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Sample records for woreda snnpr ethiopia

  1. Perceptions of Parents Towards the Academic Performance of Female Students: The Case of Kutto Sorfella Primary School, Sodo Zuria Woreda, Southern Ethiopia

    Regasa, Guta; Taha, Mukerem

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the current status of the academic performance of females in grade seven and eight and to study how perception of parents affect the academic performance of female students in Kutto Sorfella Primary School, Sodo Zuria Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. To achieve the objectives of this research both qualitative and

  2. The Role of Cooperative Agency in Promoting Agricultural Cooperatives in a Country (A Case Of In Gog Woreda, Southern Gambella, Ethiopia)

    Dorgi, Ochan

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted in Gog woreda, southern Gambella, Ethiopia with the objectives to assess the roles of regional cooperative promotion agency in promoting the sustainability of agricultural cooperatives and to examine the challenges of members participation in agricultural cooperatives. To address the objectives of the study, both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used through primary and secondary data source. The primary data were collected through face to face interview...

  3. Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia

    Fikre Addis Alem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. Methods A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10–30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P  Conclusion Institutional Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of the ANC services need to be investigated.

  4. Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas) of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Mathewos Agize; Sebsebe Demissew; Zemede Asfaw

    2013-01-01

    The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 med...

  5. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8, whereas area of residence and mother’s socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with full immunization among children. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12–23 months remains low. Maternal health care utilization and knowledge of mothers about the age at which child begins and finishes vaccination are the main factors associated with complete immunization coverage. It is necessary that, local interventions should be strengthened to raising awareness of the community on the importance of immunization, antenatal care and institutional delivery.

  6. Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Mathewos Agize

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 medicinal plants distributed in 64 families were documented in this study. The most frequently used plant part was leaf while the growth form with the highest number (43.82% of representatives among the plants encountered in this study were herbs. About 57.9% medicinal plants were collected from wild while 24.1% were cultivated and 18.5% were both cultivated and collected from wild. A total of 62 human and 27 veterinary diseases were documented in the study. However, only 58% of the traditional healers exercised their indigenous knowledge on treating both human and livestock diseases, while 41.96% practiced treatment of only human diseases. The medicinal plant resources and the associated knowledge of herbal medicine need to be used in a sustainable way and developed for more effective use in the future.

  7. Male Partners' Involvement in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Associated Factors in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch Zuria Woreda, Southern Ethiopia.

    Tilahun, Marelign; Mohamed, Shikur

    2015-01-01

    Background. Male involvement is an important determinant of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ethiopia is not well known. Objectives. To assess male partners involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated factors in Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria woreda. Methods. Community based study was conducted in Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district. Multistage sampling technique was used and data were collected using interviewer administered standard questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the presence of statistically significant associations between the outcome variable and the independent variables. Results. The level of male involvement in PMTCT program in Arba Minch town and Zuria district was 53%. Several factors appear to contribute to male involvement in the PMTCT program including age, residence, education level, knowledge on HIV, knowledge on PMTCT, accessibility of health facility, having weak perception for male involvement in PMTCT, having perception of ANC attendance being females' responsibility, ever use of khat, and ever use of cigarette. Conclusion. Geographical accessibility of health facility and male's knowledge on PMTCT should be improved to increase their involvement in PMTCT. PMID:26146631

  8. Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia

    Tamiru Dessalegn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. Results More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94] and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]. The majority (67.02% of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child’s age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47 and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73 and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88], but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]. Conclusion The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community based behavior change communications using multiple channels including radio and folk media is recommended to reduce sub-optimal breast feeding practices and associated consequences among children in the study area.

  9. Assessment of Income from Traditional and Modern Beekeeping Techniques in the Angacha Woreda, the Kembata Tembaro Zone, Ethiopia

    Wichsov, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Beekeeping provides an important opportunity for increasing off-farm incomes for small-scale farmers in South-Ethiopian highlands. Ethiopia is viewed as the biggest exporter of natural honey in Africa. Due to the minimal amount of farm land available, beekeeping allows farmers to increase their income without losing farmable land because of the small footprint of beehives. This study focuses on the economic contribution of traditional and modern ways of beekeeping to rural households in the A...

  10. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Kaso, Muhammedawel; Addisse, Mesfin

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, an estimated 287 000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010 annually as a result of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia were accounted for 85% of the global burden (245 000 maternal deaths) including Ethiopia. Obstetric related complications cannot be reliably predicted. Hence, insignificant decline of maternal mortality ratio might be due to the non use of birth preparedness and complication readiness strategies. Therefore, this pape...

  11. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers need special attention as they are distant from various information sources.

  12. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Teklehaymanot Tilahun; Giday Mirutse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use ...

  13. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (α = 0.05 was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (α = 0.05 was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05 were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50% of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29% were shrubs, six (16% were herbs and two (5% were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97% fruits, 13 (33.33% leaves, 3 (7.69% roots and one (2.56% seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.872 and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.994 by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of wild edible plants were gathered and consumed from 'Duka' (March to 'Halet' (May and from 'Meko' (August to 'Tejo' (November. Sixteen (41% of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge. The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. Conclusions The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity.

  14. Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia

    Tamiru Dessalegn; Belachew Tefera; Loha Eskindir; Mohammed Shikur

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated fact...

  15. Married women's empowerment and associated factors on achievement of their ideal number of children in Dilla Zuria woreda, Gedeo zone, Southern-Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study

    Akine Eshete; Prabhanjan Kumar Vata; Kokeb Desta; Semagn Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women's empowerment in health care decision has been recognized as an important dimension to their access to reproductive health service and for better maternal and child health outcomes. However, the effect of women's empowerment on achievement of their ideal number of children remains relatively unexplored in the context of Ethiopia. Hence, this current study aimed to explore the impact of women empowerment on their ability to achieve their ideal number of children among married...

  16. LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND FEEDING SYSTEM IN ENSET (Ensete ventricosum) DOMINATED MIXED FARMING SYSTEM OF SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Samuel MENBERE AFELE

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the livestock feeds resources, feeding systems, feed related problems and the determinant factors under smallholder farmers’ livestock production system in the Sidama zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. A total of 135 sample household heads which represents about 10 percent of the household heads in the two study districts (Shebedino and Dale) were included in the study. According to the order of importance, nat...

  17. GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia

    Yayis Rezene; Agdew Bekele; Yasin Goa

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted for two consecutive years across four locations using 16 field pea genotypes. The objective of this paper is to determine the magnitude of genotype by environment interactionand performance stability of genotypes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression of genotype on the environmental mean, AMMI analysis, ASV estimation and GGE biplot analysis were carried out following their respective procedures. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed significance ...

  18. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (Pagro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. PMID:26872931

  19. The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach as an impact assessment tool for development interventions in rural Tigray, Ethiopia: opportunities & challenges

    Segers, Kaatje; Dessein, Joost; Nyssen, Jan; Behailu, Mintesinot; Deckers, Jozef

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the impact and sustainability of development programmes requires the development of appropriate assessment tools. This paper examines the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach's (SLA) potential to be transformed to and called in as a practical instrument to evaluate the impact of development interventions in rural Tigray (Northern Ethiopia). Fieldwork has been carried out in communities in woreda Dogua Tembien using participant observation and open interviews as methods. Next to mo...

  20. Evaluation of progress with using community conversation as a strategy to encourage district level abandonment of female genital mutilation and/or cutting in 10 districts in Ethiopia

    Ellen Alem; Emezat Hailu; Haile-leul Siyoum; Ibrahim Sesay; Lulit Mitik; Maki Suyama; Martha Kibur; Roger Pearson

    2013-01-01

    Background: Female genital mutilation and/or cutting (FGM/C), whilst widespread, is declining in Ethiopia; 81% of 45–49-year-old women were circumcised in a 2005 survey, and 62%of 15–19-year-olds.Objectives: This evaluation examined progress in abandoning FGM/C in ten woredas(districts) where strategy based on the social convention theory had led to official declarations of abandonment and assessed if the strategy could accelerate the declining trend of the FGM/C practice in Ethiopia.Method: ...

  1. Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Chaka, H; Goutard, F; Bisschop, S P R; Thompson, P N

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P backyard poultry production in Ethiopia. PMID:22399725

  2. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus group discussion with local community to obtain indigenous knowledge was considered. Secondary data collection and relevant literature were surveyed. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Critical problems observed on the wetland and the surrounding watershed included vegetation cover removal, land degradation, wetland hardening, pressurized grazing, expansion of floating macrophytes on the reservoir, water seepage at the weir, water use management and water use conflicts, drainage structures maintenance and lack of institutional accountability. Open access and inadequate management has increased anthropogenic factors resulting amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services. Conclusions: The reservoir is under growing stress and nearing to disappearance unless and otherwise timely measures are taken to mitigate the prevailing encroachment towards the wetland. Sustainable management of hydrological, ecological, social, biodiversity and economical values based on knowledge and experience on environment, land use, extension services and research to restore and sustain the various values and functions, calls for different stakeholders to alleviate negatively impacting factors on the wetland. Further information generation on the wetland situation on the Geray wetland specifically on wetland valuation is highly demanded.

  3. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus...

  4. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

    2001-12-01

    A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Nematodes recovered included Heterakis gallinarum (17.28%), Subulura brumpti (17.60%), Ascaridia galli (35.58%), Cheilospirura hamulosa (0.75%) and Dyspharynx spiralis (2.62%). The principal cestode species encountered were Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%). PMID:11732422

  5. Ethiopia Student Assessment

    World Bank Group

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, Ethiopia joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Ethiopia ...

  6. Dairy development in Ethiopia:

    Ahmed, Mohamed A. M.; Ehui, Simeon; Yemesrach, Assefa

    2004-01-01

    Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development due to its large livestock population, the favorable climate for improved, high-yielding animal breeds, and the relatively disease-free environment for livestock. Given the considerable potential for smallholder income and employment generation from high-value dairy products, development of the dairy sector in Ethiopia can contribute significantly to poverty alleviation and nutrition in the country. Like other sectors of the economy, the da...

  7. Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

    John Butterworth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

  8. Patients’ perceptions of podoconiosis causes, prevention and consequences in East and West Gojam, Northern Ethiopia

    Molla Yordanos B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a form of non-filarial elephantiasis that affects barefoot individuals in highland tropical areas. The disease presents with bilateral, asymmetric swelling of the legs, usually confined to below the knee. This study aimed to assess podoconiosis patients’ perceptions of prevention, control, causes and familial clustering of the disease, and to document physical, social and economic impairments associated with the disease, with the ultimate aim of enabling development of tailored interventions in this region. Methods This descriptive study is part of the largest cross-sectional community-based household survey yet conducted on podoconiosis. It was completed in November and December, 2011, in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha Woredas of East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia, and consisted of a house-to-house census by community health workers followed by interviews of identified patients using a structured questionnaire. Results In the 17,553 households surveyed, 1,319 patients were identified. More male as compared to female patients were married (84.6% vs. 53.6%, χ2 = 157.1, p 2 = 102.3, p  Conclusion This study shows that podoconiosis has strong psychosocial, physical and economic impacts on patients in East and West Gojam Zones of northern Ethiopia. Concerns related to familial clustering, poor understanding of the causes and prevention of podoconiosis all add to the physical burden imposed by the disease. Strategies that may ease the impact of podoconiosis include delivery of tailored health education on the causes and prevention of disease, involving patients in intervention activities, and development of alternative income-generating activities for treated patients.

  9. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  10. Ethiopia : Regionalization Study

    World Bank, (WB)

    2000-01-01

    The study outlines the development strategy Ethiopia will need to pursue to achieve a balanced regional progress, and indicates some policy areas for attention, as the strategy develops. It examines the recent constitutional structure, government spending, and fiscal imbalances, including the capacity constraints the country faces, and governance issues. In addition, the role of municipali...

  11. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...

  12. Multidimensional Poverty in Ethiopia

    Ambel, Alemayehu; Mehta, Parendi; Yigezu, Biratu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents trends in monetary and nonmonetary dimensions of wellbeing in Ethiopia using data from the Household Consumption and Expenditure and Welfare Monitoring surveys implemented in 2000, 2005, and 2011. The paper provides evidence on changes in overlapping deprivations using a non-index approach to multidimensional poverty. It assesses the performance of various dimensions in...

  13. Ethiopia : Accounting and Auditing

    World Bank, (WB)

    2007-01-01

    This Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides a review of the accounting and auditing practices and the institutions underpinning the accounting and auditing environment in the corporate sector in Ethiopia. The review drew on best international practices and makes policy recommendations aimed at improving the quality of financial reporting in the country. There are some...

  14. Ethiopia Urbanization Review

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The urban population in Ethiopia is increasing rapidly. If managed proactively, urban population growth presents a huge opportunity to shift the structure and location of economic activity from rural agriculture to the larger and more diversified urban industrial and service sectors. If not managed proactively, rapid urban population growth may pose a demographic challenge as cities struggle ...

  15. Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia

    Dr P S Grewal MS DOMS; Dr Shrirang Deshpande MS; Dr Uma Pradhan MS DOMS FCPS; Dr Museret Awave

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International undertook a project which was named the Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia. Rotary clubs from India, Ethiopia and the USA participated in this unique project which was a resounding success, not just in terms of the number and quality of the operations done, but also in bringing people of India, Ethiopia and the USA closer to each other and so fostering understanding and friendship amongst them.The matching grant and new opportu...

  16. Endline report Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, T., van; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  17. Endline report – Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, H.E.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  18. Ethiopia Poverty Assessment 2014

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 Ethiopia had one of the highest poverty rates in the world, with 56 percent of the population living on less than United States (U.S.) $1.25 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day. Ethiopian households experienced a decade of remarkable progress in wellbeing since then and by the start of this decade less than 30 percent of the population was counted as poor. This poverty assessment d...

  19. Rural Risk Management Ethiopia

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This document investigates prospects for the use of index based weather insurance in Ethiopia for commercial and semi-commercial farmers. The document first summarizes the impact of risk weather risk in particular on Ethiopian agriculture and the need to balance investments in weather risk mitigation and weather risk management. Because the focus of this document is on risk management in the face of potential weather shocks, this introduction is followed by a summary of the traditional risk...

  20. Ethiopia : A Woman Innovator Speaks

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This note discusses about six farmer innovators from Ethiopia that took part in the recent international workshop on Promoting Local Innovation (PROLINNOVA), which was held in March 2004 at the Furra Institute of Development Studies in Yirgalem, Southern Ethiopia. Over 60 participants from Africa, Asia and Europe took part. They discussed experiences in building multi-stakeholder partnersh...

  1. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  2. LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND FEEDING SYSTEM IN ENSET (Ensete ventricosum DOMINATED MIXED FARMING SYSTEM OF SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Samuel MENBERE AFELE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the livestock feeds resources, feeding systems, feed related problems and the determinant factors under smallholder farmers’ livestock production system in the Sidama zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR of Ethiopia. A total of 135 sample household heads which represents about 10 percent of the household heads in the two study districts (Shebedino and Dale were included in the study. According to the order of importance, natural grazing/scavenging, crop residue and purchased feeds from market/other farmers were the major (X2=1078.103, p<0.001, n=553 feed resources used to fed different livestock species/classes in the area. Due to the economic importance difference among species/classes, the provision priorities of each particular feed resource were also significantly different. Especially the provision disparity was more (X2=302.96, p<0.001 pronounced for crop residue for which male cattle (oxen and young bulls get top priority than natural pasture (X2=157.48, p<0.001 on which other species/classes are highly dependent and purchased feed (X2=62.29, p<0.001 by which the scavenging poultry production is subsidized. In feed production, conservation and treatment aspects, growing of improved forages is not common practice in the area and majority about 57.0% (n=77 of farmers have not grown improved forages (X2=4.28, p<0.001, considerable 63.7% (n=86 and limited 25.9% (n=35 of farmers have also practiced feed conservation (mainly maize Stover and elephant grass (X2=15.96, p<0.001 and crop residue treatment (mostly add and mix salt (X2=33.34, p<0.001, respectively. Grazing land is a scares resource in the livestock production sub-system of the area and only about 34.1% (n=46 of the farmers in the study area posses private grazing land with an average holding of 0.073±0.014 ha. Land shortage, feed shortage and population pressure were identified as major (X2=132.09, p<0.001 problems in related with feed availability in the area. The extent of land shortage (X2=10.595, p<0.01 and population pressure (X2=14.016, p<0.001 problems were different between farmers at the two study districts.

  3. Ethiopia Health Extension Program

    Wang, Huihui; Tesfaye, Roman; Ramana, Gandham N V; Chekagn, Chala Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    As a low-income country, Ethiopia has made impressive progress in improving health outcomes. This report examines how Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program (HEP) has contributed to the country’s move toward Univeral Health Coverage (UHC), and to shed light on how other countries may learn from Ethiopia’s experiences of HEP when designing their own path to UHC. HEP is one of the government’s UHC strategies introduced in a context of limited resources and low coverage of essential health ser...

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Whiting, Susan J; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers' occupation of being employed and their households' high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality. PMID:27043619

  5. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera from Ethiopia

    Jzef Razowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hbner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.

  6. Ethiopia : Explaining Food Price Inflation

    Klugman, Jeni

    2007-01-01

    This study sheds some light on the challenges facing policy makers in Ethiopia, but much remains to be better understood. Over the past three years, food price inflation in Ethiopia has been persistently high, and overall inflation has been in double. While the spike in 2002 can be broadly explained by the drought-induced output shock that year, over the period as a whole, food price - and...

  7. Towards Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia

    Endalamaw, Tefera Belay

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore factors, actors and processes which condition innovative commercialization of bamboo in Ethiopia. The thesis particularly focuses on how traditional technologies and entrepreneurial innovations can be a source of knowledge and foundation for bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. In tandem with technology development, it also attempts to shed light on how variations in value chains and market availability result in differential levels of commercializati...

  8. Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia

    Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.

  9. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

  10. Uranium exploration in Ethiopia

    Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)

  11. Evaluation of progress with using community conversation as a strategy to encourage district level abandonment of female genital mutilation and/or cutting in 10 districts in Ethiopia

    Ellen Alem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female genital mutilation and/or cutting (FGM/C, whilst widespread, is declining in Ethiopia; 81% of 45–49-year-old women were circumcised in a 2005 survey, and 62%of 15–19-year-olds.Objectives: This evaluation examined progress in abandoning FGM/C in ten woredas(districts where strategy based on the social convention theory had led to official declarations of abandonment and assessed if the strategy could accelerate the declining trend of the FGM/C practice in Ethiopia.Method: Quantitative and qualitative instruments collected data from a document review, a household survey (1275 households, in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions.Results: Overall, there were encouraging results in terms of awareness creation and behavioural change to some extent. Sixty-nine percent of women and 41% of girls interviewed perceived a decline in the practice (range 40% – 90% after the declaration. Seventy-six percent of women said they would not circumcise girls in the future. The involvement of influential people such as religious leaders, elders, health extension workers, and law enforcement officials in the teaching contributed immensely to the awareness creation. However, some districts reports indicated the practice had gone underground. The costs of facilitating the strategy varied from USD 3 to 7 per person, with better results where costs were higher. The abandonment events tended to costaround 25% of total costs, an area where cost efficiency can be improved.Conclusion: The evaluation has informed the dialogue around the development of the country’s first national budgeted strategy that aims to accelerate the abandonment of all harmful traditionalpractices.

  12. Ethiopia - Capturing the Demographic Bonus in Ethiopia : Gender, Development, and Demographic Actions

    World Bank (WB)

    2007-01-01

    This is a sector report on demographics in Ethiopia. The first part of this study puts the population issue in Ethiopia in perspective. Chapter 1 updates Ethiopia's demographic profile, looking in particular at the size of its population, its age structure, the speed at which it grows and its distribution across space. Chapter 2 explores the relationships between population growth, economi...

  13. Ethiopia : The Energy II Project

    P. C. Mohan

    2007-01-01

    The project's objectives were to (i) increase the efficiency and sustainability of Ethiopia's power sector and to increase electricity use for economic growth and improved quality of life; and (ii) improve the utilization efficiency of rural renewable energy. An IDA credit of US$ 200 million over the years 1998-2005 supported these objectives. The project had 3 components: (i) the Gilgel G...

  14. Ethiopia Health Sector Development Program

    P. C. Mohan

    2007-01-01

    This brief discusses the progress made in the Ethiopia Health Sector Development Program. The program's aims were to develop a health system that provides comprehensive and integrated primary care services, primarily based at community health level facilities. It focuses on communicable diseases, common nutritional disorders, environmental health and hygiene, reproductive health care, immu...

  15. Ethiopia - Two Microfinance Delivery Programs

    Muntemba, Shimwaayi

    1999-01-01

    Formal financial institutions in Ethiopia have traditionally focused on the accessible urban towns leaving rural areas, where the majority of the population resides, without access to financial services. Recognizing this problem, a number of development agencies such as Redd Barna and World Vision started to provide access to financial services to the poor in rural areas in the 1980s. They...

  16. Teaching Teachers in Ethiopia

    Scherrer, D. K.; Moldwin, M.; Rabella-Soares, M.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Yizengaw, E.

    2008-05-01

    Africa needs to develop a space physics research structure, and a key goal of the United Nations-sponsored International Heliophysical Year (IHY) is to provide support to those efforts. One key focus of IHY is the deployment of networks of small instruments to encourage development of space science research and educational infrastructures in developing nations. In addition to new scientific discoveries and advancing space science research in Africa by establishing scientific collaborations between scientists in developed and developing nations, an IHY objective is to increase the number of space scientists and increase the scientific awareness about the importance of the space science In order to develop space science research infrastructure, space science educational infrastructure also needs to be developed to support the long-term operation and use of the science instrumentation. Developing nations need to develop the necessary training and encouragement of students to enter and excel in scientific fields. In response to these needs, the authors, working under the auspices of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy Education and Public Outreach (SPA EPO) Committee, organized a Geophysics Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop for Ethiopian high school physics educators on 10 November 2007 in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. The workshop, held in conjunction with the IHY-Africa Space Weather Science and Education Workshop, gathered together 62 high school physics teachers from around the country for a one-day professional development program that focused on fundamental physics concepts relevant to space weather. Our presentation will describe the workshop, the challenges of launching such a program, and present results from the assessment surveys taken by teachers at the end of the workshop.

  17. HISTORY OF HR MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ETHIOPIA

    TAREKEGN DEA LERA

    2013-01-01

    In many countries the development of HR management not well articulated and documented and even difficult to write about it. Ethiopia is one of those countries with difficult documentation and written facts to clearly picture the development of HR management. Even though this article fallowing world trend in HR management practice described the HR management practice of Ethiopia. Ethiopia economic and administration structure mostly described by categorizing it in to three periods. The period...

  18. Export Performance and Determinants in Ethiopia

    Menji, Sisay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this study analysis of factors affecting export supply of Ethiopia, during the period 1981 2004, have been made using co integration analysis. Data trend reveals that Ethiopian export performance was highly volatile during the period, on average merchandise exports have been growing at 7% per annum, while manufacturing exports were growing at 4% per annum. The trend also reveals that Ethiopias export sector is mainly dominated by few primary commodities, where manufacturing...

  19. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is...... essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in...... forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key...

  20. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines the...... suggest the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on smallholders’ adaptation strategies....

  1. Ethiopia : water security and drought

    MacDonald, A M; Calow, R.C.; Nicol, A.L.; Hope, B.; Robins, N.S.

    2001-01-01

    A map showing groundwater availability during drought for Ethiopia presented at a scale of 1:3,500,000. The map was constructed by combining three factors: (1) rock permeability (derived from the hydrogeology map) (2) the ability of the rock to store water (from the hydrogeology map) (3) recharge to the groundwater (estimated from rainfall data). Areas of high permeability, high storage and high recharge have most groundwater available during drought

  2. Perinatal Mortality Trends in Ethiopia

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the magnitude of perinatal mortality in Ethiopia was among the highest in Sub Saharan Africa, there was no systematic review done to assess the trend and causes of perinatal death. The objective of this review was to assess the trend of perinatal mortality rate (PMR) and the causes attributed to perinatal deaths. Methods Studies included in this systematic review were sixteen hospital and community based perinatal mortality studies, which were conducted between 1974 and 20...

  3. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effe...

  4. Ethiopia - The Gilgel Gibe Resettlement Project

    World Bank, (WB)

    1999-01-01

    The development plan of the Federal Government of Ethiopia emphasized low-cost energy supply as a prerequisite to the enhancement of industrial and economic development for the period 1984-1993. Current power planning studies have estimated Ethiopia's hydropower potential at 30,000 MW, which greatly exceeds foreseeable domestic demands. Presently, only 1 percent of the potential is utilize...

  5. Ethiopia : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    The judicial and legal sector of Ethiopia presents a variety of significant challenges. The legal system as it exists today combines elements of both civil and common law1 with traditional practices, resulting in multiple layers intermingling and superimposing distinct types of modern, traditional, and religious laws and processes. This report provides an overview of Ethiopia's current leg...

  6. Decentralization in Ethiopia--Who Benefits?

    Chaurey, Ritam; Mukim, Megha

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that greater autonomy to cities in Ethiopia through a process of city proclamations, led to better economic outcomes at the city level, lowering regional spatial inequalities. In addition, the newly-empowered cities did not seem to misuse their new powers by favoring particular firms over others. We investigate the effect of a nation-wide introduction of VAT in Ethiopia – and show that the intended recipients of the reform, i.e. importing firms performed bet...

  7. Moisture Transport and Precipitation in Ethiopia

    Viste, Ellen Marie

    2012-01-01

    With little irrigation and a diverse climate, Ethiopia is a country where the effects of too little precipitation are frequently seen. While the generation of precipitation also depends on local ascent and cooling of the air, the main focus of this thesis has been on the transport of moisture into the country. Three manuscripts are included. One provides an overview of drought episodes in all parts of Ethiopia during the last decades, while the other two discuss moisture transport as a ...

  8. Ethiopia: CCTV well field review 2009

    Ball, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    This report covers data collection and field work for the technical aspects of the World Bank-funded Joint Governance Assessment and Measurement Initiative (JGAM) in Ethiopia. The work comprised a survey on rural borehole drilling in Ethiopia, in support of the Water Sector Diagnostic. It was carried out as part of an initiative to assess the degree of corruption within the water sector in the country. The objective of the technical aspect of the work was to compare the variables of loca...

  9. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink; Tsegaye, A; Struik, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...

  10. ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUG RESISTANCE IN ETHIOPIA: A MATA- ANALYSIS

    lemlem gebremedhin gebremichael; Biruk Sintayehu Fanta; Solomon Mequanente Abay; Chandra Dinda Subas

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most dangers of health in the world. Ethiopia ranked seventh from the 22 high burden counties in the world. The main problem is development of resistance to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs actually increasing in Ethiopia. The aim was to review studies done on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Ethiopia. Literatures were searched for published articles on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance using the combination of terms; resistance, anti-tuberculosis and Ethiopia....

  11. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  12. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types...... recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between the...

  13. The epidemiology of burns in rural Ethiopia.

    Courtright, P.; Haile, D.; Kohls, E

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and cost of the service. Adult members of a systematic random sample (20%) of households from 16 communities (total popu...

  14. Authority and leadership in Surma society (Ethiopia)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines recent developments of local authority and 'leadership' among the Surma of southern Ethiopia, where the author carried out field research over the years 1990-1995. The intention is to analyse the nature of 'authority' in a non-State social formation, in which 'chiefs' in the proper sense of the word are absent. The author gives an overview of the three different political systems which have succeeded each other in Ethiopia since the late 19th century: Haile Selassie's fe...

  15. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  16. Borrelia recurrentis in Head Lice, Ethiopia

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined.

  17. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia.

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975

  18. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Ethiopia

    World Bank, (WB); International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Ethiopia. In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 throu...

  19. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Ethiopia

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Ethiopia. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. ...

  20. Ethiopia extends health to its people

    2009-01-01

    At a time when aid effectiveness is under scrutiny, Ethiopia is embracing a new approach to make health aid work – not least with an innovative programme to train and deploy thousands of ‘health extension workers’ in communities across the country.

  1. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  2. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  3. Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010

    Kassa Nega; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended o...

  4. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia

    N. Asfaw; Demissew, S.

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan) from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe) grown in two places in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa and Butajira) was also analyzed for comparison. Morphological study on the leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. reha...

  5. Education in Ethiopia : developing or collapsing? : a study of discourses of education in Ethiopia and its implications

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has been a key partner and actor in political and economic affairs of Africa in general and the Horn of Africa in particular. Despite its record of independence, Ethiopia have been struggling up heal battle against persistent human development challenges and troubled internal political history. In recent decades, however, renewed geopolitical factors made Ethiopia attract more and concerted efforts. Ethiopian stakeholders a...

  6. Geomorphology of the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia

    Poppe, Ludwin; Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Negatu, Teshager Admasu; Wossenie, Mekete Dessie; Adgo, Anyew; Deckers, Jozef; Nyssen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The geomorphological map of the Lake Tana basin (15,077 km2, Nile basin, Ethiopia) presented in this paper was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed with a geographic information system (GIS). It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and morphometry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes at a scale of 1:500,000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Ter...

  7. Coffee Innovation Systems in Ethiopia and Rwanda

    Mequaninte, Teferi; Müller, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to investigate the networking and knowledge management in the coffee value chain in Ethiopian and Rwanda and its applicability to the agricultural innovation system (AIS). The AIS aims at putting farmers at the center of the knowledge management and innovation system. Results of the SNA show that farmers from both Ethiopia and Rwanda are not at the center of the innovation system. In the Ethiopian coffee value chain, cooperatives are at the center of the k...

  8. Innovation and microenterprises growth in Ethiopia

    Gebreeyesus, Mulu

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses two prominent issues on the development of small enterprises in Africa. Which factors inhibit or foster innovation activities in small enterprises? Do innovators create more jobs? We use a large set of microenterprises survey data from Ethiopia that comprise 1000 observations with ten and fewer workers. The analysis shows that firms larger in size and in manufacturing are more likely to engage in innovative activities. Among the human capital variables vocational training...

  9. Entrepreneurship and income inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  10. Determinants of Recent Inflation in Ethiopia

    Menji, Sisay

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Inflation has been a rising in Ethiopia during recent years, mainly fueled by food inflation. In the study, an analysis of the determinants of inflation was made using quarterly data during 1997/98 – 2007/08. The research employed Co-integration regression after finding that the variables included in the model were cointegrated. The results from the study depicts that inflation was significantly affected by money supply growth (positively) and domestic output (negatively). Tho...

  11. Ethiopia : Country Assistance Evaluation, 1998-2006

    Thomas, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the World Bank's largest IDA-eligible borrowers in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a country portfolio comprising 22 active projects for a total net commitment of US$2 billion as of end-FY07. The Bank's overarching objective during the period under review (FY98-FY06) was to support the Government in its efforts to reduce poverty by helping to: (i) promote pro-poor growth; (ii) a...

  12. Making Transport Climate Resilient : Country Report Ethiopia

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    This report is the output of the World Bank-financed study on Making Trans-port Climate Resilient for Ethiopia, which is a Sub-Saharan Africa initiative to respond to the impact of climate changes on road transport.The climate scenarios The study is based on four climate scenarios selected by the World Bank to be consistent with the scenarios used in the study Economics of Adaptation to Cl...

  13. Rural water supply corruption in Ethiopia

    Calow, Roger; MacDonald, Alan; Cross, Piers

    2012-01-01

    In Ethiopia, investment in rural water supply underpins the government’s poverty reduction efforts. The challenge is huge: roughly 50 percent of the (mainly rural) population still have no access to safe water, and the country has the highest number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa without access to improved water supply and sanitation. The consequences are dire: every year, roughly 250,000 children die from diseases related to poor water and sanitation, and many others face ...

  14. Recent drought and precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia

    Viste, Ellen Marie; Korecha, Diriba; Sorteberg, Asgeir

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, drought in the Horn of Africa again made news headlines. This study aims to quantify the meteorological component of this and other drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971. A monthly precipitation data set for 14 homogeneous rainfall zones was constructed based on 174 gauge observations. As a measure of drought, the Standardized Precipitation Index was calculated on seasonal, annual and biannual timescales for each zone. The results point to 2009 as a year of exceptionally widespread...

  15. Neonatal mortality in Ethiopia: trends and determinants

    Mekonnen, Yared; Tensou, Biruk; Telake, Daniel S.; Degefie, Tedbabe; Bekele, Abeba

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian neonatal mortality rate constitutes 42% of under-5 deaths. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of Ethiopian neonatal mortality. Methods We analyzed the birth history information of live births from the 2000, 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). We used simple linear regression analyses to examine trends in neonatal mortality rates and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model using a hierarchical approach to examine t...

  16. Absolute geopotential height system for Ethiopia

    Bedada, Tullu Besha

    2010-01-01

    This study used airborne gravity data, the 2008 Earth Gravity Model (EGM08) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data in a Remove-Compute-Restore process to determine absolute vertical reference system for Ethiopia. This gives a geopotential height at any isolated field point where there is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurement without reference to a vertical network or a regional datum point. Previously, height was determined conve...

  17. Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Eticha, Tadele; Mesfin, Kalkidan

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken ...

  18. Proposal for Business Support Facility for Ethiopia : A mission report

    Blomne Sopov, M.

    2012-01-01

    This report, requested by the Royal Dutch Embassy in Ethiopia, outlines the modalities of setting up a Business Support Facility in the country with the objectives of: 1. Supporting sector coordination and business partnerships; 2. Brokering business relations between Ethiopia and the Netherlands; 3. Strengthening innovation capacity to ensure technical, business and entrepreneurial know how.

  19. Ethiopia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment, Volume 1. Main Report

    World Bank (WB)

    2003-01-01

    The CFAA examined the means by which the Federal Government of Ethiopia intends to improve the management of resources to enhance sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty. There are many challenges but the likelihood that Ethiopia will receive substantial assistance in the coming years means that, in order to maximize this opportunity, financial accountability issues and the exercise...

  20. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual

  1. Ethiopia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment, Volume 2. Detailed Reports

    World Bank, (WB)

    2003-01-01

    The CFAA examined the means by which the Federal Government of Ethiopia intends to improve the management of resources to enhance sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty. There are many challenges but the likelihood that Ethiopia will receive substantial assistance in the coming years means that, in order to maximize this opportunity, financial accountability issues and the exercise...

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA

    E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

  3. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources.

    Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M

    2010-10-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most important attribute of chickens in all the study areas. The high significance attributed to reproduction traits indicates the need for maintaining broody behavior and high level of hatchability while breeding for improved productivity of indigenous chickens for village conditions. The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight, but farmers rated growth (males) and number of eggs followed by growth (females) as the production traits they would like the most to be improved. Therefore, the ultimate breeding goal should be to develop a dual-purpose breed based on indigenous chicken genetic resources with any of the comb types other than single for all the regions studied having the most preferred white body plumage for farmers in the Amhara region and red body plumage for those in Oromia, Benshangul-Gumuz, and Southern regions. PMID:20512411

  4. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins...... with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance of...

  5. Electronic-Banking in Ethiopia- Practices, Opportunities and Challenges

    Gardachew Worku

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the practices, opportunities and challenges of E-banking services in Ethiopia. Ethiopian banking system is one of the most underdeveloped compared to the rest of the world. In Ethiopia cash is still the most dominant medium of exchange and electronic-banking is not well known, let alone used for transacting banking business. All banks in Ethiopia except Dashen Bank are too late to move with technological advancement and they should clearly chart out the time schedule for their integration and technological advancement.

  6. Ethiopia's financial sector and its regulation

    Addison, Tony; Geda, Alemayehu

    2001-01-01

    Ethiopia is one of a number of SSA economies that adopted state-led development strategies in the 1970s (others include Angola and Mozambique), and suffered from intense conflict (leading to the fall of the Derg regime in 1991). The new government was therefore faced with the twin tasks of reconstructing the economy, and embarking on the transition to a market economy. As part of this process, state banks have been reorganised, the role of the private sector in the financial system has been e...

  7. Ethiopia: A socio-economic study

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Ethiopia is considered to be one of the oldest nations in the world but at present its socio-economic condition is not satisfactory. It is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is rated the poorest and most heavily indebted countries of the world, ranked last out of 208 countries. About 26% of the populations of the country, mostly women and rural residents, are living with their income less than one dollar a day. In terms of health and welfare, it ranks among Africa’s an...

  8. The transitional semi-evergreen bushland in Ethiopia

    van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Sebsebe, Demissew

    2016-01-01

    , furthermore, a limited overlap in characteristic species of the evergreen bushlands of Kenya and Uganda. Conclusions: Our results provide important information on the hitherto inadequately studied semi-evergreen bushland of Ethiopia. It highlights the unique character of this part of the evergreen bushlands......Question: Evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia have been inadequately studied and mapped. We address the question whether there is a transitional semi-ever-green bushland on the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian Highlands, with unique floristic characteristics that distinguish it from the evergreen...... Highlands. In contrast, evergreen bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia are considered to be of a secondary nature. To test this hypothesis, we carried out qualitative vegetation surveys in 354 locations across Ethiopia and classified the vegetation in these locations based on the occurrences of indicator...

  9. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    Abebaw Fekadu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global mental health (GMH advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design: A case study method is used. Results: Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions: GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings.

  10. An NGO at work: CARE-Ethiopia.

    1999-01-01

    Cooperation for American Relief to Everywhere (CARE) was established in response to the needs of the people after World War II through the distribution of food and clothes. CARE/Ethiopia, which signed its first Basic Agreement with the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, was provided with assistance during the 1994 drought that affected Ethiopia. The primary objective of CARE was to alleviate the suffering brought about by severe food shortages and to expand the program to mitigation and development. This approach was based on the premise of a community-based development philosophy and as an implementation strategy for reaching the rural poor. The five programmatic areas highlighted by the CARE projects were the rural and urban infrastructure; water and sanitation; small-scale irrigation; reproductive health and HIV/AIDS; and microcredit. On the other hand, the family planning and HIV/AIDS project aimed to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural communities towards family planning and reproductive health through community-based family planning services. Results of the project evaluation emphasize the significance of community-based programs in the improvement of health status. Two critical program constraints identified in this paper are lack of access to referral-level services and lack of systemic provision of contraceptive commodities. Several suggestions for future programs include the assurance that the volunteers would be provided with aid in work, childcare and free health services for their families. PMID:12349450

  11. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.

    Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

    2005-01-20

    Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland. PMID:15662421

  12. Food Scarcity in Africa - Case Study of Ethiopia

    Brtníková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is to critically look at various indicators that play a key role in food scarcity in Africa. These indicators are applied on a case of Ethiopia, a selected country in Africa. Consequently, a multidimensional Index of Sustenance of Ethiopia is created using all relevant indicators. Comparison of researched indicators that contribute to food scarcity is based on data from official sources. In the created Index both economic and non-economic indicators are merged while, based ...

  13. Finance and Poverty in Ethiopia: A Household Level Analysis

    Geda, Alemayehu; Shimeles, Abebe; Zerfu, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, using the rich household panel data of urban and rural Ethiopia that covers the period from 1994 to 2000, we attempted to establish the link between finance and poverty in Ethiopia. Our results show that access to finance is an important factor in consumption smoothing and hence poverty reduction. We also found evidence for a poverty trap due to liquidity constraints that limits the ability of the rural households from consumption smoothing. The empirical findings from this stu...

  14. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Kaba M; Bulto T; Tafesse Z; Lingerh W; Ali I

    2016-01-01

    Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Obj...

  15. Rapid Trachoma Assessment in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Ejigu, Meseret; Kariuki, Millicent M; Ilako, Dunera R; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Though trachoma can be treated with antibiotics (active trachoma) or surgery (trachomatous trichiasis), it is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia. Despite the prevalence of this infectious disease in different parts of the country, district level data is lacking. This study was thus conducted to assess the prevalence estimate of trachoma and its risk factors in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A communi...

  16. The social reproduction of Jamaica Safar in Shashamane, Ethiopia

    Gomes, Shelene

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1950s, men and women, mainly Rastafari from the West Indies, have moved as repatriates to Shashamane, Ethiopia. This is a spiritually and ideologically oriented journey to the promised land of Ethiopia (Africa) and to the land granted by His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I. Although migration across regions of the global south is less common than migration from the global south to north, this move is even more distinct because it is not primarily motivated by economic c...

  17. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  18. SME Finance in Ethiopia : Addressing the Missing Middle Challenge

    World Bank, (WB)

    2015-01-01

    This study starts with a brief analysis of which firms are the main net job creators in Ethiopia and then focuses on the financing constraints of Ethiopian MSMEs as one of the key obstacles to job creation and growth. In doing so, the study uses two demand-side surveys (the Ethiopia Survey of Large and Medium Scale Manufacturing Industries LMMIS, an unbalanced panel composed of about 6,0...

  19. Secondary Education in Ethiopia : Supporting Growth and Transformation

    Joshi, Rajendra Dhoj; Verspoor, Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    This report is on the secondary education in Ethiopia. The report analyzes the challenges of secondary education in the context of the government's growth and transformation plan and its stated goal of becoming a middle-income country by 2020-23. The education system in Ethiopia as currently organized, together with existing education policies, has served the country well as it has transitioned from a country with some of the lowest enrollment ratios in the world to one where universal primar...

  20. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Tarekegn, Getachew; Ewonetu, Kebede; Negassi, Ameha; Aemro, Terefe Terefe

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta). A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of ch...

  1. Forest coffee certification in Ethiopia: Economic boon or ecological bane?

    Stellmacher, Till; Grote, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the worldwide origin of the Coffea arabica gene-pool. However, the forests witness high rates of depletion and deforestation leading to an irreversible loss of the forest ecosystem and biodiversity. Certification of forest coffee started in Ethiopia in 2002 with the aim to conserve the coffee forests and provide the peasants with a better livelihood. This paper evaluates the forest coffee production and the related human encroachment in the forests ecos...

  2. Molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia: new phylogenetic lineages found in Northwest Ethiopia

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Merker, Matthias; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C; Niemann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world’s 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typi...

  3. Cost estimate of bovine tuberculosis to Ethiopia.

    Tschopp, Rea; Hattendorf, Jan; Roth, Felix; Choudhury, Adnan Ali Khan; Choudhoury, Adnan; Shaw, Alexandra; Aseffa, Abraham; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    While bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been eliminated in some industrialized countries, it prevails worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Ethiopia, BTB is prevalent as numerous studies have shown its occurrence in livestock and in abattoirs but it has not been demonstrated in wildlife and only very few cases have been found in humans. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of BTB to Ethiopia with the aim of informing Ethiopian policy on options for BTB control. BTB in livestock affects both animal productivity and herd demographic composition. The Livestock Development Planning System (LDPS2, FAO) was modified to allow for stochastic simulation of parameters. We performed an incremental cost of disease analysis, comparing livestock production with and without BTB. For the rural scenario we considered an endemically stable 4 % comparative intradermal test (CIDT) prevalence and for the urban scenario an endemically stable 32 % CIDT prevalence among cattle. The net present value of rural Ethiopian livestock products in 2005 is estimated at 65.7 billion (thousand million) Ethiopian Birr (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 53.8-77.7 billion Birr), which is the equivalent of 7.5 billion US$ (95 %CI 6.1-8.9 billion US$) at a rate of 8.7 Birr per US$ in 2005. The cost of BTB ranges from 646 million Birr (75.2 million US$) in 2005 to 3.1 Billion Birr in 2011 (358 million US$) but is within the range of uncertainty of our estimate and can thus not be distinguished from zero. The cost of disease in the urban livestock production ranges from 5 to 42 million Birr (500,000-4.9 million US$) between 2005 and 2011 but is also within the range of uncertainty of our estimate. Our study shows no measurable loss in asset value or cost of disease due to BTB in rural and urban production systems in Ethiopia. This does not mean that there is not a real cost of disease, but the variability of the productivity parameters and prices are high and would require more precise estimates. This study does not preclude in any way the urgent need to control BTB in the urban dairy herd of Addis Ababa for other than financial reasons. PMID:22806204

  4. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    . The increasing trend of land acquisition for biofuels has led to the widespread debate about food versus biofuel because of the perceived competition for land and water. To avoid the food versus fuel debate, the use of “marginal” land for biofuel feedstock production (jatropha) has emerged as a......Rising oil prices, concerns about climate change, and future energy supplies have contributed to growing interest in the use of liquid biofuels in the transport sector which, in turn, has driven large-scale land acquisitions in developing countries for biofuel feedstock production, mainly jatropha...... dominant narrative. But both the availability and suitability of “marginal” land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for...

  5. China - Ethiopia cooperation on technical and vocational education and training (TVET):terms, motives and future prospects

    Geng, W

    2016-01-01

    Various studies have been carried out on China-Ethiopia general cooperation. However, studies on the field of China-Ethiopia educational cooperation are rare. China-Ethiopia Technical and Vocational Education and Training cooperation compose a vital part in China-Ethiopia cooperation. Therefore this thesis analyzes the Ethiopia Technical and Vocational Education and Training cooperation with China. The purpose of this research is not only to uncover the Technical and Vocational Education ...

  6. Bovine tuberculosis at a cattle-small ruminant-human interface in Meskan, Gurage region, Central Ethiopia

    Tschopp Rea; Bobosha Kidist; Aseffa Abraham; Schelling Esther; Habtamu Meseret; Iwnetu Rahel; Hailu Elena; Firdessa Rebuma; Hussein Jemal; Young Douglas; Zinsstag Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district) in cattle, small ruminants and suspected TB-lymphadenitis (TBLN) human patients. Methods The comparative intradermal test (CIDT) was carried out for all animals involved in the cross-sectional study and results interpreted using a > 4 mm and a > 2 mm cut-off. One PPD positive goat was slaughtered and lymp...

  7. French-Ethiopian project of archaeological and epigraphic investigations in Tigrai region, Ethiopia

    Dugast, Fabienne; Gajda, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The third season for the Archaeological and Epigraphic Investigations in Tigrai Region (Pre-Aksumite & Askumite Period) took place from November 4th to December 7th, 2013 in Sa?esi?e Ts?ada Emba woreda, north-eastern Tigrai. It is part of a four year research programme, headed by Dr Iwona Gajda and Dr Fabienne Dugast from the CNRS (Umr 8167 Orient & Mditerrane / Paris), and supported by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MAEE), the French Centre for Ethiopian Studies (CFEE / Addis ...

  8. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  9. Book review: famine and foreigners: Ethiopia since Live Aid

    Kuecken, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The terrible 1984 famine in Ethiopia focused the world’s attention on the country and the issue of aid as never before. Peter Gill was the first journalist to reach the epicentre of the famine and one of the TV reporters who brought the tragedy to light, and in this book tells what happened to Ethiopia in the 25 years following Live Aid. Maria Kuecken finds that Gill does great justice to this ever-pertinent issue by illuminating a complexity of confounding factors through a digestible narrat...

  10. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia

    Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.; Aro, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional in......Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross...

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

  12. Ethiopia's Medium Term Debt Management Strategy (2013-2017)

    Ministry of Finance and Economic Development

    2012-01-01

    This medium term debt management strategy (MTDS) for Ethiopia provides a framework for developing an effective public sector debt management strategy that aims to achieve a desired composition of the public sector debt portfolio that reflects a cost-risk analysis and captures the government's preferences with regard to the cost-risk trade-off. This MTDS is considered a tool for evaluating ...

  13. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  14. Ethiopia s nationhood reconsidered A nao etope reconsiderada

    Donald N. Levine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional theories trace nationalism to modern Western Europe, usually following the French Revolution. However, markers of nationalism used by most scholars are attested by evidence of Ethiopias nationhood as early as sixth century C.E. This requires revisions in both conventional notions of nationhood and views of those who find Ethiopianness a recent invention. Moreover, the experience of Ethiopians in their recent Diaspora warrants rethinking the very notions of nationhood. Continuing ties of Ethiopian expatriates with their homeland and communication through electronic media manifest a new configuration of Ethiopias nationhood, consisting now of three confluent parts: bet-agar (homeland; wutch-agar (diaspora; and sayber-agar (cyberspace.As teorias convencionais associam o nacionalismo Europa ocidental moderna, em geral a um perodo subsequente Revoluo Francesa. No entanto, no caso etope, os indicadores de nacionalismo usados pela maior parte dos investigadores encontram-se atestados desde o sculo vi da nossa era. Este facto pe em causa as perspectivas convencionais sobre a ideia de nao, e questiona os que encaram o sentimento nacional etope como uma inveno recente. Para mais, a experincia da recente dispora etope permite-nos repensar a prpria ideia de nao. Os laos permanentes entre etopes expatriados e a sua ptria, e a comunicao atravs de meios electrnicos, manifestam uma nova configurao da ideia de nao etope, que se compe agora de trs partes confluentes: bet-agar (ptria; wutch-agar (dispora; e sayber-agar (ciberespao.

  15. Endline report Ethiopia, NVEA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, T., van; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, NVEA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  16. Endline report Ethiopia, TTCA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, T., van; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, TTCA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  17. Endline report Ethiopia, ECFA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, T., van; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  18. Endline report Ethiopia, HOA-REC MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, T., van; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HOA-REC. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  19. Endline report Ethiopia, HUNDEE MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, T., van; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  20. Endline report Ethiopia, Amref MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, T., van; Kusters, C.S.L.; Buizer, N.N.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, Amref. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  1. Endline report Ethiopia, FSCE MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, T., van; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  2. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using

  3. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  4. Endline report – Ethiopia, TTCA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, H.E.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, TTCA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  5. Endline report – Ethiopia, FSCE MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, H.E.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  6. Endline report – Ethiopia, ECFA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, H.E.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  7. Endline report – Ethiopia, NVEA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, H.E.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, NVEA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  8. Endline report – Ethiopia, Amref MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, H.E.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Buizer, N.N.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, Amref. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  9. Endline report – Ethiopia, HUNDEE MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, H.E.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  10. Tenure Security and Land-Related Investment : Evidence from Ethiopia

    Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing; Adenew, Berhanu; Gebre-Selassie, Samuel; Nega, Berhanu

    2003-01-01

    The authors use a large data set from Ethiopia that differentiates tenure security and transferability to explore determinants of different types of land-related investment and its possible impact on productivity. While they find some support for endogeneity of investment in trees, this is not the case for terraces. Transfer rights are unambiguously investment-enhancing. The large producti...

  11. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  12. Third Ethiopia Economic Update : Strengthening Export Performance through Improved Competitiveness

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Rising exports contributed to Ethiopia’s remarkable growth performance over the past decade. Buoyed by favorable external conditions, exports also helped create jobs and earn much-needed foreign exchange. The way Ethiopia created and nurtured a high-value horticulture industry and expanded its air services exports was an encouraging example of “self-discovery.”

  13. Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia

    Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu , Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa.

  14. Learning by Doing : Working at Scale in Ethiopia

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, an estimated 15.2 million people or 80 percent of the total population of the Amhara Region in Ethiopia lived in rural areas where sanitation-related indicators were low. Open defecation was common; hand washing, particularly after defecation, was practiced infrequently; and general housing environments were unsanitary, with cohabitation with animals a common occurrence. There was...

  15. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012-2013.

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A; Norheim, Gunnstein

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012-2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed. PMID:26689450

  16. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  17. Cystic hydatidosis in Ethiopia: a review

    S.A. Kassa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a cestode infection caused by the larval stage of Echinocococcus granulosus. It is an important zonoses, as humans get infected by ingesting eggs passed in the feces of dogs, and important cause of economic loss mainly due to organ condemnation and reducing the quality of meat, milk, and wool production. Hydatidosis is prevalent in cattle and small ruminant population of Ethiopia in a range of 3.1% to 72.44%. The prevalence rate reaches up to 30.8% in camels and 25% in dogs. Very few retrospective and case reports of cystic human hydatidosis also indicated the relevance of the disease in the human population of the country. Besides to the scarcity of reports the slow growing nature of disease development may result in underestimation of the situation. Economic losses in a range of 3201 to 1,167,512 USD have been reported in the country. Diagnosis of the larvae in the intermediate hosts, especially in humans, is mainly by imaging and immunology techniques. During post mortem examination the cyst can be diagnosed during meat inspection procedures in lungs, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, muscle bones and other tissues of intermediate hosts. In the definitive host diagnosis can be by demonstration of the parasite from there faces or the small intestine or the detection of specific coproantigens or coproDNA. The role of holistic and systematic interventions approaches involving the public, veterinarians and public health professional for the action to be simultaneous and effectual along with prevalence of hydatidosis are highlighted in the present review.

  18. Causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mengistu Asnake Kibret

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTObstetric fistula (OF) is one of the major potential complications of childbirth mostly young women in developing countries including Ethiopia. Though few scientific studies have been conducted related to its causes and consequences, it is challenging to find a comprehensive figure about obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper sought that to review the causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. A number of relevant obstetrics and gynaecology websites and jo...

  19. Development of a Community-Based Rehabilitation Intervention for People with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia

    Asher, L.; Fekadu, A.; Hanlon, C.; Mideksa, G; Eaton, J; Patel, V; Silva, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is a multi-sectoral strategy to improve the functioning and quality of life of people with disabilities. The RISE (Rehabilitation Intervention for people with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia) trial will evaluate the effectiveness of CBR for people with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the components of CBR that are both feasible and likely to prove effective in low and middle-income countries such as Ethiopia are unclear. Methods In this study...

  20. Assessment of Breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia using different data mining techniques

    Abebe Alemu; Yosef Berhanu; Dr. M. Mahalkshmi

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is one of the critical issues in Ethiopia because researches show that 24.0% - 27.0% of infant death in Ethiopia is due to poor breastfeeding practices. UNICEF has been reported that a good promotion of breastfeeding practices is a most important strategic plan to reduce child mortality in developed and developing countries. Hence, it is important to identifying the determinate factors of poor breastfeeding practice, especially poor countries like Ethiopia. Poor Breastfeeding is...

  1. Diagnosing Corruption in Ethiopia : Perceptions, Realities, and the Way Forward for Key Sectors

    Plummer, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    For decades, corruption in Ethiopia has been discussed only at the margins. Perhaps because many have not experienced corruption as a significant constraint to their lives and businesses, or perhaps because a culture of circumspection has dampened open dialogue, Ethiopia has seen neither the information flows nor the debate on corruption that most other countries have seen in recent years. To address this information gap, the World Bank agreed with the government of Ethiopia and its Federal E...

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of stunting among primary school children in Eastern Ethiopia

    Mesfin F; Berhane Y; Worku A

    2015-01-01

    Firehiwot Mesfin,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Stunting is a serious impediment to child survival and developing a full learning capacity. Despite several decades of efforts, stunting remained a major public health concern in Ethiopia. Thus, periodic ...

  3. Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia

    Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic problems caused by dams in Ethiopia and elsewhere. Dams are planned from a top-down perspective in Ethiopia, some people are relocated against their will, haphazard land-use changes can occur, and s...

  4. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Ethiopia

    Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of the total collection comprised of An. gambiae. Different cytogenetic studies have shown that An. arabiensis is more predominant species than An. quadriannulatus. Malaria Control: The major vector control measure that is being used in the country is in-door residual insecticide (DDT) spraying. As a result An. arabiensis has developed resistance to DDT in some areas. In such cases malathion is used as an alternative. Other vector control measures such as source reduction, chemical larviciding and very recently use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are also used in selected areas.

  5. Female Headed Households and Their Livelihood in Bati Wäräda, South Wollo: Practices and Resistance

    Yimam, Tizita Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Bati woreda. It explores how the existing gender relation in Bati woreda plays a role on livelihood of female headed households. Qualitative method that include semi structure interview, focus group discussion, key informant interview and observations are the main data collection instruments. Twenty female headed households that compromised of widow, divorcee and separated are the main focus of the sturdy. The thesis used the sociologist Pierre...

  6. The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea

    Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.; Wondafrash, Melaku; Demissew, Sebsebe

    2012-01-01

    trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species......Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la...... Eritrea, e questi informazioni sono utilizzati qui: dopo una revisione di tutto il materiale di Etiopia e Eritrea, e un comparazione con materiale di Africa tropicale orientale, si è concluso che P. truncata è conspecifi ca con P. dawei, nota per l’Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania e Madagascar, e che un...

  7. The Short Life of the Bank of Ethiopia

    Arnaldo Mauri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bank of Abyssinia, established in 1905, was given a 50-years concession by theEmperor Menelek II. This institution was engaged in issuing notes as well as in any kind ofcommercial banking business. Haile Sellassie, after acceding to the throne in 1930, could not acceptthat the country’s issuing bank was a foreign-owned share company and decided for nationalization.The change was implemented, however, in a soft way, providing an adequate compensation toshareholders, and in agreement with the main foreign shareholder, the National Bank of Egypt. TheBank of Abyssinia went, therefore, into liquidation and a new institution, the Bank of Ethiopia, wasestablished in 1931. The new bank, although under full Government control, retained management,staff, premises and clients of the ceased financial institution. Italian occupation of the country, in1936, brought the liquidation of the Bank of Ethiopia.

  8. Land reclamation using reservoir sediments in Tigray, northern Ethiopia

    Girmay, Gebreyohannes; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Bauer, Hans; Merckx, R.; Haile, Mitiku; Deckers, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion leads to sedimentation in reservoirs and a decline in their life span. As many reservoirs in northern Ethiopia are dry at the end of the dry season, we were able to evaluate the potential of using reservoir sediments for land reclamation. Stripped land from which construction material for the reservoirs had been excavated was covered with 0, 15 and 30 cm of sediment and planted with a local garlic cultivar (Allium sativum). The applied reservoir sediments had low to m...

  9. Traditional Zootherapeutic Studies in Degu'a Tembien, Northern Ethiopia

    Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals and plants for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since the distant past. In Ethiopia, many ethnic communities which are dispersed all over the country has been totally dependent on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. Thus, the aim of this study was to take an ethno zoological field survey among Tigray people (main tribal group of Degu'a Tembien). In order to document the ethno zoological information about ani...

  10. The road to maternal death in rural southwest ethiopia.

    Deribe, Kebede; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Belachew, Tefera; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2010-03-01

    The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not understanding the severity of the problem, and lack of transport were the major themes identified as contributing factors. The result highlighted the need to improving primary health care, to strengthen referral system and community education. PMID:22434963

  11. The Road to Maternal Death In Rural Southwest Ethiopia

    Deribe, Kebede; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Belachew, Tefera; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2010-01-01

    The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not understanding the severity of the problem, and lack of transport were the major themes identified as contributing factors. The result highlighted the need to improving primary h...

  12. The political economy of food price: The case of Ethiopia

    Admassie, Assefa

    2013-01-01

    Food prices increased significantly in 2007 - 08 in Ethiopia due to several supply- and demand-side factors. The Ethiopian government released emergency food grain reserves, imported and distributed wheat at subsidized price, banned the export of staple cereals, and removed value added and turnover taxes on food items. It also increased the reserve requirement of commercial banks and reduced domestic borrowing by public enterprises. These measures were mostly initiated by the government and t...

  13. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  14. Power ahead: Meeting Ethiopia's energy needs under a changing climate

    Block, Paul; Strzepek, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopia is powering ahead with an ambitious energy development strategy, highly reliant on abundant hydropower potential. A changing climate, including uncertain water supply, however, may pose a salient challenge to meeting expected targets. Bridging the modeling gaps between climate, energy, and economics, and effectively transforming climate changes into economic measures, is an emerging inter-disciplinary field as nations attempt to position themselves for an uncertain future. Such a fra...

  15. Assessing political priority for reproductive health in Ethiopia.

    Prata, Ndola; Summer, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Ethiopia is among the top six countries contributing to the highest numbers of maternal deaths globally. The Ethiopian total fertility rate was estimated at 4.8 in 2011, and the use of contraceptives by married women was 29%. Lack of knowledge, cultural stigma surrounding abortion, and barriers to access of services contribute to persistently high rates of unsafe abortion and abortion-related mortality. This study seeks to assess the generation and institutionalization of political priority for reproductive health within the political systems of Ethiopia. Interviews with key policy makers, government ministers, academics, and leaders of prominent non-governmental organizations in Ethiopia between July 2010 and January 2011 were conducted, using Shiffman and Smith's Framework, to analyse the key actors and ideas behind the shift towards prioritization of reproductive health in Ethiopia, as well as the political context and primary characteristics of the issues that propelled progressive action in reproductive health in that country. Some of the key lessons point to the readiness of the Ethiopian government to reform and to improve the socio-economic status of the population. The role of civil society organizations working alongside the government was crucial to creating a window of opportunity in a changing political climate to achieve gains in reproductive health. To our knowledge, this is the first time Shiffman and Smith's Framework has been used for reproductive health policies. We conclude that Ethiopian experience fits well within this framework for understanding prioritization of global health issues and may serve as a model for other sub-Saharan African countries. PMID:26719007

  16. Modelling Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Processes in Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    Setegn, Shimelis Gebriye

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tana Basin is of significant importance to Ethiopia concerning water resources aspects and the ecological balance of the area. The growing high demands in utilizing the high potentials of water resource of the Lake to its maximal limit, pictures a disturbing future for the Lake. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of topography, soil, land use and climatic varia-bility on the hydrological and hydrodynamic processes of the Lake Tana Basin. The physically based SWAT mod...

  17. Pacific SST influence on spring precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC and RPSS validation scores.

  18. Ethiopia 1885 in Recluss Nouvelle Gographie Universelle

    Gascon, Alain

    2012-01-01

    In volume x of the Nouvelle Gographie Universelle published in 1885 Reclus dealt at length with Ethiopia. Although he never visisted Africa he wrote the first relevant geographical analysis of this region. He did not only list the descriptions and ideas prevalent at the end of the xixth century but he was the first to predict the rise of wa which M?nil?k was later to lead into the conquest of the Southern Highlands.

  19. Investment analysis of smallholder Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Matthies, Brent

    2013-01-01

    In this study the financial returns related to smallholders’ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Val...

  20. Review of the Norwegian Development Fund Portfolio in Ethiopia

    Waters-Bayer, Ann; Tostensen, Arne; GebreMichael, Yohannes

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews the Ethiopian portfolio of the Development Fund (DF), a Norwegian NGO, which has evolved from supporting relief work by one Tigrayan organisation in the 1980s to supporting ten projects with several organisations in Tigray and Afar Regions and networking with other organisations in Ethiopia and beyond. The portfolio focuses on socio-economic development to alleviate poverty and increase food security, primarily through agriculture, and on natural resource management in dry...

  1. The Missed HIV-Positive Children of Ethiopia

    Pegurri, Elisabetta; Konings, Elke; Crandall, Bud; Haile-Selassie, Hiwot; Matinhure, Nelia; Naamara, Warren; Assefa, Yibeltal

    2015-01-01

    Objective As elsewhere, due to scarcity of data and limited awareness of HIV infection, especially in older children, the HIV epidemic among Ethiopian children appears neglected in national programs (children ART coverage is of only 12% in 2013). This paper estimates the country burden of HIV in older children and investigates the prevalence of HIV in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) households. Design/Methods We analyzed national HIV data for Ethiopia, using Spectrum/ Estimation and Pro...

  2. Geoheritage Conservation in Ethiopia: The Case of the Simien Mountains

    Asrat, Asfawossen; Metasebia, Demissie; Aberra, Mogessie

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia constitutes one of the most significant environmental and cultural reserves on Earth. Ethio¬pia’s natural and cultural tourist attractions are mostly associated with geological features: the active Ethiopian and Afar rifts as well as the Simien and Bale massifs are few examples. Ethiopia’s cultural history, religious ma¬nifestations and civilization, like the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela and the stelae of Axum, are also imprinted in rock. Geomorphological and geological features, n...

  3. Causes of unintended pregnancy among adolescents in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

    Nalenga, Georges Z.

    2012-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in many countries, especially in developing countries. Numerous prevention strategies have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, the adolescent unwanted pregnancy still increasing in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. It is why the researcher would like to assess the risk factors influencing the raise of this issue. The aim of the study was to identify th...

  4. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Working Adults in Ethiopia

    Tran, A.; Gelaye, B; Girma, B; Lemma, S; Berhane, Y; Bekele, T.; Khali, A; Williams, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria among working East African adults. Design. This cross-sectional study of 1,935 individuals (1,171 men and 764 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in accordance with the STEPwise approach of the World Health Organization. Results. According to ATP III and IDF definitions, ...

  5. An audit of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    Ehlers, Valerie J.; Getahun S. Aragaw

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the existence of national tuberculosis guidelines (NTG) in Ethiopia, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis did not decline markedly. Audits could attempt to determine whether or not healthcare professionals actually implemented these guidelines, as non-implementation could contribute to suboptimal tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Aim: To evaluate healthcare providers’ implementation of Ethiopia’s NTG during the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in order to...

  6. Forest decline in South Central Ethiopia : Extent, history and process

    Gessesse Dessie,

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the extent, history and process of forest decline in Awassa watershed, south central Ethiopia. By combining different data sources such as satellite images, social surveys and historical documents, forest decline is described quantitatively and qualitatively and the main causes behind this process are identified. Forest decline in the study area is interpreted as the result of a combination of socio-political changes, economic activities, population growth, cultural patter...

  7. An audit of diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    Ehlers, Valerie J.; Getahun S. Aragaw

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the existence of national tuberculosis guidelines (NTG) in Ethiopia, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis did not decline markedly. Audits could attempt to determine whether or not healthcare professionals actually implemented these guidelines, as non-implementation could contribute to suboptimal tuberculosis treatment outcomes.Aim: To evaluate healthcare providers’ implementation of Ethiopia’s NTG during the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in order to enh...

  8. FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN DANGILA MUNICIPALITY, ETHIOPIA. PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

    Tendayi GONDO; Edson MBEDZI

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal decentralization is one component of decentralization that gives authority to local governments to collect revenue through taxes and responsibility over spending decisions. Even though fiscal decentralization has given revenue raising and spending decision powers to lower levels of government, the implementation process has often been a daunting task for many local authorities in the developing world. In the case of Ethiopia, decentralization has been implemented since 1991. However, r...

  9. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    S. G. Gebrehiwot; Ilstedt, U; Gärdenas, A. I.; Bishop, K

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2), in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a spec...

  10. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Bauer, S.; Ketema, M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed ...

  11. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect ho...

  12. A social archaeology of colonial war in Ethiopia

    González-Ruibal, Alfredo; Sahle, Yonatan; Ayán Vila, Xurxo

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The archaeology of twentieth-century warfare, with its focus on Western armies and military issues, has often neglected indigenous experiences of war and social aspects, particularly the role of women in reproducing culture through material practices in situations of great distress. In this article, we propose a postcolonial examination of imperialistic war in Ethiopia. We study the cave of Zeret, the refuge of a large guerrilla group that was massacred by the Italian colonial army in 19...

  13. Evaluation of groundwater resources in the Geba basin, Ethiopia

    Tesfagiorgis, Kibrewossen; Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; De Smedt, Florimond; Moeyersons, Jan; Hagos, Miruts; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an assessment of the groundwater resources in the Geba basin, Ethiopia. Hydrogeological characteristics are derived from a combination of GIS and field survey data. MODFLOW groundwater model in a PMWIN environment is used to simulate the movement and distribution of groundwater in the basin. Despite the limited data available, by simplifying the model as a single layered semi-confined groundwater system and by optimising the transmissivity of the different lithological u...

  14. Vulnerability to episodes of extreme weather: Butajira, Ethiopia, 1998 - 1999

    Emmelin, Anders; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane; Wall, Stig; Byass, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: During 1999-2000, great parts of Ethiopia experienced a period of famine which was recognised internationally. The aim of this paper is to characterise the epidemiology of mortality of the period, making use of individual, longitudinal population-based data from the Butajira demographic surveillance site and rainfall data from a local site. Methods: Vital statistics and household data were routinely collected in a cluster sample of 10 subcommunities in the Butajira district in cen...

  15. Estimating utility-consistent poverty in Ethiopia, 2000-11

    Stifel, David; Woldehanna, Tassew

    2015-01-01

    We adapt the standardized Poverty Line Estimation Analytical Software (PLEASe) computer code stream based on Arndt and Simler's (2010) utility-consistent approach to analyse poverty in Ethiopia in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Several data-related issues create challenges to estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of poverty in a manner that meets both consistency and specificity objectives. This paper documents how we adapt the code stream to address changes in data collection periods and s...

  16. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  17. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit

    Yigzaw Binega

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical analysis for the major constituents and trace (contaminants) elements found in the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt. The results showed that the rock salt is found to be the best natural common salt. This was proved by comparison with the chemical requirement and trace elements in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that re...

  18. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic charact...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 87Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia...

  20. Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education.

    Spadacini, B; Nichols, P

    1998-07-01

    In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information. PMID:12294046

  1. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (Pspecies of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

  2. Tailoring seasonal climate forecasts for hydropower operations in Ethiopias upper Blue Nile basin

    Block, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Explicit integration of seasonal precipitation forecasts into water resources operations and planning is practically nonexistent, even in regions of scarcity. This is often attributable to water managers tendency to act in a risk averse manner, preferring to avoid consequences of poor forecasts, at the expense of unrealized benefits. Convincing demonstrations of forecast value are therefore desirable to support assimilation into practice. A dynamic coupled system, including forecast, rainfall-runoff, and hydropower models, is applied to the upper Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia to compare benefits generated by actual forecasts against a climatology-based approach, commonly practiced in most water resources systems. Processing one hundred decadal sequences demonstrates superior forecast-based benefits in 68 cases, a respectable advancement, however benefits in a few forecast-based sequences are noticeably low, likely to dissuade managers adoption. A hydropower sensitivity test reveals a propensity toward poor-decision making when forecasts over-predict wet conditions. The forecast is therefore tailored to dampen precipitation projections in the above normal tercile while retaining critical near normal and dry predictions, subsequently improving reliability to 96-percent. Such tailoring potentially provides strong incentive to risk-adverse water managers cautious to embrace forecast technology.

  3. Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence in cattle from selected milk cooperatives in Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia

    Tschopp, Rea; Abera, Birhanu; Sourou, Sabi Yao; Guerne-Bleich, Emmanuelle; ASEFFA, ABRAHAM; Wubete, Alehegne; Zinsstag, Jakob; Young, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis are two important milk-borne zoonoses that have been shown to be prevalent to various degrees in Ethiopian cattle. The study was carried out in four Woredas (districts) around Asella town, Arsi Zone between October 2011 and March 2012 and included 318 small-holders in 13 dairy cooperatives that marketed the delivered milk. The aims of the study were i) to assess the prevalence of the two diseases in cattle in a cross-sectional study,...

  4. Revisiting resistance in Italian-occupied Ethiopia: the Patriots' Movement (1936-1941) and the redefinition of post-war Ethiopia

    Berhe, A.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, De, Irene; Walraven, van, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    During the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1936-1941) a significant indigenous resistance movement, the Patriots' Movement, emerged. The nature and impact of this resistance is reconsidered by highlighting aspects of its role in 'redefining Ethiopia', its internal policy and its position in the global community after the start of the Second World War. The resistance movement was based on the ideals of restoring national independence and preserving cultural identity. There is also discussion o...

  5. Maternal mental health in Amhara region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Parcesepe, Angela; Mekuria, Yared Getachew; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu; Gebeyehu, Wondimu; Okello, Francis; Shattuck, Dominick

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Postpartum common mental disorders (CMD) such as depression and anxiety are increasingly recognized for their burden in low-resource countries such as Ethiopia. However, the magnitude of postpartum CMD in Ethiopia is not well-established. This short report describes the mental health status of women who had given birth in the last 24 months in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,319 women aged 15–49 years old who had a de...

  6. Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept that the hydrologic processes that were taught for a century might be incorrect.

  7. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia

    N. Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe grown in two places in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa and Butajira was also analyzed for comparison. Morphological study on the leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan and A. absinthium (from Europe was also conducted. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 76 to 94% of the oils were identified. The composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: yogomi alcohol (13.5-37.6%, artemisyl acetate (12.7-35.5%, and artemisia ketone (2.3-13.2%. The composition of the oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan however, differs from the other three species in having camphor (21.2-28.3% and davanone (21.3-26.5% as major components. The composition of A. absinthum (Europe was found to have β-thujone (42.3-66.4% and chamazulene (11.3-24.2% as major components. The study indicated that the composition of the essential oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan is not only different from the other three species but also from A. absinthium from Europe and does not belong to any of the chemotypes described for the species in the literature. The morphological study on the leaves also showed that it differs from that of A. absinthium from Europe. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.11

  8. Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010

    Kassa Nega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended or not. Data were collected by lay interviewers using uniform questionnaire. Odds Ratio, with 95% confidence interval using multiple and multinomial logistic regression were calculated to detect level of significance. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.9% (578/2072 of the study subjects. Out of which, 440 were mistimed and 138 were not wanted. Unintended pregnancy was associated with family wealth status (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14, 1.90, high parity (7 + (OR 5.18; 95% CI 3.31, 8.12, and a longer estimated time to walk to the nearest health care facility (OR 2.24; 95% CI: 1.49, 3.39. In the multinomial regression, women from poor family reported that their pregnancy was mistimed (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.25. The longer estimated time (80 + minutes to walk to the nearest health care facility influenced the occurrence of mistimed pregnancy (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 4.02. High parity (7+ showed a strong association to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12 and (OR 14.34; 95% CI 5.72, 35.98, respectively. Conclusions The economy of the family, parity, and walking distance to the nearest health care institution are strong predictors of unintended pregnancy. In order to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy Efforts to reach rural women with family planning services should be strengthened.

  9. Active rifting, magmatism and volcanism in the Afar Depression, Ethiopia

    Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Smith, Kay; Wright, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Afar Depression forms a topographic low in north-eastern Ethiopia at the triple junction of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Main Ethiopian Rifts at the northern end of the East African Rift system. This setting is one of few locations where active continental breakup and the transition to oceanic crust can be observed on land and serves as a unique natural laboratory to understand the processes involved (Makris and Ginzburg. 1987). The margins of the Afar Depression are marked by t...

  10. Plant use among the Suri people of southern Ethiopia

    Abbink, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes some findings of research on plant names and plant use of the Suri people (more widely known by outsiders as "Surma"), a relatively isolated group of agro-pastoralists in the border area of Southwest Ethiopia and Sudan. The research was carried out as part of a long-term anthropological study on the Suri in the years 1992-1999. The most prevalent health problems of the Suri are intestinal and stomach diseases, parasites, malaria, infections and burns. For several of th...

  11. Adverse Events after Mass Azithromycin Treatments for Trachoma in Ethiopia

    Ayele, Berhan; Gebre, Teshome; House, Jenafir I.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; McCulloch, Charles E.; Porco, Travis C; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Paul M. Emerson; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2011-01-01

    During a cluster-randomized clinical trial for trachoma in Ethiopia, two rounds of adverse event surveillance were performed in a random sample of communities after community-wide mass azithromycin treatment. The prevalence of any reported adverse event ranged from 4.9% to 7.0% in children 1–9 years of age and from 17.0% to 18.7% in persons ≥ 10 years of age. Adverse events appeared to cluster by household and perhaps by village. Mass azithromycin distributions were well tolerated in this set...

  12. Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia

    Tewodros Fantahun; Tsegiedingle Yigzaw; Mersha Chanie

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest pre...

  13. The Honey and Beeswax Value Chain in Ethiopia

    Drost, Sarah; Wijk, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the honey and bees wax value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve market access for farmers and small- and medium-sized honey companies. To examine the MSP, both its internal, organisational dynamics and its external dynamics, i.e. the changes brought about in key...

  14. Comparision of urban upgrading projects on development cooperation in Ethiopia

    Tolon, Uli Wessling

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia is the only African country that has not been colonized, except for a 4-years period by the Italians of Mussolini. It has a population of 76.5 million (2007) and has an extension of 1.1 sq km. Urban development cooperation began in Addis Ababa through the World Bank, who financed in the early 80s the first upgrading project in the capital city, due to the bad urban conditions and the acute existing housing shortage. This factor, among others, leaded to the entrance of...

  15. Problems of Feminist Leadership among Educated Women in Ethiopia

    Indrawatie Biseswar

    2008-01-01

    Feminist leadership is a matter of grave concern in Ethiopia where educated women appear to be obliged to fight individual battles to sustain their own agendas on the emancipation of women. Being manipulated by the government-led ‘woman question’ rhetoric, many fail to come to terms with charting such an independent discourse. What is holding them back? Could it be their ideological make-up that is influenced by state and religious indoctrination? Or perhaps their own shortcomings where m...

  16. Modeling the Determinats of Domestic Private Investments in Ethiopia

    G. G. Ambaye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of domestic private investment in Ethiopia using a time series data over the period 1992-2010. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model and applied the bounds test approach in modeling the long run determinants of domestic private investment. The study found exchange rate, domestic saving and domestic credit as key factors having negative and significant impact on domestic private investment. External debt and government expenditure are found to have significant and positive effect on domestic private investment. The results imply that government expenditure stimulates domestic private investment while domestic credit and domestic saving have a constrained effect on the sector.

  17. Water quality of Wenchi Crater Lake in Ethiopia

    Malairajan Singanan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of physico-chemical properties of water samples from Wenchi Crater Lake in Ethiopia was carried out. Selected heavy metals in water, sediment, and plant samples from the lake were also comparatively determined. The results indicated that most general physico-chemical properties of the lake water fell within those recommended for drinking water. However, the lake water was found to be high in some heavy metals, which also accumulated in the sediment. Bioconcentration of these metals was also observed in the plant samples.

  18. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage...... premium, self-selection into the informal sector and sectorally-distinct wage determination mechanisms....

  19. The Effect of Targeting Credit to Married Women on Intra-household Expenditure Roles in Ethiopia

    Haile, H.B.; Bock, B. B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is attempted to explore the potential effects of microfinance targeted at married women on intra-household expenditure roles and women’s economic power taking the cases of two microfinance institutions in Ethiopia

  20. Review: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012)

    Tekeste Negash

    2013-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback), ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover), xviv + 209 pp. + maps and illustrations

  1. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    Mulugeta Lemenih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.

  2. Understanding Political Will in Groundwater Management: Comparing Yemen and Ethiopia

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of politics in water management, in particular, comparing groundwater management in Yemen and Ethiopia. It tries to understand the precise meaning of the often-quoted term 'political will' in these different contexts and compares the autocratic and oligarchic system in Yemen with the dominant party 'developmental state' in Ethiopia. The links between these political systems and the institutional domain are described as well as the actual management of groundwater on the ground. Whereas the Ethiopian state is characterised by the use of hard power and soft ideational power, the system in Yemen relies at most on soft negotiating power. There is a strong link between the political system, the positioning of different parties and access to power, the role of central and local governments, the propensity to plan and vision, the effectiveness of government organisations, the extent of corruption, the influence of informal governance mechanisms, the scope for private initiative and the political interest in groundwater management and development in general. More important than political will per se is political capacity the ability to implement and regulate.

  3. ASSESSEMENT OF PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN BORUMEDA HOSPITAL NORTH EAST ETHIOPIA

    Assen M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Appropriate drug utilization has a huge contribution to global reduction in morbidity and mortality with its consequent medical, social and economic benefits [1]. Inappropriate prescribing is known all over the world as a major problem of health care delivery. Drug Utilization Reviews (DURs are useful for obtaining information about drug usage patterns and for identifying high cost drugs, which are of economic interest Objectives: To assess prescribing pattern in medical outpatient department (OPD of Boru Meda Hospital, North East, Ethiopia Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 385 prescriptions were randomly collected from the OPD prescription papers existing from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012. The prescriptions were analyzed in the context of adherence to some of WHO core prescribing indicators. Result: Average number of drugs was 1.88. 80.02% prescriptions had drugs prescribed by generic name. Antibiotics were prescribed in 34.57% and 6.06% prescriptions had injectable preparations. (85.26% of drugs were from essential drugs list for Ethiopia (EDL (3rd edition. Conclusion: On the basis of the finding of this study, antibiotics use, adherence to essential drug list and generic prescription showed deviation from the standard recommended by WHO. This calls for sustained interventional strategies and periodic audit at all levels of health care to avoid the negative consequences of inappropriate prescriptions. On the other hand, poly-pharmacy, injectable prescribing were not found to be a problem in this study.

  4. Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia

    Ararsa Duguma Benti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the major reproductive health problems and its associated risk factors in indigenous Borena breed cows in Borena zone in Southern Ethiopia between September 2013 and February 2014. Out of the total 409 cows examined, 195 (47.7% were having at least one of the reproductive problems identified by either questionnaire interview (n=329 or regular follow up (n=80 of individual cows. The major reproductive health problems identified in the present study were mastitis (21.3%; n=87/409, abortion (12.2%; n=50/409, repeat breeder (10.3%; n=42/409, anestrus (10.3%; n=42/409 and retained fetal membrane (RFM; 7.6%; n=31/409. The rate of abortion increased significantly (p=0.001 with the increase in the stage of gestation. Laboratory findings indicated that brucellosis and mastitis had great roles in reproductive health problems of dairy cows in the study area with prevalence rates of 2.91% and 68.41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study revealed that several reproductive health problems such as mastitis, abortion, repeat breeder, anestrus and RFM are mostly prevalent in dairy cows in Borena zone in southern Ethiopia.

  5. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  6. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia: learning from pilot projects.

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term. PMID:24488085

  7. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  8. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Tarekegn, Getachew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta. A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of chicken and eggs, Marketing, diseases and constraints of village chicken production system were collected. Scavenging chicken production system is observed in all households of the districts. Average flock size of chickens in the study area was 9.4 birds and varied between 4 and 17 birds. In the present study, 82% of the households provide overnight housing within the family house for their chicken. Scavenging is the only feeding system encountered in all study districts with little grain supplementation. Most of the chicken are owned and managed by women (36.75%. Selling of unprocessed eggs and live chickens is mainly practiced. External parasites (mites, Coccidiosis and Newcastle disease were the most important and prevailing diseases in the study area with 39%, 38% and 34% incidence rates, respectively. The magnitude of occurrence of the parasites and diseases were higher in the wet season. Poor genetic quality, lack of extension service, inadequate veterinary service and poor management were the main constraints of village poultry production in the study area.

  9. Biofuels and food security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia

    There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households’ food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers’ food security. • We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. • Impact is heterogeneous across groups. • Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. • Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel

  10. Aid Donor Meets Strategic Partner? The European Union’s and China’s Relations with Ethiopia

    Christine Hackenesch

    2013-01-01

    The motives, instruments and effects of China’s Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the “competitive pressure” that China’s growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one of the m...

  11. Mites of sheep and goats in Oromia Zone of Amhara Region, North Eastern Ethiopia: species, prevalence and farmers awareness

    Yasine, Ahmed; Kumsa, Bersissa; Hailu, Yacob; Ayana, Dinka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mites are one of the most common and widely distributed ectoparasites of small ruminants in Ethiopia, contributing to major hindrances in livestock productivity in the country. Despite of this fact, specific study was not conducted on mites of small ruminants in Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study was performed from October 2009 to May 2010 to determine the prevalence and species composition of mites in three agroecological zones in north eastern Ethiopia. In addition, a questi...

  12. Current Status of Schistosoma mansoni Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Students in Gorgora Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    Essa, Tarko; Birhane, Yemane; Endris, Mengistu; Moges, Asmeret; Moges, Feleke

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective. Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in tropics and causes morbidity and mortality in developing countries including Ethiopia. This study is aimed to assess the current status of S. mansoni infections and associated risk factors among students in Gorgora town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to November 2010 at Gorgora, Northwest Ethiopia. All students (579) present during the study period were enrolled. Pretested qu...

  13. Municipal Infrastructure Delivery in Ethiopia: A bottomless pit or an option to reach the Millennium Development Goals?

    Jan Werner; David Nguyen-Thanh

    2007-01-01

    The following paper examines the different options to finance local public infrastructure in Ethiopia based on the assumption that the federal government of Ethiopia will not provide any guarantees for local borrowing. Besides a detailed description of the local public finance system and the capital market in Ethiopia, the paper also sets out some international successful practices in municipal infrastructure financing. Based on the observation of the Ethiopian case and the consideration of t...

  14. The Winner Takes It All: Internal Migration, Education and Wages in Ethiopia

    Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Laderchi, Caterina Cruggeri

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of migration have mainly examined international dynamics. Yet, internal migration is an important issue, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using the 2001 Ethiopia Child Labor Survey, a nationally representative household survey, this paper examines internal migration in Ethiopia, focusing on the linkages among internal migration, education and wages. The results suggest that migrants are better educated and obtain higher wages than non-migrants, controlling for other factors ...

  15. Hepatitis B virus infection among medical aste handlers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Shiferaw Yitayal; Abebe Tamrat; Mihret Adane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare wastes contain a wide range of microorganisms among which hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the most significant pathogens. No data about the prevalence of HBV among medical waste handlers is available in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore; this study was conducted to describe the prevalence of HBV infection among medical waste handlers in Government hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted among 252 medical and non-medical wast...

  16. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts ofEthiopia, the responses of irrigators to such interventions have never been studied. The main concern of this study therefore is to document how irrigation intervention interfaces with the life-worlds of small-scale irr...

  17. Summary of IDEAS maternal and newborn household and facility surveys in Ethiopia for local health officials

    T. MARCHANT

    2016-01-01

    A two page summary of IDEAS household and facility surveys in Ethiopia aiming to answer the question "Do maternal and newborn innovations enhance interactions and increase life-saving intervention coverage?". The summary was produced for local health officials in Ethiopia to thank them for their help with getting the surveys done. It was translated into Amharic by our colleagues at JaRco Consulting Ltd.

  18. Equilibrium on Diversity and Fragility : Civic and Ethical Education Textbooks in Democratizing Ethiopia

    Yamada, Shoko

    2012-01-01

    In Ethiopia, which consists of diverse ethnic and cultural groups, the maintenance of unity as a country is an issue of serious concern. Civic and Ethical Education (CEE) is considered as an important means to ensure the rule of a fragile-based government, which emerged after a long period of monarchy and dictatorship in the multiethnic society. This paper disentangles the logics of democracy in Ethiopia by analyzing the secondary school CEE textbooks. In these textbooks, democracy is explain...

  19. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Dissemination of Mini and Micro Hydropower - the Case of Ethiopia

    Feibel, Hedi

    2003-01-01

    Successful implementation of MHP projects in Ethiopia and subsequently a broader dissemination of the technology require an interdisciplinary approach. Based on the analyses of present hindrances in Ethiopia, crucial aspects are identified. Even though an adequate hydrological potential and electricity requirements are provided for at numerous sites, special attention must be directed to competing technologies, such as a diesel generator system or the connection to an existing grid, to invest...

  20. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    Kebede M; Kebebe Borga D; Mulisa Bobasa E

    2015-01-01

    Mengistu Kebede, Dereje Kebebe Borga, Eshetu Mulisa Bobasa Department of Pharmacy, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective: To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted ...

  1. The role of open access in fostering knowledge sharing and collaboration in Ethiopia: a case study

    Alemu, Getaneh

    2012-01-01

    This study adopts a qualitative approach and uses the case study method. Fourteen researchers and librarians were interviewed in four organizations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The responses based on the semi-structured interviews provide information about the current status of scholarly communication, the awareness of researchers and librarians about open access and the actual and potential challenges in implementing open access strategies in Ethiopia. This research is believed to illuminat...

  2. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    Weldegebriel Z; Ejigu Y; Weldegebreal F; Woldie M

    2016-01-01

    Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between hea...

  3. The Role of Government in East Asian Development : Lessons for Ethiopia

    Berhane, Esayas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the lessons Ethiopia can learn from East Asia’s growth to sustain its recent economic growth. By an in-depth analysis of the role of government in East Asian’s development it provides recommendations for Ethiopia. The study is based on the experiences of South Korea, Taiwan and Japan in the context of three issues: selective intervention policies, coordination problem and export orientation. Results of the study show that governments in East Asia have used phased ...

  4. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopias national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian live...

  5. Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    Gelaye, Amha Admasie; Taye, Kalemelekot Nigussie; Mekonen, Tesfa

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the ma...

  6. Econometric analyses of horticultural production and marketing in Central and Eastern Ethiopia

    Jaleta Debello, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: vegetables, food and cash crops, land and labour allocations, crop and market outlet choice, price information, farm households, Ethiopia.The central item of this research is to examine the development of less-favoured areas through commercializing small-scale agriculture that produces crops with export potential, particularly in horticulture.First the role of horticulture, along with other non-traditional agricultural commodities, in stabilizing the export income of Ethiopia is ana...

  7. Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia

    Dye, Timothy D.; Solomon Bogale; Claire Hobden; Yared Tilahun; Teshome Deressa; Anne Reeler

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants’ narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for ...

  8. Traditional access and forest management arrangements for beekeeping: the case of Southwest Ethiopia forest region

    Endalamaw, T.B.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2009-01-01

    Forest beekeeping is an ancient form of forest exploitation in south west Ethiopia. The practice has continued to the present with a gradual evolution in beekeeping technology and resource access and management arrangements. The aim of the present study is to study traditional forest management systems for sustainable forest honey production. The study was carried out in southwest Ethiopia in three districts with variable socioeconomic and land-use conditions; these are reflected in a variety...

  9. Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study.

    Birhanu Zewdie; Abdissa Alemseged; Belachew Tefera; Deribew Amare; Segni Hailemariam; Tsu Vivien; Mulholland Kim; Russell Fiona M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the loca...

  10. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia

    Yimer, Mulat; Tadesse HAILU; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The ...

  11. Newborn care practices at home and in health facilities in 4 regions of Ethiopia

    Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Seifu, Abiy; Tholandi, Maya; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Daniel, Ephrem; Rawlins, Barbara; Worku, Bogale; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal deaths globally, and only 1 in 10 women deliver with a skilled attendant. Promotion of essential newborn care practices is one strategy for improving newborn health outcomes that can be delivered in communities as well as facilities. This article describes newborn care practices reported by recently-delivered women (RDWs) in four regions of Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a household survey with two-stage clust...

  12. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study.

    Assefa Dereje; Shibre Teshome; Asher Laura; Fekadu Abebaw

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...

  13. Causes of Maternal Mortality in Ethiopia: A Significant Decline in Abortion Related Death

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the common direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality are known from the literature, the contribution of each cause and the change in trend over decades is unknown in Ethiopia. The objective of this review was to assess the trend of proportion of maternal mortality due to the common direct causes. Methods This systematic review was done on eighteen health facility based maternal mortality studies conducted between 1980 and 2012 in Ethiopia. Emphasis was given to the pro...

  14. The HIV epidemic and prevention response in Tigrai, Ethiopia: a synthesis at sub-national level

    Barnabas, GebreAb; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Selassie, Hiwot Haile; Naamara, Warren; Zemariam, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Background This study, the first of its kind carried out at sub-national level in Ethiopia, was conducted in order to understand the dynamics of HIV transmission at regional and district level in Tigrai, Ethiopia; and to assess the adequacy of the HIV prevention response. Methods Routine data from health centres, data from available published and grey literature and studies, and primary qualitative information were triangulated to draw an updated picture of the HIV epidemic, HIV response and ...

  15. Post abortion care quality status in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Ethiopia

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Oljira, Lemessa

    2013-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion in the developing world accounts for 13% of all maternal deaths. Ethiopia is one of the developing countries with the highest maternal mortality ratio (673 per 100,000 live births) in the world. Unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Objective To assess post abortion care quality status in health facilities of Guraghe zone. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study design with both quantitative and qualitative metho...

  16. Implications of food production and price shocks for household welfare in Ethiopia: a general equilibrium analysis

    Robinson, Sherman; Willenbockel, Dirk; Ahmed, Hashim; Dorosh, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines recent movements in domestic cereal prices in Ethiopia in light of world price movements and production trends, and then uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the effects of various types of shocks on prices, incomes and food consumption, particularly for poor households. Several basic scenarios are considered, including the implications of drought-induced livestock and crop production shortfalls in various regions of Ethiopia, world price increases a...

  17. Health inequalities in Ethiopia: modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups

    Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima Abdella; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011.

    Methods: We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logi...

  18. Domestic violence in a developing context: The perspectives of women in Northern Ethiopia

    Allen, Mary; Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization's multicountry study of the prevalence rates of intimate partner violence found extremely high rates of violence against women in Ethiopia. This article seeks to develop an understanding of this violence further. By drawing on focus group research conducted with women in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, it explores the types of domestic violence experienced by these women, the impact of this violence, the reasons for it, and the multiple resistanc...

  19. A methodology for the adoptation of information systems in least developed countries (LDCs) : case study Ethiopia

    Kebbede, Sirak

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia is one of the United Nation’s Least Developed Countries (LDCs), and is ranked as one of the absolute least developed in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) development and penetration. Ethiopia has only 0.5 Internet users per 100 residents and 6 telephone lines per 100 residents, which is one of the lowest penetration rates in the world. Additional issues include the limitation of most Internet access to cities and a monopoly telecommunications provide that contr...

  20. Epidemiological and clinical correlates of malaria-helminth co-infections in southern Ethiopia

    MULU, Andargachew; Legesse, Mengistu; Erko, Berhanu; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Nugussie, Demise; Shimelis, Techalew; KASSU, Afework; Elias, Daniel; Moges, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    Background In many areas of the world, including Ethiopia, malaria and helminths are co-endemic, therefore, co-infections are common. However, little is known how concurrent infections affect the epidemiology and/or pathogenesis of each other. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of intestinal helminth infections on the epidemiology and clinical patterns of malaria in southern Ethiopia where both infections are prevalent. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2...

  1. Magnitude and correlates of intimate partner violence against women and its outcome in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Deribe, K.; Beyene, BK; Tolla, A; Memiah, P.; Biadgilign, S; Amberbir, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. METHODS This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software...

  2. Second Ethiopia Economic Update : Laying the Foundation for Achieving Middle Income Status

    World Bank, (WB)

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, Ethiopia has achieved high economic growth, averaging 10.7 percent per year. In 2012, Ethiopia was the 12th fastest growing economy in the World. If the country can continue its historically impressive growth performance, it could potentially reach middle income status by 2025. This, in turn, may require an adjustment in economic policy to phase in the private sector ...

  3. Malaria risk factors in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis

    Woyessa, Adugna; Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Background The highlands of Ethiopia, situated between 1,500 and 2,500 m above sea level, experienced severe malaria epidemics. Despite the intensive control attempts, underway since 2005 and followed by an initial decline, the disease remained a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify malaria risk factors in highland-fringe south-central Ethiopia.

    Methods This study was conducted in six rural kebeles ...

  4. A REVIEW ON INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ETHIOPIA: ADAPTATION, STATUS AND SURVIVAL

    Getinet MEKURIAW; Adebabay KEBEDE

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia is endowed with different Indigenous cattle genetic resources with millions of people directly depending on them. However, despite the potentials of these diversified genetic resources, the huge loss of cattle genetic diversity is becoming a prominent challenge these days. The aim of this review is to show the current status and performance of some selected indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia for better understanding of the situation of these breeds for the collective efforts toward...

  5. Survey on composition of perennial vegetation in Sesa Mariam Monastery, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Meshesha, Birhanu Woldie; Tsegay, Berhanu Abraha; Telake, Birhanu Belay

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustainable use of natural resources is one of the leading agenda because anthropogenic activities are leading to the depletion of these resources. Ethiopia is one of the biodiversity reach areas in the world, but the floral diversity is being threatened before they are fully explored. In line with this, very little is known about the flora of Sesa Mariam monastery, found in northwest Ethiopia. The area is one of the few remnant monastery forests in the country with old aged tree s...

  6. Tourists-perceived service quality and satisfaction of sustainable tourism in Ethiopia

    Woldesenbet, Addis

    2015-01-01

    For the economic development tourism plays a great role for countries like Ethiopia. As international tourism continues to grow from time to time, it is necessary to maintain the tourism sector for generations. As a result, sustainable tourism becomes the best tool to achieve the goal. The purpose of this study is to measure the sustainable tourism management with regard to tourists’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the service they get while they staying in Ethiopia. The study has used the...

  7. Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Antimalarials in the Community of Silte Zone, South Ethiopia

    Nasir Tajure Wabe; Dargicho Ahmed; Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials occurs among the population in Ethiopian. We studied to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in Ethiopia and evaluate factors associated with self-medications. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 households, selected from Silte Zone in South Ethiopia, using a random sampling technique by employing a pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. ...

  8. Local forest governance in Ethiopia: Between legal pluralism and livelihood realities

    Stellmacher, Till

    2013-01-01

    Ethiopia's montane rainforests have witnessed high rates of depletion and deforestation in the last decades. The main reasons are expansion and intensification of smallholder agriculture and forestry. Forest governance in Ethiopia is characterized by the complex interaction of factors such as nationalization of land, weak state structures, the persistence of traditional local institutions, and socio-cultural heterogeneity promoted by state-enforced resettlement. This paper aims to contribute ...

  9. Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Gezahegn Tesfaye; Mitiku Teshome Hambisa; Agumasie Semahegn

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit ...

  10. Foreign Direct Investment Development between European Union and Least Developed Countries : Business Opportunities in Ethiopia.

    Eshete, Biruhe; Gebre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a category of international investment that indicates an intention to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy. This study assesses the development of FDI between EU and Least Developed Countries and also examines investment opportunities in Ethiopia. The primary goal was to examine economical and social contribution of FDI inflow. In addition, this study assesses Ethiopia's business opportunity, FDI policies, incentives ...

  11. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 27 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.

  12. Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia

    Andr Lindner; Endalamaw, Tefera B.; Jrgen Pretzsch

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka) and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa) via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key a...

  13. Prevalence of Refractive Errors Among School Children in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    Assefa Wolde Yared; Wasie Taye Belaynew; Shiferaw Destaye; Tsegaw Ayanaw; Eshete Zelalem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many children with poor vision due to refractive error remain undiagnosed and perform poorly in school. The situation is worse in the Sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, and current information is lacking. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of refractive error among children enrolled in elementary schools in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 1852 students in 8 elementary schools. Subjects were selected b...

  14. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia

    Tilahun Mesfin; Mengistie Bezatu; Egata Gudina; Reda Ayalu A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010....

  15. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home.Conclusion: The government’s endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of women deliver at home and this was found to be the preferred option. Thus, the current form of intervention needs to focus on factors that determine decisions to deliver at home and also focus on investing in improving service delivery at health facilities. Keywords: maternal health service, utilization of maternal health, antenatal care, cultural determinants

  16. Study on coccidiosis of scavenging indigenous chickens in Central Ethiopia.

    Ashenafi, H; Tadesse, S; Medhin, G; Tibbo, M

    2004-10-01

    An investigation was made into coccidiosis of 190 scavenging indigenous chickens between September 2000 and April 2001 in three selected agroclimatic zones, in central Ethiopia. This was done through clinical, postmortem and microscopic examinations. Data were processed by chi-square and Mantel-Haenzel test. The study indicated that 25.8% (49/190) of the chickens were infected with coccidiosis and found to harbour one to four different species of Eimeria. Of these infected chickens, 30 (15.8%) and 19 (10.0%) were positive for clinical and sub-clinical coccidiosis, respectively. There was a significant altitude difference (chi2 = 14.7, p poultry products in developing countries, knowledge of production constraints in traditional management practices could help devise control strategies for constraints on backyard poultry production systems. PMID:15563030

  17. Conservation and Livelihood Impacts of Decentralized Forest Governance in Ethiopia

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha

    livelihood, forest governance and forest conditions in Ethiopia? The study approaches these questions by disentangling outcomes that can be attributed to PFM rather than other factors through quasi-experimental designs. The significance of the study lays in its holistic assessment of the theoretically......The dissertation focuses on a specific form of forest decentralization, participatory forest management (PFM). The underlying premise of PFM is that sustainable forest management is most likely to occur when local communities manage local forests, and when they get access to direct benefits from...... participating in forest management. However, the outcomes of PFM have so far been reported as “mixed” and where success is reported, it usually relates to the forest condition rather than to improving local livelihoods. The key research questions in this PhD study are what have been the impacts of PFM on...

  18. A review of uranium minerals exploration in Ethiopia

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa, Illubabor and Wollega administrative regions. Much of the country has been examined by geologists, but it would be premature to say that there are no further deposits of useful minerals awaiting discovery. Only a comparatively small part of the country has been geologically mapped so far on a systematic basis. Geologic maps at scales of 1:100,000 to 1:25,000 should be prepared for areas where mineral deposits are to be prospected for and where known deposits are to be developed or exploited. At present the best available geological map is one at a scale of 1:250, 000. This and other programs of mineral exploration basically call, among others, for: - Equipment and funds from bilateral, multilateral and local sources; - A national program geared towards uranium mineral exploration; - Heavy investment in infrastructure to get to many of the deposits, which are located in remote parts of the country; - International and regional cooperation in uranium mineral resources research. Finally, participation in international conferences such as this organized by the IAEA will give us, researchers in developing countries, good impetus to get moving and do useful research in uranium exploration and its uses. Research collaboration with scientists in the developed world is very essential to accelerate forward the creeping research in developing countries. (author)

  19. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  20. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215

  1. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits

    Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2007-11-22

    The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)

  2. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  3. Ethiopia before the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies

    E. Brems

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known together with their additional protocols as the coreinternational human rights instruments:- The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination;- The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;- The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women;- The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment;- The Convention on the Rights of the Child;- The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in internationalhuman rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining thetreaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years. The international committees examine the reports submitted bythe state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nationsmaterials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of thisprocess the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system.

  4. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey played a leading role in conducting a National Workshop that designed the programme's basic features. (author)

  5. Registration of ‘AMBERICHO’ a Newly Released Field Pea (Pisum sativum L) Variety for the Southern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Yayis Rezene; Fitsum Alemayehu; Fikadu Gurmu; Fisseha Negash; Bahilu Banteyirgu; Yasin Goa

    2015-01-01

    Ambericho (IG-51664) with a large and white seeded field pea variety was selected and developed by Areka Agricultural Research Center, southern Ethiopia. This variety was selected from the regional variety trial tested together 15 other test genotypes including local and standard checks at 8 environments. Finally the variety was officially released for wider production in the southern highlands of Ethiopia.

  6. Phase-Out of Leaded Gasoline in Oil Importing Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa : The Case of Ethiopia

    Bultynck, Patrick; Reliquet, Chantal

    2003-01-01

    This is one of four documents of a series presenting the results of studies, workshops and action plans recently undertaken for four sub-Saharan African countries (Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania and Tanzania) on the elimination of lead in gasoline. This document describes the work realized in Ethiopia. These four countries have the particularity of being oil importing countries without local r...

  7. Causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mengistu Asnake Kibret

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObstetric fistula (OF is one of the major potential complications of childbirth mostly young women in developing countries including Ethiopia. Though few scientific studies have been conducted related to its causes and consequences, it is challenging to find a comprehensive figure about obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper sought that to review the causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. A number of relevant obstetrics and gynaecology websites and journals were reviewed. Google, Pubmed, and Hinari searching engines were used to find out relevant references. Year of publication, location, language and its type of publication were the inclusion criteria used for reviewing literatures. It is observed that obstetric fistula has been a major burdened mainly for women in the rural Ethiopian and its causes and consequences are very deep and diverse. The great majority of obstetric fistula causes in Ethiopia is due to Obstetric labour. Distance to the health care facility, transportation access, economic factors (poverty, poor knowledge related to the problem, poor health seeking behaviour of the affected women and age at first marriage are the other triggering factors. Stigma and discrimination of obstetric fistula patients by their husbands and families, economic dependency and psychological disorder are often mentioned as consequences for OF patients in Ethiopia.

  8. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190

  9. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028

  10. Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia

    New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia

  11. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia

    Abebe Fekadu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2% were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8% were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists. Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91 and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98 were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54. Extra-pulmonary TB was the only observed predictor for health care providers' delay (aOR. 3.39, CI 1.68–6.83. Conclusion Patient delay observed among pastoralist TB patients in SRS is one of the highest reported so far from developing countries, exceeding two years in some patients. This long patient delay appears to be associated with patient's inadequate knowledge of the disease and distance to health care facility with nomadic pastoralists being the most affected. Regional TB control programmes need to consider the exceptional circumstances of pastoralists, to maximise their access to TB services.

  12. Cystic echinococcosis amongst small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia

    Habtamu Assefa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systematic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified macroscopically during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability were determined. CE was observed in 21 (8.02% sheep and 17 (6.80% goats. In sheep 13 (4.96% of the lungs, 10 (3.81% livers and 1 (0.381% heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. Involvement of lung and liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0% and 8 (3.2% respectively, with no cysts recorded in the heart. Of the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33 (42.85% and 15 (31.91% respectively were fertile. Viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts in sheep (29 [87.87%] was higher than in goats (6 [40.0%]. For humans, retrospective analysis covering five years of case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa between January 2008 and December 2012 showed that of the total of 25 840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately 0.18 cases per 100 000 population. Liver was the major organ affected in humans (81.5% in affected patients followed by spleen (11.1% and kidney (7.4%. Logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of CE varied significantly in relation to host age in the small ruminants (OR = 3.93, P < 0.05 as well as in humans (95% CI, R = 4.8. This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia, emphasising the need for integrated approaches to controlling this neglected preventable disease.

  13. FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN DANGILA MUNICIPALITY, ETHIOPIA. PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

    Tendayi GONDO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal decentralization is one component of decentralization that gives authority to local governments to collectrevenue through taxes and responsibility over spending decisions. Even though fiscal decentralization has givenrevenue raising and spending decision powers to lower levels of government, the implementation process hasoften been a daunting task for many local authorities in the developing world. In the case of Ethiopia,decentralization has been implemented since 1991. However, revenue raising and expenditure management arenot efficiently and effectively exercised, especially in lower level government units of Ethiopia. Insufficient revenuecollection and reprehensible expenditure management leads to financial incapability such that public infrastructureand services could not be financed amply. Dangila municipality faces the problem of financial capacity to deliverinfrastructure and services to its citizens. While a number of studies have documented the financial incapacities ofEthiopian municipalities, they have been very shy to articulate the discrepancies and deficiencies that linkfinancing to service delivery. It is interesting to know what the driving factors are in this case. Therefore, the mainfocus of this paper is to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of revenue collection and expendituremanagement of Dangila Municipality. To obtain edifying data the paper used a positivist survey study. Municipalityfinancial documentation and questionnaires were the main sources of secondary and primary data respectively.Parametric descriptive statistical methods were applied in the analysis of data to arrive at measures of efficiencyand effectiveness in revenue collection and expenditure management of the municipality. The study revealed thatthe municipality is not efficient and effective in its revenue collection and expenditure management. The mainexplanation for such inefficiency comprise; derisory assessment of taxable sources, poor organizational structure,inadequate accounting system, absence of clear operational guidelines, poor planning and data basemanagement, lack of awareness by taxpayers and lack of skilled manpower. To resolve such challenges, werecommend the following actionable measures; widening the revenue base of local sources of revenue, improvingplanning and implementing capacity, establishing adequate data base systems, continuous awareness creation fortaxpayers, establishing appropriate guidelines and methods of revenue collection, revision of the tariff structureregularly, installing accounting system that produces timely and reliable information, encouraging communityparticipation in planning and resource allocation and municipal restructuring that take into account needs andwelfare of employees.

  14. Sedimentology and Lithostratigraphy of Paleozoic Sedimentary Successions of Northern Ethiopia

    Dubey, Nageshwar; Bheemalingeswara, Konka; Nyssen, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Paleozoic sedimentary successions of Ethiopia form a very important chapter in Ethiopian Geology. Present study is a re-examination of such successions in northern Ethiopia, deposited in continental environments, in the light of modern concepts of depositional environments and litho-facies. Although they have very poor preservation potential, as they are dominated by erosional activities, deposits of continental environments are noticed in the study area. They are mappable, although occurring in patches, unconformably overlying the Proterozoic metamorphic basement rocks. The Paleozoic sedimentary lithostratigraphic units ESF (Enticho Sandstone Formation) and ATF (Adaga Arbi Tillite Formation) are totally different in their lithological characters. ESF is dominated by medium to coarse, cross-bedded, moderately sorted, white sandstones with occasional occurrence of muddy lenses rich in iron oxide and oligomectic conglomerates. The large size of cross-bedding as well as textural inversion of well-rounded and sub-angular grains suggest aeolian influence during deposition of this unit in a braided and meandering fluvial setting, the outwash of reworked glacial materials. ATF is characterized by the dominance of ferruginous, mud-matrix rich, un-stratified, unsorted tillites with large size, angular boulders derived from Precambrian source and deposited by glaciers. ESF is regarded as older and ATF younger by many workers on the basis of field occurrences. The former is overlain by the latter but often the reverse field relationship is also observed. However, there is no doubt about their glacial origin. At certain localities, in ATF, a muddy lithology with thin layers (varves) has also been observed with interrupted layers of mud by large and angular embedded dropstones. This unit, although rare in occurrence, clearly indicates their deposition in a pro-glacial lacustrine environment. Therefore, a glacio-lacustrine-fluvial depositional model is suggested on the basis of lithological characters of the Paleozoic sedimentary successions of the study area. Successive episodes of three parallel depositional environments are responsible for the development of three different litho-facies associations during Paleozoic Era. This is the reason why sometimes ESF is overlain by ATF and vice versa. An interfingering relationship of these two lithostratigraphic units seems to be more logical than independent entities. This model explains the simultaneous occurrence of three environmements (Glacial - Lake - River) producing three different litho-facies (Till - Varve with dropstones - Sand). During the Paleozoic Era, many such episodes were responsible for the production of thick successions on the peneplaned basements towards the terminal part of glacier sheets melting and producing lake/fluvial systems.

  15. Feasibility study of a wind powered water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Misrak Girma; Marta Molina; Abebayehu Assefa

    2015-01-01

    Water is the primary source of life for mankind and one of the most basic necessities for rural development. Most of the rural areas of Ethiopia do not have access to potable water. Is some regions of the country access potable water is available through use of manual pumping and Diesel engine. In this research, wind water pump is designed to supply drinking water for three selected rural locations in Ethiopia. The design results show that a 5.7 m diameter windmill is required for pumping wat...

  16. Setting up Micro-enterprises to Promote Soybean Utilization at Household Level in Ethiopia

    Blomne Sopov, M.; Sertse, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This project built on the previous work of the Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR in the soy sector development in Ethiopia. As processors were linked more and more to producers in the soy sector, the need arose to explore options to enhance household nutrition security of producers in soy growing areas. One of such option was setting up a pilot microenterprise based on the VitaGoat system at the most successful soy growing cooperative in Ethiopia. The VitaGoat system has been a...

  17. Trend Analysis of Malaria Occurrence in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    Deresse Legesse; Yusuf Haji; Solomon Abreha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The trend of malaria occurrence remains unknown in the study area. This study is aimed at determining the last five years’ trend of malaria occurrence from 2008/09 to 2012/13 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted in Wolaita Zone from March to August, 2014. Five years’ laboratory confirmed malaria record review was made from six health centers. Result. A total of 1...

  18. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely populated Gedeo country (500 persons per km 2) covers highlands (range 1200 to 3000m asl) between 5 oand 7 oNorth and 38 oand 40 oEast, in the escarpment of the Rift Valley facing Lake Abaya. Based on perennial cropping, emphasis on tre...

  19. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    Friis, Ib

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa.......An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  20. Challenges and Opportunities of Implementing District-based Health Information System in Ethiopia

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    This paper has analyzed the challenges of sustainability and scalability of HIS. The empirical analysis was conducted in a backward and disadvantaged region of Ethiopia. An ongoing process of HISP (Health Information System Program) was addressed and the main challenges in the implementation of...... sustainable and scalable district-based health information system in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC) sector in Ethiopia were identified. Human resource, infrastructure, and HIS related problems are the main challenges hindering the implementation of sustainable and scalable district-based health...

  1. HRD Climate Dimensions in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia

    Anil Kanamarlapudi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present day fierce competitive environment, the forward looking organizations are giving utmost care to attract, develop and retain the best talent as people are considered to be the source of competitive advantage. In order to survive and thrive in the competitive environment, the organizations are keen to develop the competencies of the people and are giving importance to Human Resource Development (HRD. The main objective of the research paper is to study different dimensions of HRD climate in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia (CBE. The scope of the study is confined to 10 branches of CBE and the sample for the study constitutes 190 staff. The results of the study indicated that Collaboration among the employees of CBE is high followed by Trust and Openness and autonomy is considered to be the least. The study also revealed that there is significant difference in HRD dimensions - authenticity, autonomy, collaboration, confrontation and trust dimensions between the branches of CBE while F-value is insignificant for openness and pro-action dimensions indicating that openness and pro-action dimensions of HRD climate do not significantly differ between the branches of CBE.

  2. Fertilizer supply chain in Ethiopia: structure, performance and policy analysis

    Johanes U.I. Agbahey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, less than 40% of farmers use fertilizer and those who do, apply rates significantly below those recommended. This low fertilizer use is primarily due to prices being two to three times higher than prices on the world markets. Reducing the price of fertilizer requires a sound understanding of the product´s supply chain. This study investigates whether fertilizer is delivered to farmers in an efficient way and at the lowest possible costs using an institutional economics framework. It was conducted in the Arsi zone and relied on secondary data as well as primary data collected through interviews. The findings point out the presence of several formal and informal institutions regulating the market. A market monopoly at each stage of the supply chain and a striking correspondence between the central organization of the chain and the rise in left-over stocks were observed. This pinpoints the imperfect structure of the chain and a misallocation of resources locked up in fertilizer stockholding. In order to improve the demand estimation procedure, this study suggests that incentives should be instituted to enhance the reliability of the information transferred along the process. Additionally, expert knowledge used in the process should be well documented, stock inventories should not be limited to central warehouses and stockholding needs to be reduced.

  3. The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia)

    Poppe, Ludwin; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Frankl, Amaury

    2013-04-01

    The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (15 077 km, Nile basin, Ethiopia) was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed in a GIS system. It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and -metry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes. The scale is 1:500 000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and ultimately sculpted by (mainly water) erosion. Lake Tana emerged by the combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. Since the time that the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive floodplains were created, river valleys have been filled with sediment and higher laying topography has been eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased lake extent (3041 km now) as compared to the ancient maximum (6602 km). Dominant processes today are merely fluvial and denudative. Recent (1886-2010) changes in lake coast are small with exception of the delta of the major feeding river, Gilgel Abay, which increased disproportionally the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.

  4. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia.

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J; Hambidge, K Michael

    2008-03-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 ± 1.19 SD, and length z score of -1.05 ± 1.31. The age-appropriate novelty preference was shown by only 12 infants. When age was controlled, longest look duration during familiarization was predicted by weight (sr(2) = .16, p = .001) and length (sr(2) = .05, p =.058), and mean look duration during test phases was predicted by head circumference (sr(2) = .08, p = .018) implying that growth is associated with development of VIP. These data support the validity of VIP as a measure of infant cognitive development that is sensitive to nutritional factors and flexible enough to be adapted to individual cultures. PMID:19684873

  5. Dropping out of Ethiopia's community-based health insurance scheme.

    Mebratie, Anagaw D; Sparrow, Robert; Yilma, Zelalem; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun S

    2015-12-01

    Low contract renewal rates have been identified as one of the challenges facing the development of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes. This article uses longitudinal household survey data gathered in 2012 and 2013 to examine dropout in the case of Ethiopia's pilot CBHI scheme. We treat dropout as a function of scheme affordability, health status, scheme understanding and quality of care. The scheme saw enrolment increase from 41% 1 year after inception to 48% a year later. An impressive 82% of those who enrolled in the first year renewed their subscriptions, while 25% who had not enrolled joined the scheme. The analysis shows that socioeconomic status, a greater understanding of health insurance and experience with and knowledge of the CBHI scheme are associated with lower dropout rates. While there are concerns about the quality of care and the treatment meted out to the insured by providers, the overall picture is that returns from the scheme are overwhelmingly positive. For the bulk of households, premiums do not seem to be onerous, basic understanding of health insurance is high and almost all those who are currently enrolled signalled their desire to renew contracts. PMID:25616670

  6. Motor Pump Revolution in Ethiopia: Promises at a Crossroads

    Mengistu Dessalegn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, motor pump irrigation is at an earlier stage than in Asia but is growing rapidly in many countries. The focus of both policy and research in Africa to date has been on facilitating supply chains to make pumps available at a reasonable price. In Africa, pump irrigation is mainly based on two sources: shallow groundwater aquifers and small streams and rivers. Both usually have limited and variable yields. We present a case study from Ethiopia where pump irrigation based on small rivers and streams is expanding rapidly, and draw parallels to experiences in Asia and other African countries. We show that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share with policymakers a narrow understanding of pump irrigation as being primarily 'technical'. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the 'social' limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over the limited water resource. We analyse the wider implications for Africa of this blindness to the social dimension of pump irrigation and offer suggestions on future policy and applied research to address the problem before it becomes a widespread crisis.

  7. Determinants of Smallholder Pulse Producers Market Orientation in Southern Ethiopia

    Tewodros Tefera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulse crops production and factors influencing the intensity market orientation were conducted in selected districts of southern Ethiopia. A total of 183 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using structured schedule. The finding reveals that 73% of households produce haricot beans in the study areas on about 17.2% of total cultivated land. Out of the total produce of haricot bean close to 56% were sold. Next to haricot bean, chickpea is important pulse crop and is produced by 26.8% of the households. About 69.5% of total chickpea produce was sold indicating that chickpea is an even more important cash crop. The average level of market orientation index for haricot bean was 0.4 while that of chickpea 0.53, indicating moderate level of households market orientation. The Tobit estimation result show that household head education level, access to credit and land per capita positively influenced chickpea market orientation while being male head of a household and accesses to credit increased the predicted value of haricot bean market orientation. The key implication of this study is that interventions aimed at promoting market orientation of pulse crops should promote smallholder access to credit, human capital development and women empowerment.

  8. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  9. Isotope Hydrology Projects in Ethiopia Provide Valuable Information and Training

    Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.

  10. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and...... Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  11. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  12. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based

  13. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  14. Strengthening Family Planning with Community-based Nutrition Interventions in Ethiopia : A Qualitative Study

    Sellen, Daniel; Sharif, Sharmin; Tefera, Bethlehem; Hyder, Ziauddin

    2012-01-01

    A small-scale, exploratory, and qualitative operational research study was conducted in early 2011 to capture and examine stakeholder perspectives on integrated family planning (FP) programs implemented through Ethiopia's health extension program (HEP). Qualitative indications are that various stakeholders on both the supply and the demand side perceive that specific community-based nutrit...

  15. Federalism and Ethnic Minorities in Ethiopia: Ideology, Territoriality, Human Rights, Policy

    Marco Bassi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 Ethiopia has adopted a new constitution, considered one of the most advanced in terms of provisions for human rights. The progressive ratification of several international treaties on minority rights had already begun in 1991, immediately after the fall of the Derg regime. This progress has brought Ethiopia into the UN monitoring system, but the review of the official UN documents reveals the mismatch between the mentioned constitutional and international steps and the on-ground situation. This article considers two possible causes of this gap. The first is the particular form of ethnic federalism, first introduced with the Charter of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia and later developed in the new constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE. The second is the contradiction between the constitutional theory based on the fundamental political freedoms, and the political practice of the ruling party, grounded in revolutionary democracy, a post-Marxist ideology based on the Leninist democratic centralism and on some of the principles of the developmental state. In this article the problems identified by a UN independent expert on minority issues have been reconsidered with reference to the Ethiopian pastoral minorities. Special attention is paid to the controversy on the construction of the Gibe 3 dam along the course of the Omo River. This article claims that minority and indigenous rights are compatible with ethnic federalism as defined in the FDRE constitution, but are in conflict with the praxis inspired by the working ideology of the ruling party.

  16. Wild edible plants in Ethiopia: a review on their potential to combat food insecurity

    Lulekal, Ermias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews literature on ethnobotanical knowledge of wild edible plants and their potential role in combating food insecurity in Ethiopia. Information on a total of 413 wild edible plants belonging to 224 genera and 77 families was compiled in this review. Shrubs represented 31% of species followed by trees (30%, herbs (29% and climbers (9%. Families Fabaceae (35 species, Tiliaceae (20 and Capparidaceae (19 were found to be represented by the highest number of edible species. About 56% (233 of species have edibility reports from more than one community in Ethiopia. Fruits were reported as the commonly utilized edible part in 51% of species. It was found that studies on wild edible plants of Ethiopia cover only about 5% of the countrys districts which indicates the need for more ethnobotanical research addressing all districts. Although there have been some attempts to conduct nutritional analyses of wild edible plants, available results were found to be insignificant when compared to the wild edible plant wealth of the country. Results also show that wild edible plants of Ethiopia are used as supplementary, seasonal or survival food sources in many cultural groups, and hence play a role in combating food insecurity. The presence of anthropogenic and environmental factors affecting the wild plant wealth of the country calls for immediate action so as to effectively document, produce a development plan and utilize the plants.

  17. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,

  18. Population ecology of rodents of maize fields and grassland in central Ethiopia

    Bekel'e, Afework; Leirs, Herwig

    We report on the presence of rodents in grassland and maize fields in central Ethiopia, during the course of a 21-month study by means of removal and capture-recapture trapping. In both habitats, the small mammal fauna consisted of the same species but in different relative proportions: Arvicanthis...

  19. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  20. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.

  1. Conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV among people living with HIV in Ethiopia

    Olsen, Mette; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Tesfaye, Markos; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The WHOQOL instruments are intended for cross-cultural studies of quality of life (QoL) but African countries have been poorly represented in its development. This study aimed to explore the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: The fieldwork included home visits, in...

  2. Endline report – Ethiopia, HOA-REC MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, H.E.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HOA-REC. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  3. Ethiopia - Diversifying the Rural Economy : An Assessment of the Investment Climate for Small and Informal Enterprises

    World Bank (WB)

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia's rural non-farm sector is significant and participation is increasing. The sector is particularly important for women and poorer households. Non-farm enterprises provide income-earning opportunities to those lacking alternative options and supplementary income for farming households. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter lays the analytical groundwork fo...

  4. The impact of indoor residual spraying on malaria incidence in East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia

    Shallo Daba Hamusse

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population resides in areas prone to malaria infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS on the incidence of malaria in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia.Methods: Data from the registers of malaria cases at Debrezeit Malaria Control Center in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia were collected and analyzed. Records of 22 villages with no previous rounds of spraying that were entirely covered with IRS using DDT during the peak malaria transmission season of 2001 and 2002 and other 22 adjacent villages with similar malaria incidence but remained unsprayed were used for the analyses.Results: The incidence of malaria in 2011 and 2002 among the sprayed villages was lower than the respective preceding years for both Plasmodium species (incidence rate ratio 0.60; CI 0.35 to 0.95; p < 0.0001. After the focal spray, there was significant reduction in malaria incidence in the villages sprayed. Spraying was associated with a 62% reduction in malaria incidence.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that IRS with DDT was effective in reducing malaria incidence in highland epidemic-prone areas in the East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia. A larger scale study should evaluate the effectiveness of DDT in reducing malaria incidence against its environmental impact and alternative strategies for malaria prevention.

  5. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major

  6. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development : Public Expenditure Review for 1997-98 and 2005-06

    World Bank, (WB)

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  7. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  8. Ethiopia - Toward the Competitive Frontier : Strategies for Improving Ethiopia’s Investment Climate

    World Bank, (WB)

    2009-01-01

    The productivity and investment climate survey suggests that the perceptions managers have of the investment climate in Ethiopia has improved dramatically since the first investment climate survey in 2001-2002. The share of managers and owners who report being constrained by the investment climate, defined as the 'location-specific factors that shape the opportunities and incentives for fi...

  9. Ethiopia - Accelerating Equitable Growth : Country Economic Memorandum, Part 2. Thematic Chapters

    World Bank, (WB)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents an update on the economic challenges facing Ethiopia with a focus on the shared goal of accelerating equitable growth. The starting point is the Government's own Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), which is in the process of finalization, and is designed to cover the period 2005-2010. This report proposes that the growth strategy sho...

  10. The Cost of Land Degradation in Ethiopia : A Review of Past Studies

    World Bank, (WB)

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews past studies on the costs of land degradation in Ethiopia, with a view to drawing implications for policies, programs, and future research on sustainable land management (SLM). Given the wide range of methods and assumptions used in the studies, their findings concerning annual costs of land degradation relative to agricultural gross domestic product (AGDP) are of remark...

  11. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  12. Ethiopia : Urban Labor Markets, Challenges and Prospects, Volume 1. Synthesis Report

    World Bank (WB)

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on a central element of Ethiopia's challenge: the urban labor market. The headlines, which are detailed in the report, are dramatic, and include the following: open unemployment has been persistently high and average duration is long, though recent trends suggest improved performance. There is a significant segmentation-two relatively privileged sector in the public and...

  13. Federalism in Africa: The Case of Ethnic-based Federalism in Ethiopia

    Wondwosen Teshome

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted ethnic federalism and restructured the regions along ethnic lines as soon as the EPRDF took political power by overthrowing the Marxist military government in 1991. The aim of this paper is to examine the merits and the demerits of federalism. The paper particularly assesses federalism in Africa by taking the case of Ethiopia as an example. The paper argues that in order to ensure the success of federalism, it should not be imposed from above. Since its introduction in 1991 and officially sanctioned in the countrys 1994 Constitution, ethnic federalism and Article 39 of the Constitution that awarded the self-rule states (regions the right to secede has become the major source of intense debate. For some, ethnic federalism and the right to secede discourage ethnic tensions in the country and encourage the various ethnic groups to live together peacefully. However, for others, this experiment can go out of hand and may lead the country into never-ending ethnic wars and eventually to disintegration. This paper, by taking into account of Ethiopias and other countries experiences, will examine both sides of the arguments.

  14. Application of field methods to assess isometamidium resistance of trypanosomes in cattle in western Ethiopia

    Tewelde, N.; Abebe, G.; Eisler, M.; McDermott, J.; Greiner, Matthias; Afework, Y.; Kyule, M.; Munstermann, S.; Zessin, K.H.; Clausen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the degree of isometamidium resistance of trypanosomes infecting cattle in the upper Didessa valley of western Ethiopia. An initial prevalence study was conducted to identify sites with a high risk of trypanosmosis in cattle. The trypanosome prevalence varied widely, with two...

  15. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

  16. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  17. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  18. Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation: Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia's South

    Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…

  19. Ethiopia - Urban Labor Markets : Challenges and Prospects, Volume 2. Background Paper

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on a central element of Ethiopia's challenge: the urban labor market. The headlines, which are detailed in the report, are dramatic, and include the following: open unemployment has been persistently high and average duration is long, though recent trends suggest improved performance. There is a significant segmentation-two relatively privileged sector in the public and...

  20. Ethiopia - A Qualitative Understanding of Local Traditional Knowledge and Medicinal Plant Use

    World Bank (WB)

    2003-01-01

    The fieldwork-based study aims to gain insight into the local distribution of traditional health knowledge and the uses of various medicinal plants among ordinary men and women in rural communities, who constitute the vast majority of Ethiopia's population. The overall aim of the research is to contribute to the growing body of literature and experience pertaining to the role of indigenous...

  1. Bartonella Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Small Mammals from Ethiopia

    Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros; Breno, Matteo; Tomas, Zewdneh; Kidane, Dawit; Girmay, Kokob; de Bellocq, Joëlle Gouÿ

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp of the Barto...

  2. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  3. Review: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012) Buchbesprechung: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012)

    Tekeste Negash

    2013-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback), ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover), xviv + 209 pp. + maps and illustrationsBesprechung der Monographie:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback), ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover), xviv + 209...

  4. Review: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012 Buchbesprechung: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012

    Tekeste Negash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback, ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover, xviv + 209 pp. + maps and illustrationsBesprechung der Monographie:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback, ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover, xviv + 209 Seiten + Karten und Illustrationen

  5. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.

  6. Low-land Gully Formation in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation and related processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are global phenomena. Their economic consequences however are more severe in developing countries, which lack resources for prevention and mitigation. In Ethiopia, therefore, gully erosion as a form of land degradation is a prime issue. Over the past decade, gullies have formed in the foothills of the Minizr sub-catchment in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia. Local extension workers have reported increased gully growth rates in the past five years in the downslope foothill areas. This study answers the following questions: has the gully growth rate indeed increased over the past five years compared to historical rates? What is the mechanism behind gully formation in the study area? In addition, this study looked at three possible root causes for increased erosion rates: changing land use, an increase in the ground water level, and the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the watershed of the study area. The merit of this study is twofold. First, it shows the applicability of a fast, accessible and accurate way to digitally represent gullies through the use of video footage and photogrammetry. Secondly, it shows the dominant processes in gully formation in the area, allowing for a justified selection of measures to halt further gully growth and rehabilitate existing gullies. Two medium and one large gully were selected for detailed analysis. All gullies were located in gently-sloped areas (0-5%), with Vertisol-dominated soils. Gully shape and volume were derived using terrestrial photogrammetry in AgiSoft PhotoScan Professional. Still frames exported from video footage served as input. Approximately 30 points per gully were sampled weekly for soil moisture content over the course of September, November, and December 2014. In addition, the sites were checked for signs of subsurface flow at the end of the rainy season and again 3 months into the dry season. We expect that erosion rates have increased compared to historical rates. Gully formation in the study area is primarily driven by subsurface flow, leading to dispersion and bank collapse. Extensive signs of subsurface flows are visible in and around all research gullies. Land use has not changed significantly over the past decade, so will not have played a role in the increased erosion rates. The influence of the change in groundwater level since reservoir construction (2011) is pending analysis of current groundwater levels. With the implementation of stone bunds and fanja yuu on all fields on every hillslope surrounding the study area, infiltration will have increased significantly. Although this has decreased overland runoff, it will have increased ground water flows toward the study area and therefore made the area more susceptible to erosion through subsurface flow mechanisms.

  7. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    Tilahun M. Hiwotu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories.Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges.Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hoursfor cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star ratinglevels.Results: Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01; and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01,respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% ofthe first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified.Conclusion: Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities.

  8. Seed ecology and regeneration in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia

    Teketay, D. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Various aspects of seed and regeneration ecology: germination requirements of seeds, seed longevity in the soil, soil seed banks in forests, gaps and arable land as well as density, survival and growth of seedlings were investigated within the dry Afromontane region in Ethiopia. In laboratory germination tests, 60% of the species studied exhibited some degree of initial dormancy and the optimum constant temperature for germination was between 20 and 25 deg C in the majority of the species. A few species showed a requirement for fluctuating temperatures and germination was suppressed or completely inhibited in several, mainly small-seeded, species when they were incubated in darkness or in light filtered through green leaves. Hard-seeded species required scarification treatments to improve germination, indicating seed-coat imposed dormancy. Dry storage reduced the germinability of seeds in a few species, suggesting a recalcitrant behaviour, while seeds of many species remained unaffected. During four years of storage in forest soils, seeds of 2 out of 8 species germinated in the soil almost completely within a year, 2 of the species maintained nearly full viability, while 4 were intermediate. The generally high levels of dormancy and somewhat extended viability of seeds in the soil may have been selected for under a climate of seasonal drought and unreliable rainfall that characterizes the dry Afromontane region. Dry Afromontane forests have a potential to recover in relatively short time after natural and man-made disturbances, e.g. after carefully managed selective cutting. However, the common practice of clearing forests and converting them into permanent arable land destroys the sources of regrowth thereby preventing regeneration of the forest vegetation. Therefore, the fate of dry Afromontane forests depends on the protection, careful management and conservation of the remaining patches. 102 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. Rinderpest disease and sero-survey in Ethiopia

    Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Traditional Zootherapeutic Studies in Degu'a Tembien, Northern Ethiopia

    Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals and plants for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since the distant past. In Ethiopia, many ethnic communities which are dispersed all over the country has been totally dependent on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. Thus, the aim of this study was to take an ethno zoological field survey among Tigray people (main tribal group of Degu'a Tembien. In order to document the ethno zoological information about animal and their products prevalent among the people in Degu'a Tembien district, a study was carried out from September, 2010 to January, 2011. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 purposively selected respondents. Then the name of animal and other ethno zoological information were documented. Based on the ethno zoological survey, a total of 23 animal species were used in 45 different medicinal purposes including cold, weakness, burn, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious/and ritual purposes. Based on the ethno zoological survey, 9 mammals, 7 birds, 1 reptile, 5 arthropods are used in traditional zootherauptics in the study area. Furthermore, the meat of cow used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96% and House fly has the lowest FL (20% used to treat. Some endemic and rare species such as Abyssinian black winged love bird (Agapornis taranta and Ethiopian Highland Hare (Lepus starcki are also mentioned as important medicinal resources in trado-zootherauptic practices. The results showed that ethno zoological practices have been an important alternative medicinal practice for the people residing in the study area. So, there is an urgent need to properly document to keep a record of the ethno zoological knowledge of the area. It is hoped that this information will be useful for further research in the field of ethno zoology, ethno pharmacology and conservation point of view.

  11. Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia

    Tewodros Fantahun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest prevalence was observed from animals greater than 3 years of age, 48 (18.32 % while the lowest, 9 (0.96 % in those one to three years. 18.25% and 11.1% was recorded in female and male animals respectively. The spatial distribution of demodex on shoulder was 8.08 % and 1.04 % on ears and eyes respectively. Production system of semiintensive and extensive managements was found almost affecting similarly with 13.66% and 13.43% respectively. In lime-sulphide treated hides large nodules were prominent with dark contents; small nonprotruding nodules, enlarged openings and ragged depressions near the grain surface were dipcted. In conclusion the highest overall prevalence (15.63% of D. bovis infestation was recorded. This indicates that despite many efforts tried to study infectious diseases prevalence in the study area, demodicosis has been given lesser attention to be treated as a separate health problem. Therefore, Prevention and control measures should be taken rather than treating demodicosis.

  12. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    S. G. Gebrehiwot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2, in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a special focus on low flows. Moreover, this study aimed to identify variables that may be susceptible to management policies for developing and securing water resources in dry periods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Square (PLS were used to analyze the relationship between five hydrologic response variables (total flow, high flow, low flow, runoff coefficient, low flow index and 30 potential explanatory watershed variables. The explanatory watershed variables were classified into three groups: land use, climate and topography as well as geology and soil type. Each of the three groups had almost equal influence on the variation in hydrologic variables (R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.4. Specific variables from within each of the three groups of explanatory variables were better in explaining the variation. Low flow and low flow index were positively correlated to land use types woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland, whereas grazing land and bush land were negatively correlated. We concluded that extra care for preserving low flow should be taken on tuffs/basalts which comprise 52% of the Blue Nile Basin. Land use management plans should recognize that woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland can promote higher low flows, while grazing land diminishes low flows.

  13. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Gebrehiwot, S. G.; Ilstedt, U.; Grdenas, A. I.; Bishop, K.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two watersheds (31-4350 km2), in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a special focus on low flows. Moreover, this study aimed to identify variables that may be susceptible to management policies for developing and securing water resources in dry periods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square (PLS) were used to analyze the relationship between five hydrologic response variables (total flow, high flow, low flow, runoff coefficient, low flow index) and 30 potential explanatory watershed variables. The explanatory watershed variables were classified into three groups: land use, climate and topography as well as geology and soil type. Each of the three groups had almost equal influence on the variation in hydrologic variables (R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.4). Specific variables from within each of the three groups of explanatory variables were better in explaining the variation. Low flow and low flow index were positively correlated to land use types woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland, whereas grazing land and bush land were negatively correlated. We concluded that extra care for preserving low flow should be taken on tuffs/basalts which comprise 52% of the Blue Nile Basin. Land use management plans should recognize that woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland can promote higher low flows, while grazing land diminishes low flows.

  14. Climate-growth relationships of the dominant tree species from semi-arid savanna woodland in Ethiopia

    Gebrekirstos, Aster; Mitlöhner, Ralph; Teketay, Demel; Worbes, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Long-term climategrowth relationships, were examined in tree rings of four co-occurring tree species from semi-arid Acacia savanna woodlands in Ethiopia. The main purpose of the study was to prove the presence of annual tree rings, evaluate the relationship between radial growth and climate parameters, and evaluate the association of El Niño and drought years in Ethiopia. The results showed that all species studied form distinct growth boundaries, though differences in distinctiveness were r...

  15. Food Insecurity, Food Based Coping Strategies and Suboptimal Dietary Practices of Adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    Lema, Tefera Belachew; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified ran...

  16. Antenatal care and women’s decision making power as determinants of institutional delivery in rural area of Western Ethiopia

    Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Yadecha, Birhanu; Melka, Alemu Sufa

    2015-01-01

    Background Delivery by skilled birth attendance serves as an indicator of progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In Ethiopia, the proportions of births attended by skilled personnel were very low 15 % and Oromia region 14.7 %. The current study identified factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery among married women in rural area of Western Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was employed from January 2 to January 31, 2015 among mothers who gav...

  17. Women's knowledge and perceptions of malaria and use of malaria vector control interventions in Kersa, eastern Ethiopia

    Gobena, Tesfaye; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethiopia has a long history of controlling malaria using vector control tools. Community knowledge and perceptions of malaria and use of malaria vector control interventions vary.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine malaria-related knowledge and perceptions among women and to determine the use of malaria vector control interventions, mainly indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), among households in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia.Design: A cross-s...

  18. Travel history and malaria infection risk in a low-transmission setting in Ethiopia: a case control study

    Yukich Joshua O; Taylor Cameron; Eisele Thomas P; Reithinger Richard; Nauhassenay Honelgn; Berhane Yemane; Keating Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria remains the leading communicable disease in Ethiopia, with around one million clinical cases of malaria reported annually. The country currently has plans for elimination for specific geographic areas of the country. Human movement may lead to the maintenance of reservoirs of infection, complicating attempts to eliminate malaria. Methods An unmatched case–control study was conducted with 560 adult patients at a Health Centre in central Ethiopia. Patients who receiv...

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses infection among military personnel at Bahir Dar Armed Forces General Hospital, Ethiopia

    Birku, Tigist; Gelaw, Baye; MOGES, Feleke; Assefa, Abate

    2015-01-01

    Background Military personnel are high-risk people for parenteral and sexually transmitted diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Data regarding HBV and HCV prevalence among military personnel in Ethiopia is limited. Hence, the study aimed to determine sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of HBV and HCV among military personnel at Bahir Dar Armed Forces General Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 403 military pe...

  20. Intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Ethiopia

    Engeda, Eshetu Haileselassie; Birhanu, Anteneh Messele; Alene, Kefyalew Addis

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses are essential to the health care delivery system especially to meet the health related millennium development goals. However, despite the significant shortage of nurses in Ethiopia, research in the country regarding nurses’ intent to stay in their profession is lacking. This study assessed intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in referral hospitals, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods Institution-based cross-sectional study...

  1. Women’s perception and risk factors for delayed initiation of breastfeeding in Arba Minch Zuria, Southern Ethiopia

    Adugna, Dessalegn Tamiru

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is one of the components of Primary Health Care in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia a wide range of harmful infant feeding practices has been documented despite the implementation of infant and young child feeding guidelines. However, there is no well documented study of women’s perception of breastfeeding patterns and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding (with timely initiation of breastfeeding being within the first hour) in rural communities of Arba Min...

  2. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Factors among Infants Born to HIV Positive Women in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Zelalem Berhan; Fantu Abebe; Molla Gedefaw; Mulugeta Tesfa

    2014-01-01

    Background: An estimated 1.2 percent of pregnant women are living with HIV in Ethiopia and sadly, one of every 3 children born to these women is infected with HIV. Elimination of these mother-to-child transmissions (MTCT) of HIV is possible through HIV testing during pregnancy and taking antiretroviral medications. However, only 24 percent of pregnant women living with HIV have yet received the medication needed to prevent MTCT of HIV in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Hence, ...

  3. Stigma towards a Neglected Tropical Disease: Felt and enacted Stigma Scores among Podoconiosis Patients in Northern Ethiopia

    Deribe, Kebede; Tomczyk, Sara; Mousley, Elizabeth; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Podoconiosis, or non-filarial elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) characterised by swelling of the lower legs. When left untreated, this disfiguring condition has a significant social impact. This study aimed to describe the stigma experience among podoconiosis patients in Dembecha, Northern Ethiopia and assess potential associations between stigma and sociodemographic determinants. METHODS The study was conducted in May 2012 in Northern Ethiopia. A que...

  4. Determinants for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia: a multicentre case–control study

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Awoke, Worku; Wilder-Smith, Annalies

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify determinants for tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia. Design Case–control study. Setting Three hospitals and 10 health centres in Northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 446 individuals consented to participate in the study (150 cases and 296 controls). Cases were HIV-infected adults diagnosed with active TB, and controls were HIV-infected adults without active TB. Main outcome measure The link between TB ...

  5. Economic Reconstruction and the Peasants in Ethiopia. Two Papers Presented at the Symposium on the Ethiopian Economy, with a Postscript

    Cheru, Fantu; Pausewang, Siegfried

    1992-01-01

    The two papers present proposals for the economic reconstruction of Ethiopia, based on the interests of the peasants and other poor groups. In the first paper, Fantu Cheru outlines a reform programme combining the market based efficiency model of the World Bank, the long term adjustment with transformation strategy of the ECA, and the human development approach of the UNDP. The second paper by Siegfried Pausewang refers to experience in rural Ethiopia during the last 15 years, and argues that...

  6. Determinants of fertility decisions at a household level in the Alaje District of Southern Tigray-Ethiopia.

    Woldesenbet, Abeba K.

    2011-01-01

    High fertility has the potential to affect the health and well being of mothers and the survival of their children. Even though fertility in Ethiopia shows a declining trend at the national level, the onset of fertility decline is yet to come in rural areas. The main objective of this research is to identify major factors affecting the observed high fertility in rural Ethiopia. The study area was selected based on the Ethiopian demographic and health survey made by the Central Statistical Age...

  7. The Effect of Land Degradation on Farm Size Dynamics and Crop-Livestock Farming System in Ethiopia: A Review

    Assemu Tesfa; Shigdaf Mekuriaw

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the poorest countries in which poverty, land and resource degradation appear to feed off each other. The irony is that Ethiopia is a country with high biodiversity and distinctive ecosystems and the natural resource base is critical to the economy and the livelihood of a high percentage of the population. Being the owner of varying agro ecology, the country’s agricultural production system had practiced for decades with a maximum potential. However, be...

  8. Land Degradation and Farmers' Acceptance and Adoption of Conservation Technologies in the Digil Watershed, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Bewket, W.

    2003-01-01

    Land degradation has become a critical problem in many parts of highland Ethiopia. There is great need for rehabilitation and conservation works in such areas. The aim of this study is to empirically determine the magnitude and rate of land degradation and identify factors affecting farmers acceptance and adoption of newly introduced land management technologies, with emphasis on SWC measures, in a typical microwatershed in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Changes in land cover/use an...

  9. Nurse uniform wearing practices and associated factors among nurses working in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based study

    Desta, Etaferahu Alamaw; Gebrie, Mignote Hailu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2015-01-01

    Background Wearing uniforms help in the formation of professional identity in healthcare. It fosters a strong self image and professional identity which can lead to good confidence and better performance in nursing practice. However, most nurses in Ethiopia are not wearing nursing uniforms and the reasons remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this research is to assess nurse uniform wearing practices among nurses and factors associated with such practice in hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia. Me...

  10. Analysis of urban land use and land cover changes: a case of study in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Sahalu, Atalel Getu

    2014-01-01

    The high rate of urbanization coupled with population growth has caused changes in land use and land cover in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Therefore, understanding and quantifying the spatio- temporal dynamics of urban land use and land cover changes and its driving factors is essential to put forward the right policies and monitoring mechanisms on urban growth for decision making. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze land use and land cover changes in Bahir Dar area, Ethiopia by applying...

  11. In-situ Conservation of wild forest coffee-Exploring the potential of participatory forest management in south west Ethiopia

    Tolera, Motuma; Lemenih, Mulugeta; O'Hara, Peter; Adrian P Wood

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the gene pool of Coffea arabica in the forests of South West Ethiopia, where this plant evolved and has its genetic hearth, is a challenge of global importance. Participatory Forest Management (PFM) and Biosphere Reserves (BR) are among the various initiatives being tested to maintain this forest and its biodiversity that includes major stands of wild Arabica coffee. This paper makes a comparative analysis of PFM and BR approaches to conservation as applied in Ethiopia. While BR l...

  12. Economic valuation and management of common-pool resources : the case of exclosures in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Balana, Bedru Babulo

    2007-01-01

    Environmental degradation and the deterioration of the natural resource base have become serious problems in Ethiopia. The existing biophysical, environmental and socio-economic indicators provide sufficient testimonies for the severity of the problem of natural resources deterioration in Ethiopia. Most forms of the nation’s environmental problems are directly or indirectly attributable to the rapid dwindling of the country’s vegetation cover and the consequent degradation of its land resourc...

  13. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor (Ricinus communis) Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    Joleen A. Timko; Aklilu Amsalu; Emmanuel Acheampong; Mesfin K. Teferi

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africas rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-e...

  14. The Magmatic Evolution of Dabbahu Volcano, Afar, Ethiopia

    Field, L. P.; Blundy, J.; Yirgu, G.

    2008-12-01

    Dabbahu is situated in the western region of Afar, Ethiopia, at the northern end of the Manda Hararo rift segment. This volcano came back to life in 2005 with a small rhyolitic eruption from the Da'Ure vent, the first such eruption in Africa for a century. This coincided with the start of a major rifting event which has been modelled as a basalt dyke injection (Wright et al 2006). The aim of this research is to provide an insight into the history and evolution of a silicic magmatic centre in the rift, and to contribute to the wider aims of the NERC Afar Consortium to track the creation, migration, evolution and emplacement of magma from the asthenosphere to the crust. Here we report the results of recent fieldwork in the northern, ESE and summit areas of the volcano, the first geological expedition to the area for over 30 years (Barberi et al, 1975). The volcano is characterised by a wide range of magma types from alkali-basalts, through trachytes to pantellerites. Initial mapping has revealed that the volcano has not evolved through eruptions from a central vent but mainly through a series of N-S trending fissures located across the volcano, sub-parallel to the current rift axis. At least four generations of rifting have been identified, each associated with obsidian flows and pyroclastic deposits, some of which contain pumices and obsidian-pumice bombs ranging from ~0.08 to 2 m in length. Dabbahu shows several signs of rejuvenation, including substantial fumaroles activity. Geodetic surveys reveal subsidence of Dabbahu and nearby Gabho following the 2005 event, and subsequent inflation, consistent with emplacement of a shallow magma body. Our new SIMS data from feldspar hosted melt inclusions, suggests crystallisation occurs from depths of ~12 km. However, many inclusions are trapped between 3.5 and 6 km, suggesting magma is typically stored in this region prior to eruption. Whole rock and micro-analytical data of our samples will allow us to comprehensively characterise the magma which will provide information on the relationship between Dabbahu's sub-volcanic system and the magmas involved in the dyking events. Many of these erupted units will be dated using 40Ar-39Ar techniques.

  15. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L?, K and the growth performance index ' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that O. niloticus is in a healthy state, while C. gariepinus show signs of growth overfishing (when both exploitation rate (E) and size indicators were considered). In case of C. carpio, the low exploitation rate encountered would point to underfishing, while the size indicators of the catches would suggest that too small fish are harvested leading to growth overfishing. We concluded that fisheries production in Lake Koka could be enhanced by increasing E toward optimum level of exploitation (Eopt) for the underexploited C. carpio and by increasing the size at first capture (Lc) toward the Lopt, range for all target species. PMID:26666131

  16. Utilization of pharmacies and pharmaceutical drugs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Kloos, H; Chama, T; Abemo, D; Tsadik, K G; Belay, S

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines recent developments in the pharmaceutical retail trade in socialist Ethiopia and presents the results of two surveys on pharmacy utilization in Addis Ababa. Surveys were carried out in 6 private and 5 government pharmacies. Objectives are: (1) to examine drug retailer utilization in relation to locational, transportation and retailer-related factors; (2) evaluate the role of socioeconomic factors in pharmacy and drug utilization; and (3) determine distance decay associated with clients' trip origins and the location of their residences as indicators of service areas. Although most clients originated in Addis Ababa, large numbers came from rural areas, especially in the pharmacies near large markets and other shopping areas in the inner city. Centrally located retailers also served more Addis Ababa residents and larger sections of the city than peripherally located retailers, largely due to a combination of urban structure, distribution of health care facilities, prevailing drug shopping behavior and population distribution. Government pharmacies had larger service areas and served larger numbers of clients than private pharmacies, primarily due to lower prices and greater availability of pharmaceuticals. Mean distance from pharmacies to places of origin of trips was smaller than mean distance from pharmacies to residences of the same clients. Similarly, distance decay gradients were steeper for the former than the latter in the 4 pharmacies studied in the second part of the survey, indicating the greater suitability of origin of trip as a parameter of service area. Type and price of drugs purchased were associated with socioeconomic factors, particularly level of education and housing/environmental health conditions in two districts, but there was little variation in the small number of drugs purchased per client. Several forms of drug-purchasing behavior of pharmacy clients and selling practices of private retailers are described as adaptive responses to prevailing economic and sociopolitical conditions. The study concludes that population-based studies of disease occurrence and health behavior are needed to better evaluate the health needs of the population for the planning of additional drug retailers in Addis Ababa's suburban districts. PMID:3715505

  17. Determinants of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Ambo Hospital, West Ethiopia

    Tenna Ephrem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis seen in cases in Ambo Hospital, Ethiopia.Design: A facility-based prospective case-control study.Setting: Patients attending Ambo Hospital from 01 December 2011 to 29 March 2012.Participants: The sample included 312 adult patients attending Ambo Hospital. The main outcome measure was presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB.Explanatory measures: Age, gender, occupation, educational status, marital status, place of residence, patient history of TB, family history of TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, smoking, alcohol intake, khat chewing, body mass index (BMI, employment, diabetes, history of asthma, previous history of worm infestation, history of hospitalisation, number of adults living in the household (HH, person per room, housing condition.Results: A total of 312 study participants, including 104 active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases (cases and 208 non-active PTB cases (controls, were recruited for the present study. Having one or more family member with a history of TB (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.5012.90, marital status (OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 2.212.6, male gender (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.47, rural residence (OR = 3.3; P = 0.012, being a current or past smoker (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.17.2, BMI < 18.5 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.034.2, HIV infection (OR = 8.8; 95% CI: 2.423.8 and a history of worm infestation (OR = 6.4; 95% CI: 2.615.4 remained significant independent host-related factors for active PTB.Conclusion: Patients who came from a compound with more than two HHs were more likely to develop active PTB than those who came from a compound with only one HH. Those who lived in houses with no windows were more likely to develop active PTB than those who lived in houses with one or more windows, had a family history of TB, lived in rural areas. Sex of the patient was a predicting factor. Not being the owner of the house was significantly more associated with active PTB. Measures taken to reduce the prevalence and burden of active PTB should consider these determinant factors.

  18. Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia

    Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)

  19. Why do women prefer home births in Ethiopia?

    Shiferaw Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skilled attendants during labor, delivery, and in the early postpartum period, can prevent up to 75% or more of maternal death. However, in many developing countries, very few mothers make at least one antenatal visit and even less receive delivery care from skilled professionals. The present study reports findings from a region where key challenges related to transportation and availability of obstetric services were addressed by an ongoing project, giving a unique opportunity to understand why women might continue to prefer home delivery even when facility based delivery is available at minimal cost. Methods The study took place in Ethiopia using a mixed study design employing a cross sectional household survey among 15–49 year old women combined with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Seventy one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a health professional (doctor, health officer, nurse, or midwife for their most recent birth in the one year preceding the survey. Overall only 16% of deliveries were assisted by health professionals, while a significant majority (78% was attended by traditional birth attendants. The most important reasons for not seeking institutional delivery were the belief that it is not necessary (42% and not customary (36%, followed by high cost (22% and distance or lack of transportation (8%. The group discussions and interviews identified several reasons for the preference of traditional birth attendants over health facilities. Traditional birth attendants were seen as culturally acceptable and competent health workers. Women reported poor quality of care and previous negative experiences with health facilities. In addition, women’s low awareness on the advantages of skilled attendance at delivery, little role in making decisions (even when they want, and economic constraints during referral contribute to the low level of service utilization. Conclusions The study indicated the crucial role of proper health care provider-client communication and providing a more client centered and culturally sensitive care if utilization of existing health facilities is to be maximized. Implications of findings for maternal health programs and further research are discussed.

  20. Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia

    Nesibu Awo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p 0.05. The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry.

  1. Development of a scalable mental healthcare plan for a rural district in Ethiopia.

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Medhin, Girmay; Alem, Atalay; Selamu, Medhin; Giorgis, Tedla W; Shibre, Teshome; Teferra, Solomon; Tegegn, Teketel; Breuer, Erica; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Thornicroft, Graham; Prince, Martin; Lund, Crick

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundDeveloping evidence for the implementation and scaling up of mental healthcare in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) like Ethiopia is an urgent priority.AimsTo outline a mental healthcare plan (MHCP), as a scalable template for the implementation of mental healthcare in rural Ethiopia.MethodA mixed methods approach was used to develop the MHCP for the three levels of the district health system (community, health facility and healthcare organisation).ResultsThe community packages were community case detection, community reintegration and community inclusion. The facility packages included capacity building, decision support and staff well-being. Organisational packages were programme management, supervision and sustainability.ConclusionsThe MHCP focused on improving demand and access at the community level, inclusive care at the facility level and sustainability at the organisation level. The MHCP represented an essential framework for the provision of integrated care and may be a useful template for similar LMIC. PMID:26447174

  2. Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    Clark, J Desmond; Beyene, Yonas; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; Gilbert, Henry; Defleur, Alban; Suwa, Gen; Katoh, Shigehiro; Ludwig, Kenneth R; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Asfaw, Berhane; White, Tim D

    2003-06-12

    Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin sandstones of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Afar Rift, Ethiopia. The fossils and artefacts are dated between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago by precise age determinations using the 40Ar/39Ar method. The archaeological assemblages contain elements of both Acheulean and Middle Stone Age technocomplexes. Associated faunal remains indicate repeated, systematic butchery of hippopotamus carcasses. Contemporary adult and juvenile Homo sapiens fossil crania manifest bone modifications indicative of deliberate mortuary practices. PMID:12802333

  3. A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia

    In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

  4. Biofuels for a Greener Economy? Insights from Jatropha Production in Northeastern Ethiopia

    Brigitte Portner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many observers view Jatropha as a miracle plant that grows in harsh environments, halts land degradation and provides seeds for fuel production. This makes it particularly attractive for use in Ethiopia, where poverty levels are high and the degradation of agricultural land is widespread. In this article, we investigate the potentials and limitations of a government-initiated Jatropha project for smallholders in northeastern Ethiopia from a green economy perspective. Data are based on a 2009 household survey and interviews with key informants, as well as on a 2012 follow-up round of interviews with key informants. We conclude that the project has not contributed to a greener economy so far, but has the potential to do so in the future. To maximize Jatropha’s potential, interventions must focus mainly on smallholders and pay more attention to the entire biofuel value chain.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Abdo Abdurahman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes to, and exposure to tobacco advertisements among adolescents. Results Of the 1868 respondents, 4.5% males and 1% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Ethiopia is lower than in many other African countries. There is however need to strengthen anti-tobacco messages especially among adolescents.

  6. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-01-01

    Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman), are examples of...

  7. Organic Farming Technologies and Agricultural Productivity: The case of Semi-Arid Ethiopia

    Kassie, Menale; Zikhali, Precious; Pender, John; Köhlin, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming practices, in as far as they rely on local or farm renewable resources, present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity for resource-constrained farmers in developing countries. In this paper we use plot-level data from semi-arid area of Ethiopia to investigate the impact of organic farming practices on crop productivity, with a particular focus on conservation tillage. Specifically we seek to investigate whether conservation tillage results in more or less p...

  8. The politics of transnational affective capital: digital connectivity among young Somalis stranded in Ethiopia

    Leurs, Koen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an explorative qualitative case study of how sixteen young Somali migrants stranded in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia feel about staying in touch with loved ones abroad using Internet-based transnational communication. Left-behind during transit migration from Somalia to overseas, at this moment they can only digitally connect with contacts living inside for example dreamed diasporic locations in Europe. Based on in-depth interviews, a focus group and concept maps drawn by inform...

  9. Contesting Views on a Protected Area Conservation and Development in Ethiopia

    Asebe Regassa Debelo

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the contention between the state and local Guji people on issues of development and conservation of a Protected Area—Nech Sar National Park in southern Ethiopia. The park, which covers over 514 square kilometers, is a contested space between different actors, not only for its economic values, but it is also an arena of contestation over development and conservation perspectives. Since its inception as a national park in 1974, it has been administered with strict protect...

  10. Menstrual hygiene management and school absenteeism among female adolescent students in Northeast Ethiopia

    Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Sisay, Mitike Molla

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescence in girls has been recognized as a special period marked with the onset of menarche. Even though menstruation is a natural process, it is associated with misconceptions, malpractices and challenges among girls in developing countries. However, much is not documented; school-absenteeism and dropout are a common problem among girls in rural Ethiopia. Focusing among school girls, this study has examined knowledge about menstruation, determinants of menstrual management and ...

  11. Data Informed Platform for Health Feasibility Study Report, Amhara and Oromia Regions, Ethiopia

    Berhanu, D.; Avan, Bi

    2013-01-01

    IDEAS has published a report on the feasibility of implementing the Data Informed Platform for Health in Amhara and Oromia Regions, Ethiopia. The Data Informed Platform for Health is a framework to guide coordination, bringing together key data from public and private health sectors on inputs and processes that could influence maternal and newborn health. The key data will be synthesised to create a measure of programme implementation strength for each local area, which in turn can be used i...

  12. Prevalence of Bacteria and Intestinal Parasites among Food-handlers in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    Andargie, Gashaw; KASSU, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-01-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples wer...

  13. Market Linked Innovation Systems : Opportunities for Strengthening Agricultural Development in Ethiopia

    Woodhill, A.J.; Heemskerk, W.; Emana, B.; Elias, E; Ludemann, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study on Strengthening Market Linked Innovation Systems was produced at the request of the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Ethiopia. It offers a perspective on how innovation processes and capacities could be further developed in support of Ethiopia’s Economic Growth and Transformation Plan (EGTP) and the Agricultural Growth Programme (AGP). More specifically it provides recommendations to the Netherlands Embassy on strategic priorities in supporting development of agricultural sector in Et...

  14. Does microfinance reduce rural poverty? Evidence based on household panel data from Tigray, northern Ethiopia

    Berhane Tesfay, G.; Gardebroek, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term impact of microfinance credit from the intensity of participation in borrowing. We use a four-round panel data set on 351 farm households that had access to microfinance in northern Ethiopia. Over the years 1997-2006, with three-year intervals, households are observed on key poverty indicators: improvements in annual consumption and housing improvements. The relatively long duration in the panel enables to measure household poverty changes between consecutiv...

  15. Unintended pregnancy among female sex workers in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Weldegebreal, Rishan; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Alemayehu, Mussie; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health concern in the world. Particularly, female sex workers are exposed to the risk of unintended pregnancy, abortion and their consequences. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess unintended pregnancy and associated factors among female sex workers in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 female sex workers from five Kebelles (smallest administrative units in ...

  16. In vivo evaluation of amitraz against ticks under field conditions in Ethiopia : research communication

    S. Mekonnen

    2001-01-01

    An aqueous emulsion of amitraz (Bovitraz, Bayer AH), prepared and applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations, was evaluated for its activity against cattle ticks on a dairy farm in Ethiopia. Eight crossbred heifer calves aged between 6 and 8 months and heavily infested with ticks were selected and divided into equal treatment and control groups. The calves in the treatment group were hand-sprayed with the amitraz emulsion while the control group was left untreated. Each calf was ...

  17. Evaluation of Performances of Intermodal Import-Export Freight Transport System in Ethiopia

    Tadesse Kenea Amentae; Girma Gebresenbet

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport system that minimizes costs, increase conveniences, and environmentally safe has become the agenda worldwide since long before. This study was made with the main objective of assessing intermodal termed as “multimodal” freight transport service in Ethiopia. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire from randomly selected customers and multimodal freight transport section employees of Ethiopian Shipping and Logistics Service Enterprise. The study was made in two st...

  18. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM MARKETING : PROMOTING BRC BUDGET CAR RENTAL AND TOUR, ETHIOPIA

    Jauhojrvi, Tutu

    2011-01-01

    This practice based thesis project was launched by the author who has studied the background about Ethiopian tourism, where the commissioner company is based in. The goal of the project was to establish international partnership with tour operators and travel agents in different destinations in order to internationalize BRC Budget Car Rental and Tour to develop international marketing practices with the aim of maximizing its effort to attract international tourists to Ethiopia. Qualitat...

  19. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receiving...... a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies....

  20. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    Teklay, Abraha; Abera, Balcha; Giday, Mirutse

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between...

  1. Land Acquisitions, the Politics of Dispossession, and State-Remaking in Gambella, Western Ethiopia

    Fana Gebresenbet; Institute for Peace and Security Studies, Addis Ababa University

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that development through large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) in Gambella, western Ethiopia, belies a state-remaking project under a dispossessive political economy. This argument is based on fieldwork in Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Minneapolis and is situated within the broader development agenda pursued by Ethiopia’s ruling party. The political economy of LSLAs tells us that the deals are not occurring in a predominantly economic manner; rather, extra-economic state interv...

  2. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus in Ethiopia.

    Hundie, Gadissa Bedada; Raj, V Stalin; Michael, Daniel Gebre; Pas, Suzan D; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; Smits, Saskia L; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-06-01

    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is hyperendemic in Ethiopia and constitutes a major public health problem, little is known about its genetic diversity, genotypes, and circulation. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of HBV in Ethiopia, using 391 serum samples collected from HBsAg-positive blood donors living in five different geographic regions. The HBV S/pol gene was amplified, sequenced, and HBV genotypes, subgenotypes, serotypes, and major hydrophilic region (MHR) variants were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of 371 samples (95%) revealed the distribution of genotypes A (78%) and D (22%) in Ethiopia. Further phylogenetic analysis identified one subgenotype (A1) within genotype A, and 4 subgenotypes within genotype D (D1; 1.3%, D2; 55%, D4; 2.5%, and D6; 8.8%). Importantly, 24 isolates (30%) of genotype D formed a novel phylogenetic cluster, distinct from any known D subgenotypes, and two A/D recombinants. Analysis of predicted amino-acid sequences within the HBsAg revealed four serotypes: adw2 (79%), ayw1 (3.1%), ayw2 (7.8%), and ayw3 (11.6%). Subsequent examination of sequences showed that 51 HBV isolates (14%) had mutations in the MHR and 8 isolates (2.2%) in the reverse transcriptase known to confer antiviral resistance. This study provides the first description of HBV genetic diversity in Ethiopia with a predominance of subgenotypes A1 and D2, and also identified HBV isolates that could represent a novel subgenotype. Furthermore, a significant prevalence of HBsAg variants in Ethiopian population is revealed. J. Med. Virol. 88:1035-1043, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26629781

  3. GENETIC AND NON-GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATES OF DAIRY CATTLE IN ETHIOPIA: A REVIEW

    A. TESFA; D.K. GARIKIPATI

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia is endowed with diverse ecosystems inhabited by an abundant diversity of animal, plant and microbial genetic resources due to the availability of diverse agro-ecology. The productivity of any species depends largely on their reproductive performance. Reproduction is an indicator of reproductive efficiency and the rate of genetic progress in both selection and crossbreeding programs. Reproductive performance does not usually refer to a single trait, but to a combination of many traits...

  4. Urban malaria and associated risk factors in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia

    Tsegaye Wondewosen; Alemu Abebe; Golassa Lemu; Abebe Gemeda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria kills millions around the world. Until recently it was believed to be a disease of rural areas, since the Anopheles mosquito, which transmits Plasmodium species breeds in rural areas. Urban malaria is emerging as a potential, but "avertable" crisis, in Africa. In view of the rapidly growing number of small and medium-sized towns in Ethiopia there is a pressing need to improve the understanding of the epidemiology of malaria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ...

  5. Self-treatment of malaria in rural communities, Butajira, southern Ethiopia

    Deressa Wakgari; Ali A.; Enqusellassie F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the use of self-treatment and to determine the actions taken to manage malaria illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in six peasant associations in Butajira district, southern Ethiopia, between January and September 1999. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 630 households with malaria cases within the last six months. FINDINGS: Overall, 616 (>97%) of the study households acted to manage malaria, including the use of antimalarial dru...

  6. An iconic traditional apiculture of park fringe communities of Borena Sayint National Park, north eastern Ethiopia

    Adal, Hussien; Asfaw, Zemede; Woldu, Zerihun; Demissew, Sebsebe; Van Damme, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional apiculture has been practised in Ethiopia over a long historical period and still remains a benign means to extract direct benefits from natural ecosystems. While its contribution to economic development and watershed protection is increasingly recognized its cultural significance is however, seldom noticed. This study was conducted using an ethnobotanical study approach to document the honey bee flora and associated indigenous knowledge of local communities in Borena ...

  7. Wild edible plants in Ethiopia: a review on their potential to combat food insecurity

    Lulekal, Ermias; Asfaw, Zemede; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Van Damme, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This work reviews literature on ethnobotanical knowledge of wild edible plants and their potential role in combating food insecurity in Ethiopia. Information on a total of 413 wild edible plants belonging to 224 genera and 77 families was compiled in this review. Shrubs represented 31% of species followed by trees (30%), herbs (29%) and climbers (9%). Families Fabaceae (35 species), Tiliaceae (20) and Capparidaceae (19) were found to be represented by the highest number of edible species. Abo...

  8. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia

    Kebebew Fassil; Balemie Kebu

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3%...

  9. Development of a Community-Based Rehabilitation Intervention for People with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia

    Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Mideksa, Gemechu; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; De Silva, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is a multi-sectoral strategy to improve the functioning and quality of life of people with disabilities. The RISE (Rehabilitation Intervention for people with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia) trial will evaluate the effectiveness of CBR for people with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the components of CBR that are both feasible and likely to prove effective in low and middle-income countries such as Ethiopia are unclear. Methods In this study intervention development work was undertaken to design a CBR intervention that is acceptable and feasible in the local context. The development work consisted of five phases. 1: Identify potential components of CBR for schizophrenia, 2: Situational analysis, 3: Determine feasibility of CBR (Theory of Change workshops with experts and local stakeholders), 4: Determine acceptability of CBR (16 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with people with schizophrenia, caregivers, health workers and community leaders) and 5: Synthesise results to finalise intervention. A Theory of Change map was constructed showing the causal pathway for how we expect CBR to achieve its impact. Results People with schizophrenia in rural Ethiopia experience family conflict, difficulty participating in work and community life, and stigma. Stakeholders perceived CBR to be acceptable and useful to address these problems. The focus of CBR will be on the individual developing the skills and confidence to perform their previous or desired roles and activities. To ensure feasibility, non-health professionals will be trained to deliver CBR and provide supervision, rather than mental health specialists. Novel components of CBR for schizophrenia included family intervention and dealing with distressing symptoms. Microfinance was excluded due to concerns about stress and exploitation. Community mobilisation was viewed as essential to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of CBR. Conclusion Extensive formative research using a variety of methods has enabled the design of a culturally appropriate CBR intervention for people with schizophrenia that is acceptable and feasible. PMID:26618915

  10. PRE-WEANING GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF SEKOTA SHEEP BREED IN WAGHIMRA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    AEMERO YIHEYIS; FIREW TEGEGN; MUSSIE H/MELEKOT; MENGISTIE TAYE

    2012-01-01

    Pre-weaning growth performances of Sekota sheep breed was studied at Sekota district of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia under traditional crop-livestock production systems which is characterized by extensive, low-input low-output system. Two hundred thirty one lambs were monitored from birth to weaning age. Data on growth performances were collected and analyzed using the general linear model procedures of Statistical analysis system software. The least squares mean birth weight, thr...

  11. Restoration and sustainable management of frankincense forests in Ethiopia: a bio-economic analysis

    Gelaye, Mesfin Tilahun

    2012-01-01

    Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst is a multipurpose deciduous tree species with high economic, cultural and environmental values. Frankincense from this tree species is a traded commodity used in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and chemical industries, for clerical services in different religions, and as a fragrance during coffee ceremonies in Ethiopia. However, the resource has been declining due to unsustainable management, which includes shifting to crop cultivation, free grazing and i...

  12. Gender disparities in Africa's labour markets : An analysis of survey data from Ethiopia and Tanzania

    Suarez Robles, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to our better understanding of the main factors behind large and persistent gender disparities in Africa's labour markets. This work looks at three key dimensions of labour market gender inequality in Africa: (i) the gender wage gap, (ii) gender inequalities in allocating time to market and household work, and (iii) the gender-differentiated income effect of informality. Chapter 2 shows that, in Ethiopia, progress towards gender equity in edu...

  13. An African perspective on the ILO conventions on minimum age: the case of Ethiopia

    Rubenson, Birgitta; Dahlén, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The ILO Minimum Age Conventions, adopted from 1919 - 1973, got their form in the post World War I context of industrialization, urbanization, social instability and a growing trade union movement, and were modelled on the late 19th century European labour legislation. It was a time of heavy unemployment, and the workers perceived child labourers as competitors on the labour market. Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries of the world with a population of 90 million and a me...

  14. The influence of cattle breed on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    Vordermeier, Martin; Ameni, Gobena; Berg, Stefan; Bishop, Richard; Robertson, Brian D.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis in domestic livestock such as cattle is an economically important disease with zoonotic potential, particularly in countries with emerging economies. We discuss the findings of recent epidemiological and immunological studies conducted in Ethiopia on host susceptibility differences between native zebu and the exotic Holstein–Friesian cattle that are increasingly part of the Ethiopian National herd, due to the drive to increase milk yields. These findings support the hypoth...

  15. Volunteerism or Labor Exploitation? Harnessing the Volunteer Spirit to Sustain AIDS Treatment Programs in Urban Ethiopia

    Maes, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper describes NGO efforts to encourage AIDS care volunteers to eschew material returns for their labor and instead reflect on the goodness of sacrificing to promote the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consensus analysis of motivational survey data collected from a sample of AIDS care volunteers (n=110) suggests that they strongly share a sacrificial and prosocial motivational model. These results may be explained by seve...

  16. Demographic transition in Ethiopia - challenges for the education system and responses

    Weickert, Jesco

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the state of demographic transition in Ethiopia and describes the current situation of population growth as well as its ramifications in the fields of Maternal Health, HIV/AIDS, Education, Migration and Urbanization, Food Security, Security, and Gender. Approaches to tackle the challenges posed by demographic transition are portrayed featuring the response of the Ethiopian Government. The example used is Integrated Functional Adult Education (IFAE), implemented through...

  17. Attitudes of undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University towards medical practice and migration, Ethiopia

    Deressa Wakgari; Azazh Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their trainin...

  18. Developing and optimizing processes for biological nitrogen removal from tannery wastewaters in Ethiopia

    Leta, Seyoum

    2004-01-01

    In Ethiopia industrial effluents containing high contents of organic matter, nitrogen and heavy metals are discharged into inland surface waters with little or no pre-treatment. Significant pollution concerns related to these effluents include dissolved oxygen depletion, toxicity and eutrophication of the receiving waters. This has not only forced the government to formulate regulations and standards for discharge limits but also resulted in an increasing interest and development of methods a...

  19. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care...

  20. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwined problems of global concern. Land degradation affects some 2 billion hectares of land world-wide. In Africa some 500 million hectares of land have been affected by land or soil degradation, including abo...

  1. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia

    Feyissa Garumma T; Abebe Lakew; Girma Eshetu; Woldie Mirkuzie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and ...

  2. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Perceived Stigma among Patients with Epilepsy in Ethiopia

    Tolesa Fanta; Telake Azale; Dawit Assefa; Mekbit Getachew

    2015-01-01

    Background. Epilepsy stigma is considered to be one of the most important factors that have a negative influence on people with epilepsy. Among all types of stigma perceived stigma further exerts stress and restricts normal participation in society. Methods. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1, 2013, to May 30, 2013. All patients with epilepsy in Ethiopia were source population. The sample size was determined using single population proportion formula and 347 subject...

  3. Prevalence of child malnutrition in agro-pastoral households in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia

    Fentaw, Rabia; Bogale, Ayalneh; Abebaw, Degnet

    2013-01-01

    Based on data generated from 180 randomly selected households with children age under five years old in Aysaita district of Afar region of Ethiopia, this study explored prevalence of malnutrition and scrutinized household characteristics, maternal characteristics, specifics of the child and economic variables associated with child malnutrition. The height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ) and weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) were used to measure the extent of stunting, was...

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun; Berhanu Bedada

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. 65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycl...

  5. RESISTANCE PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun; Berhanu Bedada

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests.65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycli...

  6. Patients satisfaction with laboratory services at antiretroviral therapy clinics in public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Mindaye Tedla; Taye Bineyam

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the fact that Ethiopia has scale up antiretroviral treatment (ART) program, little is known about the patient satisfaction with ART monitoring laboratory services in health facilities. We therefore aimed to assess patient satisfaction with laboratory services at ART clinics in public hospitals. Methods Hospital based, descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from October to November 2010 among clients attending in nine public hospitals ART clinics in Addis A...

  7. Influences of Individual and Contextual Factors on Improving the Professional Development of TVET Teachers in Ethiopia

    Abebe, Ayele

    2009-01-01

    This Dissertation tried to provide insights into the influences of individual and contextual factors on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) teachers’ learning and professional development in Ethiopia. Specifically, this research focused on identifying and determining the influences of teachers’ self perception as learners and professionals, and investigates the impact of the context, process and content of their learning and experiences on their professional development. Th...

  8. Trade Liberalization and Poverty: A Macro-Micro Analysis in Ethiopia

    Kebede, Sindu; Fekadu, Belay; Aredo, Dejene

    2011-01-01

    Using a CGE model, this study analyses the impact of trade liberalization on poverty at the household level taking Ethiopia as a case. Two scenarios (complete tariff cut and uniform tariff scheme) suggest that further liberalization of trade has little short-run effect on the overall economy. However, the agriculture-based manufacturing sector (in particular, textile and leather) is likely to be strongly affected by further tariff reduction. Reductions in import prices of textiles and leather...

  9. Spatio-temporal clustering of mortality in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia, from 1987 to 2008

    Byass, Peter; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Emmelin, Anders; Molla, Mitike; Berhane, Yemane

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mortality in a population may be clustered in space and time for a variety of reasons, including geography, socio-economics, environment and demographics. Analysing mortality clusters can therefore reveal important insights into patterns and risks of mortality in a particular setting. Objective and design: To investigate the extent of spatio-temporal clustering of mortality in the Butajira District, Ethiopia, from 1987 to 2008. The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS)...

  10. Physical Measurement Profile at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia

    Tessema, Fasil; Haileamlak, Abraham; Muluneh, Ayalew T; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Woldemichael, Kifle; Asefa, Makonnen; Mamo, Yoseph; Tamiru, Solomon; Abebe, Gemeda

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical measurement reference values are helpful to manage patients, conduct surveillances and monitor and evaluate interventional activities. Such valuable data at a community level however, are almost non-existent in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine anthropometrics and blood pressure in “apparently healthy individuals” in community settings. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2008 to January 2009 at Gilgel Gibe Fi...

  11. Medication prescribing errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    Woldie M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Asrat Agalu1, Yemane Ayele2, Worku Bedada2, Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Wollo University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Dessie, Ethiopia; 2Jimma University, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: A number of studies indicated that prescribing errors in the intensive care unit (ICU are frequent and lead to patient morbidity and mortality, increased length of stay, and substantial extra costs. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU has not previously been studied. Objective: To assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital from February 7 to April 15, 2011. All medication-prescribing interventions by physicians during the study period were included in the study. Data regarding prescribing interventions were collected from patient cards and medication charts. Prescribing errors were determined by comparing prescribed drugs with standard treatment guidelines, textbooks, handbooks, and software. Descriptive statistics were generated to meet the study objective. Results: The prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was 209/398 (52.5%. Common prescribing errors were using the wrong combinations of drugs (25.7%, wrong frequency (15.5%, and wrong dose (15.1%. Errors associated with antibiotics represented a major part of the medication prescribing errors (32.5%. Conclusion: Medication errors at the prescribing phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Health care providers need to establish a system which can support the prescribing physicians to ensure appropriate medication prescribing practices. Keywords: medication error, prescribing error, intensive care unit

  12. Analysis of vulnerability and resilience to climate change induced shocks in North Shewa, Ethiopia

    Gutu Tesso; Bezabih Emana; Mengistu Ketema

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the vulnerability and resilience levels of farm households in North Shewa, Ethiopia, using a survey of 452 households. Agro ecological based classification was done to analyze vulnerability to climate change induced shocks. Integrated vulnerability analysis approach was employed to develop indexes for socioeconomic and biophysical indicators. The indicators have been classified into adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity to climate change impact. Then Principal Comp...

  13. Plasmodium vivax associated severe malaria complications among children in some malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia

    Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2013-01-01

    Background Although, Plasmodium vivax is a rare parasite in most parts of Africa, it has significant public health importance in Ethiopia. In some parts of the country, it is responsible for majority of malaria associated morbidity. Recently severe life threatening malaria syndromes, frequently associated to P. falciparum, has been reported from P. vivax mono-infections. This prompted designing of the current study to assess prevalence of severe malaria complications related to P. vivax malar...

  14. Prevalence of Physical Violence and Associated Factors among Married Women in Rural part of Northern Ethiopia

    Girmatsion Fisseha; Mussie Alemayehu; G/meskel Mirutse; Kahsay Amare; Berhe W/aregay; Eyouel Birhane; Alem Desta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence against women is the most pervasive yet underestimated social and health problem that occur in pandemic proportions. Globally, six out of ten women experience domestic violence. The problem is not well studied in the developing country, thus the objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with physical violence among women in the rural part of Northern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in rural Hawzen Distr...

  15. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, A.J., van der

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional stratified random survey of 180 households, and farm recording of 131 households. Rural poultry significantly contributed to the livelihoods of poor households: economically as starter capital, as ...

  16. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    Zewdu Seyoum; Tsegaye Tadesse; Agerie Addisu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ 2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenoc...

  17. Delayed consultation among pulmonary tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study of 10 DOTS districts of Ethiopia

    Gessessew Amanuel; Walley John D; Newell James N; Mesfin Mengiste M; Madeley Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Delays seeking care increase transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis and hence the burden of tuberculosis, which remains high in developing countries. This study investigates patterns of health seeking behavior and determines risk factors for delayed patient consultation at public health facilities in 10 districts of Ethiopia. Methods New pulmonary TB patients ≥ 15 years old were recruited at 18 diagnostic centres. Patients were asked about their health care seeking behavio...

  18. Self-reported health care seeking behavior in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from clinical vignettes

    2013-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2011, Ethiopia rapidly expanded its health-care infrastructure recording an 18-fold increase in the number of health posts and a 7-fold increase in the number of health centers. However, annual per capita outpatient utilization has increased only marginally. The extent to which individuals forego necessary health care, especially why and who foregoes care are issues that have received little attention in the context of low-income countries. This paper uses five clinical vigne...

  19. Self-reported health care seeking behavior in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from clinical vignettes

    Mebratie, Anagaw; VAN DE POEL, ELLEN; Debebe, Zelalem; Abebaw Ejigie, Degnet; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun Singh

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBetween 2000 and 2011, Ethiopia rapidly expanded its health-care infrastructure recording an 18-fold increase in the number of health posts and a 7-fold increase in the number of health centers. However, annual per capita outpatient utilization has increased only marginally. The extent to which individuals forego necessary health care, especially why and who foregoes care are issues that have received little attention in the context of low-income countries. This paper uses five cl...

  20. Determinants and Impediments of FDI inflows in Ethiopia- A Firm Level Investigation

    Teka, Henok Gebremedhin

    2014-01-01

    From a neo liberalists perspective FDI triggers technology spillovers, assists human capital formation, contributes to international trade integration, helps to create a more competitive business environment and enhances enterprise development. This will contribute to higher economic growth, which is the most potent tool for poverty alleviation. To realize these benefits, many African countries including Ethiopia, have liberalized their trade regime and attempted to create an investment frie...

  1. Dimensions and Determinants of Growth in Micro and Small Enterprises: Empirical Evidence from Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    H. T. Woldeyohanes

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensions and determinants of growth in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) based on a survey covering 178 randomly selected MSEs in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia through the test of four main hypotheses and arguments of Gibrat’s law and the learning theory hypothesis. Semi-structured questionnaire and interview were used to collect data, and the binary choice model was used to identify factors that significantly affect the growth of MSEs. Employment siz...

  2. Barriers and enablers in the management of tuberculosis treatment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Bjune Gunnar; Frich Jan C; Sagbakken Mette

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment is an important barrier for TB control programs because incomplete treatment may result in prolonged infectiousness, drug resistance, relapse, and death. The aim of the present study is to explore enablers and barriers in the management of TB treatment during the first five months of treatment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Qualitative study which included 50 in-depth interviews and two focus groups with TB patients, their re...

  3. Husband-wife communication about family planning in Assosa Town (Ethiopia)

    2002-01-01

    A cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was carried out in Assosa Town, Ethiopia (2001-2002) to investigate what proportion of couples were discussing about family planning, if there was any association between husband wife communication and contraception, and couple’ s opinion about the subject. Among the 264 couples interviewed 10% had never heard about family planning. Among those who had heard about family planning in 98% of couples both wife and husband...

  4. Risk factors for intestinal parasitosis, anaemia, and malnutrition among school children in Ethiopia

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6–15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 pri...

  5. SHIFTING TO ALTERNATIVE FOOD SOURCE: POTENTIAL TO OVERCOME ETHIOPIAS' MALNUTRITION AND POVERTY PROBLEMS

    Gelmesa, Dandena

    2010-01-01

    The currently population of more than 70 million people in Ethiopia is expected to double within the next 30 years. Almost 80% of the populations are living in the countryside while the rest situated in urban area. An estimated five million people are suffering from lack of vitamins and essential minerals, of which 80% are children for the next generation. Every year, on the average, about five million people have problems securing enough food for them and need assistance. Preliminary surveys...

  6. Becoming and remaining community health workers: Perspectives from Ethiopia and Mozambique

    Maes, Kenneth; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2013-01-01

    Many global health practitioners are currently reaffirming the importance of recruiting and retaining effective community health workers (CHWs) in order to achieve major public health goals. This raises policy-relevant questions about why people become and remain CHWs. This paper addresses these questions, drawing on ethnographic work in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, between 2006 and 2009, and in Chimoio, a provincial town in central Mozambique, between 2003 and 2010. Participant obse...

  7. Psychological distress and its effect on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Ethiopia

    Habteyes Hailu Tola; Davoud Shojaeizadeh; Gholamreza Garmaroudi; Azar Tol; Mir Saeed Yekaninejad; Luche Tadesse Ejeta; Abebaw Kebede; Mehrdad Karimi; Desta Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330) diagnosed ...

  8. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Waste Management in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Hagos, Dagnew; Mekonnen, Alemu; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe

    2012-01-01

    Cities in developing countries experiencing rapid urbanization and population growth too often lack the financial resources and institutional capacity to provide needed municipal infrastructure for adequate solid waste management, despite citizens’ demand for it. This paper uses a cross-sectional survey of 226 randomly selected households in Mekelle City, Ethiopia, to assess the current municipal sanitation fees and the willingness to pay (WTP) of residents for improved urban waste management...

  9. Levels of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Ethiopia

    Zerihun, Agalu; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Debebe, Ayalew; Mehari, Bewketu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa L. is one of the illicit drug bearing plants. Cannabis products are the most widely trafficked drugs worldwide. The highest levels of cannabis production in the world take place in the African continent. A small volume of cannabis is produced in rural areas of Ethiopia, of which a small portion is exported to neighboring countries and the majority is consumed at home. The literature survey revealed that there is no report on the metal contents in cannabis cultivated...

  10. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    Berhane Yemane; Gelaye Bizu; Terasaki Dale J; Williams Michelle A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. Th...

  11. Establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in sugarcane fields of Ethiopia and origin of founding population.

    Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Conlong, D E; Muirhead, K A

    2008-06-01

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is used as a classical biological control agent against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious exotic pest of cereal crops in eastern and southern Africa. This parasitoid has been introduced into several African countries for the control of C. partellus in maize, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), but it has never been released in Ethiopia. It is hypothesized that it spread into Ethiopia from populations released in Kenya and Somalia to become the predominant parasitoid of C. partellus in maize and sorghum fields of the country. In recent surveys conducted in Ethiopia, C. flavipes was recovered from C. partellus in sugarcane, Saccharum L. spp. hybrids, at a site >2,000 km from the nearest known release sites in Kenya and Somalia. These findings question published hypotheses that estimate the dispersal rate of C. flavipes to be 60 km per year in Africa, and they suggest that since its release in Africa this parasitoid has developed strains adapted to searching particular host plants infested by particular stem borers. The anomalies between our results and previous reports evoked the hypothesis that C. flavipes in Ethiopian sugarcane might be a different strain. To test this hypothesis, we compared partial COI gene sequences of C. flavipes collected from sugarcane in Ethiopia and those of specimens from other African countries to determine the origin of the Ethiopian population. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for C. flavipes from other continents. The C. flavipes population established in Ethiopian sugarcane is most closely related to the populations released against C. partellus in maize in other parts of Africa, which were derived from the original population imported from Pakistan. The dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be >200 km per year. PMID:18613566

  12. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  13. Oral and anal sex practices among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Cherie Amsale; Berhane Yemane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A mul...

  14. In-depth assessment of the public agricultural extension system of Ethiopia and recommendations for improvement:

    Davis, Kristin; Swanson, Burton; Amudavi, David; Mekonnen, Daniel Ayalew; Flohrs, Aaron; Riese, Jens; Lamb, Chloe; Zerfu, Elias

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-three percent of the population of Ethiopia depends directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, while many others depend on agriculture-related cottage industries such as textiles, leather, and food oil processing. Agriculture contributes about 46.3 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) (World Bank 2008) and up to 90 percent of total export earnings. As part of the current five-year (2006–2011) Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), the government ...

  15. Long-term Bioethanol Shift and Transport Fuel Substitution in Ethiopia : Status, Prospects, and Implications

    Yacob Gebreyohannes Hiben, Yacob

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels with a sustainable and environmentally sound improvements, the government of Ethiopia has recognized the need to promote biofuels development so as to support the green economy strategy of the country designed to bring a breakthrough for socio-economic and environmental transformations which are becoming the central excellence for current and future prosperity of the country towards the quality of life and global competitiveness. Unde...

  16. Synthesis of research issues and capacity building in water and land resources management in Ethiopia

    Kamara, A. B.; P McCornick

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the key research and capacity building issues arising from the workshop presentations and the papers. Three days of intensive deliberations by professionals from various research, development and governmental organizations, and of diverse disciplines, backgrounds and nationalities have clearly acknowledged that water management issues remain very crucial for poverty alleviation and rural development in Ethiopia – the overwhelming proportion of ...

  17. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF A FIRST-MOVER ABATTOIR ESTABLISHMENT IN SOMALI REGION, ETHIOPIA

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Mikhail Miklyaev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the economic feasibility of the investment made to establish a commercial slaughterhouse facility in Faafan village, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. Although the financial feasibility of the facility is essential for the project, the main purpose of the exercise is to estimate the economic returns and the net benefits created for the project stakeholders, namely: the private operator, the small holder livestock producers, the livestock traders, the ...

  18. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    T. Wils; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in Central-Northern Ethiopia by crossdating and radiocarbon dating. The crossdating process is described more transparently than usual to allow open discussion of the methodology employed. Although t...

  19. Natural Resource Collection and Children’s Literacy: Empirical Evidence from Panel Data in Rural Ethiopia

    Beyene, Abebe D.; Mekonnen, Alemu; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the dynamic aspect of the effect of natural resource collection on child education. This paper looks into the effect of resource collection on child education using panel data collected in four rounds from rural Ethiopia. We model resource work participation and child literacy as a joint decision. Mundlak’s approach is employed in order to exploit the panel nature of the data. Unlike other related studies, we separately analyzed the effect of collection of water and ...

  20. THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS ON RISK MANAGEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM COMMERCIAL BANKS IN ETHIOPIA

    Abate, Sewale

    2014-01-01

    The risk positions of Ethiopian banks have been under tension since 2007 as per the National Bank of Ethiopia report (2009). However, existing theory on the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on bank risk-taking still remains limited and the evidence is conflicting. Most studies concentrate on US and European banks, while empirical evidence has remained scarce for Ethiopian banks. Added to that, to my knowledge, there are almost no papers on this subject for commercial banks in Ethiopi...

  1. Why use ROSCAs when you can use banks? Theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    Kedir, Abbi M.; Disney, Richard; Dasgupta, Indraneel

    2011-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on the use of informal credit arrangements such as ROSCAs (Rotating and Credit Saving Associations) theorises the use of such institutions as arising from market failures in the development of formal saving and credit mechanisms. As economic development proceeds, formal institutions might therefore be expected to displace ROSCAs. We show, using household data for Ethiopia, that in fact use of formal institutions and ROSCAs can co-exist, even in the same househo...

  2. Why use ROSCAs when you can use the banks? Theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    Kedir, Abbi; Disney, Richard; Dasgupta, Indraneel

    2011-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on the use of informal credit arrangements such as ROSCAs (Rotating and Credit Saving Associations) theorises the use of such institutions as arising from market failures in the development of formal saving and credit mechanisms. As economic development proceeds, formal institutions might therefore be expected to displace ROSCAs. We show, using household data for Ethiopia, that in fact use of formal institutions and ROSCAs can co-exist, even in the same househo...

  3. Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis among Residents and Migrants in Kafta-Humera, Ethiopia

    Argaw, Daniel; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merc; Nombela, Nohelly; Teklu, Tsegemariam; Tefera, Teodros; Belew, Zewdu; Alvar, Jorge; Bern, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a lethal parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. The largest focus of VL in Ethiopia is located in the lowland region bordering Sudan, where hundreds of thousands of agricultural workers migrate for work every year during the planting and harvest seasons. We conducted two parallel studies in residents and migrants to determine the living conditions and behaviors that put people at higher risk of VL risk. We found that sleeping under an acacia tree at night, indi...

  4. From food aid to food security: the case of the safety net policy in Ethiopia

    C. Bishop; Hilhorst, D.

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) is an attempt to bring food security to 5 million people by providing them with social security to close the yearly hunger gap, coupled with development projects to lift them permanently out of poverty. The programme is an example of the new policy arrangements that aim to link relief to social security and development. This paper analyses the early implementation of the PSNP in two villages of the Amhara Region. The paper shows how the progra...

  5. Using Eucalyptus for Soil & Water Conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia

    Kidanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. With agricultural productivity lingering behind population growth the gap between the availability and the demand for agricultural land continues to grow. This results in severe land-use conflicts. Thus, high potential and more resilient soils need intensification to sustain human needs. This thesis discusses the opportunities of a short rotation (3 years) eucalyptus based agroforestry system to intensify annual sole cro...

  6. Survey of Safety Practices Among Hospital Laboratories in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    Sewunet, Tsegaye; Kebede, Wakjira; Wondafrash, Beyene; Workalemau, Bereket; Abebe, Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Background Unsafe working practices, working environments, disposable waste products, and chemicals in clinical laboratories contribute to infectious and non-infectious hazards. Staffs, the community, and patients are less safe. Furthermore, such practices compromise the quality of laboratory services. We conducted a study to describe safety practices in public hospital laboratories of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Method Randomly selected ten public hospital laboratories in Oromia Regiona...

  7. Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: Options for home births in rural Ethiopia

    Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Potts, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    This paper sought to determine the safety and feasibility of home-based prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with misoprostol, including assessment of the need for referrals and additional interventions. In rural Tigray, Ethiopia, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in intervention areas were trained to administer 600mcg of oral misoprostol. In non-intervention areas women were referred to the nearest health facility. Of the 966 vaginal deliveries attended by TBAs, only 8.9% of those wh...

  8. Health Sector Initiatives for Disaster Risk Management in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventi...

  9. A national system for monitoring the performance of hospitals in Ethiopia

    Zahirah McNatt; Erika Linnander; Abraham Endeshaw; Dawit Tatek; David Conteh; Elizabeth H. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many countries struggle to develop and implement strategies to monitor hospitals nationally. The challenge is particularly acute in low-income countries where resources for measurement and reporting are scarce. We examined the experience of developing and implementing a national system for monitoring the performance of 130 government hospitals in Ethiopia. Using participatory observation, we found that the monitoring system resulted in more consistent hospital reporting of performanc...

  10. A Rural-Urban Comparison of Manufacturing Enterprise Performance in Ethiopia

    Rijkers, Bob; Soderbom, Mans; Loening, Josef L.

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing enterprises in rural and urban Ethiopia are compared to examine how location and investment climate characteristics affect performance. Urban firms are larger, more capital intensive and have higher labor productivity than rural firms, yet there is no strong evidence of increasing returns to scale. The hypothesis that firms in rural towns have the same average total factor productivity as urban firms is not rejected; however, firms in remote rural areas are less productive. Rura...

  11. Attitudes hearing impaired children face from hearing people : a case study from Wollega, Ethiopia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what kind of attitudes that hearing impaired children face from hearing people, and how these attitudes influence the hearing impaired child’s life. This is a qualitative research project with interview as the instrument of collecting data. The interviews were conducted in Wollega, Ethiopia with four different informant groups: Children with hearing impairment (CWHI), their parents (Parents CWHI), Children with hearing (CWH), and their parents (Parents ...

  12. Species composition and diversity of small Afromontane forest fragments in northern Ethiopia

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koenraad; Haile, M.; Hermy, Martin; Deckers, Jozef A.; Muys, Bart

    2006-01-01

    In the highlands of northern Ethiopia, remnants of the original Afromontane forest vegetation are largely restricted to church yards and other sacred groves in a matrix of cropland and semiarid degraded savanna. To assess the potential for natural forest regeneration, species composition and diversity of all forest fragments (10) in a study area of 13,000 ha were analyzed in relation to environmental and soil variables. Using a random design and a density of approximately one plot per two h...

  13. Diagnosis and Treatment of Typhoid Fever and Associated Prevailing Drug Resistance in Northern Ethiopia

    Araya Gebreyesus wasihun

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Patients were wrongly diagnosed and treated for typhoid fever by Widal test. The tube titration method was relatively good but still had poor sensitivity. Blood isolates showed multi drug resistance, which may be due to the indiscriminate prescription as seen in this study. Based on our results, the slide Widal test is not helpful in the diagnosis of typhoid, hence other tests with rapid, feasible, better sensitivity and specificity are urgently needed in Ethiopia.

  14. Levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale) cultivated in Ethiopia

    Wagesho, Yohannes; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common condiment for various foods and beverages and widely used worldwide as a spice. Its extracts are used extensively in the food, beverage, and confectionary industries in the production of products such as marmalade, pickles, chutney, ginger beer, ginger wine, liquors, biscuits, and other bakery products. In Ethiopia, it is among the important spices used in every kitchen to flavor stew, tea, bread and local alcoholic drinks. It is also...

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Determinants of Safe Abortion among first year students in Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Selam Desalegn; Alem Desta; Azeb G/selassie; Amanuel Tesfay; Robel Abaya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: students are becoming aware of the availability and seeking of safe abortion services in their communities. However, unsafe abortion still remains globally major health problem especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. It is becoming one of the leading direct obstetric causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. In many low income countries lack of knowledge about the consequences of unsafe abortion and having negative attitude towards abortion service resulted in unsafe...

  16. Millions on the Margins: Music, Ethnicity, and Censorship Among the Oromo of Ethiopia

    Mollenhauer, Shawn Michael

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation will demonstrate how music among the Oromo people of present day Ethiopia functions as a system for the preservation and negotiation of a uniquely Oromo identity, as well as a vehicle for resistance against the hegemony long ago established by outside ethnic groups. I will demonstrate how a long history of censorship of Oromo music by various ruling elites has made censorship one of the major features of Oromo social and aesthetic processes. This dissertation will therefore ...

  17. The Hagiography of Meles Zenawi - Deconstructing the Official Narrative about Ethiopia's Former Prime Minister

    Hess-Nielsen, Ane Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines narratives about Ethiopia's former Prime Minister, Meles Zenawi. In the aftermath of his death the narrative about his person and leadership has been presented in a certain way in public space. Hence this thesis asks how the narrative is constructed, how it has a strategic political function and how the cultivation of a cult of personality works as a mechanism of control. Analysis and discussion centre around three key themes of the official discourse about the former lea...

  18. Mental disorders among the Borana semi-nomadic community in Southern Ethiopia

    Beyero, Teferra; ALEM, ATALAY; Kebede, Derege; Shibire, Teshome; Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the lifetime prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of psychiatric disorders among the Borana semi-nomadic community of the Oromia region of Ethiopia. 1854 people of both sexes, aged 15 years and above, were interviewed during the survey. The households were selected by using a cluster sampling method proportionate to population size. The interviews were conducted by trained high school graduates using the Oromiffa version of the Composite I...

  19. Indigenous Views on the Italian Occupation in Southern Ethiopia A Post-Colonial Approach

    Braukämper, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The present focus on “postcolonial studies” in cultural anthropology is attributing a growing interest to the Italian occupation in Ethiopia (1935–1941). Whereas a considerable amount of “mainstream” information has been collected about the war of conquest and colonial rule by Fascist Italy, the indigenous views and attitudes at the grassroots of Ethiopian people have largely remained outside consideration. Because of the harsh exploitation by the ruling elites of the empire, large parts of t...

  20. Unwanted pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women in Hosanna town, southern Ethiopia

    Hamdela, Belayneh; G/mariam, Abebe; Degfie, Tizta Tilahun

    2012-01-01

    Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residi...

  1. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Abdo Abdurahman; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes ...

  2. The World Health Organization work and experiences in combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Mladonova, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practiced ...

  3. Rural Land Certification in Ethiopia: Process, Initial Impact, and Implications for Other African Countries

    Deininger, Klaus; Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Holden, Stein; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    Although many African countries have recently adopted highly innovative and pro-poor land laws, lack of implementation thwarts their potentially far-reaching impact on productivity, poverty reduction, and governance. We use a representative household survey from Ethiopia where, over a short period, certificates to more than 20 million plots were issued to describe the certification process, explore its incidence and preliminary impact, and quantify the costs. While this provides many suggesti...

  4. How Fair is Workfare? Gender, Public Works, and Employment in Rural Ethiopia

    Agnes R Quisumbing; Yohannes, Yisehac

    2005-01-01

    The authors use the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey to examine the gender dimensions of public works. They use three rounds of a panel conducted in 1994-95 to explore the determinants of participation in, days worked, wages, and earnings from wage labor, food-for-work (FFW), and self-employment. Then they analyze public works data collected in 1997, together with program data collected in 2003. FFW operates in a similar fashion with other labor markets in Ethiopia where female participation ...

  5. Provision of injectable contraceptives in Ethiopia through community-based reproductive health agents

    Ndola Prata; Amanuel Gessessew; Alice Cartwright; Ashley Fraser

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether community-based health workers in a rural region of Ethiopia can provide injectable contraceptives to women with similar levels of safety, effectiveness and acceptability as health extension workers (HEWs). METHODS: This was a prospective non-randomized community intervention trial designed to test the provision of injectable contraceptives by community-based reproductive health agents (CBRHAs). Effectiveness, safety, acceptability and continuation rates were t...

  6. MARKETTING SITUATIONS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDS IN WELMERA AND DENDI WEREDA OF WEST SHOA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    R. MESFIN; Tesfaye, A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper explains the status of livestock feed resources and market situations in Welmera and Dendi weredas of West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the survey was to assess the potentials and constraints of feed resources and related marketing practices and suggest appropriate intervention options to overcome the constraints. Majority (76%) of the interviewed farmers have faced shortage of livestock feeds. The diminishing trend of grazing land from time to time, roughage, concentrate f...

  7. Cryptosporidiosis and Isosporiasis among HIV-positive individuals in south Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    Girma, Mekonnen; Teshome, Wondu; Petros, Beyene; Endeshaw, Tekola

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp and I. belli are intestinal opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS. A decline in the incidence of these opportunistic infections due to HAART was reported. We aim to investigate these parasites among HAART naïve and experienced HIV patients in south Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out among 268 HIV- positive patients between January and September, 2007. Interview with questionnaires and document reviews were used to collect data....

  8. Chemical properties of wild coffee forest soils in Ethiopia and management implications

    Taye Kufa

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at determining the status of soil chemical fertility in four wild coffee forests of southeastern and southwestern Ethiopia. Accordingly, soil samples were collected from surface and subsurface depths at three sites within each forest and analyzed for soil chemical properties. The results depicted that the soils at the four coffee forests did not reveal significant variations for most parameters, except Mg, CEC and C:N ratio. Significant variations were determined between the su...

  9. Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia

    Kebede Wolka Wolancho

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide se...

  10. Survival limitation of African Wild Olive seedlings by browsing livestock in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia

    Aerts, Raf; November, E; Van der Borght, I; Maes, W.; Tafere, M; Muys, Bart

    2004-01-01

    An experimental grazing plot in Central-Tigray, Ethiopia, was enriched with simulated seedlings of African wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata) under two early-successional shrubs (Euclea schimperi and Acacia etbaica) and in open areas. Then this plot was subjected to controlled grazing by goats. Seedling survival curves were calculated from grazing pressure (LSU h ha-1) and corrected/uncorrected seedling survival rations (LSU=livestock unit). Results indicate that both Euclea and A...

  11. Feasibility Study of Pumped Storage System for Application in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Tilahun, Mastewal Alemu

    2012-01-01

    In these days environmental issues are critical. Environmental concerns mainly rise from energy productions. Fortunately Ethiopia is trying to use renewable energy sources as a means for electrical power production and it is a great start for a long, tiresome green energy journey. The basic job to be done in green energy sectors is to maximize the capacity of renewable technologies to fulfil the best efficiency.  Intermittent nature of the energy production and their inefficiency to meet peak...

  12. Improving Potato Production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Kaguongo, W.; Ortiz, O.; Tesfaye, A.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W.W.; Kakuhenzire, R.; Kinyae, P.; Nyongesa, M.; Struik, P.C.; Leeuwis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Increased productivity of potatoes can improve the livelihood of smallholder potato farmers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia and is required to meet the growing demand. This paper investigates the opportunities for potato system improvement that could result in improved productivity. Through a diagnosis of the potato systems in the three countries on the basis of surveys and stakeholder workshops, seed potato quality management, bacterial wilt control, late blight control and soil fertility mana...

  13. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Durbete Town, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Tilahun Alelign; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2015-01-01

    Identifying determinants of soil transmitted helminth infection is vital to design control strategy for the disease. This study assessed the prevalence of STH infections and associated factors among schoolchildren in Durbete town, northwestern Ethiopia. Data about the sociodemographic and socioeconomic status of the children were collected using a questionnaire and stool samples were diagnosed using thick Kato-Katz smear. STH infection was more common among school-age children in Durbete town...

  14. Demographic and Health-related Risk Factors of Subclinical Vitamin A Deficiency in Ethiopia

    Demissie, Tsegaye; Ali, Ahmed; Mekonnen, Yared; Haider, Jemal; Umeta, Melaku

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the demographic and health-related risk factors of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected from 996 children in 210 clusters across the nation for analysis of serum retinol. Interviews were conducted with the respective mothers of the 996 children on presumed risk factors of vitamin A deficiency. A higher subclinical vitamin A deficiency was associated with: not receiving vitamin A supplement over the year, having been il...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

    Robberstad Bjarne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.

  16. Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication

    Niguse Fekadu; Biffa Demelash; Megersa Bekele; Rufael Tesfaye; Asmare Kassahun; Skjerve Eystein

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and c...

  17. Determinants of Treatment Adherence Among Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Southern Ethiopia

    Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2007-01-01

    Background: Defaulting from treatment remains a challenge for most tuberculosis control programmes. It may increase the risk of drug resistance, relapse, death, and prolonged infectiousness. The aim of this study was to determine factors predicting treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods and Findings: A cohort of smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed and registered in Hossana Hospital in southern Ethiopia from 1 September 2002 to 30 Apri...

  18. Literacy and ICT: Social Constructions in the Lives of Low-literate Youth in Ethiopia & Malawi

    Geldof, Marije

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores how literacy and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are socially constructed in the lives of low-literate youth in the context of Ethiopia and Malawi. Literacy and ICTs are becoming more and more interdependent and both are seen as possible solutions for development. However, few studies have qualitatively explored the interaction between the two in contexts where literacy skills are not widespread, such as in Africa. Particularly the pers...

  19. Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Charlene Watson; Susana Mourato; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exem...

  20. Over one century of rainfall and temperature observations in addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Declan Conway, D.; Mould, C.; W. Bewket

    2004-01-01

    A detailed historical reconstruction and analysis is presented of the longest record of climate observations for Ethiopia, from 1898 to 2002 in Addis Ababa. Prior to 1951 the record comprises rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures recorded in different locations by different observers. The rainfall series is complete except for 1899 and 1900, but the temperature series are very incomplete. Using documentary evidence, we attempt as far as is possible to establish the origins of all the ...