikov O; Richet H; Raoult D

2011-12-01

199

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana genotype C in head lice, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014). PMID:22172306

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Abdissa, Alemseged; Trape, Jean-François; Mediannikov, Oleg; Richet, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

2011-12-01

200

Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to cite this article: Lutala P.M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1), Art. #226, 2 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm. v3i1.226

Prosper M. Lutala

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to cite this article: Philpott J, Derbew M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2010;2(1), Art. #155,3 pages, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.155 

Jane Philpott; Miliard Derbew

2010-01-01

202

Review of a comprehensive baseline survey in Ethiopia using nutritional indicators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews a cross-sectional baseline survey conducted during 1998-1999 in the Southern Region of Ethiopia in the context of the Southern Region Co-operatives Development and Credit Project. The survey was undertaken prior to the water supply, health and basic sanitation component of the IFA...

Lachat, Carl

203

Screening rhizobacteria for biological control of Fusarium root and crown rot of sorghum in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fusarium oxysporum Schlectend causes root and crown rot in several crops including sorghum that results in low grain yield in Ethiopia and other East African countries. Seventy-eight bacterial isolates were obtained and subsequently tested both in vitro and in the greenhouse. Of the 78 isolates test...

Idris, H. Ahmed; Labuschagne, Nico; Korsten, Lise

204

First experiences with High Resolution Imagery Based Adjudication Approach for Social Tenure Domain Model in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the start of the 21st century, great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the so called first phase certificates. These certificates do identify the land holding households (with name etc. and photographs), but lim...

Lemmen, C.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Lengoiboni, M.; Deininger, K.; Burns, T.

205

Impact of legal reform on sustainable land management in Tigray, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study provides insight into the implementation of the most recent land law reform in Tigray, Ethiopia. I use a two round panel of data from 2006 when the law was passed and 2010, four years after enactment, to explore the knowledge and perceptions of the new law, and to study the impact the leg...

Nantongo, Mary Gorreth

206

Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

2011-01-01

207

Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest Ethiopia using microsatellite markers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, indigenous chicken populations representing seven different areas of northwest Ethiopia were studied using microsatellite markers to determine genetic diversity and variation. Three local lines of South African chicken and two commercial chicken strains were included for comparison. T...

Hassen, Halima; Neser, F.W.C.; De Kock, A.; Van Marle-Koster, Este

208

Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study identifies the major methods used by farmers to adapt to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia, the factors that affect their choice of method, and the barriers to adaptation. The methods identified include use of different crop varieties, tree planting, soil conservation, early an...

Deressa, Temesgen Tadesse; Hassan, Rashid M.; Ringler, Claudia; Alemu, Tekie; Mohamud, Yusuf

209

Federalism in Africa: The Case of Ethnic-based Federalism in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted ethnic federalism and restructured the regions along ethnic lines as soon as the EPRDF took political power by overthrowing the Marxist military government in 1991. The aim of this paper is to examine the merits and the demerits of federalism. The paper particularly assesses federalism in Africa by taking the case of Ethiopia as an example. The paper argues that in order to ensure the success of federalism, it should not be imposed from above. Since its introduction in 1991 and officially sanctioned in the country’s 1994 Constitution, ethnic federalism and Article 39 of the Constitution that awarded the self-rule states (regions) the right to secede has become the major source of intense debate. For some, ethnic federalism and the right to secede discourage ethnic tensions in the country and encourage the various ethnic groups to live together peacefully. However, for others, this “experiment” can go out of hand and may lead the country into never-ending ethnic wars and eventually to disintegration. This paper, by taking into account of Ethiopia’s and other countries’ experiences, will examine both sides of the arguments.

Jan Záho?ík; Wondwosen Teshome

2008-01-01

210

Industrial energy utilization patterns in a developing country: a case study of selected industries in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy utilization patterns in three factories involved in cement production, textile manufacturing, and food processing in Ethiopia are discussed. The study uses data of energy consumption and products to obtain specific energy consumption figures for two of the factories. Results show areas of apparent energy losses and corresponding conservation possibilities. (author).

Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. (Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia))

1991-01-01

211

Determinants of off-farm participation decision of farm households in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyses the determinants of off-farm work participation decisions of farm households in Ethiopia. A bivariate probit model is applied to account for the simultaneity of participation decisions of both male and female members of farm households. The results of the analysis show that human...

Beyene, A.D.

212

From "Deep Knowledge" to "The Light of Reason": Sources for Philosophy of Education in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores some of the indigenous sources available in Ethiopia as a resource for philosophy and philosophy of education. In the process it makes a small contribution to the ongoing debate among philosophers as to whether there is a distinctive African philosophy. The paper illustrates, first, what is sometimes referred to as the "deep…

Bridges, David; Asgedom, Amare; Kenaw, Setargew

2004-01-01

213

The use of herbal preparations for tick control in western Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information on the traditional tick control methods used in Keffa, Illubabor and Wellega Provinces in western Ethiopia was obtained from 86 veterinary clinics and 865 peasant farmers through a questionnaire survey. Latexes of Euphorbia obovalifolia and Ficus brachypoda...

A. Regassa

214

Eneweyay (Let's Discuss). Report from a training programme for democracy in rural Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Report of a project to teach principles of democracy in a "down-to-earth" way, through discussions with rural and urban people in Ethiopia. The "Ecumenical Training Initiative for Democracy" developed before the elections of 1995 out of an attempt of European church aid organisat...

Pausewang, Siegfried

215

Rural non-farm activities in impoverished agricultural communities : the case of North Shoa Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the extent of deagrarianization in North Shoa, one of the most impoverished regions of Ethiopia. It describes the role and trend of farm activities and output, the trends in income diversification and the historical evolution of non-farm activities, and the relationship between f...

Demeke, M.

216

Impediments to Educative Practicum: The Case of Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…

Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

2011-01-01

217

"Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

Camfield, Laura

2010-01-01

218

The need for the political representation of persons with disabilities in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern parliaments are mostly compared to the top echelon of the society.The unfairness of the representation still holds true even where free, fair and periodic democratic elections are held. PWDs constitue the largest minority group accounting for 15.6% of the world's population. In Ethiopia appro...

Kedir, Abdu Abdurazak

219

Ethiopia - energy situation 1986/87. Aethiopien - Energiewirtschaft 1986/87  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Ethiopia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

1988-01-01

220

Chemical properties of wild coffee forest soils in Ethiopia and management implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aims at determining the status of soil chemical fertility in four wild coffee forests of southeastern and southwestern Ethiopia. Accordingly, soil samples were collected from surface and subsurface depths at three sites within each forest and analyzed for soil chemical properties. The resu...

Taye Kufa

 
 
 
 
221

Profitability of Contractual Bread Wheat Seed Production in Mecha District of Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was undertaken to examine the profitability of contractual bread wheat seed production in Kudmi village of Mecha district in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from fourteen seed growers using structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed include descriptive sta...

Dawit TSEGAYE

222

Isolation of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei Ssp. Indet. from 'Glossina techinoides' and 'Tragelaphus scriptus' in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the continuing investigation of human trypanosomiasis in southwestern Ethiopia, a visit was made in January and February 1970 to the village of Pinybago, just north of the river Gilo. During 1969 this village had been affected by an epidemic du...

E. McConnell J. R. Baker

1971-01-01

223

The impact of indoor residual spraying on malaria incidence in East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population resides in areas prone to malaria infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on the incidence of malaria in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia.Methods: Data from the registers of malaria cases at Debrezeit Malaria Control Center in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia were collected and analyzed. Records of 22 villages with no previous rounds of spraying that were entirely covered with IRS using DDT during the peak malaria transmission season of 2001 and 2002 and other 22 adjacent villages with similar malaria incidence but remained unsprayed were used for the analyses.Results: The incidence of malaria in 2011 and 2002 among the sprayed villages was lower than the respective preceding years for both Plasmodium species (incidence rate ratio 0.60; CI 0.35 to 0.95; p < 0.0001). After the focal spray, there was significant reduction in malaria incidence in the villages sprayed. Spraying was associated with a 62% reduction in malaria incidence.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that IRS with DDT was effective in reducing malaria incidence in highland epidemic-prone areas in the East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia. A larger scale study should evaluate the effectiveness of DDT in reducing malaria incidence against its environmental impact and alternative strategies for malaria prevention.

Shallo Daba Hamusse; Taye T. Balcha; Tefera Belachew

2012-01-01

224

Intimate partner violence and depression among women in rural Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study  

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Abstract Background Studies from high-income countries have shown intimate partner violence to be associated with depression among women. The present paper examines whether this finding can be confirmed in a very different cultural setting in rural Ethiopia. Method A c...

Deyessa Negussie; Berhane Yemane; Alem Atalay; Ellsberg Mary; Emmelin Maria; Hogberg Ulf; Kullgren Gunnar

225

Antimalarial drug utilization by women in Ethiopia: a knowledge-attitudes-practice study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was undertaken between December 1991 and February 1992 to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to malaria of 300 women from six randomly selected rural communities in central Ethiopia. A total of 85% were able to recognize one or more of the common symptoms of the dis...

Yeneneh, H.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Joseph, L.; Pickering, J.; Tedla, S.

226

Factors determining fertilizer adoption of the peasant farm sector in Northern Ethiopia, Tigray region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the researcher has investigated the determinants of the likelihood offertilizer adoption and the intensity of fertilizer use in Tigray region, Ethiopia. A paneldata set which consists of a sample of 307 households and 614 observations was used inthe analysis. The random effect Panel p...

Tedla, Teame Hailemariam

227

The impact of indoor residual spraying on malaria incidence in East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population resides in areas prone to malaria infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on the incidence of malaria in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia. METHODS: Data from the registers of malaria cases at Debrezeit Malaria Control Center in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia were collected and analyzed. Records of 22 villages with no previous rounds of spraying that were entirely covered with IRS using DDT during the peak malaria transmission season of 2001 and 2002 and other 22 adjacent villages with similar malaria incidence but remained unsprayed were used for the analyses. RESULTS: The incidence of malaria in 2011 and 2002 among the sprayed villages was lower than the respective preceding years for both Plasmodium species (incidence rate ratio 0.60; CI 0.35 to 0.95; p < 0.0001). After the focal spray, there was significant reduction in malaria incidence in the villages sprayed. Spraying was associated with a 62% reduction in malaria incidence. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that IRS with DDT was effective in reducing malaria incidence in highland epidemic-prone areas in the East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia. A larger scale study should evaluate the effectiveness of DDT in reducing malaria incidence against its environmental impact and alternative strategies for malaria prevention.

Hamusse SD; Balcha TT; Belachew T

2012-01-01

228

Educational choices in Ethiopia: What determines whether poor children go to school?  

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Ethiopia has one of the lowest primary school enrolment rates and one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world. These rates are significantly lower than those of other similarly low-income countries. There are concerns that education quality is falling due to insufficient spending to provide mor...

Pereznieto, Paola; Jones, Nicola

229

Towards more liberal standing rules to enforce constitutional rights in Ethiopia  

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This article analyses the legal regime governing standing to enforce constitutional rights in Ethiopia. It reiterates the direct link between standing rules and the right of access to justice. It observes that, although the laws of several states still require a personal interest in the action one w...

Abebe, Adem Kassie

230

Observations on the Bionomics of Mansonia(Mansonioides) uniformis (Theobald) and M. (M.) africana Theobald) in Gambela, Illubabor Province, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mansonia uniformis (Theobald) and Mansonia africana (Theobald) were found to be the most abundant anthropophilic mosquitoes in the environs of Gambela, Illubabor Province, Ethiopia. Both species were highly exophilis and exophagic, more abundant during th...

E. S. Krasfur

1972-01-01

231

Health inequalities in Ethiopia: modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background and objectives: Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011. METHODS: We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table system developed by the World Health Organization to model mortality rates, life expectancy, and length of life for Ethiopian population groups stratified by wealth quintiles, gender and residence. We then estimated and compared within-group and between-group inequality in length of life using the Gini index and absolute length of life inequality. RESULTS: Length of life inequality has decreased and life expectancy has increased for all population groups between 2000 and 2011. Length of life inequality within wealth quintiles is about three times larger than the between-group inequality of 9 years. Total length of life inequality in Ethiopia was 27.6 years in 2011. CONCLUSION: Longevity has increased and the distribution of health in Ethiopia is more equal in 2011 than 2000, with length of life inequality reduced for all population groups. Still there is considerable potential for further improvement. In the Ethiopian context with a poor and highly rural population, inequality in length of life within wealth quintiles is considerably larger than between them. This suggests that other factors than wealth substantially contribute to total health inequality in Ethiopia and that identification and quantification of these factors will be important for identifying proper measures to further reduce length of life inequality.

Tranvåg EJ; Ali M; Norheim OF

2013-07-01

232

Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)  

Science.gov (United States)

CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.

Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

233

New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hyparrhenia diplandr var. mutica. Recent field work by Sebsebe Demissew and Pierre Dubeau resulted in one new generic record for the Flora area: Syyngonanthus wahlbergii. Field work by Ib friis and Sebsebe Demissew documented the cultivation of Elaeis guineensis in southwestern Ethiopia.

Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.

2011-01-01

234

Predictors of HIV Serodiscordance among Couples in Southwestern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background:With transmission of HIV occurring mainly through heterosexual contact, it is paramount to identify serodiscordant couples and implement preventive strategies that will protect the negative partner. The burden of serodiscordance and its predictors in Ethiopia is not clearly understood due to the dearth of data.Objective: To assess the prevalence and predictors of HIV serodiscordance among couples tested in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center.Methods:The study employed a case-control study design conducted at VCT center of JUSH in all registered serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples that were selected from the registered clients in the period from 2003 to 2010. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection using medical chart abstraction. Data were entered, cleaned, and coded using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.Results:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study population was found to be 8.4%. Male and female discordants accounted for 5.8% (137) and 2.6% (62), respectively. Rare use of condom (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-32.54) and active tuberculosis (TB) at enrollment (AOR= 17.7; 95% CI = 2.3-139.2) were significantly found to be the predictors of serodiscordance. Conclusion:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study area was found to be low, but it contributes to a clinically significant population that mandates implementation of preventive strategy. Sero-positive individuals who use condoms rarely should be encouraged to have their partners tested, and the association between active TB and serodiscordance underscores the need for further study. PMID:23697776

Habte, Ermias; Yami, Alemeshet; Alemseged, Fissahye; Abdissa, Yishak; Deribe, Kebede; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

2013-05-22

235

Predictors of HIV Serodiscordance among Couples in Southwestern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background:With transmission of HIV occurring mainly through heterosexual contact, it is paramount to identify serodiscordant couples and implement preventive strategies that will protect the negative partner. The burden of serodiscordance and its predictors in Ethiopia is not clearly understood due to the dearth of data.Objective: To assess the prevalence and predictors of HIV serodiscordance among couples tested in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center.Methods:The study employed a case-control study design conducted at VCT center of JUSH in all registered serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples that were selected from the registered clients in the period from 2003 to 2010. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection using medical chart abstraction. Data were entered, cleaned, and coded using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.Results:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study population was found to be 8.4%. Male and female discordants accounted for 5.8% (137) and 2.6% (62), respectively. Rare use of condom (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-32.54) and active tuberculosis (TB) at enrollment (AOR= 17.7; 95% CI = 2.3-139.2) were significantly found to be the predictors of serodiscordance. Conclusion:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study area was found to be low, but it contributes to a clinically significant population that mandates implementation of preventive strategy. Sero-positive individuals who use condoms rarely should be encouraged to have their partners tested, and the association between active TB and serodiscordance underscores the need for further study.

Habte E; Yami A; Alemseged F; Abdissa Y; Deribe K; Memiah P; Biadgilign S

2013-05-01

236

Rituals of childbirth in the Tigrigna of Ethiopia (Axum area).  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay describes the rituals of childbirth in the Tigrigna traditions of Ethiopia, starting with the onset of labor up until circumcision of the baby at day 12. If labor lasts for more than 1 day, shots are fired from the woman's room to induce birth by shock. After the cutting of the unbilical cord, the cord from the mother is tied to her leg to prevent the cord and placenta from slipping back into the uterus. The midwife massages the woman's abdomen with butter to accelerate delivery of the placenta; if it does not have a smooth surface, it is considered incomplete and the midwife presses a water jar down on the abdomen until all the remains are discharged. The baby is expected to sneeze as soon as it is born; if it does not, a thread is used to tickle the nostrils. Childbirth is associated with uncleanliness; those present cannot enter a church for 20 days if the baby is a boy and 40 days if it is a girl. On the 7th day the woman makes either a spear and shield (for a boy) or a sieve (for a girl) and is offered fasting food containing no meat or dairy products. Then the women present close the door and dance and sing songs to make the new mother laugh and forget labor pains. On the 12th day the child is circumcised, and garlic and rice are sprinkled on the blood which is then mixed with kohl and used as a wound dressing. PMID:12157987

Selassie, A G

1986-07-01

237

Rinderpest disease and sero-survey in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs.

1994-01-01

238

Assessing the management of healthcare waste in Hawassa city, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inadequate management of healthcare waste is a serious concern in many developing countries due to the risks posed to human health and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate healthcare waste management in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in nine healthcare facilities (HCFs) including hospitals (four), health centres (two) and higher clinics (three) in two phases, first to assess the waste management aspect and second to determine daily waste generation rate. The result showed that the median quantity of waste generated at the facilities was 3.46 kg bed(-1) day(-1) (range: 1.48-8.19 kg bed(-1) day(-1)). The quantity of waste per day generated at a HCF increased as occupancy increased (p < 0.001). The percentage hazardous waste generated at government HCFs was more than at private HCFs (p < 0.05). The proportion of hazardous waste (20-63.1%) generated at the different HCFs was much higher than the WHO recommendation (10-25%). There was no waste segregation in most HCFs and only one used a complete color coding system. Solid waste and wastewater were stored, transported, treated and disposed inappropriately at all HCFs. Needle-stick injuries were prevalent in 25-100% of waste handlers employed at these HCFs. Additionally, low levels of training and awareness of waste legislation was prevalent amongst staff. The study showed that management of healthcare waste at HCFs to be poor. Waste management practices need to be improved through improved legislation and enforcement, and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Hawassa.

Israel Deneke Haylamicheal; Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie; Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw; Hanibale Atsbeha Zegeye

2011-08-01

239

Developing patient registration and medical records management system in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: QUALITY PROBLEM: In low-income countries, medical record management is often lacking. We sought to evaluate the impact of an inexpensive business process re-engineering project on the accessibility and completeness of patient information and on physician satisfaction. DESIGN: Pre-post intervention study during 2006-07, using time-motion studies, medical record audits and physician surveys. SETTING: A rural hospital in Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: Medical record personnel, hospital administrators, clinical staff. IMPLEMENTATION: We implemented a hospital-wide patient registration and medical records re-engineering process, which included a simple, custom-made computer database to manage patient information, standardized medical records forms and processes and enhanced human resource management efforts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: s) We measured medical records accessibility and completeness, and physician satisfaction. EVALUATION: Medical record accessibility and completeness and physician satisfaction improved significantly (P < 0.05) based on pre- and post-intervention comparisons. The success rate of retrieving the proper medical record number for returning patients improved from 14 to 87% (P < 0.01); time to locate medical records decreased from 31.2 sec per record to 15.7 sec per record (P < 0.01); the percentage of complete medical records increased from 6.5 to 45.7% (P < 0.01). Physician satisfaction with the medical records system was significantly higher after the intervention (P = 0.02). LESSONS LEARNED: Our findings indicate that a well-organized medical record management system can be effective in improving patient information accessibility and completeness in hospitals in low-income countries despite the lack of resources. Longer follow-up is required to assess the sustainability of the hospital improvements accomplished.

Wong R; Bradley EH

2009-08-01

240

Hematoimmunological profile at gilgel gibe field research center, southwest ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Health and disease can only be distinguished by accurate and reliable reference values of a particular laboratory test. In interpreting laboratory test results, usually the reported values are compared with established reference values from developed countries. Now it is a fact that there is considerable variation in hematology reference intervals by several variables. However, such data at a population level are scanty in the Ethiopian situation. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the hematological and immunological values in a community setting. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC) from late September 2008 to end of January 2009. A tsample of 1,965 individuals was included in the study. Blood sample was collected by vacutainer tube and transported to Jimma University Specialized Hospital laboratory. Data were entered in to EpiData and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 16.0 and STATA 11. RESULTS: A total of 1965 (955 men and 1010 women) individuals were studied. The mean red blood cell count for men and women was 4.55 × 10(12)/L and 4.34 × 10(12)/L (95 percentile range between 2.9 and 5.7 × 10(12)/L) and 4.34 ×10(12)/L (95 percentile range between 2.8 and 5.2 × 10(12)/L), respectively. On the other hand, the red blood cell count of 95% of the men and women lied between 2.9-5.7 × 10(12) cells/L and 2.8-5.2 × 10(12) cells /L, respectively. The mean hemoglobin value for men was 13.6 gm/dl and for women 12.7 gm/dl. The mean corpuscular volume for men and women was 90.2 fl and 90.8 fl, respectively. The mean platelet value for men was 229.1 ×10(9) cells/L and for women 241.3 ×10(9) cells/L. The mean white blood cells count for men and women was 6.08 ×10(9) cells/L and 6.12 ×10(9) cells/L, respectively. The mean CD4 value was 809 cell/µl for men and 868 cell /µl for women. Forty two percent of the study participants had O blood group. CONCLUSION: The hematologic and immunologic profile of the studied population in Southwest Ethiopia is different from the reports from other countries and the standards described in western literature. We recommend conducting similar nationwide study to determine the immunological and hematological reference values of the Ethiopian population as a whole.

Haileamlak A; Muluneh AT; Alemseged F; Tessema F; Woldemichael K; Asefa M; Mamo Y; Tamiru S; Abebe G

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.

Asaminew T; Gelaw Y; Bekele S; Solomon B

2013-01-01

242

Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 m elevation to the hot and dry Blue Nile gorge that includes areas below 1000 m elevation, and contain a diversity of slope forms and soil types. This physical diversity and accompanying socio-economic contrasts demand diverse strategies for enhanced climate resilience and adaptation to climate change. To support development of locally appropriate climate resilience strategies across the Blue Nile Highlands, we present here an agroecosystem analysis of Choke Mountain, under the premise that the agroecosystem—the intersection of climatic and physiographic conditions with agricultural practices—is the most appropriate unit for defining adaptation strategies in these primarily subsistence agriculture communities. To this end, we present two approaches to agroecosystem analysis that can be applied to climate resilience studies in the Choke Mountain watersheds and, as appropriate, to other agroecologically diverse regions attempting to design climate adaptation strategies. First, a full agroecoystem analysis was implemented in collaboration with local communities. It identified six distinct agroecosystems that differ systematically in constraints and adaptation potential. This analysis was then paired with an objective landscape classification trained to identify agroecosystems based on climate and physiographic setting alone. It was found that the distribution of Choke Mountain watershed agroecosystems can, to first order, be explained as a function of prevailing climate. This suggests that the conditions that define current agroecosystems are likely to migrate under a changing climate, requiring adaptive management strategies. These agroecosystems show a remarkable degree of differentiation in terms of production orientation and socio-economic characteristics of the farming communities suggesting different options and interventions towards building resilience to climate change.

Belay Simane; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Mutlu Ozdogan

2013-01-01

243

Village poultry production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table leftovers, small grain supplements and anything edible from the immediate environment.

Dessie T; Ogle B

2001-12-01

244

Maternal delays in utilizing institutional delivery services, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Timely referrals and access to appropriate health care had a great impact on reduction to maternal deaths and disabilities. Maternal delay is one of the contributing factors for high maternal mortality in developing countries. Maternal delays were categorized into three levels: delay in making the decision for seeking care, delay in arrival at a health facility, and delay in receiving adequate treatment. They have been named first, second, and third delay maternal delays; respectively. This study was aimed at assessing maternal delays in utilizing institutional delivery service sin Bahir Dar, North-Western Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional facility based study was conducted on a sample of 422 women attending at a public health facility for delivery services. The sample size was determined by using single population proportion formula and the study participants were selected by using a systematic random sampling method. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested, standardized questionnaire; analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Results: Data was collected from 410 laboring mothers. First delay, 155 (37.8%) of mothers was delayed in decision making for seeking care from the public health facility and the mean delay was 8 hours. Delay in seeking emergency obstetric care [EOC] was about seven fold among illiterate mothers (AOR, 6.71; 95%CI, 3.66 -12.29) than literate mothers; the odds of delay for EOC were three times more likely among mother were unable to make decisions by their own (AOR, 3.30; 95%CI, 1.25 -7.20) than those mothers who made the decisions of their own. Unemployed mothers were 4 times more likely to have the maternal delay in seeking EOC (AOR, 3.94; 95%CI, 2.36 -6.57) than employed mothers. Second delay, 130 (31.7%) of mothers had transportation problems in reaching health care facilities. Predictors in the first maternal delay were also the major contributing factors for this delay. The third delay, after their arrival at health facilities, 126 (30.7%) mothers reported that they did not get the services on time; the mean waiting time for getting the service was 4 hours. Conclusions: Many mothers were not getting institutional delivery care services in a timely manner, due to the “three maternal delays”. Mothers’ literacy, decision making power and employment status were the main predictors for delivery service utilization. Hence, emphasis should be given for awareness creation on the risks of maternal delays, designing income generating mechanism, women empowering for in decision making and ambulance services should be strengthened.

Worku Awoke; Kenie Seleshi

2013-01-01

245

Stratigraphy and tephra of the Kibish Formation, southwestern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Kibish Formation in southwestern Ethiopia, with an aggregate thickness of approximately 105 m, consists of lacustrine, marginal lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. It is divided into four members numbered I to IV on the basis of erosion surfaces (disconformities) between the strata of each member. It overlies the Mursi and Nkalabong formations, the latter of which is here shown to correlate with the Shungura Formation. Tephra layers in each member allow for secure correlation between geographically separated sections on the basis of the composition of their volcanic glass. Members I, III, and IV of the Kibish Formation appear to have been deposited at the same times as sapropels S7 (197 ka), S4 (104 ka), and S1 (8 ka) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, respectively. We correlate the KHS Tuff of the Kibish Formation with a >154-kyr-old unnamed tuff in the Konso Formation. Tephra in Member IV may derive from Mount Wenchi, a volcano situated on the divide between the Omo and Blue Nile drainage basins. Thin-bedded sedimentary layers probably represent annual deposition reflecting rapid sedimentation (approximately 30 m/kyr) of parts of the formation. This conclusion is supported by variation in paleomagnetic inclination through a sequence of these layers at KHS. Two fossils of early Homo sapiens (Omo I and Omo II) derive from Member I. Their stratigraphic placement is confirmed by analysis of the KHS Tuff in the lower part of Member II at both fossil sites. The KHS Tuff lies above a disconformity, which itself lies above the fossils at both sites. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates provide an estimated age of approximately 195 kyr for these fossils. Omo III, a third fossil H. sapiens, probably also derives from Member I of the Kibish Formation and is of similar age. Hominin fossils from AHS, a new site, also derive from Member I. Hominin fossils from CHS can only be placed between 104 ka and 10 ka, the H. sapiens specimen from JHS is most likely 9-13 kyr in age, and a partial skeleton of H. sapiens from Pelvic Corner is most likely approximately 6.6 kyr in age.

Brown FH; Fuller CR

2008-09-01

246

Stratigraphy and tephra of the Kibish Formation, southwestern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kibish Formation in southwestern Ethiopia, with an aggregate thickness of approximately 105 m, consists of lacustrine, marginal lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. It is divided into four members numbered I to IV on the basis of erosion surfaces (disconformities) between the strata of each member. It overlies the Mursi and Nkalabong formations, the latter of which is here shown to correlate with the Shungura Formation. Tephra layers in each member allow for secure correlation between geographically separated sections on the basis of the composition of their volcanic glass. Members I, III, and IV of the Kibish Formation appear to have been deposited at the same times as sapropels S7 (197 ka), S4 (104 ka), and S1 (8 ka) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, respectively. We correlate the KHS Tuff of the Kibish Formation with a >154-kyr-old unnamed tuff in the Konso Formation. Tephra in Member IV may derive from Mount Wenchi, a volcano situated on the divide between the Omo and Blue Nile drainage basins. Thin-bedded sedimentary layers probably represent annual deposition reflecting rapid sedimentation (approximately 30 m/kyr) of parts of the formation. This conclusion is supported by variation in paleomagnetic inclination through a sequence of these layers at KHS. Two fossils of early Homo sapiens (Omo I and Omo II) derive from Member I. Their stratigraphic placement is confirmed by analysis of the KHS Tuff in the lower part of Member II at both fossil sites. The KHS Tuff lies above a disconformity, which itself lies above the fossils at both sites. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates provide an estimated age of approximately 195 kyr for these fossils. Omo III, a third fossil H. sapiens, probably also derives from Member I of the Kibish Formation and is of similar age. Hominin fossils from AHS, a new site, also derive from Member I. Hominin fossils from CHS can only be placed between 104 ka and 10 ka, the H. sapiens specimen from JHS is most likely 9-13 kyr in age, and a partial skeleton of H. sapiens from Pelvic Corner is most likely approximately 6.6 kyr in age. PMID:18692219

Brown, Francis H; Fuller, Chad R

2008-08-08

247

Why do women prefer home births in Ethiopia?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Skilled attendants during labor, delivery, and in the early postpartum period, can prevent up to 75% or more of maternal death. However, in many developing countries, very few mothers make at least one antenatal visit and even less receive delivery care from skilled professionals. The present study reports findings from a region where key challenges related to transportation and availability of obstetric services were addressed by an ongoing project, giving a unique opportunity to understand why women might continue to prefer home delivery even when facility based delivery is available at minimal cost. Methods The study took place in Ethiopia using a mixed study design employing a cross sectional household survey among 15–49 year old women combined with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Seventy one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a health professional (doctor, health officer, nurse, or midwife) for their most recent birth in the one year preceding the survey. Overall only 16% of deliveries were assisted by health professionals, while a significant majority (78%) was attended by traditional birth attendants. The most important reasons for not seeking institutional delivery were the belief that it is not necessary (42%) and not customary (36%), followed by high cost (22%) and distance or lack of transportation (8%). The group discussions and interviews identified several reasons for the preference of traditional birth attendants over health facilities. Traditional birth attendants were seen as culturally acceptable and competent health workers. Women reported poor quality of care and previous negative experiences with health facilities. In addition, women’s low awareness on the advantages of skilled attendance at delivery, little role in making decisions (even when they want), and economic constraints during referral contribute to the low level of service utilization. Conclusions The study indicated the crucial role of proper health care provider-client communication and providing a more client centered and culturally sensitive care if utilization of existing health facilities is to be maximized. Implications of findings for maternal health programs and further research are discussed.

Shiferaw Solomon; Spigt Mark; Godefrooij Merijn; Melkamu Yilma; Tekie Michael

2013-01-01

248

Why do women prefer home births in Ethiopia?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Skilled attendants during labor, delivery, and in the early postpartum period, can prevent up to 75% or more of maternal death. However, in many developing countries, very few mothers make at least one antenatal visit and even less receive delivery care from skilled professionals. The present study reports findings from a region where key challenges related to transportation and availability of obstetric services were addressed by an ongoing project, giving a unique opportunity to understand why women might continue to prefer home delivery even when facility based delivery is available at minimal cost. METHODS: The study took place in Ethiopia using a mixed study design employing a cross sectional household survey among 15-49 year old women combined with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. RESULTS: Seventy one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a health professional (doctor, health officer, nurse, or midwife) for their most recent birth in the one year preceding the survey. Overall only 16% of deliveries were assisted by health professionals, while a significant majority (78%) was attended by traditional birth attendants. The most important reasons for not seeking institutional delivery were the belief that it is not necessary (42%) and not customary (36%), followed by high cost (22%) and distance or lack of transportation (8%). The group discussions and interviews identified several reasons for the preference of traditional birth attendants over health facilities. Traditional birth attendants were seen as culturally acceptable and competent health workers. Women reported poor quality of care and previous negative experiences with health facilities. In addition, women's low awareness on the advantages of skilled attendance at delivery, little role in making decisions (even when they want), and economic constraints during referral contribute to the low level of service utilization. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated the crucial role of proper health care provider-client communication and providing a more client centered and culturally sensitive care if utilization of existing health facilities is to be maximized. Implications of findings for maternal health programs and further research are discussed.

Shiferaw S; Spigt M; Godefrooij M; Melkamu Y; Tekie M

2013-01-01

249

River-margin habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus at Aramis, Ethiopia 4.4 million years ago  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature and type of landscape that hominins (early humans) frequented has been of considerable interest. The recent works on Ardipithecus ramidus, a 4.4 million years old hominin found at Middle Awash, Ethiopia, provided critical information about the early part of human evolution. However, habitat characterization of this basal hominin has been highly contested. Here we present new sedimentological and stable isotopic (carbon and oxygen) data from Aramis, where the in situ, partial skeleton of Ar. ramidus (nicknamed 'Ardi') was excavated. These data are interpreted to indicate the presence of major rivers and associated mixed vegetations (grasses and trees) in adjacent floodplains. Our finding suggests that, in contrast to a woodland habitat far from a river, Ar. ramidus lived in a river-margin forest in an otherwise savanna (wooded grassland) landscape at Aramis, Ethiopia. Correct interpretation of habitat of Ar. ramidus is crucial for proper assessment of causes and mechanisms of early hominin evolution, including the development of bipedalism.

Gani, M. Royhan; Gani, Nahid D.

2011-12-01

250

River-margin habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus at Aramis, Ethiopia 4.4 million years ago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nature and type of landscape that hominins (early humans) frequented has been of considerable interest. The recent works on Ardipithecus ramidus, a 4.4 million years old hominin found at Middle Awash, Ethiopia, provided critical information about the early part of human evolution. However, habitat characterization of this basal hominin has been highly contested. Here we present new sedimentological and stable isotopic (carbon and oxygen) data from Aramis, where the in situ, partial skeleton of Ar. ramidus (nicknamed 'Ardi') was excavated. These data are interpreted to indicate the presence of major rivers and associated mixed vegetations (grasses and trees) in adjacent floodplains. Our finding suggests that, in contrast to a woodland habitat far from a river, Ar. ramidus lived in a river-margin forest in an otherwise savanna (wooded grassland) landscape at Aramis, Ethiopia. Correct interpretation of habitat of Ar. ramidus is crucial for proper assessment of causes and mechanisms of early hominin evolution, including the development of bipedalism.

Gani MR; Gani ND

2011-01-01

251

Trachoma and women: latrines in Ethiopia and surgery in Southern Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although there may be an underlying biological reason that more women are affected by trachoma and trichiasis, the role of women as childcare providers is a likely cause. In most countries where trachoma is endemic, girls grow up in environments where one of their primary activities is taking care of their younger family members and siblings. This continues into adulthood, with women carrying the main responsibility of caring for children. During their lifetime, women therefore spend more time in direct contact with children who may be infected. Ethiopia and Southern Sudan are two locations with an exceedingly high burden of trachoma. Projects focusing on environmental improvement (in Ethiopia) and increasing access to surgery (in Southern Sudan) have made significant progress towards reducing the impact of the disease on women. These examples show how trachoma programmes can address the particular needs of women while designing interventions aimed at eliminating blinding trachoma in the community as a whole.

Paul M Emerson; Lisa Rotondo

2009-01-01

252

Rainfall variability and its influence on surface flow regimes. Examples from the central highlands of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article shows results of an international and interdisciplinary project with the title 'Rainfall and its Erosivity in Ethiopia'. Rainfall variability affects the water resource management of Ethiopia. The influence of rainfall variability on flow regimes was investigated using five gauging stations with data availability from 1982-1997. It was confirmed that the variability in rainfall has a direct implication for surface runoff. Surface runoff declined at most of the gauging stations investigated. Therefore, effective water resource management is recommended for the study area. Future research should focus on watershed management which includes land-use and land cover. The question posed here is whether the variability in rainfall significantly affected surface flow in the study area. (orig.)

Osman, M. [Debre Zeit (Ethiopia); Sauerborn, P. [Seminar fuer Geographie und ihre Didaktik, Univ. zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany)

2002-07-01

253

A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

Gabreyohannes, Emmanuel [Ethiopian Civil Service College, P.O.Box 5648, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

2010-05-15

254

A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

2010-01-01

255

Demand for energy in rural and urban centres of Ethiopia; An econometric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper starts by briefly discussing the current energy situation in Ethiopia. The major source of energy in Ethiopia is traditional and the major consumer is the household. A simple model of household utility function where energy consumption is the major variable is developed and a reduced form is derived. To make the model operational a simultaneous equation system describing the demand for and supply of traditional and modern energy sources has been specified. The model is closed by equating the demand for energy with the supply. Data from the national energy survey were used to estimate the model. The major finding of the study is that price of traditional energy plays an important role in the consumption of fuelwood and other traditional energy sources. By manipulating the price variable the government may be able to control the high rate of depletion of forest resources. (author).

Kidane, Asmerom (Addis Ababa Univ. (ET). Dept. of Statistics)

1991-04-01

256

Evaluation of reagent strips for detection of Schistosoma haematobium infection in the lower Awash valley, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of reagent strips as indirect morbidity indicators in Schistosoma haematobium infection has been assessed in comparison with urine filtration technique in the lower Awash valley of Ethiopia in 1991. The prevalence of infection by reagent sticks and urine filtration was 16.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Reagent stick haematuria was highly related with urine filtration at the 2+ limit rather than the 1+ limit. A strong association was also obtained between prevalence rate and intensity of infection of all children at both haematuria limits. The prevalence of haematuria was not sex-related but there was age-associated infection and the prevalence was highest in the 10-13 year age group. The possible use of reagent stick haematuria in the monitoring of S. haematobium infection in Ethiopia is discussed. PMID:8513780

Jemaneh, L; Shewakena, F; Tedla, S; Erko, B; Birrie, H

1993-04-01

257

Evaluation of reagent strips for detection of Schistosoma haematobium infection in the lower Awash valley, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of reagent strips as indirect morbidity indicators in Schistosoma haematobium infection has been assessed in comparison with urine filtration technique in the lower Awash valley of Ethiopia in 1991. The prevalence of infection by reagent sticks and urine filtration was 16.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Reagent stick haematuria was highly related with urine filtration at the 2+ limit rather than the 1+ limit. A strong association was also obtained between prevalence rate and intensity of infection of all children at both haematuria limits. The prevalence of haematuria was not sex-related but there was age-associated infection and the prevalence was highest in the 10-13 year age group. The possible use of reagent stick haematuria in the monitoring of S. haematobium infection in Ethiopia is discussed.

Jemaneh L; Shewakena F; Tedla S; Erko B; Birrie H

1993-04-01

258

The recent droughts in Western Ethiopia and Sudan in a climatic context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examined here are two recent episodes of drought that occurred in western Ethiopia, Sudan and elsewhere in the Sahelian zone immediately south of the Sahara during the periods 1968-1973 and 1979-1984. These are shown to have followed a series of similar episodes during the earlier decades of the 1900s. Another disaster of drought, war and famine struck western Ethiopia and Sudan in 1990-1991. The zone has been arid for the past 4000 years at least. The dryland degradation associated with episodes of drought is considered to result from a combination of climatic and human impact factors. It is suggested that recently elucidated correlations between the Sahelian drought episodes and oceanic temperatures and circulation lead to the possibility of developing a predictive system for Sahelian droughts. However, to establish a functional early-warning system will require a sustained trans-disciplinary research and development effort of some magnitude.

Mattsson, J.O.; Rapp, A. (University of Lund, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography)

1991-08-01

259

Molecular surveillance of mutations in the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium falciparum in Gabon and Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Atovaquone is part of the antimalarial drug combination atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone®) and inhibits the cytochrome bc1 complex of the electron transport chain in Plasmodium spp. Molecular modelling showed that amino acid mutations are clustered around a putative atovaquone-binding site resulting in a reduced binding affinity of atovaquone for plasmodial cytochrome b, thus resulting in drug resistance. Methods The prevalence of cytochrome b point mutations possibly conferring atovaquone resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in atovaquone treatment-naïve patient cohorts from Lambaréné, Gabon and from South Western Ethiopia was assessed. Results Four/40 (10%) mutant types (four different single polymorphisms, one leading to an amino acid change from M to I in a single case) in Gabonese isolates, but all 141/141 isolates were wild type in Ethiopia were found. Conclusion In the absence of drug pressure, spontaneous and possibly resistance-conferring mutations are rare.

Gebru Tamirat; Hailu Asrat; Kremsner Peter G; Kun Jürgen FJ; Grobusch Martin P

2006-01-01

260

Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited.

Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods among married women of reproductive age in Mekelle town, Tigray region, north Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. Total Fertility Rate of Ethiopia is 5.4 children per women, population growth rate is estimated to be 2.7% per year and contraceptive prevalence rate is only 15% while the unmet need for family planning is 34%. Overall a...

Alemayehu, Mussie; Lema, Tefera Belachew; Degfie, Tizta Tilahun

262

Current status of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genetic resources in Ethiopia: implications for conservation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of coffee genetic resources that are dwindling at an alarming rate in Ethiopia, the centre of diversity of Coffea arabica. Firstly, we describe the coffee growing systems (forest coffee, semi-forest coffee, garden coffee and plantation coffee) and recent research on the genetic diversity of the coffee planting material associated with those systems. Whilst the maximum genetic diversity revealed by DNA-based markers is found in the forest coffees of the south-western highlands, the natural habitat of C. arabica, the taxonomy of coffee landraces is particularly rich in garden coffee systems located in ancient growing zones such as Harerge in eastern Ethiopia. After reviewing the factors involved in the genetic erosion of the Ethiopian genepool, we give an update on the status of coffee genetic resources conserved ex situ in the field genebank of the Jimma Agricultural Research Centre, with 4,780 accessions spread over 10 research stations located in the main production areas, and in the main genebank of the Institute of Biodiversity Conservation located in Choche (Limu) with 5,196 accessions conserved. Lastly, we mention the in situ conservation operations currently being implemented in Ethiopia. Improving our knowledge of the genetic structure of Ethiopian forest and garden coffee tree populations as well as genetic resources conserved ex situ will help to plan the future conservation strategy for that country. To this end, modern tools as DNA-based markers should be used to increase our understanding of coffee genetic diversity and it is proposed, with the support of the international scientific community and donor organizations, to undertake a concerted effort to rescue highly threatened Arabica coffee genetic resources in Ethiopia.

Labouisse Jean-Pierre; Bellachew Bayetta; Kotecha Surendra; Bertrand Benoît

2008-11-01

263

Medication prescribing errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asrat Agalu1, Yemane Ayele2, Worku Bedada2, Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Wollo University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Dessie, Ethiopia; 2Jimma University, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: A number of studies indicated that prescribing errors in the intensive care unit (ICU) are frequent and lead to patient morbidity and mortality, increased length of stay, and substantial extra costs. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU has not previously been studied. Objective: To assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital from February 7 to April 15, 2011. All medication-prescribing interventions by physicians during the study period were included in the study. Data regarding prescribing interventions were collected from patient cards and medication charts. Prescribing errors were determined by comparing prescribed drugs with standard treatment guidelines, textbooks, handbooks, and software. Descriptive statistics were generated to meet the study objective. Results: The prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was 209/398 (52.5%). Common prescribing errors were using the wrong combinations of drugs (25.7%), wrong frequency (15.5%), and wrong dose (15.1%). Errors associated with antibiotics represented a major part of the medication prescribing errors (32.5%). Conclusion: Medication errors at the prescribing phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Health care providers need to establish a system which can support the prescribing physicians to ensure appropriate medication prescribing practices. Keywords: medication error, prescribing error, intensive care unit

Agalu A; Ayele Y; Bedada W; Woldie M

2011-01-01

264

Epidemiological and clinical correlates of malaria-helminth co-infections in Southern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In many areas of the world, including Ethiopia, malaria and helminths are co-endemic, therefore, co-infections are common. However, little is known how concurrent infections affect the epidemiology and/or pathogenesis of each other. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of intestinal helminth infections on the epidemiology and clinical patterns of malaria in southern Ethiopia where both infections are prevalent. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006 at Wondo Genet Health Center and Bussa Clinic, southern Ethiopia. Consecutive blood film positive malaria patients (N=230) and malaria negative asymptomatic individuals (N=233) were recruited. Malaria parasite detection and quantification was diagnosed using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films, respectively. Helminths were detected using direct microscopy and formol-ether concentration techniques. Coarse quantification of helminths ova was made using Kato Katz method. RESULTS: The over all magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high irrespective of malaria infection (67% among malaria positive patients versus 53.1% among malaria non-infected asymptomatic individuals). Trichuris trichiura infection was associated with increased malaria prevalence while increased worm burden of helminths as expressed by egg intensity was associated with increased malaria parasitaemia which could be a potential factor for development of severe malarial infection with the course of the disease. Majority (77%) of the subjects had multiple helminths infection. T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, and hookworm infestation accounted for 64.5, 57.7 %, 28.4%, and 12.2% of the infections, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Populations in malaria-endemic areas of southern Ethiopia are multi-parasitized with up to four helminths. Mass deworming may be a simple practical approach in endemic areas in reducing the risk of severe malarial attack particularly for those at high risk of both infections.

Mulu A; Legesse M; Erko B; Belyhun Y; Nugussie D; Shimelis T; Kassu A; Elias D; Moges B

2013-01-01

265

Establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in sugarcane fields of Ethiopia and origin of founding population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is used as a classical biological control agent against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious exotic pest of cereal crops in eastern and southern Africa. This parasitoid has been introduced into several African countries for the control of C. partellus in maize, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), but it has never been released in Ethiopia. It is hypothesized that it spread into Ethiopia from populations released in Kenya and Somalia to become the predominant parasitoid of C. partellus in maize and sorghum fields of the country. In recent surveys conducted in Ethiopia, C. flavipes was recovered from C. partellus in sugarcane, Saccharum L. spp. hybrids, at a site >2,000 km from the nearest known release sites in Kenya and Somalia. These findings question published hypotheses that estimate the dispersal rate of C. flavipes to be 60 km per year in Africa, and they suggest that since its release in Africa this parasitoid has developed strains adapted to searching particular host plants infested by particular stem borers. The anomalies between our results and previous reports evoked the hypothesis that C. flavipes in Ethiopian sugarcane might be a different strain. To test this hypothesis, we compared partial COI gene sequences of C. flavipes collected from sugarcane in Ethiopia and those of specimens from other African countries to determine the origin of the Ethiopian population. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for C. flavipes from other continents. The C. flavipes population established in Ethiopian sugarcane is most closely related to the populations released against C. partellus in maize in other parts of Africa, which were derived from the original population imported from Pakistan. The dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be >200 km per year. PMID:18613566

Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Conlong, D E; Muirhead, K A

2008-06-01

266

Establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in sugarcane fields of Ethiopia and origin of founding population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is used as a classical biological control agent against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious exotic pest of cereal crops in eastern and southern Africa. This parasitoid has been introduced into several African countries for the control of C. partellus in maize, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), but it has never been released in Ethiopia. It is hypothesized that it spread into Ethiopia from populations released in Kenya and Somalia to become the predominant parasitoid of C. partellus in maize and sorghum fields of the country. In recent surveys conducted in Ethiopia, C. flavipes was recovered from C. partellus in sugarcane, Saccharum L. spp. hybrids, at a site >2,000 km from the nearest known release sites in Kenya and Somalia. These findings question published hypotheses that estimate the dispersal rate of C. flavipes to be 60 km per year in Africa, and they suggest that since its release in Africa this parasitoid has developed strains adapted to searching particular host plants infested by particular stem borers. The anomalies between our results and previous reports evoked the hypothesis that C. flavipes in Ethiopian sugarcane might be a different strain. To test this hypothesis, we compared partial COI gene sequences of C. flavipes collected from sugarcane in Ethiopia and those of specimens from other African countries to determine the origin of the Ethiopian population. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for C. flavipes from other continents. The C. flavipes population established in Ethiopian sugarcane is most closely related to the populations released against C. partellus in maize in other parts of Africa, which were derived from the original population imported from Pakistan. The dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be >200 km per year.

Assefa Y; Mitchell A; Conlong DE; Muirhead KA

2008-06-01

267

Characteristic of oil-shale in Achibo-Sombo area of Yayu coalfield in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of introducing the location, condition of strata, and the development of the coal-bearing strata of Achibo-Sombo area of Yayu coal field in Ethiopia, the distributing regularities, thickness, physical and chemical characteristics of the oil-shale in this area which are of industrial utilization are studied. And the reserves of the oil-shale has been calculated. The various aspects of industrial utilization of oil-shale are outlined. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Fan, S.; Tang, Z. [Exploration Institute of Shandong Coal Geology Bureau, Taian (China)

2001-02-01

268

Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

2008-01-01

269

Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels.

Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: gwollel@yahoo.com; Wodaje Kebede, Worku [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)

2008-11-15

270

Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

271

Addressing the severe shortage of health care providers in Ethiopia: bench model teaching of technical skills.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: There is a severe shortage of health care workers in Ethiopia. This situation must be addressed by the efficient training of mass cohorts of students. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to demonstrate that bench model training is a feasible approach to teaching surgical skills in Ethiopia. METHODS: A pre-test, simulation-based training intervention and post-test design was used. Two objective structured assessments of technical skills (OSATS) and a bench-top simulation training session were administered at the Black Lion Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Participants included 19 surgical residents who volunteered as trainees. Five surgical faculty members and one senior resident from the Black Lion Hospital, as well as two faculty members from the University of Toronto, participated as trainers and evaluators. The intervention consisted of OSATS tests comprising four stations, covering knot tying, closure of skin laceration, elliptical excision and bowel anastomosis. Tests were separated by 2-hour practice sessions. Main outcome measures included previously validated instruments comprising global rating scales (GRS) and skill-specific checklists (SSC). RESULTS: The measures showed no improvement on knot tying (GRS: P = 0.14; SSC: P = 0.7), marginal improvement on closure of laceration (GRS: P = 0.48; SSC: P = 0.003), and improvements on excision (GRS: P = 0.012; SSC: P = 0.003) and bowel anastomosis (GRS: P < 0.001; SSC: P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The bench models and scoring schemes developed in Toronto, Canada were directly applicable in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This approach may prove a feasible, safe and cost-effective method for training a multitude of health care professionals in technical skills and may help to address the human resources deficit in Africa.

Dorman K; Satterthwaite L; Howard A; Woodrow S; Derbew M; Reznick R; Dubrowski A

2009-07-01

272

Energy in rural Ethiopia: Consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of real energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed.

Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy

1999-07-01

273

Evidence of the establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of cereal stemborers, and its host range expansion in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three lepidopteran cereal stemborers, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae), Busseola fusca Fuller, and Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Noctuidae) were collected from maize and sorghum in Ethiopia. The noctuid stemborers are indigenous to Africa while C. partellus is an introduced species from Asia. In 1999, the Asian stemborer parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Braconidae) was found to be widespread in Ethiopia, even though it had never been released in the country. In addition to attacking Chilo partellus, Cotesia flavipes was reared from B. fusca and S. calamistis. The origin of C. flavipes in Ethiopia may have been Somalia where it was released in 1997 near the border with eastern Ethiopia. Percent parasitism of borers by C. flavipes was higher in eastern Ethiopia than other surveyed regions, and parasitism was higher in 2000 than 1999. Parasitism was higher when cereals were intercropped with other plants and when wild grass hosts of stemborers were present.

Getu E; A Overholt W; Kairu E; Omwega CO

2003-04-01

274

Evidence of the establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of cereal stemborers, and its host range expansion in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three lepidopteran cereal stemborers, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Crambidae), Busseola fusca Fuller, and Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Noctuidae) were collected from maize and sorghum in Ethiopia. The noctuid stemborers are indigenous to Africa while C. partellus is an introduced species from Asia. In 1999, the Asian stemborer parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Braconidae) was found to be widespread in Ethiopia, even though it had never been released in the country. In addition to attacking Chilo partellus, Cotesia flavipes was reared from B. fusca and S. calamistis. The origin of C. flavipes in Ethiopia may have been Somalia where it was released in 1997 near the border with eastern Ethiopia. Percent parasitism of borers by C. flavipes was higher in eastern Ethiopia than other surveyed regions, and parasitism was higher in 2000 than 1999. Parasitism was higher when cereals were intercropped with other plants and when wild grass hosts of stemborers were present. PMID:12699533

Getu, E; A Overholt, W; Kairu, E; Omwega, C O

2003-04-01

275

Geographic Structure of Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite Analysis of Parasite Populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3–44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (HE) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J.; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Schousboe, Mette L.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Wirth, Dyann F.

2010-01-01

276

Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%), unemployed (70.3%) and male (65.1%). Nearly all participants (97.4%) expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR?=?5.67; 95% CI?=?2.30, 13.00; p? Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

Assefa Dereje; Shibre Teshome; Asher Laura; Fekadu Abebaw

2012-01-01

277

Persistent Soil Seed Banks for Natural Rehabilitation of Dry Tropical Forests in Northern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute to natural forest regeneration in the dry forest of Ethiopia. Therefore, the composition of the seed bank in relation to vegetation and abiotic environment was analysed in four forest relics and four exclosures, i.e. demarcated land areas under strict conservation management, in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Results show strong relationships between natural vegetation, seed bank composition, soil chemical characteristics and environmental degradation, as evidenced through characteristics such as land use impact and soil depth. Most striking is the presence of only very few woody species in the seed bank of degraded areas. This suggests that seed banks only play a minimal role in natural forest recovery in the study area. If this is true, natural recovery will primarily depend on presence of seed trees in the vicinity and successful seed dispersal mechanisms. This result underlines the importance of sustainable management of the few remaining forest relics and trees outside these relics.

Reubens, B.; Heyn, M.; Gebrehiwot, K.; Hermy, M.; Muys, B.

2007-01-01

278

Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

2010-09-15

279

Conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV among people living with HIV in Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: The WHOQOL instruments are intended for cross-cultural studies of quality of life (QoL) but African countries have been poorly represented in its development. This study aimed to explore the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: The fieldwork included home visits, interviews, and focus group discussions with HIV patients and caregivers. RESULTS: We found that although WHOQOL-HIV includes many relevant facets, its applicability has several limitations in the Ethiopian setting. The most salient shortcomings of the instrument relate to the Social, Environmental and Religion/Spirituality/Personal Beliefs domains of the instrument. Themes not captured by the instrument include family responsibilities, disease disclosure, exclusion from common resources, basic needs, adequate food, and job opportunities. In addition, several of the tool's facets such as dependence on medicine seem less relevant. Also, the role of religion is more complex than captured in WHOQOL-HIV. We found that the tool is based on an individualist focus, which tends to overlook the social context of the patient. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV is only partially attained for use in Ethiopia. The findings from this qualitative study are used in the further process of developing and validating a QoL instrument for use in Ethiopia.

Olsen, Mette; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch

2013-01-01

280

The deep seismic structure of the Ethiopia/Afar hotspot and the African superplume  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ethiopia/Afar hotspot has been frequently explained as an upper mantle continuation of the African superplume, with anomalous material in the lower mantle under southern Africa, rising through the transition zone beneath eastern Africa. However, the significantly larger amplitude low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia/Afar, compared to the anomalies beneath neighboring regions, has led to questions about whether or not along-strike differences in the seismic structure beneath eastern Africa and western Arabia are consistent with the superplume interpretation. Here we present a new P-wave model of the hotspot's deep structure and use it to evaluate the superplume model. At shallow (velocity structure trends to the northeast, and the locus of the low velocity anomaly is found beneath Afar. The northeast-trending structure with depth is best modeled by northeastward flow of warm superplume material beneath eastern Africa. The combined effects of shallow decompression melting and northeastward flow of superplume material explain why upper mantle velocities beneath Ethiopia/Afar are significantly slower than those beneath neighboring East Africa and western Arabia. The superplume interpretation can thus explain the deep seismic structure of the hotspot if the effects of both decompression melting and mantle flow are considered.

Hansen, Samantha E.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)

2010-09-15

282

Conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV among people living with HIV in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The WHOQOL instruments are intended for cross-cultural studies of quality of life (QoL) but African countries have been poorly represented in its development. This study aimed to explore the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: The fieldwork included home visits, interviews, and focus group discussions with HIV patients and caregivers. RESULTS: We found that although WHOQOL-HIV includes many relevant facets, its applicability has several limitations in the Ethiopian setting. The most salient shortcomings of the instrument relate to the Social, Environmental and Religion/Spirituality/Personal Beliefs domains of the instrument. Themes not captured by the instrument include family responsibilities, disease disclosure, exclusion from common resources, basic needs, adequate food, and job opportunities. In addition, several of the tool's facets such as dependence on medicine seem less relevant. Also, the role of religion is more complex than captured in WHOQOL-HIV. We found that the tool is based on an individualist focus, which tends to overlook the social context of the patient. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV is only partially attained for use in Ethiopia. The findings from this qualitative study are used in the further process of developing and validating a QoL instrument for use in Ethiopia.

Olsen M; Jensen NK; Tesfaye M; Holm L

2013-03-01

283

Magnitude of indoor NO{sub 2} from biomass fuels in rural settings of Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Half of the world's population and about 80% of households in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on biomass fuels. Indoor air pollution due to biomass fuel combustion may constitute a major public health threat affecting children and women. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of indoor NO{sub 2} concentration in homes with under-five children in rural Ethiopia. The study was undertaken in the Butajira area in Ethiopia from March 2000 to April 2002. 24-h samples were taken regularly at about three month intervals in approximately 3300 homes. Indoor air sampling was done using a modified Willems badge. For each sample taken, an interview with the mother of the child was performed. A Saltzman colorimetric method using a spectrometer calibrated at 540 nm was employed to analyze the mass of NO{sub 2} in field samples. Wood, crop residues and animal dung were the main household fuels. The mean (s.d.) 24-h concentration of NO{sub 2} was 97 mug/m3 (91.4). This is more than double the currently proposed annual mean of WHO air quality guideline. Highland households had significantly higher indoor NO{sub 2} concentration. This study demonstrates high levels of indoor NO{sub 2} in rural homes of Ethiopia. (au)

Kumie, A.; Ali, A.; Mekonnen, E. (Addis Ababa Univ., Medical Faculty (Ethiopia)); Emmelin, A.; Wahlberg, S.; Brandstrom, D. (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa Int. School of Public Health (Sweden)); Berhane, Y. (Addis Continental Inst. of Public Health, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia))

2009-02-15

284

Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)

1996-09-01

285

REGULATING URBANISATION IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA THROUGH CLUSTER SETTLEMENTS: LESSONS FOR URBAN MANGERS IN ETHIOPIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Against the backdrop that urbanization in sub-Sahara African (SSA) countries, including Ethiopia, has occurredwithout the attendant growth and development spillovers; and that the inherent benefits of urbanization arethreatened by the fast pace of urbanization, unparalleled speed and the uneven spatial spread, This paper positsthat this challenge and indeed urban management can be address through a proxy regional planning tool; clusterformation. Settlement cluster formation that focuses on the potentials of small and medium towns. Small andMedium towns are supposed to represent a necessary link between the complex, sophisticated urban life and thesimple, undiluted rural existence. They tend to combine the attributes of the two space-economies (Urban andRural). They are, therefore, instruments through which the much desired rural-urban linkages can be strengthenedfor sustainable urbanization. The focus of the paper is on Regulating Urbanization in Ethiopia through Clustering ofSettlements as a tool in Urbanization and Urban Management. Information and data assemblage was carried outthrough a review of urbanization issues; such as trends, local economic development opportunities, andurbanization options amongst others. This was further strengthened with a desktop analysis of pertinentgovernment documents. The findings reveal that economic and settlement clusters within the framework ofexisting urban dynamism (small and medium town) can be formed in Ethiopia. It can serve as a reliable instrumentfor settlement stabilization and consequently sustainable urbanization. The paper recommends deliberatedispersal of mini-industrial and commercial corridors via Cluster formation as a major instrument for deflecting thearmy of migrants.

Davidson Sunday Ashemi ALACI

2010-01-01

286

Thyroid surgery in a district hospital in Southern Ethiopia: experience from a rural center.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Diseases of the thyroid are not uncommon, particularly in the highlands of Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to describe the experience of thyroid surgery in a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: The present study was based on review of surgical cases of thyroid diseases operated in a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia during the period 2009-2010. RESULTS: During the study period, 211 patients underwent surgery for goiter. The mean age was 31.9 years (range: 14-80 years). The sex ratio, M:F, was 1:9. A total of 103 patients had unilateral nodules, and in 108 patients the nodules were located bilaterally. The mean duration of symptoms was 5.7 years (range: 0.7-25 years). In total, 161 (76.7 %) subtotal thyroidectomy operations, and 50 (23.3 %) hemi-thyroidectomy operations were performed. Histological examination revealed multinodular goiters in 203 (96.2 %) cases. Papillary and follicular cancers were found in 7 (3.3 %) and 1 (0.5 %) cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid surgery is feasible in a small rural Ethiopian District Hospital. The provision of surgical services in rural areas of low income and middle income countries is extremely important and delivers more health opportunities to the local people.

Ramos JM; Abate N; Reyes F; Belate W; Mohammed F; Gorgolas M

2013-07-01

287

Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.

Gunawardena S; Karunaweera ND; Ferreira MU; Phone-Kyaw M; Pollack RJ; Alifrangis M; Rajakaruna RS; Konradsen F; Amerasinghe PH; Schousboe ML; Galappaththy GN; Abeyasinghe RR; Hartl DL; Wirth DF

2010-02-01

288

Molecular identification of unilocular hydatid cysts from domestic ungulates in Ethiopia: implications for human infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To identify the etiologic agents of cystic echinococcosis in Ethiopia, unilocular hydatid cysts were collected from 11 sheep, 16 cattle and 16 camels slaughtered in abattoirs of Aweday, Jijiga, Haramaya and Addis Ababa during June 2010 to February 2011. A PCR-based DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) was conducted for 40 cysts. The majority of cysts (87.5%) were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and the rest as Echinococcus canadensis. The fertile cysts of E. granulosus s.s. were found only from sheep, although it occurred in all the host species. The predominance of E. granulosus s.s. has important implications for public health since this species is the most typical causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide. The major cox1 haplotype of E. granulosus s.s. detected in Ethiopia was the same as that has been reported to be most common in Peru and China. However, a few cox1 haplotypes unique to Ethiopia were found in both of the two Echinococcus species. The present regional data would serve as baseline information in determining the local transmission patterns and in designing appropriate control strategies.

Hailemariam Z; Nakao M; Menkir S; Lavikainen A; Yanagida T; Okamoto M; Ito A

2012-06-01

289

Tetanus in Ethiopia: unveiling the blight of an entirely vaccine-preventable disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Today, tetanus exacts its toll only in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. Agrarian rural life with limited vaccine typifies tetanus risk in Ethiopia where current tetanus control trends on expanding infant immunization and eliminating highly prevalent maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT). Protection by infant tetanus immunization primers disappears within an average of 3 years, if not followed by boosters. Second-year of life, school-based, and universal 10-yearly tetanus immunizations need to be supplemented. Facility-based reviews in Ethiopia reveal a continued burden of tetanus at tertiary-level hospitals where ICU care is suboptimal. Quality of medical care for tetanus is low - reflected by high case-fatality-rates. Opportunities at primary-health-care-units (antenatal-care, family planning, abortion, wound-care, tetanus-survivors) need to be fully-utilized to expand tetanus immunization. Prompt wound-care with post-exposure prophylaxis and proper footwear must be promoted. Standard ICU care needs to exist. Realization of cold-chain-flexible, needle-less and mono-dose vaccine programs allow avoiding boosters, vaccine-refrigeration, and improve compliance.

Woldeamanuel YW

2012-12-01

290

Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed

2012-01-01

291

The Emergence of a Dual-System of Primary Schooling in Ethiopia and Its Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, in quantitative terms, Ethiopia has expanded and universalized the enrolment of school aged children in primary schools in line the International Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural rights in order to minimize the irregularities that have existed over the years. However, when the existing primary schooling is visualized in terms of quality and equity, it is sad to observe that privately run-ultra-modern primary schools seem to be mushrooming in Ethiopia in order to serve the sons and daughters of a newly emerging privileged class. On the other hand, the sons and daughters of the poor and disadvantaged are confined to over crowded classes manned by semi-qualified teachers and equipped with inadequate teaching materials. Stated differently, it is unbelievable to observe that primary schools in Ethiopia are sliding into a class-based education. Thus, if the government believes in equity and fairness, it needs to completely redesign and better equip the public primary school.

Asayehgn Desta

2012-01-01

292

Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251

Abraham, Adane

2013-01-01

293

Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors.

Abraham A

2013-01-01

294

Epidemiological pattern of leprosy in Ethiopia: a review of the control programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy control started in a limited area of Ethiopia in 1956. Extended coverage of the country was achieved in the early seventies. Review of the data from the control projects since 1976 revealed that leprosy is a disease of the Ethiopian highlands where prevalence rates as high as 7 per thousand have been recorded in some provinces, while the cumulative national average for the last 13 years was 2.6 per thousand. The paucibacillary form was predominant. However, unlike other African countries, a relatively high proportion of multibacillary leprosy was found in Ethiopia. The male-to-female ratio was 2:1 with the highest prevalence in the 15-44 years age bracket. Detection rates for new cases have shown a gradual decline since 1982, a year before multiple drug therapy (MDT) was introduced into the country. For the last 5 years the number of new cases has stabilized at 4700/year. These trends probably reflect a general reduction in the prevalence of leprosy in the country, while the conspicuous decline in 1982 is most likely related to discharge of cases during screening before MDT. The new villagization policy of Ethiopia with its effective reorganization of the populations is believed to make control programmes and supervision of MDT easier and presumably more effective. Similarly, more reliable prevalence and incidence studies could be undertaken with success. PMID:2215059

Berhe, D; Haimanot, R T; Tedla, T; Taddesse, T

1990-09-01

295

Epidemiological pattern of leprosy in Ethiopia: a review of the control programmes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leprosy control started in a limited area of Ethiopia in 1956. Extended coverage of the country was achieved in the early seventies. Review of the data from the control projects since 1976 revealed that leprosy is a disease of the Ethiopian highlands where prevalence rates as high as 7 per thousand have been recorded in some provinces, while the cumulative national average for the last 13 years was 2.6 per thousand. The paucibacillary form was predominant. However, unlike other African countries, a relatively high proportion of multibacillary leprosy was found in Ethiopia. The male-to-female ratio was 2:1 with the highest prevalence in the 15-44 years age bracket. Detection rates for new cases have shown a gradual decline since 1982, a year before multiple drug therapy (MDT) was introduced into the country. For the last 5 years the number of new cases has stabilized at 4700/year. These trends probably reflect a general reduction in the prevalence of leprosy in the country, while the conspicuous decline in 1982 is most likely related to discharge of cases during screening before MDT. The new villagization policy of Ethiopia with its effective reorganization of the populations is believed to make control programmes and supervision of MDT easier and presumably more effective. Similarly, more reliable prevalence and incidence studies could be undertaken with success.

Berhe D; Haimanot RT; Tedla T; Taddesse T

1990-09-01

296

Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea are outlined, as well as the big enterprises after the Second World War, e.g. the Kenya-Ethiopia Boundary Commission, the Desert Locust Service, and the achievement of an increasing number of individuals, both Ethiopian and foreign, is reviewed. The Ethiopian Flora Project purchased over the years a number of sturdy wehicles that allowed collecting activity in remote parts of the Flora areas, especially in western,southern and Eastern Ethiopia.

Friis, Ib

2011-01-01

297

Disparities in the use of antenatal care service in Ethiopia over a period of fifteen years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors contributing to inequities in antenatal care use in Ethiopia. We aimed to assess inequities in the use of antenatal care on the basis of area of residence, administrative region, economic status and education. METHODS: This study was based on data from repeated cross-sectional surveys carried out by Measure Demographic and Health Survey and Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in February-June 2000, April-August 2005, and December 2010-June 2011. The surveys employed a cluster sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of 15--49 year-old women. The main outcome variable was at least one antenatal care visit for the last live birth in the 5 years preceding the surveys. Statistical analysis was completed by applying the sampling weights in order to consider the complex sampling design. RESULTS: A total of 7978, 7307 and 7908 weighted number of women participated in the three surveys, respectively. The rate of antenatal care coverage in Ethiopia has increased from 26.8% in 2000 to 42.7% in 2011. The odds of antenatal care use were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7-3.2, p < 0.0001), 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.2, p = 0.003) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6, p = 0.001) times higher among women from urban areas than those from rural areas at the three time points, respectively. The odds ratio of antenatal care use among women with secondary or higher education compared with women of no education increased from 2.6 (95% CI: 2.0-3.4, p < 0.0001) in 2000 to 5.1(95% CI: 2.8-9.4, p < 0.0001) in 2011. Moreover, the odds of use among women from the richest households at the three time points were 2.7(95% CI: 2.1, -3.6, p < 0.0001), 4.4(95% CI: 3.3, -6.0, p < 0.0001), and 3.9(95% CI: 2.8, -5.5, p < 0.0001) times higher compared with their counterparts from the poorest households. Furthermore, we have observed a wide regional variation in the use of ANC in Ethiopia. CONCLUSIONS: The wide inequities between urban and rural areas, across economic and educational strata in the use of antenatal care highlight the need to put more resources to poor households, rural areas, and disadvantage regions. We suggest further study to understand additional factors for the deep unmet need in rural areas and some regions of Ethiopia.

Yesuf EA; Calderon-Margalit R

2013-06-01

298

Detection of Acinetobacter baumannii in human head and body lice from Ethiopia and identification of new genotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has previously been detected and genotyped in human body lice. The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of this bacterium in head and body lice collected from healthy individuals in Ethiopia by molecular methods and to characterize the genotype. METHODS: Human lice from locations at different altitudes in Ethiopia were screened for the presence of Acinetobacter sp by targeting the rpoB gene. Acinetobacter baumannii was detected and genotyped using recA PCR amplification. RESULTS: A total of 115 head and 109 body lice were collected from 134 healthy individuals. Acinetobacter sp were found in 54 head (47%) and 77 body (71%) lice. The recA gene was sequenced for 60 of the Acinetobacter sp and 67% were positive for A. baumannii; genotype 1 was retrieved the most frequently. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to show the presence of A. baumannii in human body lice, and also in head lice, in Ethiopia.

Kempf M; Abdissa A; Diatta G; Trape JF; Angelakis E; Mediannikov O; La Scola B; Raoult D

2012-09-01

299

Barbers' knowledge and practice about occupational biological hazards was low in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several health hazards including communicable diseases and skin conditions are associated with Barbers’ profession to which their visitors are exposed. Thus, knowledge and practice of Barbers would play a vital part in prevention and control of these health hazards. So, the aim of this study is to assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Methods To assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia, A work place based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 28 to April 6, 2012. The total numbers of Barbers in the town were 960 of which 400 Barbers were participated in the study. Sample size was determined using the formula for single population proportion by considering, 51% proportion, knowledgeable Barbers from Jimma, Ethiopia, 95% level of confidence, 5% margin of error and 15% none response rate. The numbers of barbers included in the study were selected by using systematic random sampling. Data was collected by face to face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and practice of barbers. Results Of 400 barbers, only 72 (18%) had good knowledge about biological hazards associated to their profession, While only 61 (15.3%) were practicing safely during barbering. Knowledge of the barbers was associated significantly with educational level, owner of the business, working hour and work experience, while practice was associated only with availability of UV sterilizers in the room and working hour. Conclusion Barbers’ practice and knowledge to prevent biological hazards associated with their profession is very poor. Thus, giving training for the Barbers is required toward prevention of biological hazards associated to their profession.

Beyen Teresa Kisi; Tulu Ketema Tafess; Abdo Abdella Amano; Tulu Abera Shibru

2012-01-01

300

Barbers' knowledge and practice about occupational biological hazards was low in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Several health hazards including communicable diseases and skin conditions are associated with Barbers' profession to which their visitors are exposed. Thus, knowledge and practice of Barbers would play a vital part in prevention and control of these health hazards. So, the aim of this study is to assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. METHODS: To assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia, A work place based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 28 to April 6, 2012. The total numbers of Barbers in the town were 960 of which 400 Barbers were participated in the study. Sample size was determined using the formula for single population proportion by considering, 51% proportion, knowledgeable Barbers from Jimma, Ethiopia, 95% level of confidence, 5% margin of error and 15% none response rate. The numbers of barbers included in the study were selected by using systematic random sampling. Data was collected by face to face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and practice of barbers. RESULTS: Of 400 barbers, only 72 (18%) had good knowledge about biological hazards associated to their profession, While only 61 (15.3%) were practicing safely during barbering. Knowledge of the barbers was associated significantly with educational level, owner of the business, working hour and work experience, while practice was associated only with availability of UV sterilizers in the room and working hour. CONCLUSION: Barbers' practice and knowledge to prevent biological hazards associated with their profession is very poor. Thus, giving training for the Barbers is required toward prevention of biological hazards associated to their profession.

Beyen TK; Tulu KT; Abdo AA; Tulu AS

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Climatic variables and malaria transmission dynamics in Jimma town, South West Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background:- In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics. It usually occurs at altitudes 2,000 m above sea level. For transmission of malaria parasite, climatic factors are important determinants as well as non-climatic factors that can negate climatic influences. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the correlation between climatic variability and malaria transmission risk in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between meteorological variables and malaria cases. Methods: - Time-series analysis was conducted using data on monthly meteorological variables and monthly total malaria in Jimma town, south west Ethiopia, for the period 2000-2009. All the data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 database program. Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis were used to asses association between the variables. Results: - During last ten years (2000-2009), a fluctuating trend of malaria transmission was observed with P.vivax becoming predominant species. Spearman correlation analysis showed that monthly minimum temperature, total rainfall and two measures of relative humidity were positively related with malaria but monthly maximum temperature negatively related. Also regression analysis suggested that monthly minimum (p = 0.008), monthly maximum temperature (p = 0.013) and monthly total rainfall (p = 0.040), at one month lagged effect, were significant meteorological factors for transmission of malaria in the study area. Conclusion: - Malaria incidences in the last decade seem to have a significant association with meteorological variables. In future, prospective and multidisciplinary cooperative research involving researchers from the fields of parasitology, epidemiology, botany, agriculture and climatology is necessary to identify the real effect of meteorological factors on vector- borne diseases like malaria.

Alemu Abebe; Abebe Gemeda; Tsegaye Wondewossen; Golassa Lemu

2011-01-01

302

Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2009 in the Gilgel Gibe field research area. A total of 30,040 individuals 15?years or older in 10,882 households were screened for TB lymphadenitis. Any individual 15?years or older with lumps in the neck, armpits or groin up on interview were considered TB lymphadenitis suspect. The diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis was established when acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy of fine needle aspiration (FNA) sample, culture or cytology suggested TB. HIV counseling and testing was offered to all TB lymphadenitis suspects. Descriptive and bivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 15. Results Complete data were available for 27,597 individuals. A total of 87?TB lymphadenitis suspects were identified. Most of the TB lymphadenitis suspects were females (72.4%). Sixteen cases of TB lymphadenitis were confirmed. The prevalence of TB lymphadenitis was thus 58.0 per 100,000 people (16/27,597) (95% CI 35.7-94.2). Individuals who had a contact history with chronic coughers (OR 5.58, 95% CI 1.23-25.43) were more likely to have TB lymphadenitis. Lymph nodes with caseous FNA were more likely to be positive for TB lymphadenitis (OR 5.46, 95% CI 1.69-17.61). Conclusion The prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Gilgel Gibe is similar with the WHO estimates for Ethiopia. Screening of TB lymphadenitis particularly for family members who have contact with chronic coughers is recommended. Health extension workers could be trained to screen and refer TB lymphadenitis suspects using simple methods.

Abebe Gemeda; Deribew Amare; Apers Ludwig; Abdissa Alemseged; Deribie Fetene; Woldemichael Kifle; Shiffa Jaffer; Tesfaye Markos; Jira Chali; Bezabih Mesele; Aseffa Abraham; Bekele Alemayehu; Colebunders Robert

2012-01-01

303

Prevalence and burden of primary headache disorders among a local community in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Headache disorders are the most common complaints worldwide. Migraine, tension type and cluster headaches account for majority of primary headaches and improvise a substantial burden on the individual, family or society at large. There is a scanty data on the prevalence of primary headaches in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular. Moreover there is no population based urban study in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and burden of primary headaches in local community in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional sample survey was carried out in Addis Ketema sub city, Kebele 16/17/18 (local smallest administrative unit). Using systematic random sampling, data were collected by previously used headache questionnaire, over a period of 20 days. RESULTS: The study subjects were 231 of which 51.5% were males and 48.5% were females. The overall one year prevalence of primary headache disorders was 21.6% and that for migraine was 10%, migraine without aura 6.5% migraine with aura was 2.6% and probable migraine was 0.9%. The prevalence of tension type of headache was found to be 10.4%, frequent episodic tension type headache was 8.2% followed by infrequent tension type headache of 2.2%. The prevalence of cluster headache was 1.3%. The burden of primary headache disorders in terms of missing working, school or social activities was 68.0%. This was 78.3% for migraineurs and 66.7% for tension type headache. Majority 92.0% of primary headache cases were not using health services and 66.0% did not use any drug or medications during the acute attacks and none were using preventive therapy. CONCLUSION: Prevalence and burden of primary headache disorders was substantial in this community. Health service utilization of the community for headache treatment was poor.

Mengistu G; Alemayehu S

2013-12-01

304

Vulnerability to episodes of extreme weather: Butajira, Ethiopia, 1998-1999.  

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BACKGROUND: During 1999-2000, great parts of Ethiopia experienced a period of famine which was recognised internationally. The aim of this paper is to characterise the epidemiology of mortality of the period, making use of individual, longitudinal population-based data from the Butajira demographic surveillance site and rainfall data from a local site. METHODS: Vital statistics and household data were routinely collected in a cluster sample of 10 sub-communities in the Butajira district in central Ethiopia. These were supplemented by rainfall and agricultural data from the national reporting systems. RESULTS: Rainfall was high in 1998 and well below average in 1999 and 2000. In 1998, heavy rains continued from April into October, in 1999 the small rains failed and the big rains lasted into the harvesting period. For the years 1998-1999, the mortality rate was 24.5 per 1,000 person-years, compared with 10.2 in the remainder of the period 1997-2001. Mortality peaks reflect epidemics of malaria and diarrhoeal disease. During these peaks, mortality was significantly higher among the poorer. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal a serious humanitarian crisis with the Butajira population during 1998-1999, which met the CDC guideline crisis definition of more than one death per 10,000 per day. No substantial humanitarian relief efforts were triggered, though from the results it seems likely that the poorest in the farming communities are as vulnerable as the pastoralists in the North and East of Ethiopia. Food insecurity and reliance on subsistence agriculture continue to be major issues in this and similar rural communities. Epidemics of traditional infectious diseases can still be devastating, given opportunities in nutritionally challenged populations with little access to health care.

Emmelin A; Fantahun M; Berhane Y; Wall S; Byass P

2009-01-01

305

The burden of leprosy in children and adolescents in rural southern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Childhood leprosy has an important bearing on the epidemiology of disease and reflects the level of control in a community. There is limited information about this disease in rural Ethiopia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from leprosy patient records and treatment cards in a rural mission hospital in southern Ethiopia from 1999 to 2011. RESULTS: Over the 13-year period, 298 patients with leprosy were registered for treatment. Of these, 22 (7.4%) were children (under 15 years) and 66 (21.1%) were adolescents (from 15 to 18 years). The male:female ratio was 2.6:1 in children and 1.7:1 in adolescents. Slit skin examination was positive in eight of 15 (36.4%) child patients and in 26 of 53 (41.3%) adolescents. Multibacillary leprosy was the most common type in both age groups, encountered in 95.5% of children and in 84.1% of adolescents. Six (27.3%) children and 18 (28.6%) adolescents had deformities of the hand, feet or eyes (WHO grade II), detected either at the time of diagnosis or during follow-up. Sixty-one per cent of children were transferred to their health institutions for treatment and follow-up; seven children (38.9%) completed the treatment and one (5.9%) defaulted while on therapy. Of 63 adolescent patients, 31 (49.2%) completed the recommended therapy, 28 (44.4%) were transferred out, and four (6.3%) defaulted on therapy. CONCLUSION: Childhood leprosy continues to be a common problem in rural southern Ethiopia. Multibacillary disease and disabilities remain common in children. Early detection and treatment of cases including the study of contacts should reduce the burden of leprosy in the community.

Ramos JM; Reyes F; Lemma D; Tesfamariam A; Belinchón I; Górgolas M

2013-07-01

306

Incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals and people's awareness in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar zone, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals was prospectively followed up for one year period based on clinical observation. A questionnaire was also administered to 120 randomly selected dog owners and 5 traditional healers to assess the knowledge and practices about the disease. We found an annual estimated rabies incidence of 2.33 cases per 100,000 in humans, 412.83 cases per 100,000 in dogs, 19.89 cases per 100,000 in cattle, 67.68 cases per 100,000 in equines, and 14.45 cases per 100,000 in goats. Dog bite was the source of infection for all fatal rabies cases. Ninety eight percent of the questionnaire respondents were familiar with rabies and mentioned dog bite as a means of transmission. But discordant with current scientific knowledge, 84% and 32% of the respondents respectively mentioned any type of contact (irrespective of skin condition) with saliva, and inhalation as a means of transmission of rabies. Eighty four percent of the respondents relied on traditional healers for management of rabies. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows high canine rabies burden, and lack of sufficient awareness about the disease and high reliance on traditional treatment that interfere with timely post exposure management. Vaccination of dogs, proper post exposure management, and increasing the awareness of the community are suggested to reduce the disease burden.

Jemberu WT; Molla W; Almaw G; Alemu S

2013-05-01

307

Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59?years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ?44?years) and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP). Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

Leta Tesfaye H; Sandøy Ingvild F; Fylkesnes Knut

2012-01-01

308

Population-based prevalence survey of tuberculosis in the Tigray region of Ethiopia.  

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BACKGROUND: Population based prevalence survey is an important epidemiological index to measure the burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease and monitor progress towards TB control in high burden countries like Ethiopia. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. METHODS: Sixteen rural and urban villages were randomly selected in a stratified multistage cluster sampling. Individuals aged 15 years and older were screened by symptom inquiry for PTB. Those individuals who were symptomatic of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) provided two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture and molecular typing. RESULTS: The study covering 4,765 households screened a total of 12,175 individuals aged 15 years and above. The overall weighted prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed PTB in the Tigray region of Ethiopia was found to be 216/100,000 (95% CI: 202.08, 230.76) while the weighted prevalence of smear-positive PTB was 169/100,000 (95% CI: 155.53, 181.60). The prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed TB was higher amongst males (352/100 000; 95% CI: 339.05, 364.52) than females (162/100 000; 95% CI: 153.60, 171.17) and among rural (222/100,000; 95% CI: 212.77-231.53) as compared to urban residents (193/100,000; 95% CI: 183.39-203.59). CONCLUSIONS: This study found a relatively higher prevalence smear-positive PTB in the region than in a same period nationwide survey and identified a significant number of undetected PTB cases. The urgency for improved TB case detection and intensified community awareness is emphasized.

Berhe G; Enqueselassie F; Hailu E; Mekonnen W; Teklu T; Gebretsadik A; Berhe R; Haile T; Aseffa A

2013-09-01

309

Gravity tectonics of topographic ridges: Halokinesis and gravitational spreading in the western Ogaden, Ethiopia  

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The Cenozoic history of the western Ogaden region of Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian rift and the South Afar margin, is marked by uplift and incision of the Ogaden plateau down to the Gorrahei Formation, an upper Cretaceous evaporite formation. Debuttressing of this and the overlying sedimentary formations resulted in widespread and spectacular gravitational spreading landforms over a minimum surface area of 15,000 km2, most of which remains unstudied. After clearing up some misconceptions about the surface geology of the study area, the Kebenawa Ridge in the Audo Range, observations are reported that point to a tectonic style controlled by halokinesis and subsequently, gravitational spreading. The role of diapirism and karstification in the observed halokinesis is discussed, as well as the influence of halokinesis on gravitational spreading. Spreading is in part akin to sackung, in that ridge deformation features include a crestal graben and basal ridge topography extrusion, and deformation was triggered by lateral ridge debuttressing. Ridge spreading also presents analogy with gravitational spreading of the Canyonlands grabens in the Needles District, Canyonlands National Park, Utah. The scale and the mechanisms are found to be basically similar, but two differences are noted. First, incision by the drainage network in response to plateau uplift in Ethiopia has debuttressed the topography along two parallel rivers, instead of a single river (the Colorado River) in Utah. Secondly, incision proceeded to the base of the evaporite layer in the Ogaden, whereas incision has not exceeded the top of the evaporite layer in Utah. These differences may have influenced the details of the spreading mechanisms in ways that remain to be investigated. Overall, in Ethiopia, association of halokinesis and a transitional mode of gravitational spreading at the interface between narrow ridge spreading (sackung) and plateau spreading (Canyonlands-type), illustrates a fascinating and unusual ridge evolution style.

Mège, Daniel; Le Deit, Laetitia; Rango, Tewodros; Korme, Tesfaye

2013-07-01

310

Spatial distribution of podoconiosis in relation to environmental factors in Ethiopia: a historical review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An up-to-date and reliable map of podoconiosis is needed to design geographically targeted and cost-effective intervention in Ethiopia. Identifying the ecological correlates of the distribution of podoconiosis is the first step for distribution and risk maps. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution and ecological correlates of podoconiosis using historical and contemporary survey data. METHODS: Data on the observed prevalence of podoconiosis were abstracted from published and unpublished literature into a standardized database, according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 10 studies conducted between 1969 and 2012 were included, and data were available for 401,674 individuals older than 15 years of age from 229 locations. A range of high resolution environmental factors were investigated to determine their association with podoconiosis prevalence, using logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in Ethiopia was estimated at 3.4% (95% CI 3.3%-3.4%) with marked regional variation. We identified significant associations between mean annual Land Surface Temperature (LST), mean annual precipitation, topography of the land and fine soil texture and high prevalence of podoconiosis. The derived maps indicate both widespread occurrence of podoconiosis and a marked variability in prevalence of podoconiosis, with prevalence typically highest at altitudes >1500 m above sea level (masl), with >1500 mm annual rainfall and mean annual LST of 19-21°C. No (or very little) podoconiosis occurred at altitudes <1225 masl, with annual rainfall <900 mm, and mean annual LST of >24°C. CONCLUSION: Podoconiosis remains a public health problem in Ethiopia over considerable areas of the country, but exhibits marked geographical variation associated in part with key environmental factors. This is work in progress and the results presented here will be refined in future work.

Deribe K; Brooker SJ; Pullan RL; Hailu A; Enquselassie F; Reithinger R; Newport M; Davey G

2013-01-01

311

Potential for cost recovery: women's willingness to pay for injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with a woman's willingness to pay (WTP) for injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia. METHODS: We used a multistage random sampling design to generate a representative sample of reproductive age women from the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia to participate in a survey (N?=?1490). Respondents who had ever used injectable contraceptives or who were interested in using them were asked whether they would be willing to pay, and if so, how much. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values were used to assess which factors were associated with WTP in our final model. FINDINGS: On average, respondents were willing to pay 11 birr ($0.65 USD) per injection. Being married, completing any amount of education, having given birth, and having visited a health facility in the last 12 months (whether received family planning information or not) were associated with statistically significantly increased odds of WTP. Having initiated sexual activity and having 1-2 children (compared to 0 children) were associated with statistically significantly decreased odds of WTP. We also detected two significant interactions. Among women who prefer injectable contraceptives, their odds of WTP for injectable contraceptives vary across length of time they have used them. And among women who work for pay, their odds of WTP for injectable contraceptives vary by whether they agree with their husband/partner about the ideal number of children. CONCLUSION: In a sector that continually struggles with funding, cost recovery for contraceptive services may offer a means of improved financial sustainability while increasing rural access to injectable contraceptives. Results indicate there are opportunities for cost recovery in rural Tigray, Ethiopia and highlight factors that could be leveraged to increase WTP for injectable contraceptives.

Prata N; Bell S; Weidert K; Gessessew A

2013-01-01

312

Treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring the outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program. This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Methods Medical records of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients registered from September 2009 to June 2011 in 15 districts of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, were reviewed. Additional data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered through house-to-house visits by trained nurses. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes were assessed according to WHO guidelines. The association of unsuccessful treatment outcome with socio-demographic and clinical factors was analyzed using logistic regression model. Results Out of the 407 PTB patients (221 males and 186 females) aged 15 years and above, 89.2% had successful and 10.8% had unsuccessful treatment outcome. In the final multivariate logistic model, the odds of unsuccessful treatment outcome was higher among patients older than 40 years of age (adj. OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.12-5.59), family size greater than 5 persons (adj. OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.43-7.44), unemployed (adj. OR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.33-7.24) and among retreatment cases (adj. OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.37-2.92) as compared to their respective comparison groups. Conclusions Treatment outcome among smear-positive PTB patients was satisfactory in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Nonetheless, those patients at high risk of an unfavorable treatment outcome should be identified early and given additional follow-up and social support.

Berhe Gebretsadik; Enquselassie Fikre; Aseffa Abraham

2012-01-01

313

New hominid fossils from Woranso-Mille (Central Afar, Ethiopia) and taxonomy of early Australopithecus.  

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The phylogenetic relationship between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis has been hypothesized as ancestor-descendant. However, the weakest part of this hypothesis has been the absence of fossil samples between 3.6 and 3.9 million years ago. Here we describe new fossil specimens from the Woranso-Mille site in Ethiopia that are directly relevant to this issue. They derive from sediments chronometrically dated to 3.57-3.8 million years ago. The new fossil specimens are largely isolated teeth, partial mandibles, and maxillae, and some postcranial fragments. However, they shed some light on the relationships between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. The dental morphology shows closer affinity with Au. anamensis from Allia Bay/Kanapoi (Kenya) and Asa Issie (Ethiopia) than with Au. afarensis from Hadar (Ethiopia). However, they are intermediate in dental and mandibular morphology between Au. anamensis and the older Au. afarensis material from Laetoli. The new fossils lend strong support to the hypothesized ancestor-descendant relationship between these two early Australopithecus species. The Woranso-Mille hominids cannot be unequivocally assigned to either taxon due to their dental morphological intermediacy. This could be an indication that the Kanapoi, Allia Bay, and Asa Issie Au. anamensis is the primitive form of Au. afarensis at Hadar with the Laetoli and Woranso-Mille populations sampling a mosaic of morphological features from both ends. It is particularly difficult to draw a line between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis in light of the new discoveries from Woranso-Mille. The morphology provides no evidence that Au. afarensis and Au. anamensis represent distinct taxa. PMID:19918995

Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Saylor, Beverly Z; Deino, Alan; Alene, Mulugeta; Latimer, Bruce M

2010-03-01

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New hominid fossils from Woranso-Mille (Central Afar, Ethiopia) and taxonomy of early Australopithecus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phylogenetic relationship between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis has been hypothesized as ancestor-descendant. However, the weakest part of this hypothesis has been the absence of fossil samples between 3.6 and 3.9 million years ago. Here we describe new fossil specimens from the Woranso-Mille site in Ethiopia that are directly relevant to this issue. They derive from sediments chronometrically dated to 3.57-3.8 million years ago. The new fossil specimens are largely isolated teeth, partial mandibles, and maxillae, and some postcranial fragments. However, they shed some light on the relationships between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. The dental morphology shows closer affinity with Au. anamensis from Allia Bay/Kanapoi (Kenya) and Asa Issie (Ethiopia) than with Au. afarensis from Hadar (Ethiopia). However, they are intermediate in dental and mandibular morphology between Au. anamensis and the older Au. afarensis material from Laetoli. The new fossils lend strong support to the hypothesized ancestor-descendant relationship between these two early Australopithecus species. The Woranso-Mille hominids cannot be unequivocally assigned to either taxon due to their dental morphological intermediacy. This could be an indication that the Kanapoi, Allia Bay, and Asa Issie Au. anamensis is the primitive form of Au. afarensis at Hadar with the Laetoli and Woranso-Mille populations sampling a mosaic of morphological features from both ends. It is particularly difficult to draw a line between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis in light of the new discoveries from Woranso-Mille. The morphology provides no evidence that Au. afarensis and Au. anamensis represent distinct taxa.

Haile-Selassie Y; Saylor BZ; Deino A; Alene M; Latimer BM

2010-03-01

315

Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infection in children. The objective of this study was to assess PMTCT services by examining knowledge about reducing vertical transmission among pregnant women. Methods: A multistaged sampling institution-based survey was conducted in 113 pregnant women in Arba Minch. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Results: Of the 113 respondents, 89.4% were from Arba Minch, 43.4% were at least 25 years of age, 73.4% had formal education at primary level or above, 100% reported acceptance of voluntary counseling and testing, 92.0% were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmission, and 90.3% were aware of the availability of the PMTCT service in the health facility. Of 74 HIV-positive women in PMTCT, only three (4.1%) had had skilled birth attendants at delivery. There was an unacceptable degree of loss of women from PMTCT. Maternal educational level had a statistical association with income (P < 0.001) and voluntary counseling and testing for pregnant women (P < 0.05). Factors that determined use of PMTCT included culture, socioeconomic status, and fear of stigma and discrimination. Conclusion: In the area studied, intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV is failing to reach its goal. This is an alarming discovery requiring quick reconsideration and strengthening of preventive strategies at all levels. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, pregnant women, Ethiopia

Merdekios B; Adedimeji AA

2011-01-01

316

High prevalence of Cryptococcal antigenemia among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal disease is estimated to be responsible for significant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa; however, only scarce epidemiology data exists. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia in Ethiopia. METHODS: Consecutive adult HIV-infected patients from two public HIV clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study. A CD4 count ? 200 cells/?l was required for study participation. Patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were not excluded. A cryptococcal antigen test was performed for all patients along with an interview, physical exam, and medical chart abstraction. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia. RESULTS: 369 HIV-infected patients were enrolled; mean CD4 123 cells/?l and 74% receiving ART. The overall prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia was 8.4%; 11% in patients with a CD4 count <100 cells/?l, 8.9% with CD4 100 to 150 cells/?l and 5.7% with CD4150-200 cell/?l. 84% of patients with cryptococcal antigenemia were receiving ART. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, self reported fever, CD4 count <100 cells/?l, and site of screening were associated with an increased risk of cryptococcal antigenemia. No individual or combination of clinical symptoms had optimal sensitivity or specificity for cryptococcal antigenemia. CONCLUSION: Cryptococcal antigenemia is high in Ethiopia and rapid scale up of screening programs is needed. Screening should be implemented for HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts regardless of symptoms or receipt of ART. Further study into the effect of location and environment on cryptococcal disease is warranted.

Alemu AS; Kempker RR; Tenna A; Smitson C; Berhe N; Fekade D; Blumberg HM; Aseffa A

2013-01-01

317

Neisseria gonorrhoeae non-susceptible to cephalosporins and quinolones in Northwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of antibiotic resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates is a serious public health problem in different corners of the globe. The objective of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of N. gonorrhoeae in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from genital swabs of patients referred to the Amhara Regional Health Research Laboratory between September 2006 and June 2012 in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. A structured check list was used to collect socio-demographic and laboratory variables. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. RESULTS: Out of 352 genital specimens processed, 29 clinical strains of N. gonorrhoeae were identified. The percentage of N. gonorrhoeae isolates non-susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and penicillin G was 27.8%, 40.9%, 92.6% and 94.4% respectively. Twenty percent of the isolates were found to be non-susceptible to both ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Non-susceptibility to an injectable cephalosporin and any two of quinolones, penicillins or tetracyclines was observed in 27.8% of the isolates. The percentage of N. gonorrhoeae which were non-susceptible to tetracycline or penicillin G was high throughout the study period. However, the percentage of fluoroquinolone or cephalosporine non-susceptible strains showed an increasing trend. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of N. gonorrhoeae isolated from genital specimens in Northwest Ethiopia are non-susceptible to an injectable cephalosporin and any two of quinolones, penicillins or tetracyclines. Treatment of gonorrhea in the study area needs to be guided by antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates.

Tibebu M; Shibabaw A; Medhin G; Kassu A

2013-09-01

318

Human herpesvirus 8 infection in HIV-1-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Human Herpes Virus (HHV-8) is related to Kaposi Saracoma, an opportunistic infection occurring with HIV infection. Little is known about the seroepidemiology of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among Ethiopian women, even though women are a major HIV risk group in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HHV-8 infection in HIV-1-infected and uninfected pregnant women in five selected regions of Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2006 to June 2007 where pregnant women were recruited after age-matching in groups. A total of 400 pregnant women were enrolled, with 200 being HIV-infected and 200 being HIV-uninfected Sera were screened for IgG lytic antibody to HHV-8 using an Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA) in Virology Unit of Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNR1). RESULTS: Of 400 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) testing sites of five regions in Ethiopia, 212 (53.0%) were positive for HHV-8 IgG lytic antibody. There was a high prevalence of HHV-8 infection among HIV-1-infected pregnant women (138, 69.0%) as compared with HIV-1-uninfected pregnant women (74, 37.0%). CONCLUSION: The study shows a high prevalence of HHV-8 infection among HIV-1-infected pregnant women as compared with HIV-1-uninfected pregnant women. Therefore, creating awareness and educating women on safe sexual practice and avoiding deep kissing may be a fundamental ways to limit the roots of transmission. Moreover, initiating strong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infected women would be best treatment prior to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).

Lemma E; Constantine NT; Kassa D; Messele T; Mindaye T; Taye G; Abebe A; Tamene W; Tebje M; Gebremeskel W; Adane A; Gezahegn N

2009-07-01

319

Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia: An extended cost-effectiveness analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An estimated 4% of global child deaths (approximately 300,000 deaths) are attributed to rotavirus annually. About 40% of these deaths occur in India and Ethiopia. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in these two countries could substantially decrease child mortality and also reduce rotavirus-related hospitalizations, prevent health-related impoverishment and bring significant cost savings to households. METHODS: We use a methodology of 'extended cost-effectiveness analysis' (ECEA) to evaluate a hypothetical publicly financed program for rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia. We measure program impact along four dimensions: 1) rotavirus deaths averted; 2) household expenditures averted; 3) financial risk protection afforded; 4) distributional consequences across the wealth strata of the country populations. RESULTS: In India and Ethiopia, the program would lead to a substantial decrease in rotavirus deaths, mainly among the poorer; it would reduce household expenditures across all income groups and it would effectively provide financial risk protection, mostly concentrated among the poorest. Potential indirect benefits of vaccination (herd immunity) would increase program benefits among all income groups, whereas potentially decreased vaccine efficacy among poorer households would reduce the equity benefits of the program. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach incorporates financial risk protection and distributional consequences into the systematic economic evaluation of vaccine policy, illustrated here with the case study of public finance for rotavirus vaccination. This enables selection of vaccine packages based on the quantitative inclusion of information on equity and on how much financial risk protection is being bought per dollar expenditure on vaccine policy, in addition to how much health is being bought.

Verguet S; Murphy S; Anderson B; Johansson KA; Glass R; Rheingans R

2013-07-01

320

The effect of dams and seasons on malaria incidence and anopheles abundance in Ethiopia.  

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Background Reservoirs created by damming rivers are often believed to increase malaria incidence risk and/or stretch the period of malaria transmission. In this paper, we report the effects of a mega hydropower dam on P. falciparum malaria incidence in Ethiopia.Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted over a period of 2 years to determine Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence among children less than 10 years of age living near a mega hydropower dam in Ethiopia. A total of 2080 children from 16 villages located at different distances from a hydropower dam were followed up from 2008 to 2010 using active detection of cases based on weekly house to house visits. Of this cohort of children, 951 (48.09%) were females and 1059 (51.91%) were males, with a median age of 5 years. Malaria vectors were simultaneously surveyed in all the 16 study villages. Frailty models were used to explore associations between time-to-malaria and potential risk factors, whereas, mixed-effects Poisson regression models were used to assess the effect of different covariates on anopheline abundance.Results Overall, 548 (26.86%) children experienced at least one clinical malaria episode during the follow up period with mean incidence rate of 14.26 cases/1000 child-months at risk (95% CI: 12.16 - 16.36). P. falciparum malaria incidence showed no statistically significant association with distance from the dam reservoir (p = 0.32). However, P. falciparum incidence varied significantly between seasons (p malaria incidence dynamics were more influenced by seasonal drivers than by the dam reservoir itself. The findings could have implications in timing optimal malaria control interventions and in developing an early warning system in Ethiopia. PMID:23566411

Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Getachew, Yehenew; Tushune, Kora; Michael, Kifle W; Kassahun, Wondwossen; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Population studies on normal and dysfunctional characteristics of menstrual cycles are scarce in Ethiopia. In addition variability in menarcheal age and menstrual characteristics are common. Knowledge on this variability is necessary for patient education and to guide clinical evaluation. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampling method was used to select 622 school girls from two secondary schools. A pretested questionnaire prepared in Amharic was used to gather data. Selected girls cooperated in answering the questionnaire in their classrooms under the supervision of the research team. Only 612 of the adolescent females were included in the final analysis, of which 305 were from Koladiba High School and 307 from Dabat. Results The age of the study subjects ranges between 14 and 19 with a mean (standard deviation) of 16.9 ± 1 years. About 92.2% had attained menarche by the time the survey was conducted. The probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median (CI) age at menarche of 14.8 (13.9-15.3) years. The average age at menarche by recall method was 15.8 ± 1 years. The mean age at menarche was 0.3 years younger for urban females compared with rural ones (p Conclusion In this study age of menarche was found to be delayed which is even higher than the findings indicated similar studies conducted in Ethiopia and other African countries. A significant number of students complain of abnormal menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhoea and premenstrual symptoms which call for appropriate counselling and management.

Zegeye Desalegn; Megabiaw Berihun; Mulu Abay

2009-01-01

322

Alcohol drinking patterns among high school students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use is an important risk factor for morbidity, mortality and social harm among adolescents. There is paucity of data on alcohol use among high school students in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with alcohol use among high school students in Ethiopia Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and its predictors among high school students in eastern Ethiopia in April 2010. A sample of students was taken from all schools based on their enrollment size. Prevalence estimates and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Logistic regression was performed to adjust and examine associations. Results A total of 1721 students participated in the study. The mean age of the study population was 16.4 (SD 1.6) years. A total of 372 (22.2%; 95% CI 20.2 - 24.2%) students drink alcohol. Of these, 118 (31.7%) were females and 254 (68.3) males. Multivariate analysis indicated that males (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.45-3.00), older age (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.01-1.34), having friends who used alcohol (OR 10.09; 95% CI 6.84-14.89) and living with people who use alcohol (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.89-4.07) increased the odds of drinking among students. Conclusion There is a high level of alcohol use among high school students in the study area. Involvement of parents, health workers and school authorities are necessary to avert the problem. Specifically, their involvement in awareness campaigns and peer education training are important to encourage students to avoid alcohol use.

Reda Ayalu A; Moges Asmamaw; Wondmagegn Berhanu Y; Biadgilign Sibhatu

2012-01-01

323

Human resource capacity to effectively implement malaria elimination: a policy brief for Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate malaria elimination in Ethiopia. Ethiopia has planned to eliminate malaria by 2015 in areas of unstable malaria transmission and in the entire country by 2020. However, there is a shortage and maldistribution of the health workforce in general and malaria experts in particular. Training, motivating, and retaining the health workforce involved in malaria control is one strategy to address the shortage and maldistribution of the health workforce to achieve the goal of elimination. METHODS: Policy options include the following: (i) in-service training (educational outreach visits, continuing education meetings and workshops, audit and feedback, tailored interventions, and guideline dissemination) may improve professional practice; (ii) recruiting and training malaria specialists together with academic support, career guidance, and social support may increase the number of malaria experts; and (iii) motivation and retention packages (such as financial, educational, personal, and professional support incentives) may help motivate and retain malaria professionals. RESULTS: Implementation strategies include the following: (i) massive training of health personnel involved in malaria elimination and malaria experts (requiring special training) at different levels (national, sub-national, District & community levels), and (ii) recruiting highly qualified health personnel and retention and motivation mechanisms are needed. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of adequately trained human resources and personnel attrition are major challenges to effectively implement the planned multi-faceted malaria elimination by 2020 strategy in Ethiopia. Although a reduction in malaria incidence has been observed in the last 3-4 years, maintaining this success and achieving the malaria elimination goal with the present human resource profile will be impossible. A clear strategy for developing the capacity of the health workers in general, and malaria experts in particular, and retaining and motivating staff are crucial for malaria control and elimination.

Woyessa A; Hadis M; Kebede A

2013-04-01

324

SURVIVAL AND PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY AMONG PATIENTS UNDER MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT IN ETHIOPIA: ST. PETER'S SPECIALIZED TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an increasing global problem. The extent and burden of MDR-TB varies significantly from country to country. Survival of MDR-TB treatment is not described in Ethiopia. Therefore, examining a cohort who received second-line therapy for MDR-TB to determine overall survival has a great importance.Objectives: To assess survival and predictors of mortality among patients under MDR-TB treatment in Ethiopia: St Peter’s specialized TB Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective analysis of records was conducted from Oct, 2011 - May, 2012 among cohorts of MDR-TB patients in St. Peter’s specialized TB hospital that starts treatment from February 2009. Data were collected using checklist from 188 patients’ record that is determined and analyzed using the STATA Statistical package, Version 11.0. Risk was estimated for the entire follow-up time corresponding to each event occurrence using Kaplan-Meier method and the covariates are fitted to Cox proportional hazard regression model.Result: The 188 patients were followed for a total of 79,600 person-days. Median follow up time was 466.5 days or 1.28 years. Among the total subjects, 87 (46.28%) are male and the rest 101 (53.72%) are female with a median age of 27 years. There were 29 (15.43 %) known deaths (incidence rate: 3.6 per 10,000 person-days). Survival rate at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment were 88.53 %, 85.83 %, 82.71 % and 78.95 % respectively. The mean survival time for patients under MDR-TB was 9.7 years. Comparison of the groups showed that there is a significant difference in the probability of surviving between HIV status, smoking status, therapeutic delay, No. of first line resistant drugs at initiation, co-morbidities, region and clinical complication. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression, factors independently associated with mortality of patients were smoking (HR: 4.01, 95% CI 1.42 - 11.37, P = 0.009), therapeutic delay > 1 month (HR: 3.61, 95% CI 1.41 - 9.20, P = 0.007), HIV seropositive (HR: 5.94, 95% CI 2.40 - 14.72, P < 0.0001) and clinical complication (HR: 1.90, 95% CI 1.52 - 2.39, P < 0.001).Conclusion and recommendation: Survival of patients was higher and higher hazard of death was noted in patients who started treatment after a month, smoker, HIV positive and patients who develop a clinical complication. Although survival is good, reinforcing the existing treatment program will further improve patients’ survival in Ethiopia.

Theodros Getachew, Alemayehu Bayray and Berhe Weldearegay

2013-01-01

325

Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Late Miocene fossil hominid teeth recovered from Ethiopia's Middle Awash are assigned to Ardipithecus kadabba. Their primitive morphology and wear pattern demonstrate that A. kadabba is distinct from Ardipithecus ramidus. These fossils suggest that the last common ancestor of apes and humans had a functionally honing canine-third premolar complex. Comparison with teeth of Sahelanthropus and Orrorin, the two other named late Miocene hominid genera, implies that these putative taxa are very similar to A. kadabba. It is therefore premature to posit extensive late Miocene hominid diversity on the basis of currently available samples.

Haile-Selassie Y; Suwa G; White TD

2004-03-01

326

Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Late Miocene fossil hominid teeth recovered from Ethiopia's Middle Awash are assigned to Ardipithecus kadabba. Their primitive morphology and wear pattern demonstrate that A. kadabba is distinct from Ardipithecus ramidus. These fossils suggest that the last common ancestor of apes and humans had a functionally honing canine-third premolar complex. Comparison with teeth of Sahelanthropus and Orrorin, the two other named late Miocene hominid genera, implies that these putative taxa are very similar to A. kadabba. It is therefore premature to posit extensive late Miocene hominid diversity on the basis of currently available samples. PMID:15001775

Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Suwa, Gen; White, Tim D

2004-03-01

327

Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN), 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i) provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii) to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS) to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii) scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS) was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and expanding malaria intervention coverage, efforts will have to be made to increase intervention access and use. With ongoing efforts to sustain and expand malaria intervention coverage, to increase intervention access and use, and with strong involvement of the community, Ethiopia expects to achieve its targets in terms of coverage and uptake of interventions in the coming years and move towards eliminating malaria.

Jima Daddi; Getachew Asefaw; Bilak Hana; Steketee Richard W; Emerson Paul M; Graves Patricia M; Gebre Teshome; Reithinger Richard; Hwang Jimee

2010-01-01

328

Control of schistosomiasis in Adwa, Ethiopia, using the plant molluscicide endod (Phytolacca dodecandra).  

Science.gov (United States)

Control of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in a town in northern Ethiopia was attempted using the natural product, endod (Phytolacca dodecandra), and its use compared with niclosamide. Within a five year period prevalence was reduced from 61.5 to 36.4% in the area where endod was used. Most of this decline was accounted for by the reduction in prevalence among 1-6 year old subjects. The practical use of endod as a molluscicide was demonstrated to have a performance which compared favourably with the commercial product, and although more expensive than niclosamide still at minimal annual cost (US + 0.06 per capita). PMID:6636299

Goll, P H; Lemma, A; Duncan, J; Mazengia, B

1983-09-01

329

Control of schistosomiasis in Adwa, Ethiopia, using the plant molluscicide endod (Phytolacca dodecandra).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Control of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in a town in northern Ethiopia was attempted using the natural product, endod (Phytolacca dodecandra), and its use compared with niclosamide. Within a five year period prevalence was reduced from 61.5 to 36.4% in the area where endod was used. Most of this decline was accounted for by the reduction in prevalence among 1-6 year old subjects. The practical use of endod as a molluscicide was demonstrated to have a performance which compared favourably with the commercial product, and although more expensive than niclosamide still at minimal annual cost (US + 0.06 per capita).

Goll PH; Lemma A; Duncan J; Mazengia B

1983-09-01

330

GM crops in Ethiopia: a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?  

Science.gov (United States)

Much has been published on the application of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, but agricultural performance has hardly been addressed. This paper discusses the main consequences of GM crops on agricultural performance in Ethiopia. Three main criteria of performance - productivity, equitability and sustainability - are evaluated in the context of the Ethiopian agricultural sector. We conclude that the application of GM crops can improve the agricultural productivity and sustainability, whereas equitability cannot be stimulated and might even exacerbate the gap between socioeconomic classes. Before introducing GM crops to Ethiopian agriculture, regulatory issues should be addressed, public research should be fostered, and more ex ante values and socioeconomic studies should be included. PMID:21055835

Azadi, Hossein; Talsma, Nanda; Ho, Peter; Zarafshani, Kiumars

2010-11-04

331

African Homo erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia  

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Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex.

Clark, J.D.; White, T.D.; Selassie, Y.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Heinzelin, J. de (Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels (Belgium)); Schick, K.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Hart, W.K. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)); WoldeGabriel, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Walter, R.C. (Institute of Human Origins, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Suwa, G. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Asfaw, B. (Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

1994-06-24

332

The status of safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since 1993, the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) has been empowered by the 'Radiation Protection Proclamation no. 79/1993' to authorize and inspect regulated activities, issue guidelines and standards and enforce the legislation and regulations. The report describes the status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia and the progress made towards building a sound and effective national regulatory infrastructure. Also, the report highlights the challenges and difficulties encountered and concludes by indicating the way forward towards the strategic goals. (author)

2001-01-01

333

Energy in rural Ethiopia: consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of ''real'' energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed. (author)

Mulugetta, Y.

1999-07-01

334

Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon and Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the candidature of ten foreign companies for the introduction of natural gas in 1996 and the first enhanced recovery contract will relate to Rhourde El Baguel natural gas field (Algeria). New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Gabon, Ethiopia and Libya. Iraq has restarted its petroleum exports and Iranian production has diminished.

1993-01-01

335

Do women with higher autonomy seek more maternal health care? Evidence from Eritrea and Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using data from the 2002 Eritrea and 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study was carried out to investigate the link between women's autonomy and maternal health care utilization in relation to socioeconomic factors. Although some dimensions of women's autonomy are significantly linked to an increased likelihood of receiving health care, they do not emerge to be mediators of the link between socioeconomic factors and use of health services for antenatal care and delivery care. In order to derive a complete understanding of the determinants of maternal health care utilization, both women's autonomy and socioeconomic indicators should be analyzed.

Woldemicael G

2010-07-01

336

Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women's health.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years), in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5%) of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1%) reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9%) respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]). Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1%) respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003), illiteracy (P = 0.01), and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012). The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3%) were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM.Conclusion: In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it. Local healers were the main performers of FGM. Some of the women knew about the negative reproductive health effects of FGM and some had also experienced these themselves. However, only a few had tried to stop the practice and the majority had taken no steps to do so. This may be attributable to the fear of becoming alienated from the cultural system and fear of isolation.Keywords: female genital mutilation, reasons, health consequences, Ethiopia

Yirga WS; Kassa NA; Gebremichael MW; Aro AR

2012-01-01

337

Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri in North-West Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the dominant species accounting for roughly 60 and 40% of malaria cases, respectively. Recently a major shift from P. falciparum to P. vivax has been observed in various parts of the country but the epidemiology of the other human malaria species, Plasmodium ovale spp. and Plasmodium malariae remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess P. ovale curtisi and wallikeri infection in north-west Ethiopia by using microscopy and nested PCR. METHODS: A health institution-based survey using non-probability sampling techniques was conducted at Maksegnet, Enfranze and Kola Diba health centres and Metema hospital in North Gondar. Three-hundred patients with signs and symptoms consistent with malaria were included in this study and capillary blood was collected for microscopic examination and molecular analysis of Plasmodium species. Samples were collected on Whatman 903 filter papers, stored in small plastic bags with desiccant and transported to Vienna (Austria) for molecular analysis. Data from study participants were entered and analysed by SPSS 20 software. RESULTS: Out of 300 study participants (167 males and 133 females), 184 samples were classified positive for malaria (133 P. falciparum and 51 P. vivax) by microscopy. By species-specific PCR 233 Plasmodium spp (95% CI: 72.6-82) were detected and the majority 155 (66.5%, 95% CI: 60.2-72.3) were P. falciparum followed by P. vivax 69 (29.6%, 95% CI; 24.1-35.8) and 9 (3.9%, 95% CI: 2-7.2) samples were positive for P. ovale. Seven of P. ovale parasites were confirmed as P. ovale wallikeri and two were confirmed as P. ovale curtisi. None of the samples tested positive for P. malariae. During microscopic examination there were high (16.3%) false negative reports and all mixed infections and P. ovale cases were missed or misclassified. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that P. ovale malaria is under-reported in Ethiopia and provides the first known evidence of the sympatric distribution of indigenous P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi in Ethiopia. Therefore, further studies assessing the prevalence of the rare species P. ovale and P. malariae are urgently needed to better understand the species distribution and to adapt malaria control strategies.

Alemu A; Fuehrer HP; Getnet G; Tessema B; Noedl H

2013-09-01

338

Indigenous multiplication and production practices of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis in Chencha and Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia  

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Plectranthus edulis (syn. Coleus edulis) is a tuber-bearing labiate species cultivated in parts of southern Ethiopia. To learn about traditional cultural practices and their rationale, a survey was conducted among farmers from Chencha and Wolaita experienced in growing this crop. A pre-tested questi...

Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

339

Teachers' Career Ladder Policy in Ethiopia: An Opportunity for Professional Growth or ''a Stick Disguised as a Carrot?''  

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In response to the ever-declining status of the teaching profession, and its adverse effects on the country's educational system, the Federal Ministry of Education in Ethiopia introduced a policy of the teachers' career ladder in 1994. While reformers believe that the introduction of the policy has improved the condition of the teaching…

Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

2005-01-01

340

Prevalence and Susceptibility Assay of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms of Jimma Town, South West Ethiopia  

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Cross sectional experimental study was conducted to assess the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to commonly used antibacterial agents in Jimma town dairy farms, South West Ethiopia from January-July, 2010. Milk samples were collected...

Tariku Sori; Jemal Hussien; Molalegne Bitew

 
 
 
 
341

Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia  

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Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly,...

Amasa, Wayessa; Santiago, Dante; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

342

Situation Report--Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Laos, Liberia, Republic of Vietnam, Seychelles, Tahiti (French Polynesia).  

Science.gov (United States)

|Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dominical Republic, Ethiopia, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Laos, Liberia, Republic of Vietnam, Seychelles, and Tahiti (French Polynesia). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

343

Design of Sustainable Relief Housing in Ethiopia: An Implementation of Cradle to Cradle Design in Earthbag Construction  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Urbanization in Ethiopia resulted in urban poverty and homelessness. In this study, a sustainable relief housing prototype that aided in sheltering homeless citizens was designed. To avoid repeating errors in urban development such as unsustainable resource consumption, it was necessary to look beyond traditional construction materials and methods. Approach: This design applied cradle to cradle design model to the earthbag construction technique and developed a prototype for sustainable relief housing in Ethiopia. Results: Based on environmental and human health, all materials selected for construction were naturally occurring and could safely return to nature after use. Structural design maximized natural energy use and housing and interior design considered the local culture in Ethiopia. Conclusion: With locally available materials, inexpensive construction, maintenance and use, this design provided affordable shelter for the Ethiopian people. Material selection ensured the most effective use of material resources, no synthetic material and toxin deposition and the best indoor air quality for human health. Using earthbags rather than wood for the structure, this housing design helped prevent deforestation and the resulting desertification in Ethiopia.

Brooke Barnes; Huantian Cao; Theodore Drab; Jason Pearson

2009-01-01

344

Social costs and incentives for optimal control of soil nutrient depletion in the central highlands of Ethiopia  

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This study analysed trade-offs between short- and long-term objectives of soil use by smallholder teff farmers in Ethiopia. Compared to socially optimal solutions it was found that smallholder farmers discount the future at higher private rates leading to overexploitation of soil nutrients. Current ...

Yirga, Chillot; Hassan, Rashid M.

345

Effect of host genotypes and weather variables on the severity and temporal dynamics of sorghum anthracnose in Ethiopia  

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The severity and temporal dynamics of anthracnose on susceptible (BTx623 and AL70) and resistant lines (2001PWColl#022 and 2001HararghieColl#12) were studied in field plots during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in southern Ethiopia. The initial, final, and mean anthracnose severities and area un...

346

Food insecurity, school absenteeism and educational attainment of adolescents in Jimma zone Southwest Ethiopia : a longitudinal study  

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Food insecurity not only affects physical growth and health of children but also their intellectual development, school attendance and academic performance. However, most evidences are based on studies in high income countries. Although food insecurity is common in Ethiopia, to what exten...

Lema, Tefera Belachew; Hadley, Craig; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

347

Using panel data to estimate the effect of rainfall shocks on smallholders food security and vulnerability in rural Ethiopia  

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Ethiopia's agriculture is predominantly rainfed and hence any irregularity in weather conditions has adverse welfare implications. Using panel data, this paper analyzes the effect of rainfall shocks on Ethiopian rural households' food security and vulnerability over time while controlling for a rang...

Demeke, Abera Birhanu; Zeller, Manfred

348

Comparison between traditional and scientific irrigation scheduling practices for furrow irrigated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia  

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Traditional irrigation schemes constitute about 40% of the total irrigated land in Ethiopia. Despite this, the sector has been overlooked and not supported by improved water management technologies. A survey conducted on one of the schemes, Godino, indicated that farmers apply the same amount of wat...

Geremew, E.B.; Steyn, J.M. (Joachim Marthinus), 1963-; Annandale, J.G. (John George), 1959-; Steyn, Martin

349

Perceptions and practices related to home based and facility based birth. A qualitative study from Agemssa, Ethiopia  

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Introduction Despite the indications of sharp declines in maternal mortality rate the past few years, maternal mortality still remains unacceptably high, and many countries are not on track to achieve the aims of the millennium developments goal 5. Ethiopia has one of the highest numbers of maternal...

Øxnevad, Mette

350

Coffee Wilt Disease (Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas) in Forest Coffee Systems of Southwest and Southeast Ethiopia  

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Coffee diseases are presumed to be less important in the forest coffee as compared to the garden and plantation systems of coffee production in Ethiopia. In this article, the results of a study conducted on the occurrence and incidence of Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD) and the major factors influencing t...

Sihen Getachew; Girma Adugna; Fikre Lemessa; H. Hindorf

351

Active trachoma in children aged three to nine years in rural communities in Ethiopia: prevalence, indicators and risk factors.  

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Trachoma is the most important infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In two rural populations in Ethiopia, a programme of preventative and treatment measures was initiated in May 2002. A baseline survey was conducted to evaluate the effect of this programme on the prevalence of active trachoma. A...

Cumberland, P; Hailu, G; Todd, J

352

Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia  

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In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

2011-01-01

353

Contribution of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) for Food Security in North-Western Ethiopia: A Review  

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White lupin is a traditional crop mostly produced and consumed by smallholder farmers and is targeted for its grain and soil fertility maintenance values in Ethiopia. The objective of the present study was to review the biology, social and economic importance of white lupin and generate comprehen...

Zerihun Nigussie

354

Famine Early Warning System Vulnerability Assessment. Contains Report on Mauritania, Mali, Burkina, Niger, Chad, Sudan and Ethiopia, June 1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ongoing vulnerability to famine in the seven African countries monitored by A.I.D.'s Famine Early Warning System (FEWS)--Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad, Sudan, and Ethiopia--is assessed in the collection of recent FEWS reports. For each c...

1991-01-01

355

English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

356

A description of four new species of fleas (Insecta, Siphonaptera) from Angola, Ethiopia, Papua New Guinea, and Peru  

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Four new species of fleas are described: Aphropsylla truncata sp. n. (Ethiopia), Ectinorus hirsutus sp. n. (Peru), Rhinolophopsylla traubi sp. n. (Angola), and Thaumapsylla wilsoni sp. n. (Papua New Guinea). Our understanding of the genus Aphropsylla is deficient, therefore a discussion of host/para...

Michael Hastriter

357

Ethnomedical survey of Berta ethnic group Assosa Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, mid-west Ethiopia  

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Abstract Traditional medicine (TM) has been a major source of health care in Ethiopia as in most developing countries around the world. This survey examined the extent and factors determining the use of TM and medicinal plants by Berta community. One thousand and two hundred households (HH...

Flatie Teferi; Gedif Teferi; Asres Kaleab; Gebre-Mariam Tsige

358

Ethnomedical survey of Berta ethnic group Assosa Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, mid-west Ethiopia  

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Traditional medicine (TM) has been a major source of health care in Ethiopia as in most developing countries around the world. This survey examined the extent and factors determining the use of TM and medicinal plants by Berta community. One thousand and two hundred households (HHs) and fourteen tra...

Flatie, Teferi; Gedif, Teferi; Asres, Kaleab; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

359

Bovine tuberculosis at a cattle-small ruminant-human interface in Meskan, Gurage region, Central Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district) in cattle, small ruminants and suspected TB-lymphadenitis (TBLN) human patients. METHODS: The comparative intradermal test (CIDT) was carried out for all animals involved in the cross-sectional study and results interpreted using a > 4 mm and a > 2 mm cut-off. One PPD positive goat was slaughtered and lymph nodes subjected to culture and molecular typing. In the same villages, people with lymphadenitis were subjected to clinical examination. Fine needle aspirates (FNA) were taken from suspected TBLN and analyzed by smear microscopy and molecular typing. RESULTS: A total of 1214 cattle and 406 small ruminants were tested for BTB. In cattle, overall individual prevalence (> 2 mm cut-off) was 6.8% (CI: 5.4-8.5%) with 100% herd prevalence. Only three small ruminants (2 sheep and 1 goat) were reactors. The overall individual prevalence in small ruminants (> 2 mm cut-off) was 0.4% (CI: 0.03-5.1%) with 25% herd prevalence. Cattle from owners with PPD positive small ruminants were all PPD negative. 83% of the owners kept their sheep and goats inside their house at night and 5% drank regularly goat milk.FNAs were taken from 33 TBLN suspected cases out of a total of 127 screened individuals with lymph node swellings. Based on cytology results, 12 were confirmed TBLN cases. Nine out of 33 cultures were AFB positive. Culture positive samples were subjected to molecular typing and they all yielded M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis was also isolated from the goat that was slaughtered. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted a low BTB prevalence in sheep and goats despite intensive contact with cattle reactors. TBLN in humans was caused entirely by M. tuberculosis, the human pathogen. M. tuberculosis seems to circulate also in livestock but their role at the interface is unknown.

Tschopp R; Bobosha K; Aseffa A; Schelling E; Habtamu M; Iwnetu R; Hailu E; Firdessa R; Hussein J; Young D; Zinsstag J

2011-01-01

360

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus  

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This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

Mehari, A.

1997-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

A. Mehari

1997-01-01

362

Geographical variation and factors influencing modern contraceptive use among married women in Ethiopia: evidence from a national population based survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Modern contraceptive use persists to be low in most African countries where fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. Though there is an evidence of increased overall contraceptive prevalence, a substantial effort remains behind in Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with modern contraceptive use and to examine its geographical variations among 15--49 married women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted secondary analysis of 10,204 reproductive age women included in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The survey sample was designed to provide national, urban/rural, and regional representative estimates for key health and demographic indicators. The sample was selected using a two-stage stratified sampling process. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to determine the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and associated factors in Ethiopia. RESULTS: Being wealthy, more educated, being employed, higher number of living children, being in a monogamous relationship, attending community conversation, being visited by health worker at home strongly predicted use of modern contraption. While living in rural areas, older age, being in polygamous relationship, and witnessing one's own child's death were found negatively influence modern contractive use. The spatial analysis of contraceptive use revealed that the central and southwestern parts of the country had higher prevalence of modern contraceptive use than that of the eastern and western parts. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate significant socio-economic, urban--rural and regional variation in modern contraceptive use among reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Strengthening community conversation programs and female education should be given top priority.

Lakew Y; Reda AA; Tamene H; Benedict S; Deribe K

2013-09-01

363

HIV prevalence and incidence among women at higher risk of infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to estimate HIV incidence among women at higher HIV risk in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using cross-sectional data. To refine the estimate, we sought to determine a local correction factor by estimating a false recent rate for the BED assay. The overall study had two parallel phases: cross-sectional incidence and BED false recent (BED FR). A total of 1856 women at higher HIV risk were enrolled into the cross-sectional phase. For the BED FR, 500 women and 70 men with known HIV infection of greater than 12 months were enrolled. Rapid HIV tests were used to assess participant HIV status. Samples from women with positive results on HIV rapid testing were then analyzed using the BED assay to determine incident HIV infections. The overall HIV prevalence was 11.3%, with women greater than 25 years old having a higher prevalence (26.5% vs. 7.9% for younger women). The overall unadjusted HIV incidence was 3.3%. The estimated HIV incidence was 2.6% when adjusted using the locally derived false recent rate of 3.5%. Similar incidence rates were found between the younger and older age groups. This is one of the first field-based studies of HIV incidence in Ethiopia; it demonstrates that there is sufficient incidence to warrant further HIV prevention efforts among women at higher risk of HIV infection.

Combes SL; G-Yohannes A; Kidane A; Chen PL; Aseffa A; Feldblum PJ; Shattuck D

2013-03-01

364

GGE-Biplot Analysis of Grain Yield of Faba Bean Genotypes in Southern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A Genotype x Environment (GxE) interaction study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 using 16 faba bean genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s). A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1). Genotypic difference was found to be significant (P < 0.05) and (P < 0.001) for each environment and across environments, respectively. Location main effect was also highly significant (P < 0.001), but year main effect was not significant. Genotype x Locations (GL) and Location x Years (LY) were significant. Genotypes G3 and G8 were specifically adapted to Hossana and Waka while G11 was specifically adapted to Angacha and Bule. G5 was the most stable genotype with wider adaptation to all the test environments and can be recommended for wider production in similar high land environments of the Southern Region of Ethiopia.

Fekadu Gurmu, Ersulo Lire, Asrat Asfaw, Fitsum Alemayehu, Yeyis Rezene, Daniel Ambachew

2012-01-01

365

Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a pastoralist population in Ethiopia: are three sputum specimens needed?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the number of sputum specimens necessary for a reliable diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a pastoralist population in Ethiopia. METHOD: Using routine data from Ethiopia, where three sputum specimens are currently recommended for the diagnosis of PTB, we documented, (i) the proportion of persons with suspected, PTB who submitted a first, second and third sputum specimen for smear examination and (ii) the incremental smear-positive yield from the first, to the second and third specimens. RESULTS: Of 505 persons with suspected PTB, 107 (22%) failed to submit three samples. Of 60 patients who submitted three sputum samples with at least one smear-positive sample, the first sputum sample was smear positive in 56 (93%) cases; the second sputum sample was the first to be positive in 3 (5%) cases and in only one case was the third sample the first to be smear positive (additional yield 2%). CONCLUSION: In a pastoralist setting, a reliable diagnosis of PTB can be achieved with two sputum specimens and PTB diagnosis may be adequate with just one sputum specimen. However, if this more radical approach was adopted, ways of increasing diagnostic sensitivity should be explored.

Khogali M; Tayler-Smith K; Zachariah R; Gbane M; Zimble S; Weyeyso T; Harries AD

2013-05-01

366

Medication prescribing errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies indicated that prescribing errors in the intensive care unit (ICU) are frequent and lead to patient morbidity and mortality, increased length of stay, and substantial extra costs. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU has not previously been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital from February 7 to April 15, 2011. All medication-prescribing interventions by physicians during the study period were included in the study. Data regarding prescribing interventions were collected from patient cards and medication charts. Prescribing errors were determined by comparing prescribed drugs with standard treatment guidelines, textbooks, handbooks, and software. Descriptive statistics were generated to meet the study objective. RESULTS: The prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was 209/398 (52.5%). Common prescribing errors were using the wrong combinations of drugs (25.7%), wrong frequency (15.5%), and wrong dose (15.1%). Errors associated with antibiotics represented a major part of the medication prescribing errors (32.5%). CONCLUSION: Medication errors at the prescribing phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Health care providers need to establish a system which can support the prescribing physicians to ensure appropriate medication prescribing practices.

Agalu A; Ayele Y; Bedada W; Woldie M

2011-01-01

367

Stomatal Characteristics in Arabica Coffee Germplasm Accessions under Contrasting Environments at Jimma, Southwestern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the only known centres of origin and genetic diversity for Coffea arabica. However, the remnant coffee forest environments with the spontaneously grown wild coffee populations are under continuous threat of genetic erosion, largely due to anthropogenic activities. The study was conducted with the objective to investigate stomatal characteristics in Arabica coffee accessions under contrasting shade regimes at Jimma (7°46? N and 36°0? E, 1750 m), southwestern Ethiopia. For this, two shade levels (full sunlight and moderate shading) and twelve-coffee germplasm accessions were arranged as main and sub-plot treatments in a split-plot design with three replicates. The results depicted that stomata were sparsely distributed and had elliptical guard cells with pores randomly oriented pattern in Arabica coffee leaf. Maximum and minimum average stomatal densities were determined in full sunlight and moderate shade conditions, respectively. In addition, the stomatal area index was significantly higher in sun-exposed than in shaded leaves. The lowest and highest values were determined for the Harenna and Yayu accessions, respectively. The interaction between season and radiation was significant (pBonga>Berhane-Kontir>Yayu coffee genotypes. The results would demonstrate that coffee accessions in drier Harenna areas may be more productive under higher radiation when soil moisture is sufficient. This underlines the need to consider stomata traits in identifying and developing suitable coffee cultivars against the changing environments.

Taye Kufa; Jurgen Burkhardt

2011-01-01

368

Household food insecurity and symptoms of neurologic disorder in Ethiopia: An observational analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity (FI) has been shown to be associated with poor health both in developing and developed countries. Little is known about the relation between FI and neurological disorder. We assessed the relation between FI and risk for neurologic symptoms in southwest Ethiopia. Methods Data about food security, gender, age, household assets, and self-reported neurologic symptoms were collected from a representative, community-based sample of adults (N = 900) in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. We calculated univariate statistics and used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between FI and risk of neurologic symptoms including seizures, extremity weakness, extremity numbness, tremors/ataxia, aphasia, carpal tunnel syndrome, vision dysfunction, and spinal pain. Results In separate multivariate models by outcome and gender, adjusting for age and household socioeconomic status, severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, movement abnormalities, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, spinal pain, and comorbid disorders among women. Severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, extremity numbness, movement abnormalities, difficulty speaking, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, and comorbid disorders among men. Conclusion We found that FI was associated with symptoms of neurologic disorder. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, the directionality of these associations is unclear. Future research should assess causal mechanisms relating FI to neurologic symptoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

El-Sayed Abdulrahman M; Hadley Craig; Tessema Fasil; Tegegn Ayelew; Cowan John A; Galea Sandro

2010-01-01

369

Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens in the Southern and Rift Valley Districts in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A sero-prevalence study of Newcastle disease in village chickens in Ethiopia was conducted on non-vaccinated chickens raised under traditional backyard management system. The study covered dry and wet districts in the Rift Valley and Southern regions, respectively. Higher sero-prevalence rates of Newcastle disease (NCD) virus antibodies were verified in all the dry areas of the Rift Valley and in part of the wet Southern districts. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HAI) Test was used to analyze 283 chicken sera for NCD virus antibodies and the overall sero-positive rate was found to be 19.78%, (n=283). 22.51 % ( n=191) sero positive chicken were found in the dry areas while 14.13 % (n=92) were positive in the wet areas. Comparison was made on the sero prevalence of dry and wet areas as well as between sexes. Chickens from all dry areas showed various titter of NCD antibody but sera collected from the high mountain wet areas were negative. The differences in the sero prevalence, however, were not statistically significant between the sexes and the agro climatic areas. In this study NCD virus circulation was evidenced in village chickens reared in various parts of Ethiopia.

Aschalew Zeleke; Teshale Sori; Esayas Gelaye; Gelegay Ayelet

2005-01-01

370

Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. RESULTS: Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of 'special' aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma) require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.

Tora A; Davey G; Tadele G

2012-01-01

371

Strain diversity of mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients at Debre Birhan Hospital, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia ranks seventh in the list of 22 high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, with an incidence rate of 379 cases per 100,000 population for TB all forms. However, information on the genomic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular characteristics of M. tuberculosis strains implicated in pulmonary TB in the study area. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using socio-demographic, clinical and culture data combined with molecular typing analysis. The proportion of TB and M. tuberculosis isolates was not associated with risk factors (P > 0.05). Of 99 sputum samples, 80.8% were culture-positive. Speciation of isolates showed that 88.8% were M. tuberculosis. Further characterisation led to the identification of 27 different spoligotype patterns of M. tuberculosis; the most dominant shared types were SIT149, SIT53 and SIT54. Of the 27 strains, three strains were new and were reported to the SITVIT database. More than two thirds of the strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage. CONCLUSION: This study shows the presence of several clusters and new strains of M. tuberculosis circulating in pulmonary TB patients in the study area, suggesting recent transmission. Nationwide studies are recommended to map the population structure of M. tuberculosis and set control measures.

Garedew L; Mihret A; Mamo G; Abebe T; Firdessa R; Bekele Y; Ameni G

2013-08-01

372

Meeting the need for safe abortion care in Ethiopia: results of a national assessment in 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Complications of an unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths and morbidity in Africa. When abortions are performed in safe environments, such complications are almost all preventable. This paper reports results from a nationally representative health facility study conducted in Ethiopia in 2008. The safe abortion care (SAC) model, a monitoring approach to assess the amount, distribution, use and quality of abortion services, provided a framework. Data collection included key informant interviews with 335 health care providers, prospective data on 8911 women seeking treatment for abortion complications or induced abortion and review of facility logbooks. Although the existing hospitals perform most basic abortion care functions, the number of facilities providing basic and comprehensive abortion care for the population size fell far short of the recommended levels. Almost one-half (48%) of women treated for obstetric complications in the facilities had abortion complications. The use of appropriate abortion technologies in the first trimester and the provision of post-abortion contraception overall were reasonably strong, especially in private sector facilities. Following abortion law reform in 2005 and subsequent service expansion and improvements, Ethiopia remains committed to reducing complications from an unsafe abortion. This study provides the first national snapshot to measure changes in a dynamic abortion care environment.

Abdella A; Fetters T; Benson J; Pearson E; Gebrehiwot Y; Andersen K; Gebreselassie H; Tesfaye S

2013-01-01

373

Post abortion care quality status in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion in the developing world accounts for 13% of all maternal deaths. Ethiopia is one of the developing countries with the highest maternal mortality ratio (673 per 100,000 live births) in the world. Unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess post abortion care quality status in health facilities of Guraghe zone. METHODS: A facility based cross-sectional study design with both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted. Patient interview, direct service observation, provider self administered questionnaire and inventory of equipment and supplies were used for the assessment. Six health centers, two hospitals and 422 post-abortion patients were included in the study. RESULTS: Patient-provider interaction was generally satisfactory from the patient's perspective. The majority of the respondents (93.5%) said that they were treated with politeness and respect. More than half 226(56.5%) of the clients have received post abortion family planning. Overall, 83.5% of the patients were satisfied with the services. Those who said waiting time was long were less satisfied and unemployed women were more satisfied than others. CONCLUSION: The study has revealed several improvements as well as problems in the provision of post-abortion care service in the studied health facilities.

Tesfaye G; Oljira L

2013-01-01

374

Rural electrification in developing countries. Social acceptance of small photovoltaic lanterns in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to combat poverty and fight for the Millennium Development Goals through providing access to modern energy, it is necessary to analyze social acceptance of new forms of energy in order to implement them successfully. Nine different Pico Photovoltaic systems were tested during a field study in a non-electrified village in Ethiopia. Each lamp was tested for a week by one of 24 families. Quantitative methods (interviews, focus groups, participant observation) were conducted in order to explore technology change and its social impacts. With these methods, an alternating change of induction and deduction is achieved to gain insight. The most important results are: Apart from expected benefits in health, work, education and economy, people also noticed improvements in the autonomy of children, flexibility, stress, security and family life. Negative aspects were found regarding inter-social relations and in the absence of possible activities. Quality of lamps is defined by respondents according to brightness, duration and cone of light. Furthermore, people prefer white, bright light as well as a built-in switch. Systems considered best in European laboratory tests were evaluated poorly in Ethiopia. In the end, people ordered 30 systems. The decision to buy was a collective one. Even though energy supply is the responsibility of women, men made the final deicision about the purchase of the lamps. (orig.)

Mueggenburg, Hannah; Schweizer-Ries, Petra [Saarbruecken Univ. (DE). Forschungsgruppe Umweltpsychologie (FG-UPSY); Raabe, Tim [Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), Eschborn (Germany); Tillmans, Annika

2011-07-01

375

Medicinal use and social status of the soap berry endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Berries from Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit. (endod in Amharic) offer a readily available molluscicide to control schistosomiasis. Parts of the endod plant have been used as a detergent and as traditional medicine for centuries in Ethiopia. An interview survey was performed in the highlands of Ethiopia to provide information on the distribution of the plant, people's traditional use of it, their perception of the plant, and the potential for increased production and use of endod as a soap for indirect control of schistosomiasis. People of all ages report that they are familiar with the plant and its detergent and medicinal uses. The plant is largely disappearing from unprotected areas due to land clearing. Younger people appear to use endod as a soap whenever it is available. Older women prefer commercial soap and consider endod to be associated with poor people. Common medicinal uses include treatment of skin itching (ringworm), abortion, gonorrhea, leeches, intestinal worms, anthrax and rabies. Two thirds of the people express interest in cultivating endod for personal use if supplied with rooted cuttings. Increased cultivation of endod and use of berries for washing might be possible if information about schistosomiasis and its control is disseminated among people. Preference for commercial soap and lack of land for cultivation are major obstacles for increasing the availability and use of endod.

Esser KB; Semagn K; Wolde-Yohannes L

2003-04-01

376

Medicinal use and social status of the soap berry endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Berries from Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit. (endod in Amharic) offer a readily available molluscicide to control schistosomiasis. Parts of the endod plant have been used as a detergent and as traditional medicine for centuries in Ethiopia. An interview survey was performed in the highlands of Ethiopia to provide information on the distribution of the plant, people's traditional use of it, their perception of the plant, and the potential for increased production and use of endod as a soap for indirect control of schistosomiasis. People of all ages report that they are familiar with the plant and its detergent and medicinal uses. The plant is largely disappearing from unprotected areas due to land clearing. Younger people appear to use endod as a soap whenever it is available. Older women prefer commercial soap and consider endod to be associated with poor people. Common medicinal uses include treatment of skin itching (ringworm), abortion, gonorrhea, leeches, intestinal worms, anthrax and rabies. Two thirds of the people express interest in cultivating endod for personal use if supplied with rooted cuttings. Increased cultivation of endod and use of berries for washing might be possible if information about schistosomiasis and its control is disseminated among people. Preference for commercial soap and lack of land for cultivation are major obstacles for increasing the availability and use of endod. PMID:12639751

Esser, Kjell B; Semagn, Kassa; Wolde-Yohannes, Legesse

2003-04-01

377

First- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Northwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SETTING: Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Centre, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of and risk factors for first- and second-line drug resistance among tuberculosis (TB) patients. DESIGN: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against first-line drugs, including isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), streptomycin (SM), ethambutol (EMB) and pyrazinamide (PZA), was performed using the BacT/ALERT 3D system. DST against second-line drugs, including fluoroquinolones and aminoglycocides/cyclic peptides, was performed using GenoType MTBDRsl. RESULTS: Of 260 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, 41 (15.8%) were resistant to at least one first-line drug, 13 (5.0%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 9 (3.5%) were resistant to all first-line drugs. Any resistance to INH, RMP, SM, EMB and PZA was respectively 36 (13.8%), 15 (5.8%), 26 (10.0%), 19 (7.3%) and 12 (4.6%). Of 214 new and 46 previously treated cases, respectively 8 (3.7%) and 5 (10.9%) were MDR. All isolates were susceptible to all second-line drugs. CONCLUSION: A substantial number of new and previously treated cases harbour MDR-TB. We recommend DST at least for previously treated cases, patients who remain smear-positive at the end of the second month of treatment and patients in close contact with MDR-TB cases. Improved infection control measures need to be implemented in Ethiopia.

Tessema B; Beer J; Emmrich F; Sack U; Rodloff AC

2012-06-01

378

Agroforestry Practices and Biodiversity Management in Backyards in Hiwane, Hintalo Wejerat of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In Ethiopia more than 85% of the population is involved in agriculture based profession. Farmers in Ethiopia have been practicing different agroforestry models since time immemorial. What is more, backyard (home garden) agroforestry practice is most popular in the northern part of the country. This backyard agroforestry (home garden) is practiced as a mixture of crops (vegetables, herbs) and trees (fruits and fodder trees) to provide diversified products to the cultivators. This study found over 40 species of plants maintained in home garden of the study area. Furthermore, agroforestry practice in backyard has a crucial role in the improvement of livelihoods to small scale farmers in the study area through direct subsistence production, indirect subsistence production (such as foods, fuel wood, fodder and shade to the cultivators) and income generation. Furthermore, it has helped to conserve many species of plants in a small areas with providing diversify needs to the farmers. We found that trees to have multiple roles in the study area where they provide significant economic and ecological benefits. Planting trees provide rural households with wood products for own consumption as well for sale and play role in decreasing soil degradation. Our findings also suggest that households consider a number of attributes in making decision to backyard agroforestry practice. These results can be used by policy makers to promote home garden agroforestry practice in the study area by creating conducive water supply and considering households’ backyard size and roofing system.

Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie; Mekonen T.G/hiwot; Gebru E. Gebremichael; Solomon A. Hiluf

2012-01-01

379

Tree Regeneration in Church Forests of Ethiopia: Effects of Microsites and Management  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tree regeneration is severely hampered in the fragmented afromontane forests of northern Ethiopia. We explored how trees regenerate in remnant forests along the gradient from open field, forest edge to closed sites and canopy gaps inside the forest. We investigated the effects of seed sowing, litter removal, and weeding on the regeneration success along this gradient. Regeneration success was investigated for four indigenous tree species, and measured in terms of seedling establishment, growth, and survival. Species performed differently according to site conditions. Within the forest, local canopy openings facilitated seed germination (Ekebergia), seedling growth (all species except Olea), or survival (Ekebergia and Olea), suggesting that all species benefited from local high light conditions in the forest. Outside the forest, germination (all species) and growth rates (Juniperus and Olea) were lower in the open field, most probably due to water stress in the dry season. Outer edge conditions favored growth for three of the four species. Natural seed germination was, however, zero at any site for Juniperus and Olea and low for Ekebergia and Prunus in the open field. Soil scarification influenced germination positively, while weeding did not have a positive effect. These results suggest that simple measures may improve seedling establishment, and that, for some species, forest edges are particularly useful for growth and survival after succesful establishment. Together with erecting fences, needed to protect seedlings against grazing, seed sowing, planting seedling, and soil scarification may contribute to maintain and restore church forests in the fragmented landscapes of northern Ethiopia.

Wassie Alemayehu; Sterck FrankJ; Teketay Demel; Bongers Frans

2009-01-01

380

Good quality sleep is associated with better academic performance among university students in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study assessed the association of sleep quality with academic performance among university students in Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 2,173 college students (471 female and 1,672 male) was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Students were selected into the study using a multistage sampling procedure, and data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and academic performance was based on self-reported cumulative grade point average. The Student's "t" test, analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression were used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: We found that students with better sleep quality score achieved better on their academic performance (P value?=?0.001), while sleep duration was not associated with academic performance in the final model. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the importance of sleep quality on better academic performance. Future studies need to identify the possible factors which influence sleep quality other than the academic environment repeatedly reported by other literature. It is imperative to design and implement appropriate interventions to improve sleep quality in light of the current body of evidence to enhance academic success in the study setting.

Lemma S; Berhane Y; Worku A; Gelaye B; Williams MA

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
381

Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n?=?577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n?=?290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n?=?287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n?=?85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species.

Kumsa B; Signorini M; Teshale S; Tessarin C; Duguma R; Ayana D; Martini M; Cassini R

2013-07-01

382

Determinants of delayed initiation of breastfeeding in rural Ethiopia: programmatic implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have examined the possible adverse impact of services offered by health workers and community members on postpartum infant feeding practices. The present analysis utilized extant data collected previously through the baseline surveys of two related child health and nutrition projects implemented in rural Ethiopia and explored key risk factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding for more than 1 hour after birth. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the most important determinants of delayed initiation of breastfeeding. METHODS: Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze data from baseline cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2003 and 2004 in selected districts across three regions in Ethiopia. RESULTS: Attendance at delivery by a health worker was found to be an important risk factor for the delayed initiation of breastfeeding, whereas attendance by traditional birth attendants or family and/or friends represented a protective factor for early initiation of breastfeeding. Additional analysis suggests that targeting of behavior change interventions on optimal infant feeding to these health workers could reverse the risk relationship and lead to improvements in the rate of early initiation of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of inadequate breastfeeding information in the health system and attendance at delivery by health workers are associated with a delay in the initiation of breastfeeding. Births attended by trained traditional birth attendants and family members are associated with better practices. Targeting health workers, community members, families, and women to promote optimal infant feeding practices is likely to hold much potential to increase the adoption of early initiation of breastfeeding.

Horii N; Guyon AB; Quinn VJ

2011-06-01

383

Life with anotner cornea: impact of corneal transplantation and eye banking in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Although clinical success of corneal transplantation is encouraging, its impact on the lives of beneficiaries is overlooked. We tried to understand how visually impaired people perceive the effect of a recently introduced corneal transplantation and eye banking service. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted among 20 patients with corneal visual impairment. All had transplantation surgery at Minilik II Hospital, mostly with corneas harvested and processed by Eye Bank of Ethiopia. The qualitative data focused on their experiences regarding changes in quality of life, visual outcome, and attitude toward corneal donation. Data were analyzed using the thematic framework approach. RESULTS: Before the transplantation, patients suffered from disability and low self-esteem but remained hopeful. After the transplantation, they felt satisfied with whatever visual gain they got and described the process as 'a miracle'. They believed their life had somewhat changed for the better as they became independent and capable again. They also felt extremely grateful to donors and became advocates for corneal donation. CONCLUSION: The availability of a corneal harvesting and transplantation service is making positive impacts on the lives of visually impaired individuals in Ethiopia. However, the extent of this service should be widened to have a significant effect on the magnitude of corneal blindness across the country.

Roba AA; Tilahun Y; Bekele S

2013-01-01

384

Initial community perspectives on the Health Service Extension Programme in Welkait, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Service Extension Programme (HSEP) is an innovative approach to addressing the shortfall in health human resources in Ethiopia. It has developed a new cadre of Health Extension Workers (HEWs), who are charged with providing the health and hygiene promotion and some treatment services, which together constitute the bedrock of Ethiopia's community health system. Methods This study seeks to explore the experience of the HSEP from the perspective of the community who received the service. A random sample of 60 female heads-of-household in a remote area of Tigray participated in a structured interview survey. Results Although Health Extension Workers (HEWs) had visited them less frequently than planned, participants generally found the programme to be helpful. Despite this, their basic health knowledge was still quite poor regarding the major communicable diseases and their vectors. Participants felt the new HESP represented an improvement on previous health provision. HEWs were preferred over Traditional Birth Attendants for assistance with labour Conclusion While the introduction of HEWs has been a positive experience for women living at the study site, the frequency of visits, extent of effectively imparted health knowledge and affects of HEWs on other health providers needs to be further explored.

Negusse Haile; McAuliffe Eilish; MacLachlan Malcolm

2007-01-01

385

Rural household biomass fuel production and consumption in Ethiopia: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 90 percent of energy consumption in Ethiopia comes from biomass fuels and this pattern is a major cause of land degradation and deforestation in the country. This paper examines biomass fuel collection and consumption behaviour of a sample of rural households in Ethiopia. We use a non-separable agricultural household model to take into account imperfections in, or absence of, markets for fuel and labour used in collection. The method of instrumental variables (2SLS) is used in the estimation of demand functions to take care of endogeneity of virtual (shadow) fuel prices and wages. Negative own-price elasticities indicate advantages of forest policies that can reduce fuel collection time and make more time available for other activities. The results also suggest that fuel choice and mix are influenced by scarcity which indicate a possibility of policy interventions directed at reducing the relative price of wood and encouraging increased dung use as fertilizer and hence reduced land degradation. While income elasticities of demand give indications of increasing viability of such interventions with growth, the absence of evidence of substitutability and the effects of household resource endowment indicate the importance of cooking habits and culture 36 refs, 3 tabs

Mekonnen, A. [Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia). Dept. of Economics and Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

1999-04-01

386

Hydrological Response of Semi-arid Degraded Catchments in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

To address water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid part of developing countries, accurate estimation of surface runoff is an essential task. In semi-arid catchments runoff data are scarce and therefore runoff estimation using hydrological models becomes an alternative. This research was initiated in order to characterize runoff response of semi-arid catchments in Tigray, North Ethiopia to evaluate SCS-CN for various catchments. Ten sub-catchments were selected in different river basins and rainfall and runoff were measured with automatic hydro-monitoring equipments for 2-3 years. The Curve Number was estimated for each Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) in the sub-catchments and runoff was modeled using the SCS-CN method at ? = 0.05 and ? = 0.20. The result showed a significant difference between the two abstraction ratios (P =0.05, df = 1, n= 132) and reasonable good result was obtained for predicted runoff at ? = 0.05 (NSE = -0.69; PBIAS = 18.1%). When using the CN values from literature runoff was overestimated compared to the measured value (e= -11.53). This research showed the importance of using measured runoff data to characterize semi-arid catchments and accurately estimate the scarce water resource. Key words: Hydrological response, rainfall-runoff, degraded environments, semi-arid, Ethiopia, Tigray

Teka, Daniel; Van Wesemael, Bas; Vanacker, Veerle; Hallet, Vincent

2013-04-01

387

Acute kidney injury risk factor recognition in three teaching hospitals in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A key objective of the Nephrology Sister Centre Programme between the renal units in Cardiff and Addis Ababa, sponsored by the International Society of Nephrology, is to facilitate development of the local clinical service in Ethiopia specifically focused on the management of acute kidney injury (AKI). OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between AKI risk factor recognition and monitoring of renal function in three hospitals in Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were gathered regarding renal function monitoring, recording the presence of AKI risk-associated comorbidities and prescription of nephrotoxic medications across the disciplines of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology. Results. Patients were more likely to have their renal function checked at the hospital with specialist services. Across all centres, the highest proportion of patients who had renal function measurements were those admitted to a medical ward. There was a positive relationship between documented comorbidities and the measurement of renal function but not between the prescription of nephrotoxic drugs and measurement of renal function. CONCLUSION: There was great variability in the extent to which doctors recognised the presence of risk factors for the development of AKI. Failure to identify these risk factors represents a lost opportunity to identify patients at high risk of developing renal injury who would benefit from renal function monitoring.

Phillips LA; Allen N; Phillips B; Abera A; Diro E; Riley S; Tadesse Y; Williams J; Phillips AO

2013-06-01

388

National implementation and regional cooperation from the perspective of Ethiopia: points for discussion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)

2002-01-01

389

Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

Cheung, W. H.; Senay, G. B.; Singh, A.

2008-01-01

390

DSS and DHS: longitudinal and cross-sectional viewpoints on child and adolescent mortality in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In countries where routine vital registration data are scarce, Demographic Surveillance Sites (DSS: locally defined populations under longitudinal surveillance for vital events and other characteristics) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS: periodic national cluster samples responding to cross-sectional surveys) have become standard approaches for gathering at least some data. This paper aims to compare DSS and DHS approaches, seeing how they complement each other in the specific instance of child and adolescent mortality in Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Butajira DSS 1987–2004 and the Ethiopia DHS rounds for 2000 and 2005 formed the basis of comparative analyses of mortality rates among those aged under 20 years, using Poisson regression models for adjusted rate ratios. Results Patterns of mortality over time were broadly comparable using DSS and DHS approaches. DSS data were more susceptible to local epidemic variations, while DHS data tended to smooth out local variation, and be more subject to recall bias. Conclusion Both DSS and DHS approaches to mortality surveillance gave similar overall results, but both showed method-dependent advantages and disadvantages. In many settings, this kind of joint-source data analysis could offer significant added value to results.

Byass Peter; Worku Alemayehu; Emmelin Anders; Berhane Yemane

2007-01-01

391

Leadership in strategic information (LSI) building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI) course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examined the impact of the training on trainees' skills and the strengths and weaknesses of the course. The evaluation consisted of surveys and focus groups. Findings Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E). Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia. Conclusion The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings.

Rolle Italia V; Zaidi Irum; Scharff Jennifer; Jones Donna; Firew Aynalem; Enquselassie Fikre; Negash Ashenafi; Deyessa Negussie; Mitike Getnet; Sunderland Nadine; Nsubuga Peter

2011-01-01

392

The first isolation and molecular characterization of camelpox virus in Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 in Chifra district of Afar and in Jigjiga Zone of Somali Regional States of Ethiopia with the aims of assessing the epidemiology of camelpox and isolate and molecularly characterize the virus. The study included a questionnaire, active disease search and virus isolation and sequencing. A total of 24 (4.50%) and 12 (3.0%) camels in Afar and Jigjiga respectively were found clinically sick of camelpox during the study period. The questionnaire survey indicated that camelpox is the most common disease in the areas in which 125 (96%) of the respondents reported the frequent occurrence of camelpox in their herds especially during rainy season. The PCR result revealed 12 out of 17 tested samples were positive, of which seven of them collected from Jigjiga zone showed the characteristic PCR positive bands of 881 bp size fragments while five of the Afar samples gave two faint bands. Ethiopian isolates, specially isolated from Somali have very high identity with comparable sequences of CMLV M-96 from Kazakhstan and CMLV CMS from Iran. Out of the total of 780 bp analogous sequences, Ethiopian isolates differ only in two positions, while CMLV-Teheran differed at four nucleotide positions. The successfull isolation and molecular characterization of camelpox virus in Ethiopia, which could help for early diagnosis and control of the disease in the country.

Ayelet G; Jenberie S; Belay A; Mohammed A; Mola B; Gizaw Y; Muhie Y; Gelaye E; Asmare K; Skjerve E

2013-06-01

393

The effect of iodine-deficiency disorders on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Southern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the effect of iodine deficiency on academic achievement of schoolchildren in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. DESIGN: School-based comparative cross-sectional study. Settings Primary school in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia. SUBJECTS: A sample population of 270 children with goitre and 264 without goitre. All students in each class were examined for the presence of goitre and classified based on WHO recommendations. RESULTS: Among children with goitre, a higher proportion (54·8 %) was female and the proportion increased with age. The odds of scoring low on school performance was higher among children whose fathers were illiterate (adjusted OR = 1·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 3·5) and those who were absent for more than 5 d in the last academic year (adjusted OR = 1·5; 95 % CI 1·1, 2·3). Goitre was significantly associated with low academic achievement (adjusted OR = 1·8; 95 % CI 1·2, 2·5). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the pr