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An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2009-10-01

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Effects of Drought on Pastoral Household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available This study adopted the survey research design to investigate the effect of drought on Pastoral household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The aim was to give information about drought pattern in the study area, create an understanding of the menace as well as identify appropriate and relevant local level response mechanisms. A household survey was conducted with 134 households and this was complemented by interviews with informants. Meteorological data were also used to map out the time line of drought events in the area. It was observed that severe and recurrent drought of the present time has brought about declining range land resources, poor productivity and declining survival of livestocks. The results indicate that the frequency of drought has been on the increase from year to year. Increased severity of drought has caused huge moisture deficit and has posed multi-dimensional adverse effects on households' livelihood sources. However, households have developed various strategies to deal with the challenges of severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities.

Abera Bekele

2012-04-01

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Household Responses to Drought in Fentale Pastoral Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Fentale pastoralists have been undertaking a set of responses to mitigate the adverse effects of the present day severe recurrent drought on the livelihood sources of the households. This study was conducted to investigate responses that are undertaken to drought by households in Fentale pastoral woreda of Oromia regional state in Ethiopia. A household survey was conducted with 134 households complemented by interviews with informants and with in-depth focus group discussion. The results indicate that households have developed various response mechanisms to deal with the challenges of the severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities. An extent of household responses towards both pastoral and non pastoral activities are varied, in which the household characteristics, specifically, wealth in terms of livestock holding is the decisive factors for the engagement of the household in any one or more of a set of productive activities/response mechanisms. The extent of households' mobility and herd diversification has increased. In addition, households have started to partly practice crop cultivation. Other non-pastoral activities such as agriculture, daily labour, petty trade, fuel wood collection and charcoal selling contributed to about 35% of the total household income.

Abera Bekele

2012-08-01

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Malaria prevalence and mosquito net coverage in Oromia and SNNPR regions of Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and seasonal, with the majority of the country's population living in malaria-prone areas. Results from DHS 2005 indicate that the coverage of key malaria interventions was low. The government of Ethiopia has set the national goal of full population coverage with a mean of 2 long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) per household through distribution of about 20 million LLIN by the end of 2007. The aim of this stud...

Shargie Estifanos B; Gebre Teshome; Ngondi Jeremiah; Graves Patricia M; Mosher Aryc W; Emerson Paul M; Ejigsemahu Yeshewamebrat; Endeshaw Tekola; Olana Dereje; WeldeMeskel Asrat; Teferra Admas; Tadesse Zerihun; Tilahun Abate; Yohannes Gedeon; Richards Frank O

2008-01-01

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High Fluoride, Modest Fluorosis: Investigation in Drinking Water Supply in Halaba (SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In Halaba district in Southern Ethiopia fluoride levels from boreholes are high (2.6 to 7.0 mg/l, yet the incidence of fluorosis is modest. Drinking water users living in the vicinity of four drinking water systems that have been in operation for more than 35 years were surveyed. Out of 625 persons 5 percent had severe dental fluorosis and 42 percent had mild forms—which is considerably less than results of other areas with comparable fluoride levels. The incidence was highest in the older age groups. Possible explanations were explored. A likely reason may be the continued large dependence on rain water harvesting ponds for human consumption alongside the use of water from the public borehole systems, but more investigations would be required to confirm this proposition.

Frank van Steenbergen

2011-02-01

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Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study  

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Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a...

2011-01-01

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Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

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Background: Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on th...

2011-01-01

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Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. Results More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94] and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]. The majority (67.02% of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child’s age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47 and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73 and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88], but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]. Conclusion The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community based behavior change communications using multiple channels including radio and folk media is recommended to reduce sub-optimal breast feeding practices and associated consequences among children in the study area.

Tamiru Dessalegn

2012-05-01

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Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers need special attention as they are distant from various information sources.

Belachew Tefera

2011-04-01

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Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze...

2010-01-01

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Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (? = 0.05 was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (? = 0.05 was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05 were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50% of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29% were shrubs, six (16% were herbs and two (5% were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97% fruits, 13 (33.33% leaves, 3 (7.69% roots and one (2.56% seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.872 and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.994 by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of wild edible plants were gathered and consumed from 'Duka' (March to 'Halet' (May and from 'Meko' (August to 'Tejo' (November. Sixteen (41% of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge. The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. Conclusions The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity.

Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2010-08-01

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Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices an...

2012-01-01

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Pastoral Livelihoods in South Ethiopia - Value Chain Assessment of Gum & Resins in Moyale Area  

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This research assessed the value chain of gum and resins, which are available in four woreda in the southern lowlands of Ethiopia. They are Moyale Somali, Moyale Oromia, Dhas and Dire woreda. The output of this research is the elaboration of three value chains. The first is a general one for all the woreda, while the other two concern the Moyale and Dubluk markets. The assessed products are the gum arabic from Acacia trees and the resin exuded by the dunkhal tree - Boswellia family. The aim o...

Bernabini, Francesca

2012-01-01

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Ethiopia'  

... The Grand Renaissance dam, for example, raises environmental, social, and geopolitical concerns. According to the Ethiopian Electric Power ... Egypt, meanwhile, worries that the dam will curtail its own water supply, harming agricultural production and reducing electricity output from the Aswan ... dam -widely considered a symbol of Egyptian achievement. The greatest challenge, however, will be to ensure that Ethiopia's current focus on ...

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Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Halaba district, South Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine is an anti-malarial drug being used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Ethiopia. However, emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the parasite has challenged the current efficacy of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chloroquine against P. vivax strains in one of the malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia, namely Halaba district, located in South Nations and Nationalities Peoples Region (SNNPR of South Ethiopia Results Among 87 malaria patients enrolled in the study, only 80 of them completed the 28-days follow-up. Seven of them dropped from the study for different reasons. Among those study participants that completed their follow-up, 69 were classified under the category of adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. However, the remaining 11 cases were considered as under treatment failure mainly due to recurrence of parasitemia on day 7 (four patients, day 14 (six patients, and day 21 (one patient. The age of all cases of treatment failures was found to be less than 20 years. The load of parasitemia of patients with treatment failure on day of admission (4709.4/?l was higher than day of recurrence (372.37/?l. Parasite reduction ratio (PRR of treatment failure cases was 12.6/?l. Conclusion This report revealed the rise in treatment failure (13% [95% CI = 0.074 - 0.217] as compared to earlier reports from Ethiopia. It signals the spreading of chloroquine resistant P. vivax (CRPv strains to malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia. It is recommended that all concerned bodies should act aggressively before further expansion of the current drug resistant malaria.

Bacha Ketema

2011-03-01

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Constraints Faced by Development Agents in North-Western Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In Ethiopia, agricultural extension and advisory services are expected to play crucial role in improving the agricultural sector in general and the livelihood of small-scale farmers in particular. However, it faced various constraints. The objective of this study was to examine constraints faced by development agents. Data collected from 250 development agents working in Amhara region was the empirical basis of this study. The study result showed that development agents in all zones have the role of selecting and deciding who should take part in the agricultural extension packages. Moreover, their service provision is inclined to middle income farmers. The most important source of extension information for them is the trainings provided by the woreda agricultural offices and they mostly contact farmers on weekly basis. The study also revealed that a number of factors constrain their agricultural extension activities. Out of the eighteen constraints identified to affect the performance of development agents, six of them were found to be most important. These constraints in their order of importance are lack of entrepreneurship related trainings; lack of finance and other inputs to run farmer training centers; agriculture office enforcement of development agents to serve as a general practitioner; lack of transport, stationery and office equipments; and burden of administrative and other non-extension works. Therefore, government should address these constraints to make the agricultural extension activities of development agents efficient through availing start-up fund, means of transport and communication, arranging business related soft-skill trainings and relieving development agents from non-extension workloads.

Zerihun Nigussie Gebresilasie

2014-01-01

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Economical growth in Ethiopia  

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Poverty in Ethiopia is prevalent in both rural and urban areas. According to EEA (2002), more than 46 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty or below 2 dollars per day. In Ethiopia, rural areas account for 85 percent of the country’s population, and the majority of rural people live in abject poverty. Urban areas also exhibit a high incidence of poverty. Socio-economic indicators also reflect poverty to be wide spread throughout the country.

Berhane, Hermela Haile

2012-01-01

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The implications of federalism and decentralisation on socio-economic conditions in Ethiopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we wil [...] l show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

Zimmermann-Steinhart, P; Bekele, Y.

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THE IMPLICATIONS OF FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALISATION ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we will show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data.In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits.The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

Petra Zimmermann-Steinhart

2012-08-01

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Self-supply as a complementary water services delivery model in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

John Butterworth

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Ethiopia - norad.no  

...Ethiopia Dialogue supported by Norway has resulted in religious leaders publicly denouncing female genital mutilation. They are reaching millions of people with the ...message of how harmful genital mutilation is. Published 02/09/2013 Updated 16/09/2013 Print Tweet By sector By partner Aid trends ... Ethiopia is a pioneer country, also for Norway’s international action plan against genital mutilation. In the fight against genital mutilation the Norwegian Church ...a clear reduction in the number of girls that are subjected to genital mutilation. These are some of the results: The Ethiopian ...

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Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia  

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Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis ...

Józef Razowski; Pasquale Trematerra

2010-01-01

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Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four hundred fifty people living near Gambela Ethiopia were examined by the East African Trypanosomiasis Research Organization, by means of thick blood films, and the collection of blood on filter paper for the determination of IgM content and for indirec...

J. R. Baker E. McConnell

1969-01-01

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Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia  

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In 1999, the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International undertook a project which was named the Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia. Rotary clubs from India, Ethiopia and the USA participated in this unique project which was a resounding success, not just in terms of the number and quality of the operations done, but also in bringing people of India, Ethiopia and the USA closer to each other and so fostering understanding and friendship amongst them.The matching grant and new opportu...

Ms Doms Fcps, Dr Uma Pradhan; Ms, Dr Shrirang Deshpande; Grewal Ms Doms, Dr P. S.; Dr Museret Awave

2003-01-01

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Uranium exploration in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)

2009-06-22

26

Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia, 2  

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Twenty species of Tortricidae from Ethiopia, Oromia Region, are recorded of which Olethreutes didessae sp. n., Ancylis colaccii sp. n., and Gypsonoma giorgiae sp. n. are described as new; Eucosma thalameuta Meyrick, 1918, is transferred to the genus Cosmetra Diakonoff, 1977.

Razowski, J.; Trematerra, P.

2012-01-01

27

Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1999, the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International undertook a project which was named the Intercontinental Medicare Project in Ethiopia. Rotary clubs from India, Ethiopia and the USA participated in this unique project which was a resounding success, not just in terms of the number and quality of the operations done, but also in bringing people of India, Ethiopia and the USA closer to each other and so fostering understanding and friendship amongst them.The matching grant and new opportunities grant project was planned in order to perform 400 introcular lens implant surgeries in Ethiopia (along with polio-corrective and plastic surgeries. In Africa there are about 3 million cataract blind to which 50,000 new cases are added each year. A huge backlog has accumulated in rural areas and low-income urban slums. India faces similar problems. Indian surgeons are trained in performing cataract operations with limited resources and with reasonably good outcome. We are experienced in doing many operations in a short span of time.

Dr P S Grewal MS DOMS

2003-01-01

28

HISTORY OF HR MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available In many countries the development of HR management not well articulated and documented and even difficult to write about it. Ethiopia is one of those countries with difficult documentation and written facts to clearly picture the development of HR management. Even though this article fallowing world trend in HR management practice described the HR management practice of Ethiopia. Ethiopia economic and administration structure mostly described by categorizing it in to three periods. The period between before 1974, the period between1974 to 1991, and the period after 1991. It can be concluded that all prominent HR behaviour in all periods can be described by administrative HR practice in Ethiopia institutions.

TAREKEGN DEA LERA

2013-03-01

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Modern Ethiopia and Colonial Eritrea  

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The article develops some reflections on present-day Eritrea in the light of the colonial past and in the context of modern Ethiopia. If we consider Eritrea and its path towards independence, some differences and analogies emerge in comparison with other African colonies. The Eritrean independence is taking place today in a very specific context in post-colonial Africa. It is not a simple case of delayed decolonization, postponed by 30 years with respect to other former African colonies. The ...

2013-01-01

30

Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia  

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This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...

Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M. P. M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W. J. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P. C.

2010-01-01

31

Geoheritage Conservation in Ethiopia: The Case of the Simien Mountains  

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Ethiopia constitutes one of the most significant environmental and cultural reserves on Earth. Ethio¬pia’s natural and cultural tourist attractions are mostly associated with geological features: the active Ethiopian and Afar rifts as well as the Simien and Bale massifs are few examples. Ethiopia’s cultural history, religious ma¬nifestations and civilization, like the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela and the stelae of Axum, are also imprinted in rock. Geomorphological and geological featu...

Asrat, Asfawossen; Metasebia, Demissie; Aberra, Mogessie

2012-01-01

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The epidemiology of burns in rural Ethiopia.  

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STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and cost of the service. Adult members of a systematic random sample (20%) of households from 16 communities (total popu...

Courtright, P.; Haile, D.; Kohls, E.

1993-01-01

33

Early Childhood in Ethiopia: Initiatives in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…

Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit

2007-01-01

34

Early Education in Ethiopia: Progress and Prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Explored herein are historical roots of preschool through elementary grade education in the East Africa nation of Ethiopia. Also included are current difficult challenges to educational improvement as well as promising developments such as greater involvement of private institutions, organizations, and individuals in supporting Ministry of…

Hoot, James L.; Szente, Judit; Mebratu, Belete

2004-01-01

35

Economic Prospects for Ethiopia and Challenges for Poverty Reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The report analyses Ethiopia’s economic performance and expected future development. The economic growth rate is likely to remain high despite large fluctuations in agricultural production. Projections indicate, however, that Government’s target of 7 % growth for 2006 is around 2 percentage points too high. Higher growth rates are expected if political polarization in Ethiopia is reduced. The rising inflation has been a source of concern, but price increases now seem to be under control. ...

Villanger, Espen

2006-01-01

36

Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their c...

Kassa Nega; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu

2012-01-01

37

Epidemiology of child psychiatric disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although mental disorders are common among children all over the world, information on the extent and types of child psychiatric disorders in Ethiopia is extremely limited. A study was conducted in an urban setting of Ethiopia to look at the prevalence of child psychiatric disorders and their correlates. A two-phase survey was performed. In the first phase, parents of 5000 children in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, were interviewed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (R...

2008-01-01

38

31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AL-HARAMAIN: BANGLADESH BRANCH, House 1, Road 1, S-6, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh [SDGT]AL-HARAMAIN: ETHIOPIA BRANCH, Woreda...Ghana; House #40, Lake Drive Road, Sector #7, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Al-Aridiyah, Kuwait; Qurtubah,...

2010-07-01

39

Raising public awareness of glaucoma in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Ethiopia, glaucoma is the fifth most common cause of blindness and the disease caused irreversible blindness in an estimated 62,000 people in 2006.1Due to the nature of the disease, an inadequate and inaccessible eye care service, and a very poor level of public awareness, glaucoma patients tend to come for help after they have become either unilaterally or bilaterally blind. Even among some health professionals in Ethiopia, awareness and understanding of glaucoma is low. There are many instances of parents being told that their child does not have an eye problem when in fact they are suffering from congenital glaucoma, and I have seen many people with acute angle-closure glaucoma who have been treated for conjunctivitis!

Mabeba T Giorgis

2012-01-01

40

Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting the traditional bean production practices. Surveys identified five major diseases. Bean rust, bacterial blight and anthracnose were widely distributed. Angular and floury leaf spots were prominent in the humid west. Disease severities depended on regions, cropping pract...

Habtu Assefa

1994-01-01

42

Health Promoting Community Radio in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project offers a critical case study of community radio’s health promoting potentials in Maternity World Wide’s (MWW) reproductive health project in Ethiopia. In partnership with the Danish development organization MWW, we have designed a participatory radio guideline as a supplement to the established project. Multiple determinants influence the reproductive health situation in the rural area of West Wollega where the Integrated Maternal Health Project is situated. MWW have requeste...

Clausen, Simone Kofoed; Hedegaard, Sofie Viftrup; Lonning, Sofia Bruse

2013-01-01

43

Decomposing Terms of Trade Fluctuations in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a technique to decompose short-run fluctuations in the terms of trade. Using Ethiopia as an example, we decompose the commodity terms of trade into various components to measure the impact of price and volume shifts as well as export diversification. We use monthly data from the past decade, including periods during the global food and financial crises. Our findings suggest that diversification out of traditional coffee exports to other export commodities successfully miti...

Loening, Josef L.; Higashi, Masato

2010-01-01

44

Decomposing Terms of Trade Fluctuations in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a technique to decompose short-run fluctuations in the terms of trade. Using Ethiopia as an example, we decompose the commodity terms of trade into various components to measure the impact of price and volume shifts as well as export diversification. We use monthly data from the past decade, including periods during the global food and financial crises. Our findings suggest that diversification out of traditional coffee exports to other export commodities successfully miti...

Loening, Josef L.; Higashi, Masato

2011-01-01

45

FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

2013-04-01

46

Ethiopia's financial sector and its regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethiopia is one of a number of SSA economies that adopted state-led development strategies in the 1970s (others include Angola and Mozambique), and suffered from intense conflict (leading to the fall of the Derg regime in 1991). The new government was therefore faced with the twin tasks of reconstructing the economy, and embarking on the transition to a market economy. As part of this process, state banks have been reorganised, the role of the private sector in the financial system has been e...

2001-01-01

47

Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation. PMID:11393316

Taddese, G

2001-06-01

48

Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book takes stock of political reform in Ethiopia and the transformation of Ethiopian society since the adoption of multi-party politics and ethnic federalism in 1991. Decentralization, attempted democratization via ethno-national representation, and partial economic liberalization have reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, â??democracyâ?? in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoplesâ?? Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party has embarked upon a technocratic â??developmental stateâ?? trajectory ostensibly aimed at â??depoliticizingâ?? national policy and delegitimizing alternative courses. The contributors analyze the dynamics of authoritarian state-building, political ethnicity, electoral politics and state-society relations that have marked the Ethiopian polity since the downfall of the socialist Derg regime. Chapters on ethnic federalism, 'revolutionary democracy', opposition parties, the press, the judiciary, state-religion, and state-foreign donor relations provide the most comprehensive and thought-provoking review of contemporary Ethiopian national politics to date.

2013-01-01

49

Childhood poverty and evidence-based policy engagement in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores efforts to bridge multi-disciplinary research and policy engagement to tackle child poverty in the contexts of developing countries, based on the experiences of Young Lives, an international longitudinal policy-research project. It focuses on a case study involving the application of research evidence on child poverty to shape policy debates concerning Ethiopiażs second-generation Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006ż2010). The discussion is situated within theoretic...

2008-01-01

50

Forest coffee certification in Ethiopia: Economic boon or ecological bane?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the worldwide origin of the Coffea arabica gene-pool. However, the forests witness high rates of depletion and deforestation leading to an irreversible loss of the forest ecosystem and biodiversity. Certification of forest coffee started in Ethiopia in 2002 with the aim to conserve the coffee forests and provide the peasants with a better livelihood. This paper evaluates the forest coffee production and the related human encroachment in the forests ecos...

2011-01-01

51

Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU). In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia....

2012-01-01

52

Colloquium. Jacques Faitlovitch and the Jews of Ethiopia: a century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To mark the centennial, day for day, of Jacques Faitlovitch’s first trip to discover the Falashas (Jews of Ethiopia) the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem in collaboration with Ben-Zvi Institute and Tel-Aviv University (Department of Middle Eastern and African History) organized a conference titled Jacques Faitlovitch and the Jews of Ethiopia: a century. In fact, it is a young masters’ student from Tel-Aviv University, Haďm Admor, who took the initative to plan this colloquium....

Lisa Anteby-Yemini

2007-01-01

53

Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time series ranges between 35 to 50 and 9 to 49 years for rainfall and river flow, respectively. In order to improve the poor linear correlation model to describe rainfall gradient with altitude a simple topographic parameter is introduced capable to better depict the spatial variability of annual rainfall and its coefficient of variation. The small rains (Belg) were found to be much more unpredictable than the long, monsoon-type rains (Kiremt) and hence much more out of phase with the variation of annual precipitation amount that is significantly influenced by the Kiremt rains. In order to investigate the long term trends, rainfall anomalies were calculated as Z score for annual, Belg and Kiremt precipitation for all the stations and average values are calculated and plotted against time. The three Z trend lines obtained show no marked deviation from the mean as only an almost negligible decreasing trend is observed. Rainfall intensity in 24 hours is analyzed and the trend line of the maximum intensity averaged over the maximum value of each year recorded at each meteo-station is constructed. These data indicate a general decrease in daily rainfall intensity across Ethiopia with clear exceptions in a few selected areas. The same procedure, based on the Z scores, used to analyze rainfall variability is applied also to the river flow data and a similar result is obtained. If compared with rainfall, annual runoff shows a much wider range of variation among the study rivers. This issue is discussed and possible explanations are presented.

Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

2014-05-01

54

Rehab: Drought and famine in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Special Report on the two Ethiopian drought-famine crises is reviewed. The Wollo drought occurred at the same time as the West African. Although drought also hit Sudan, and thus spread from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, Ethiopia's drought seems to have been unique, for its normal rainfall pattern is different from that of the Sahel; there are two rainy seasons, linked to a wind system more complex than that in West Africa. The limited data on this is summarized in S. Betheke's chapter of Rehap. This is an important study which helps impact an understanding of the revolution provoked by the Imperial regime's handling of the northern famine, and also allows useful comparisons of the Ethiopian and West African drought crisis.

Hussein, A.M.

1976-01-01

55

North-eastern Ethiopia: Society in famine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Special Report on the two Ethiopian drought-famine crises is reviewed. The Wollo drought occurred at the same time as the West African. Although drought also hit Sudan, and thus spread from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, Ethiopia's drought seems to have been unique, for its normal rainfall pattern is different from that of the Sahel; there are two rainy seasons, linked to a wind system more complex than that in West Africa. The limited data on this is summarized in S. Bethke's chapter of Rehab. This is an important study which helps impact an understanding of the revolution provoked by the Imperial regime's handling of the northern famine, and also allows useful comparisons of the Ethiopian and West African drought crisis.

Lundstrom, K.J.

1976-01-01

56

In search of quality in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1992 organized the first African Regional Workshop on quality of care with the goal of increasing the awareness of and commitment to the quality of care, and discussing practical activities for family planning associations to undertake with their governments to improve quality of care. The workshop was attended by 46 senior officials, policymakers, planners, managers, and service providers involved in family planning and was officially opened by the Vice Minister of Health. Regional workshops were subsequently held in Jimma, South Western Ethiopia, and Dessie in the Northeast. Participants in the central workshop conducted the regional workshops, while the three main facilitators from Addis Ababa served as resource personnel. These workshops have helped boost regional know-how in providing quality family planning services and in mapping out priority areas for intervention. Similar step-down workshops at the district level are planned. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) has observed the contraceptive method mix change over the two years following the 1992 workshop from one comprised of 70% oral pill use to only 35% pill use with an increase in the use of other methods. Studies indicate client satisfaction, more clients are being served at FGAE than at other government health institutions, and attendance has increased by 15-20% over the period. Moreover, the promotion of family planning through mass media has been further developed and more people are aware of family planning than before. Other collaborative efforts are ongoing. The workshops have also led to better working relationships between the FGAE, the Ministry of Health, and other institutions and NGOs, while helping to prioritize the allocation of resources. PMID:12318918

Tokon, T

1994-01-01

57

Female Headed Households and Their Livelihood in Bati Wäräda, South Wollo:Practices and Resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is conducted in Northern Ethiopia, Bati woreda. It explores how the existing gender relation in Bati woreda plays a role on livelihood of female headed households. Qualitative method that include semi structure interview, focus group discussion, key informant interview and observations are the main data collection instruments. Twenty female headed households that compromised of widow, divorcee and separated are the main focus of the sturdy. The thesis used the sociologist Pierre...

Yimam, Tizita Mulugeta

2014-01-01

58

Neonatal mortality in Ethiopia: trends and determinants.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The Ethiopian neonatal mortality rate constitutes 42% of under-5 deaths. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of Ethiopian neonatal mortality. METHODS: We analyzed the birth history information of live births from the 2000, 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). We used simple linear regression analyses to examine trends in neonatal mortality rates and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model using a hierarchical approach to examine the associated factors. RESULTS: The neonatal mortality rate declined by 1.9% per annum from 1995 to 2010, logarithmically. The early neonatal mortality rate declined by 0.9% per annum and was where 74% of the neonatal deaths occurred. Using multivariate analyses, increased neonatal mortality risk was associated with male sex (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23 - 1.55); neonates born to mothers aged < 18 years (HR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.15 - 1.72); and those born within 2 years of the preceding birth (HR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.89 - 2.51). Winter birth increased the risk of dying compared with spring births (HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08 - 1.51). Giving two Tetanus Toxoid Injections (TTI) to the mothers before childbirth decreased neonatal mortality risk (HR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.36 - 0.54). Neonates born to women with secondary or higher schooling vs. no education had a lower risk of dying (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49 - 0.95). Compared with neonates in Addis Ababa, neonates in Amhara (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.26 - 2.83), Benishangul Gumuz (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.15 - 2.67) and Tigray (HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.01 - 2.34) regions carried a significantly higher risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal mortality must decline more rapidly to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target for under-5 mortality in Ethiopia. Strategies to address neonatal survival require a multifaceted approach that encompasses health-related and other measures. Addressing short birth interval and preventing early pregnancy must be considered as interventions. Programs must improve the coverage of TTI and prevention of hypothermia for winter births should be given greater emphasis. Strategies to improve neonatal survival must address inequalities in neonatal mortality by women's education and region. PMID:23683315

Mekonnen, Yared; Tensou, Biruk; Telake, Daniel S; Degefie, Tedbabe; Bekele, Abeba

2013-05-17

59

Book review: famine and foreigners: Ethiopia since Live Aid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The terrible 1984 famine in Ethiopia focused the world’s attention on the country and the issue of aid as never before. Peter Gill was the first journalist to reach the epicentre of the famine and one of the TV reporters who brought the tragedy to light, and in this book tells what happened to Ethiopia in the 25 years following Live Aid. Maria Kuecken finds that Gill does great justice to this ever-pertinent issue by illuminating a complexity of confounding factors through a digestible narr...

2012-01-01

60

Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999.

Balcha, Berhanu

2001-01-01

62

Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

63

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Ethiopia: Progress and Emerging Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world--Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of…

Hoot, James; Szente, Judit; Tadesse, Selamawit

2006-01-01

64

Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia: The Gilo River Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current outbreak of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in Ethiopia is centred on the Gilo River region of Illubabor Province. Up to the end of March 1970 there have been 232 confirmed cases-4 in 1967, 28 in 1968, and 27 in the first three months of 1970. Of ...

E. McConnell M. P. Hutchinson J. R. Baker

1970-01-01

65

Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaEthiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The motives, instruments and effects of China’s Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the “competitive pressure” that China’s growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one ...

Hackenesch, Christine

2013-01-01

69

Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

Wolela, Ahmed

2006-10-01

70

Cystic hydatidosis in Ethiopia: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a cestode infection caused by the larval stage of Echinocococcus granulosus. It is an important zonoses, as humans get infected by ingesting eggs passed in the feces of dogs, and important cause of economic loss mainly due to organ condemnation and reducing the quality of meat, milk, and wool production. Hydatidosis is prevalent in cattle and small ruminant population of Ethiopia in a range of 3.1% to 72.44%. The prevalence rate reaches up to 30.8% in camels and 25% in dogs. Very few retrospective and case reports of cystic human hydatidosis also indicated the relevance of the disease in the human population of the country. Besides to the scarcity of reports the slow growing nature of disease development may result in underestimation of the situation. Economic losses in a range of 3201 to 1,167,512 USD have been reported in the country. Diagnosis of the larvae in the intermediate hosts, especially in humans, is mainly by imaging and immunology techniques. During post mortem examination the cyst can be diagnosed during meat inspection procedures in lungs, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, muscle bones and other tissues of intermediate hosts. In the definitive host diagnosis can be by demonstration of the parasite from there faces or the small intestine or the detection of specific coproantigens or coproDNA. The role of holistic and systematic interventions approaches involving the public, veterinarians and public health professional for the action to be simultaneous and effectual along with prevalence of hydatidosis are highlighted in the present review.

S.A. Kassa

2012-08-01

71

Outlook of future climate in northwestern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change is described as the most universal and irreversible environmental problem facing the planet Earth. While climate change is already manifesting in Ethiopia through changes in temperature and rainfall, its magnitude is poorly studied at regional levels. The objective of this paper was to assess and quantify the magnitude of future changes of climate parameters using Statistical Downscaling Mode (SDSM version 4.2 in Amhara Regional State which is located between 8°45‘N and 13°45‘N latitude and 35°46‘E and 40°25‘E longitude. Daily climate data (1979- 2008 of rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures were collected from 10 observed meteorological stations (predictand. The stations were grouped and compared using clustering and Markov chain model, whereas the degree of climate change in the study area was estimated using the coupled HadCM3 general circulation model (GCM with A2a emission scenarios (Predictors. Both maximum and minimum temperatures showed an increasing trend; the increase in mean maximum temperature ranges between 1.55°C and 6.07°C and that of the mean minimum temperature ranges from 0.11°C and 2.81°C. While the amount of annual rainfall and rainy days decreased in the study Regions in the 2080s. The negative changes in rainfall and temperature obtained from the HadCM3 model in the current study are alarming and suggest the need for further study with several GCM models to confirm the current results and develop adaptation options.

Wondimu Bayu

2012-07-01

72

Assessment of the Street Children and Orphans Component of the Pact NGO Sector Enhancement Initiative in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The situation of children in Ethiopia deserves particular attention from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Of its 70 million people, approximately half are children and adolescents. Poverty puts many of Ethiopia's children at high ris...

J. Williamson

2000-01-01

73

The Short Life of the Bank of Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bank of Abyssinia, established in 1905, was given a 50-years concession by theEmperor Menelek II. This institution was engaged in issuing notes as well as in any kind ofcommercial banking business. Haile Sellassie, after acceding to the throne in 1930, could not acceptthat the country’s issuing bank was a foreign-owned share company and decided for nationalization.The change was implemented, however, in a soft way, providing an adequate compensation toshareholders, and in agreement with the main foreign shareholder, the National Bank of Egypt. TheBank of Abyssinia went, therefore, into liquidation and a new institution, the Bank of Ethiopia, wasestablished in 1931. The new bank, although under full Government control, retained management,staff, premises and clients of the ceased financial institution. Italian occupation of the country, in1936, brought the liquidation of the Bank of Ethiopia.

Arnaldo Mauri

2010-12-01

74

Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

2013-12-01

75

Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia.

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

2014-01-01

76

The impact of indoor residual spraying on malaria incidence in East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia  

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Background: In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population resides in areas prone to malaria infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on the incidence of malaria in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia.

2012-01-01

77

Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia - Ecology of Illubabor Province and Epidemiology in the Baro Region Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

African human trypanosomiasis was first seen in Ethiopia in March 1967. Between March 1967 and March 1968, 4 cases were recorded; in the following 12 months the total had risen to 95. The disease occurs mainly in an area of southwestern Ethiopia bounded t...

J. R. Baker E. McConnell D. C. Kent J. Hady

1970-01-01

78

The Jesuit Mission in Ethiopia (16th–17th Centuries): an Analytical Bibliography  

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The Jesuit mission in Ethiopia was an episode of great importance in the history of Ethiopia and the Portuguese expansion. However, despite the number of studies dedicated to it a bibliography was still missing. This paper tries to fill the gap; it discusses the historiography of the mission, outlines the main themes treated and provides a comprehensive list of secondary literature.

Cohen Shabot, Leonardo University Of Haifa; Marti?nez D Alo?s-moner, Andreu European University Institute

2012-01-01

79

The political economy of food price: The case of Ethiopia  

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Food prices increased significantly in 2007 - 08 in Ethiopia due to several supply- and demand-side factors. The Ethiopian government released emergency food grain reserves, imported and distributed wheat at subsidized price, banned the export of staple cereals, and removed value added and turnover taxes on food items. It also increased the reserve requirement of commercial banks and reduced domestic borrowing by public enterprises. These measures were mostly initiated by the government and t...

Admassie, Assefa

2013-01-01

80

Investment analysis of smallholder Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Amhara, Ethiopia  

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In this study the financial returns related to smallholders’ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Val...

Matthies, Brent

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The Road to Maternal Death In Rural Southwest Ethiopia  

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The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not understanding the severity of the problem, and lack of transport were the major themes identified as contributing factors. The result highlighted the need to improving primary h...

2010-01-01

82

Ecocultural Control of Natural Energy Resources in Southern Ethiopia  

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Dealing with resource problems, energy balance and sustainable climate protection have emerged as subjects of public interest. Indigenous knowledge and concepts, however, are seldom dealt with by western scientists. On the basis of exemplary cases from south-western Ethiopia the interdependence of technical, social and symbolic knowledge and experiences is demonstrated, from which a model can be derived. With the help of the model it can be shown, how, under certain cultural conditions, throu...

2013-01-01

83

Livestock and livelihood security in the Harar highlands of Ethiopia  

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The study was conducted to examine the role of livestock in smallholder mixed farming systems, and to determine variations in livestock inventory in relation to changes in socio-economic status and rural population density in the Harar Highlands of Ethiopia. Livestock feed balance, household food adequacy level, and soil humus balance of annually cropped plots were identified as proxy indicators of sustainability. The long-term dynamics of the crop-livestock sub-system within the evolving liv...

2003-01-01

84

The fiscal dimensions of Ethiopia's transition and reconstruction  

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In 1991, the new Government of Ethiopia faced a triple fiscal challenge. First, a major effort was required to overhaul and modernize the tax system. Second, the need to switch expenditure from military to civilian uses had to take place within a potentially severely reduced resource total. The severity of the general financing problem was however ameliorated by a rise in aid flows. Third, there was the political imperative to press on with the process of fiscal decentralization that was the ...

Bevan, David L.

2001-01-01

85

The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea  

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Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Perň, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non č stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, piů collezioni...

2012-01-01

86

Determinants of internal and international migration in Ethiopia  

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I studied the determinants of migration from urban Ethiopia to other countries, to rural areas and to other urban areas. In general, the result differs by migration type. For international migration, wealth and network variables are found to be important. It is mainly those households who have the network and/or the capacity to finance migration who send household members abroad. Human capital variables like age and education matter only for the two internal migrations. While the social capit...

2011-01-01

87

'The distribution of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in central Ethiopia  

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Ixodid ticks were collected from domestic animals, mainly cattle, in 11 administrative zones covering 84 districts in central Ethiopia over a period of 2 years (July 1996 to June 1998). Nineteen tick species were identified. Four of these belonged to the genus Amblyomma, one to Boophilus, two to Haemaphysalis, three to Hyalomma and nine to Rhipicephalus. Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were present in all 11 administrative zones and, with the exception of Afar, Boophilu...

Mekonnen, S.; Hussein, I.; Bedane, B.

2001-01-01

88

Biofuels and Food Security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia  

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This paper provides microeconomic evidence on food security impacts of privately organized biofuel outgrower schemes in Ethiopia. We conducted a household and community level survey and evaluated the impact of castor bean firming. We use endogenous switching regressions to analyze the impact on food security. Food security (as measured by a ?food gap?) and food caloric intake is significantly better in households producing castor beans. ?Fuel? and ?food? are complements rather than substitute...

Negash, Martha; Swinnen, Johan

2012-01-01

89

Farmer's health and agricultural productivity in rural Ethiopia  

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ABSTRACT This thesis assesses the impact of farm household’s health on agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. Two years panel data (2004 and 2009) from Ethiopian longitudinal rural household survey (ERHS) are used. First, Cobb Douglas (CD) stochastic frontier analysis is applied to explain the relationship between farm output and inputs. The results indicate most of the major inputs considered such as labour, land soil and fertility influence agriculture production significantly and positiv...

Kussa, Meseret Urgecha

2012-01-01

90

Forest decline in South Central Ethiopia : Extent, history and process  

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This study presents the extent, history and process of forest decline in Awassa watershed, south central Ethiopia. By combining different data sources such as satellite images, social surveys and historical documents, forest decline is described quantitatively and qualitatively and the main causes behind this process are identified. Forest decline in the study area is interpreted as the result of a combination of socio-political changes, economic activities, population growth, cultural patter...

Gessesse Dessie,

2007-01-01

91

Causes of unintended pregnancy among adolescents in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia  

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Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in many countries, especially in developing countries. Numerous prevention strategies have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, the adolescent unwanted pregnancy still increasing in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. It is why the researcher would like to assess the risk factors influencing the raise of this issue. The aim of the study was to identify th...

Nalenga, Georges Z.

2012-01-01

92

Early marriage in Ethiopia : causes and health consequences  

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Early marriage is a violation of the fundamental rights of the child. In 2006, Pathfinder International/Ethiopia conducted a study on the incidence, reasons for, and the personal and social consequences of early marriage in both urban and rural areas of the Amhara region. Understanding the forces at work at the community and family levels that drive parents to marry their girl-children off is essential in the development of effective programmes to tackle this traditional practice. A total of ...

Alemu, B.

2008-01-01

93

Pacific SST influence on spring precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC and RPSS validation scores.

Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.

2012-04-01

94

Review of the Norwegian Development Fund Portfolio in Ethiopia  

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This report reviews the Ethiopian portfolio of the Development Fund (DF), a Norwegian NGO, which has evolved from supporting relief work by one Tigrayan organisation in the 1980s to supporting ten projects with several organisations in Tigray and Afar Regions and networking with other organisations in Ethiopia and beyond. The portfolio focuses on socio-economic development to alleviate poverty and increase food security, primarily through agriculture, and on natural resource management in dry...

Waters-bayer, Ann; Tostensen, Arne; Gebremichael, Yohannes

2005-01-01

95

Incidence and Severity of Sorghum Anthracnose in Ethiopia  

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A two year survey was conducted to determine incidence and severity of sorghum anthracnose in different sorghum growing regions in Ethiopia. A total of 487 fields in 49 districts were surveyed in each of the 2005 and 2007 production season. Incidence of sorghum anthracnose was assessed as the percentage of plants with visible symptoms in a field and anthracnose severity was evaluated as the percentage of leaf area with symptoms. Also, the relationship of the incidence and severity of the dise...

2010-01-01

96

Land reclamation using reservoir sediments in Tigray, northern Ethiopia  

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Accelerated soil erosion leads to sedimentation in reservoirs and a decline in their life span. As many reservoirs in northern Ethiopia are dry at the end of the dry season, we were able to evaluate the potential of using reservoir sediments for land reclamation. Stripped land from which construction material for the reservoirs had been excavated was covered with 0, 15 and 30 cm of sediment and planted with a local garlic cultivar (Allium sativum). The applied reservoir sediments had low to m...

Girmay, Gebreyohannes; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Bauer, Hans; Merckx, R.; Haile, Mitiku; Deckers, Jozef

2012-01-01

97

Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 ?g m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 ?g m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 ?g m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 ?g m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

2014-06-01

98

Examining some aspects of alternative basic education programmes in Ethiopia  

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This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from primary and secondary sources and to provide separate case descriptions of the five regions and two city administrations studied. The study’s ...

Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

2010-01-01

99

Internal migration and household living conditions in Ethiopia  

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Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled...

2006-01-01

100

Development and management of irrigated lands in Tigray, Ethiopia  

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Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world. It is characterised by famine as a result of high population pressure, resource base degradation, and insufficient rainfall for rainfed agriculture. On the other hand, it is endowed with a huge annual water resource potential of about 110 billion m 3 , a potentially irrigable land of 3.6 million ha and productive manpower of about 48% of the total population. In view of these facts, the Agricultural Development-Led Industrializ...

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Assessing drought risk and irrigation need in northern Ethiopia  

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Long-term climate data of four stations in the northern Ethiopia were analyzed in combination with information from local farmers and documented materials. From this analysis, a suitable drought-assessing technique was developed and site-specific needs for supplementary irrigation were explored. Results showed that our technique for assessing drought and crop failure corresponded well with farmer observations. The three major causes of crop failure (dry spells, short growing period and “tot...

2011-01-01

102

Development and Management of Irrigated Lands in Tigray, Ethiopia:  

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Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world. It is characterised by famine as a result of high population pressure, resource base degradation, and insufficiënt rainfai! for rainfed agriculture. On the ether hand, it is endowed with a huge annual water resource potential of about 110 billion m3 a potentially irrigable land of 3.6 million ha and productive manpower of about 48% of the total population. In view of these facts, the Agricultural Development-Led Industrialization (ADLl) ...

2005-01-01

103

Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT. Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.

Ayele Dawit G

2012-06-01

104

Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

2014-04-01

105

English in Eastern Ethiopia is Learnt; Not Mastered  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT has undergone immense changes over the years in terms of using different methods, but none of the methods till this date have proved what they had proclaimed. The paper believes in the hypothesis that learning is understanding the linguistic components of a language, whereas mastering is the part of using them in a well structured way with perfection and ease. Viewing this dichotomy between learning and mastering, the paper examines a problematic discourse: English in Eastern Ethiopia is often learnt; but not mastered. The broad concern of the paper is to draw the attention of the local and global ELT practitioners towards the dismal state of English in Eastern Ethiopia. In this pursuit, the paper set three prime objectives: (i exploring global and local uses of ELT methods, (ii exploring major linguistic and non-linguistic impediments in mastering English, and (iii proposing an empirical approach to overcome the impediments from remedial perspective. Participant observation, unstructured Interview, and document analysis were employed to gather the data, whereas analytic induction was used to analyze the data. Under findings, seventeen linguistic and non-linguistic impediments were found as serious deterrents in mastering English. From remedial perspective, the paper proposes an empirical Integrated Iconic Approach to overcome the linguistic impediments followed by seventeen apposite recommendations to pave the path of quality English education in Eastern Ethiopia.

Sanjay Kumar Jha

2013-03-01

106

Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information. PMID:12294046

Spadacini, B; Nichols, P

1998-07-01

107

Children and Oral Tradition Among the Guji-Oromo in Southern Ethiopia  

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This thesis, titled Children and Oral Tradition among the Guji-Oromo in Southern Ethiopia, explores the oral play culture and everyday life of children in a rural context in Ethiopia. With its focus on Guji people in southern Ethiopia, it presents how children (girls and boys in the age range of 7-14 years) participate in performance; interpretation and transmission of oral tradition and through this process learn about their social world. The thesis is part of the research and capacity build...

2013-01-01

108

The impact of indoor residual spraying on malaria incidence in East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia  

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Background: In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population resides in areas prone to malaria infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on the incidence of malaria in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia.Methods: Data from the registers of malaria cases at Debrezeit Malaria Control Center in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia were collected and analyzed. Records of 22 villages with no previous rounds of spraying that were entirely covered with IRS using DDT du...

2012-01-01

109

Europe tries new recipe to combat hunger in Ethiopia | EurActiv  

...Ethiopia | EurActiv The list of hunger catastrophes in the history of the Horn of Africa is long. The latest one, only two ... specialreport-food-nutrition-security,development-policy,drought,Ethiopia,Food security,Horn of Africa,hunger,nutrition EU news & policy debates- across languages - en Click here ...-A + A Published 20 November 2013, updated 21 November 2013 1 comment Tags drought, Ethiopia, Food security, Horn of Africa, hunger, nutrition SPECIAL REPORT / Learning ...Commission has changed tack on its approach to food security in the Horn of Africa, focusing on resilience to droughts and supporting diversification ...

110

Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept that the hydrologic processes that were taught for a century might be incorrect.

Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

2010-05-01

111

Medical and social consequences of tuberculosis in rural Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An institution based cross sectional study was conducted in June 1996 at a rural health centre in South Gonder Administrative Zone of Northern Ethiopia. Interview and respective review of medical records of patients were done. A total of 211 tuberculosis (TB) patients were included in the study, 133 (63%) males and 78 (37%) females. Majority (79.6%) of patients had pulmonary disease. Clinical observation based on symptoms and signs suggestive of tuberculosis was used as a sole criteria to prescribe anti-tuberculosis treatment in 54.1% (114/211) of all the patients. Acid fast staining of sputum was done for 51.2% (86/168) of the pulmonary patients out of whom only 31.4% were smear positive. Social ostracism was observed to have been affecting tuberculosis patients and their families to a great extent. Divorce rate due to tuberculosis among patients was 29.1% (37/127). Patients have reported loss or threat to lose their job. Dietary misconceptions were rampant. The TB control activities were ineffective and poorly organised. Starting anti-tuberculosis treatment without proper diagnosis was observed to have negative consequences on the patients and the control programme. Appropriate counselling service along with the medical treatment was provided to patients with eventual family reunions. Patients were also organised into local 'TB clubs' by their residential locations so as to improve treatment adherence and the level of TB awareness among the patients and the community. It is strongly recommended that the political system and health authorities of Ethiopia should have to give much more attention and commitment to the TB control activities in Ethiopia. PMID:11957311

Getahun, H

1999-07-01

112

Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended or not. Data were collected by lay interviewers using uniform questionnaire. Odds Ratio, with 95% confidence interval using multiple and multinomial logistic regression were calculated to detect level of significance. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.9% (578/2072 of the study subjects. Out of which, 440 were mistimed and 138 were not wanted. Unintended pregnancy was associated with family wealth status (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14, 1.90, high parity (7 + (OR 5.18; 95% CI 3.31, 8.12, and a longer estimated time to walk to the nearest health care facility (OR 2.24; 95% CI: 1.49, 3.39. In the multinomial regression, women from poor family reported that their pregnancy was mistimed (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.25. The longer estimated time (80 + minutes to walk to the nearest health care facility influenced the occurrence of mistimed pregnancy (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 4.02. High parity (7+ showed a strong association to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12 and (OR 14.34; 95% CI 5.72, 35.98, respectively. Conclusions The economy of the family, parity, and walking distance to the nearest health care institution are strong predictors of unintended pregnancy. In order to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy Efforts to reach rural women with family planning services should be strengthened.

Kassa Nega

2012-01-01

113

The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dellâ??Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, piĂą collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, e questi informazioni sono utilizzati qui: dopo una revisione di tutto il materiale di Etiopia e Eritrea, e un comparazione con materiale di Africa tropicale orientale, si è concluso che P. truncata è conspecifi ca con P. dawei, nota per lâ??Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania e Madagascar, e che unâ??altra specie conosciuta per lâ??Africa tropicale orientale (Kenya e Tanzania), P. montis-elgonis, Ă© stata raccolta anche in due stazioni nel sud-ovest dellâ??Etiopia. In Etiopia, le due specie rare, P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis, sono limitate alle aree originariamente coperti da foresta umida: P. dawei si trova nella foresta pluviale di transizione (Transitional Rain Forest) e anche nella foresta fluviale (Riverine Forest), ma P. montis-elgonis si trova nella zona piĂą bassa della foresta afromontana umida sempreverde (Moist Afromontane Evergreen Forest), secondo i tipi di vegetazione defi niti da Friis, Sebsebe Demissew e van Breugel. La distribuzione ed ecologia di P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis in Africa orientale e il Madagascar viene riesaminata, utilizzando i dati quantitativi disponibili. La distribuzione è stata ottenuta da dati dâ??erbario, mentre sono state valutate anche la distribuzione potenziale e lo stato di conservazione generale delle due specie. Malgrado loro raritĂ , almeno in Etiopia, le due specie siano da attribuire alla categoria IUCN Least Concern (LC) se si basi la stima sulla dimensione del EOO o sulla dimensione del AOO con grande cellule. Inoltre viene riproposto un nuovo trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species. In the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 5, published in 2006, only two indigenous species were accounted for: the widespread and common P. zeylanica and a new species, P. truncata, restricted to south-western Ethiopia. The name P. truncata was not formally validated. Since then more collections and field observations of Plumbago have been made in Ethiopia: after revision of the entire material it is concluded that P. truncata is conspecific with P. dawei, known from Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar, and that another tropical East African species, P. montis-elgonis, known from Kenya and Tanzania, also occurs in south-western Ethiopia. In Ethiopia the two species are restricted to areas originally covered by moist forest: P. dawei to Transitional Rain Forest and Riverine Forest, while P. montis-elgonis to the lowermost zone of the Moist Afromontane Forest, as these vegetation types have been defi ned by Friis, Sebsebe Demissew and van Breugel. The distribution and ecology of P. dawei and P. montis-elgonis in eastern Africa and Madagascar is also reviewed, using quantitative data available: the distribution as documented by herbarium material is shown, the potential distribution of the species is modelled, and the conservation status of the species is estimated. In spite of their rarity, the two species are attributed to the IUCN category Least Concern (LC) when the category is estimated using EOO and AOO with moderate or large cell size. A rewritten account of the genus Plumbago is provided in the format of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, taking account of the new findings.

Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie

2012-01-01

114

Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae in south western Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a clinical and epidemiological study of lymphatic filariasis in southwestern Ethiopia the microfilarial density in the blood of two male and two female volunteers from the village of Ketch (near the town of Gambella) was determined every four hours for a 24-hour period using the counting chamber technique. In the blood of the volunteers the majority of the microfilariae appeared between 20 and 04 hours with peak at 24 hours (range at peak time + 3060-3560 mf/ml blood) depicting a nocturnal periodicity of circulating Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. This has important implications for the diagnosis, monitoring and transmission of lymphatic filariasis in the area. PMID:7601081

Jemaneh, L; Kebede, D

1995-04-01

115

Lake Tana's piscivorous Barbus (Cyprinidae, Ethiopia) ecology - evolution - exploitation  

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The 15 Barbus species of Lake Tana, a large shallow lake located at an altitude of 1830 m in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia, form the only remaining intact species flock of large (max. 100cm) cyprinid fishes. Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile and high waterfalls (40 m) at Tissisat ('smoking water'), 30 km downstream from the outflow, effectively isolate the lake's ichtyofauna from the lower Nile basin.Lake Tana and its endemic Barbus species flock form a natural laborat...

Graaf, M.

2003-01-01

116

Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia  

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A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest pre...

2012-01-01

117

Modeling the Determinats of Domestic Private Investments in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of domestic private investment in Ethiopia using a time series data over the period 1992-2010. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model and applied the bounds test approach in modeling the long run determinants of domestic private investment. The study found exchange rate, domestic saving and domestic credit as key factors having negative and significant impact on domestic private investment. External debt and government expenditure are found to have significant and positive effect on domestic private investment. The results imply that government expenditure stimulates domestic private investment while domestic credit and domestic saving have a constrained effect on the sector.

G. G. Ambaye

2013-12-01

118

Investigation on Infectious Bursal Disease Outbreak in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia  

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An outbreak of infectious bursal disease affecting 20-45 days old broiler and layer chickens was investigated for the first time in Ethiopia in the months of March and April 2002. Death of chickens started at the 30th day of age and continues to the 55th day. The mortality rate of the disease in different poultry houses ranges from 45-50 %. The over all mortality rate was 49.89%. Broiler mortality was 56.09% while 25.08% for layer chickens. The major clinical symptoms were sudden drop ...

2005-01-01

119

Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia  

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BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A...

Deribew, A.; Abebe, G.; Apers, L.; Abdisa, A.; Deribe, F.; Woldemichael, K.; Jira, C.; Tesfaye, M.; Shiffa, J.; Assefa, A.; Bezabih, M.; Abeje, T.; Colebunders, R.

2012-01-01

120

Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia : reality or myth?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rising oil prices, concerns about climate change, and future energy supplies have contributed to growing interest in the use of liquid biofuels in the transport sector which, in turn, has driven large-scale land acquisitions in developing countries for biofuel feedstock production, mainly jatropha. The increasing trend of land acquisition for biofuels has led to the widespread debate about food versus biofuel because of the perceived competition for land and water. To avoid the food versus fuel debate, the use of â??marginalâ?ť land for biofuel feedstock production (jatropha) has emerged as a dominant narrative. But both the availability and suitability of â??marginalâ?ť land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study indicates that moisture stress is the key factor in the failure of many large-scale jatropha plantations in Ethiopia.

Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Epidemiology in Ethiopia 200 years after John Snow's birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The year 2013 marks exactly 200 years since John Snow, known as the father of modern epidemiology, was born. In 19th century, epidemiologists like John Snow, concentrated almost entirely upon infectious diseases of humans measuring the burden of disease, describing pattern and attempting to understand the transmission dynamics. During the second half of the 20th century; big changes occurred so that epidemiologists in the developed world started to use systematized approaches to investigate the etiologies, conditions and to evaluate interventions through different study designs. However, the situation in the developing world is not the same as the rest of the world. Even 200 years after Snow's birth, epidemiological capacity is lowest in Africa. This article attempts to describe that Ethiopia is not exceptional. In the past few decades, there have been some attempts to build capacity in the country by launching training programs in clinical epidemiology, general epidemiology and field epidemiology. However, not only few epidemiologists are trained, but, limited funding, high-teaching burdens, poor working conditions and low salaries are among important contributors for epidemiological brain drain in Ethiopia. Thus, strengthening learning opportunities and rewarding career paths are required to increase human resource capacity and retain skilled personnel in the field of epidemiology. PMID:24696979

Enquselassie, Fikre

2013-10-01

122

Monetary Developments and Decolonization in Ethiopia (1941-1952  

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Full Text Available The article analyses the reorganization process of the monetary setting in Ethiopia which started in 1941 along with decolonization, when the Italian colonial rule came to an end. The country regained independence and the former Ethiopian empire was restored. The monetary reform in Ethiopia after the liberation during World War II, was a necessary measure to be adopted. Different paths however could have been followed at that moment by the Ethiopian government. The crucial choice made in money matter was to re-establish a national monetary unit instead of keeping the country inside the East African shilling area, as it was envisaged in British designs for the post-war setting of the Horn of Africa. The Ethiopian project unpredictably prevailed at the end of a weary negotiation, due to the chiefly American support in the framework of a new role gained by the United States in this area. The Ethiopian Authorities were, as a consequence, enabled to free themselves from dependence on Great Britain.

Arnaldo Mauri

2010-03-01

123

Participatory forest management in ethiopia: learning from pilot projects.  

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Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term. PMID:24488085

Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta

2014-04-01

124

Incidence and Severity of Sorghum Anthracnose in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A two year survey was conducted to determine incidence and severity of sorghum anthracnose in different sorghum growing regions in Ethiopia. A total of 487 fields in 49 districts were surveyed in each of the 2005 and 2007 production season. Incidence of sorghum anthracnose was assessed as the percentage of plants with visible symptoms in a field and anthracnose severity was evaluated as the percentage of leaf area with symptoms. Also, the relationship of the incidence and severity of the disease to the altitude of the fields and weather conditions were determined. Results from the 2 years survey revealed that sorghum anthracnose is present in most (84% of the survey districts. However, both incidence and severity of the disease varied significantly (p<0.0001 among the survey areas. Anthracnose incidence ranged from 0 to 77% and severity of the disease varied between 0 and 59% on average for the two years. The two year average anthracnose severity classes ranged from trace (<5% to severe (up to 59% and the disease was generally more severe in the Southwest and South regions. However, some districts in the East and North Ethiopia also had fields with severe anthracnose infection. It was also found out that the prevailing weather conditions especially rainfall has a significant impact on both anthracnose incidence and severity.

A.M. Tronsmo

2010-01-01

125

Investigation on Infectious Bursal Disease Outbreak in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available An outbreak of infectious bursal disease affecting 20-45 days old broiler and layer chickens was investigated for the first time in Ethiopia in the months of March and April 2002. Death of chickens started at the 30th day of age and continues to the 55th day. The mortality rate of the disease in different poultry houses ranges from 45-50 %. The over all mortality rate was 49.89%. Broiler mortality was 56.09% while 25.08% for layer chickens. The major clinical symptoms were sudden drop in feed and water consumption, sever depression, white watery droppings and mass death. Grossly, hemorrhages in leg muscles, degeneration of the pectoral muscle, white mass (Urate deposit in kidneys and in Cloaca were frequently observed during post mortem examination. In addition, haemorrhagic & swollen bursas filled with straw colored fluid were identified in few cases. Histopathology revealed hyperplasia of the reticulo-endothelia cells and interfollicular tissue of affected bursa of fabricius. The Agar Gel Immuno Diffusion (AGID Test detected precipitating antibodies against Infectious Bursal disease virus in sera collected from convalescent chicken. Virus cytopathic effect was observed in chicken fibroblast cells (CFC inoculated with bursa and spleen tissue suspension of sick chicken. Vaccination failures were encountered to Newcastle disease vaccine (Clone 30. This paper probably is the first to report the occurrence of infectious bursal disease in Ethiopia as the country has been known to be free from Infectious Bursal Disease(IBD.

Aschalew Zeleke

2005-01-01

126

Econometric analyses of horticultural production and marketing in Central and Eastern Ethiopia  

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Keywords: vegetables, food and cash crops, land and labour allocations, crop and market outlet choice, price information, farm households, Ethiopia.The central item of this research is to examine the development of less-favoured areas through commercializing small-scale agriculture that produces crops with export potential, particularly in horticulture.First the role of horticulture, along with other non-traditional agricultural commodities, in stabilizing the export income of Ethiopia is ana...

Jaleta Debello, M.

2007-01-01

127

Assessment of micro-dam irrigation projects and runoff predictions for ungauged catchments in Northern Ethiopia  

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The study area is found in Tigray region Northern Ethiopia. The watersheds of all micro-dam irrigation projects found in the region are considered as ungauged catchments since there is no flow record required for sizing the reservoir. In this study several approaches have been explored and new findings are presented that would give a basis for estimating runoff for ungauged catchments in the Northern Ethiopia based on the data collected from the established monitoring stations. About 20 rainf...

2010-01-01

128

Mortality and survival from childhood to old age in rural Ethiopia  

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This thesis examines ways of establishing cause of death, assessing trends in mortality, and identifying factors that affect mortality and survival among the different population groups in rural and semi-urban Ethiopia. These data are important for health care planning; however, such vital data are unavailable in many developing countries. The study was conducted in Butajira Rural Health Program Demographic Surveillance Site, Ethiopia, where data collection on vital events and related researc...

2008-01-01

129

Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia  

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Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka) and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa) via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key a...

2013-01-01

130

Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study  

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Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were tra...

2012-01-01

131

The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.

Deribe Kebede

2012-10-01

132

Multivariate Analysis of Nutritional Diversity in Sorghum Landrace Accessions from Western Ethiopia  

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In Ethiopia, sorghum is grown for food and cash income by subsistence farmers. The study was conducted at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Council, Grain Crops Institute at Potchefstroom, South Africa. A total of 31 sorghum landrace accessions were used for chemical analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of genetic diversity in nutritional composition of sorghum landraces from western Ethiopia. Sorghum whole grains were analyzed for crude protein, ...

2013-01-01

133

Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia  

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Background: Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing le...

2009-01-01

134

Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia  

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BACKGROUND: Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing le...

2009-01-01

135

Modelling soil nutrient dynamics under alternative farm management practices in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia  

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Agricultural production in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia is low, stagnant or unsustainable. The objectives of this study were to explore long-term dynamics of soil organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and the consequences for crop-available N and P to support the design of sustainable farm management practices for higher yields and improved livelihoods in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. Simplified soil N and P dynamics modules are described. C dynamics have been linked...

Abegaz Yimer, A.; Keulen, H.

2009-01-01

136

A methodology for the adoptation of information systems in least developed countries (LDCs) : case study Ethiopia  

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Ethiopia is one of the United Nation’s Least Developed Countries (LDCs), and is ranked as one of the absolute least developed in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) development and penetration. Ethiopia has only 0.5 Internet users per 100 residents and 6 telephone lines per 100 residents, which is one of the lowest penetration rates in the world. Additional issues include the limitation of most Internet access to cities and a monopoly telecommunications provide that con...

Kebbede, Sirak

2012-01-01

137

In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia  

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The leaves extracts of two indigenous plants of Ethiopia: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentra...

2012-01-01

138

Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia  

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Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia...

2012-01-01

139

Seroepidemiological study of caprine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia  

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Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular apicomplexan parasite. The objectives of this study were to estimate the animal and flock level seroprevalence and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis in goats of Central Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, goats are economically important animals used for meat and milk production. The study was cross-sectional and 927 blood samples from 187 goat flocks were collected to examine T. gondii specific IgG antibodies by enz...

Zewdu, E.; Agonafir, A.; Tessema, T. S.; Tilahun, G.; Medhin, G.; Vitale, M.; Di Marco, V.; Cox, E.; Vercruysse, J.; Dorny, P.

2013-01-01

140

First evidence of high knockdown resistance frequency in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia  

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The status of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation was investigated in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia. Among 240 mosquito samples from 15 villages of southwestern Ethiopia that were screened by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for kdr mutations, the West African kdr mutation (L1014F) was detected in almost all specimens (98.5%), whereas the East African kdr mutation (L1014S) was absent. Moreover, the mortality of An. gambiae s.l...

Yewhalaw, D.; Bortel, W.; Denis, L.; Coosemans, M.; Duchateau, L.; Speybroeck, N.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

First evidence of high knockdown resistance frequency in anopheles arabiensis (diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia  

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The status of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation was investigated in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia. Among 240 mosquito samples from 15 villages of southwestern Ethiopia that were screened by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for kdr mutations, the West African kdr mutation (L1014F) was detected in almost all specimens (98.5%), whereas the East African kdr mutation (L1014S) was absent. Moreover, the mortality of An. gambiae s.l...

Gebre, Delenasaw Yewhalaw; Bortel, Wim; Denis, Leen; Coosemans, Marc; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

2010-01-01

142

Traditional access and forest management arrangements for beekeeping: the case of Southwest Ethiopia forest region  

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Forest beekeeping is an ancient form of forest exploitation in south west Ethiopia. The practice has continued to the present with a gradual evolution in beekeeping technology and resource access and management arrangements. The aim of the present study is to study traditional forest management systems for sustainable forest honey production. The study was carried out in southwest Ethiopia in three districts with variable socioeconomic and land-use conditions; these are reflected in a variety...

Endalamaw, T. B.; Wiersum, K. F.

2009-01-01

143

Abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The s...

Animut Abebe; Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Lindtjřrn Bernt

2012-01-01

144

Malaria risk factors in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia:a multilevel analysis  

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Background The highlands of Ethiopia, situated between 1,500 and 2,500 m above sea level, experienced severe malaria epidemics. Despite the intensive control attempts, underway since 2005 and followed by an initial decline, the disease remained a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify malaria risk factors in highland-fringe south-central Ethiopia.

Methods This study was conducted in six rural kebeles ...

Woyessa, Adugna; Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed; Lindtjřrn, Bernt

2013-01-01

145

A dynamic general equilibrium analysis of adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia  

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This study links a multi-sectoral regionalized dynamic computable general equilibrium model of Ethiopia with a system of country-specific hydrology, crop, road and hydropower engineering models to simulate the economic impacts of climate change towards 2050. In the absence of externally funded policy-driven adaptation investments Ethiopia's GDP in the 2040s will be up to 10 percent below the counterfactual no-climate change baseline. Suitably scaled adaptation measures could restore aggregate...

Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth; Willenbockel, Dirk

2011-01-01

146

Hepatitis B virus infection among medical aste handlers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Healthcare wastes contain a wide range of microorganisms among which hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the most significant pathogens. No data about the prevalence of HBV among medical waste handlers is available in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore; this study was conducted to describe the prevalence of HBV infection among medical waste handlers in Government hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted among 2...

2011-01-01

147

Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Population studies on normal and dysfunctional characteristics of menstrual cycles are scarce in Ethiopia. In addition variability in menarcheal age and menstrual characteristics are common. Knowledge on this variability is necessary for patient education and to guide clinical evaluation. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampl...

Zegeye Desalegn; Megabiaw Berihun; Mulu Abay

2009-01-01

148

Disaster, relief and political change in southern Ethiopia : developments from within Suri society  

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This chapter describes responses to the ecological crisis and political changes in Ethiopia in the early 1990s among the Suri, an agropastoral group in Käfa Region, southern Ethiopia. Data are derived from fieldwork carried out in the area after the change of regime in 1991. Attention is paid to environmental conditions and the Suri subsistence system, relations between the Suri and neighbouring ethnic groups, drought and famine in the area, in particular in the 1980s, and the Suri attitude ...

1995-01-01

149

Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)  

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Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely populated Gedeo country (500 persons per km 2) covers highlands (range 1200 to 3000m asl) between 5 oand 7 oNorth and 38 oand 40 oEast...

2002-01-01

150

Health inequalities in Ethiopia:modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups  

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Background and objectives: Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011.

Methods: We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logi...

2013-01-01

151

Schistosomiasis in the Gumara and Ribb irrigation project area, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of intestinal schistosomiasis and vector snails was conducted in the Gumara and Ribb Irrigation project located on the eastern side of Lake Tana, northwest Ethiopia. Within the project area, stool specimens from 1273 people were examined by the thick smear method. The average infection rate for Schistosoma mansoni was 1.6%. Two localities, Addis Zemen and Yifag, located just outside the project area, were also examined, the former showing an S. mansoni prevalence of 34% (75/223) and the latter 18% (18/101) among school children. In Debre Tabor, the provincial capital 50 km away from the project site at an altitude of 2800 m., five S. mansoni cases were found among 111 school children, but they were considered to be imported cases. The possible establishment of intestinal schistosomiasis in the project area is discussed. PMID:2496974

Lo, C T; Birrie, H; Ayele, T; Desta, B

1989-04-01

152

Buthus awashensis sp. n. from Ethiopia (Scorpiones: Buthidae.  

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Full Text Available Buthus awashensis sp. n. from the Awash region of Ethiopia, is described and compared with B. berberensis Pocock, 1900 from Somaliland. The new species is characterized chiefly by the total length of 50–65 mm. B. berberensis reaches only 45–55 mm and differs in coloration, with adults having the chela of pedipalp and chelicerae entirely yellow without dark reticulations, and by mophometric characters, mainly the shape of the chela of pedipalp. Pectinal marginal tips extend the to proximal end of the fourth sternite in males of B. awashensis sp. n. and to proximal end of the fifth sternite in males of B. berberensis. Included are color photos of both sexes of dead and alive B. awashensis sp. n. and B. berberensis and of their localities.

Kova?ík, F.

2011-09-01

153

DIVERSITY AND ENDEMICITY OF CHILIMO FOREST, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species followed by pteridophyta (16 species; the least represented being the gymnosperms (represented by 2 exotic and 2 indigenous species. To provide a better management and monitoring as well as to maintain the biodiversity, cultural and economic values of the forest unsustainable utility of the forest would be controlled with the various conservation activities in place.

Teshome Soromessa

2013-01-01

154

The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

Assefa, Getaneh

155

Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of JUSH from February 7 to March 24, 2011. All medication interventions administered by the nurses to all patients admitted to the ICU during the study period were included in the study. Data were collected by directly observing drug administration by the nurses supplemented with review of medication charts. Data was edited, coded and entered in to SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive statistics was used to measure the magnitude and type of the problem under study. Results Prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU of JUSH was 621 (51.8%. Common administration errors were attributed to wrong timing (30.3%, omission due to unavailability (29.0% and missed doses (18.3% among others. Errors associated with antibiotics took the lion's share in medication administration errors (36.7%. Conclusion Medication errors at the administration phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Supervision to the nurses administering medications by more experienced ICU nurses or other relevant professionals in regular intervals is helpful in ensuring that medication errors don’t occur as frequently as observed in this study.

Agalu Asrat

2012-05-01

156

Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey played a leading role in conducting a National Workshop that designed the programme's basic features. (author)

2001-09-18

157

Women’s Education and Modern Contraceptive Use in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Women’s education and modern contraceptive use are two central issues highlighted in the Ethiopian government’s current development strategy. While the link between education and contraceptive use has been widely established in the background literature, there are few quantitative studies that explore how and why education affects the use of contraception. This study investigates the relationship between education and modern contraceptive use among a sample of 1,200 sexually active women from across Ethiopia. It uses secondary analysis of a survey conducted by Marie Stopes International Ethiopia in 2008. Through structural equation modelling it demonstrates that educational effects are fully mediated by attitudes, knowledge and access to health services. Of these, knowledge and access emerge as having the most considerable explanatory power.

Tsedey Wubshet

2011-05-01

158

Ovine progressive pneumonia (Maedi-Visna): an emerging respiratory disease of sheep in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological study was done to assess the role of Maedi-Visna (MV) infection in sheep from flocks with high respiratory tract disease morbidity in Ethiopia. Of 105 sheep examined from central Ethiopia 78 (74%) were positive for MV-infection. However, antibodies to the virus were not detected in 48 sheep and 70 goats from elsewhere in Ethiopia. The infection was detected in all breeds of sheep examined (Awassi, Hampshire, Corriedale, indigenous Menz breeds and their crosses) but with a significant breed difference (chi 2 = 20, p Awassi sheep to 92% in the indigenous Menz sheep. This suggests that Menz sheep are more susceptible to infection, which may support the observation of a higher incidence of clinical disease in these sheep compared to exotic breeds and their crosses. It also supports recent studies indicating that MV is becoming one of the most important respiratory tract diseases in sheep in central Ethiopia. Our findings indicate that MV was introduced into Ethiopia via sheep imported into the central highlands and that it now constitutes an important emerging disease is discussed. Measures to control the disease are suggested. PMID:12494555

Woldemeskel, M; Tibbo, M; Potgieter, L N D

2002-11-01

159

FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN DANGILA MUNICIPALITY, ETHIOPIA. PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS  

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Full Text Available Fiscal decentralization is one component of decentralization that gives authority to local governments to collectrevenue through taxes and responsibility over spending decisions. Even though fiscal decentralization has givenrevenue raising and spending decision powers to lower levels of government, the implementation process hasoften been a daunting task for many local authorities in the developing world. In the case of Ethiopia,decentralization has been implemented since 1991. However, revenue raising and expenditure management arenot efficiently and effectively exercised, especially in lower level government units of Ethiopia. Insufficient revenuecollection and reprehensible expenditure management leads to financial incapability such that public infrastructureand services could not be financed amply. Dangila municipality faces the problem of financial capacity to deliverinfrastructure and services to its citizens. While a number of studies have documented the financial incapacities ofEthiopian municipalities, they have been very shy to articulate the discrepancies and deficiencies that linkfinancing to service delivery. It is interesting to know what the driving factors are in this case. Therefore, the mainfocus of this paper is to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of revenue collection and expendituremanagement of Dangila Municipality. To obtain edifying data the paper used a positivist survey study. Municipalityfinancial documentation and questionnaires were the main sources of secondary and primary data respectively.Parametric descriptive statistical methods were applied in the analysis of data to arrive at measures of efficiencyand effectiveness in revenue collection and expenditure management of the municipality. The study revealed thatthe municipality is not efficient and effective in its revenue collection and expenditure management. The mainexplanation for such inefficiency comprise; derisory assessment of taxable sources, poor organizational structure,inadequate accounting system, absence of clear operational guidelines, poor planning and data basemanagement, lack of awareness by taxpayers and lack of skilled manpower. To resolve such challenges, werecommend the following actionable measures; widening the revenue base of local sources of revenue, improvingplanning and implementing capacity, establishing adequate data base systems, continuous awareness creation fortaxpayers, establishing appropriate guidelines and methods of revenue collection, revision of the tariff structureregularly, installing accounting system that produces timely and reliable information, encouraging communityparticipation in planning and resource allocation and municipal restructuring that take into account needs andwelfare of employees.

Tendayi GONDO

2010-03-01

160

Incidence of Rabies in Humans and Domestic Animals and People's Awareness in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia  

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Rabies is a fatal viral disease that affects all mammals including humans. Domestic dog is the main source of rabies for humans and livestock in developing countries. Rabies has been prevalent in Ethiopia for centuries, affecting humans and livestock. In this study we estimated the incidence of the disease in North Gondar zone, Ethiopia and assessed the people's awareness about the disease. We found a high annual rabies incidence of 2.33 cases per 100,000 in humans, 412.83 cases per 100,000 i...

Jemberu, Wudu Temesgen; Molla, Wassie; Almaw, Gizat; Alemu, Sefinew

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The immune status of young adult females in Ethiopia to rubella virus infection*  

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The results of a study on the prevalence of rubella-specific antibody among young adult females aged 14-25 years old in four cities and one district town in Ethiopia are presented. The highest prevalence of rubella antibody (97%) was found among young females in Addis Ababa in the central region of the country, followed by those in Dessie, in the north of Ethiopia, and in Awassa in the south, both of which exhibited 94% prevalence. The next highest prevalences were observed in Dire Dawa (88%)...

1985-01-01

162

Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia  

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BACKGROUND-: The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. METHODS-: We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by t...

Deribew, A.; Tesfaye, M.; Hailmichael, Y.; Apers, L.; Abebe, G.; Duchateau, L.; Colebunders, R.

2010-01-01

163

Making skilled attendance at child birth in Tigray region, Ethiopia possible  

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Ethiopia is one of the developing countries with the highest maternal mortality ratio (MMR) at 673 per 100,000 live births. Tigray, the study area and located in the north, is one of the nine regions of Ethiopia. It has a shortage of skilled birth attendants and has a low utilization of obstetric care. In Tigray, rural women have poor access to basic emergency obstetric care and comprehensive emergency obstetric care. The study aims to understand the root cause of low utilization of skilled a...

Nuru, A. Y.

2009-01-01

164

The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (15 077 km˛, Nile basin, Ethiopia) was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed in a GIS system. It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and -metry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes. The scale is 1:500 000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and ultimately sculpted by (mainly water) erosion. Lake Tana emerged by the combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. Since the time that the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive floodplains were created, river valleys have been filled with sediment and higher laying topography has been eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased lake extent (3041 km˛ now) as compared to the ancient maximum (6602 km˛). Dominant processes today are merely fluvial and denudative. Recent (1886-2010) changes in lake coast are small with exception of the delta of the major feeding river, Gilgel Abay, which increased disproportionally the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.

Poppe, Ludwin; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Frankl, Amaury

2013-04-01

165

Transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitological, malacological and transmission studies were made for a period of one year in the town of Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni in residents of Kebeles 8, 9 and 10 was 12%. The prevalence in Sertse Dengel school children was 45% and that in Dil Chibo school children was 32%. The peak prevalence in both sexes in school and non-school populations occurred in the age group 10-14 years. Intensity of infection showed a similar pattern of age variation as prevalence. Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail density peaked towards the end of the rainy season (September) in Lake Tana and around the middle of the dry season (January) on the shore of the River Abay. In September, infected snails were recovered from all collection sites. Of mice immersed in four water contact sites in September, schistosome infections developed in those immersed in three sites. Parasitological findings suggested that schistosomiasis infection rates depended on age and sex of individuals and geographical location of the place from the potentially infective water bodies. Snail population density and associated schistosomal infection in a human population depended on rainfall and associated ecological changes such as fluctuation in water level and vegetation density. As malacological findings and sentinel mouse immersion results indicated, it appeared that the main transmission season in Lake Tana region is towards the end of the rainy season although low level intermittent transmission may take place throughout the year. PMID:1954954

Erko, B; Tedla, S; Petros, B

1991-10-01

166

Infant responsiveness, alertness, haemoglobin and growth in rural Sidama, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behaviour (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition in addition to investigating infant behaviour within the context of changes in iron status over time. Existing research is typically limited to the investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral, and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behaviour and nutritional status may be bidirectional. The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, haemoglobin, the frequency of alertness and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month haemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared with responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, although weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behaviour (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia. PMID:22233352

Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Grant, Stephanie L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Berhanu, Getenesh; Stoecker, Barbara J; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Hambidge, K Michael

2013-10-01

167

Wind energy potential assessment at four typical locations in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wind energy potential at four different sites in Ethiopia - Addis Ababa (09:02N, 38:42E), Mekele (13:33N, 39:30E), Nazret (08:32N, 39:22E), and Debrezeit (8:44N, 39:02E) - has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve (DC) for all four selected sites. In brief, for measurements taken at a height of 10 m, the results show that for three of the four locations the wind energy potential is reasonable, with average wind speeds of approximately 4 m/s. For the fourth site, the mean wind speed is less than 3 m/s. This study is the first stage in a longer project and will be followed by an analysis of solar energy potential and finally the design of a hybrid standalone electric energy supply system that includes a wind turbine, PV, diesel generator and battery. (author)

Bekele, Getachew; Palm, Bjoern [Department of Energy Technology, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-03-15

168

Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting to expose the issue and not knowing where to go.

Aro, A. R.

2013-01-01

169

Epidemiological studies on intestinal schistosomiasis in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was made on intestinal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia, in 1999 to generate preintervention parasitological and malacological baseline data to be used as a reference in evaluation of community-based pilot control trial to be launched using wild-growing Endod. A total of 3000 stool specimens were collected from schoolchildren enrolled in 14 schools and microscopically examined using Kato method. The overall prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis mansoni was 34.6% and 184 eggs per gram of stool (EPG), respectively. Children excreting Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in all of the 14 schools surveyed with a prevalence of infection ranging from 1.9% in Abaye School to 80.6% in Shesha Kekele School. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection among males and females was 38.4% and 27.3%, respectively (P = 0.0001, 95% C.I = 7.5%-14.7%) where as the intensity of infection was 186 EPG and 181 EPG, respectively (P = 0.8045, 95% C.I = 1.17%-1.23%). Malacological surveys of 27 water contact sites revealed the occurrence of Biomphalaria pfeifferi in 8 sites out of which 3 harbored infected snails shedding schistosome cercariae. The necessity for initiating community-based sustainable control programme is discussed. PMID:12240565

Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Berhe, Nega; Abebe, Fekadu; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Gundersen, S G

2002-01-01

170

Prevalence of xerophthalmia among malnourished children in rural Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the prevalence of eye disease among malnourished children in a rural Ethiopian health center and evaluate correlations between xerophthalmia and grades of malnutrition. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey. An institution-based cross-sectional prospective study was performed at Bushulo Health Center in rural south Ethiopia and included all children age 6 months to 14 years receiving care for malnourishment from June 1st to July 30th, 2008. Data collection involved a combination of interviews with caretakers, ocular examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist and anthropometric measurements. One hundred and seventy-three children (average age at examination 2.9 ± 0.2 years) were treated for malnutrition (97 female, 76 male). One hundred and forty-nine patients had moderate malnutrition (86.03 %) and 24 had severe malnutrition (13.9 %). The following eye diseases were diagnosed--trachoma (12.1 %), blepharitis (13.3 %) and xerophthalmia (20.8 %). Severely malnourished children were more likely to suffer from xerophthalmia than moderately malnourished children (p < 0.0001). When comparing anthropometric measurements to the diagnosis of xerophthalmia, only weight percentile showed significance (p = 0.008). Xerophthalmia is a common global cause of pediatric blindness and is highly correlated with severe malnutrition. Continued efforts are necessary to improve nutrition and outcomes in these patients. PMID:23354453

Moore, Daniel B; Shirefaw, Wogen; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Eshete, Zebiba; Netzer-Tomkins, Hila; Ben-Zion, Itay

2013-10-01

171

HRD Climate Dimensions in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In the present day fierce competitive environment, the forward looking organizations are giving utmost care to attract, develop and retain the best talent as people are considered to be the source of competitive advantage. In order to survive and thrive in the competitive environment, the organizations are keen to develop the competencies of the people and are giving importance to Human Resource Development (HRD. The main objective of the research paper is to study different dimensions of HRD climate in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia (CBE. The scope of the study is confined to 10 branches of CBE and the sample for the study constitutes 190 staff. The results of the study indicated that Collaboration among the employees of CBE is high followed by Trust and Openness and autonomy is considered to be the least. The study also revealed that there is significant difference in HRD dimensions - authenticity, autonomy, collaboration, confrontation and trust dimensions between the branches of CBE while F-value is insignificant for openness and pro-action dimensions indicating that openness and pro-action dimensions of HRD climate do not significantly differ between the branches of CBE.

Anil Kanamarlapudi

2013-09-01

172

Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in "Dejen" district, Ethiopia.  

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Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms. PMID:19669662

Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B

2010-02-01

173

Bacterial Sepsis in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northwest Ethiopia  

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Background and Objectives. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the neglected diseases affecting the poorest segment of world populations. Sepsis is one of the predictors for death of patients with VL. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bacterial sepsis, causative agents, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among patients with VL. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among parasitologically confirmed VL patients suspected of sepsis admitted to the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from February 2012 to May 2012. Blood cultures and other clinical samples were collected and cultured following the standard procedures. Results. Among 83 sepsis suspected VL patients 16 (19.3%) had culture confirmed bacterial sepsis. The most frequently isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus (68.8%; 11/16), including two methicillin-resistant isolates (MRSA). Patients with focal bacterial infection were more likely to have bacterial sepsis (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of culture confirmed bacterial sepsis was high, predominantly due to S. aureus. Concurrent focal bacterial infection was associated with bacterial sepsis, suggesting that focal infections could serve as sources for bacterial sepsis among VL patients. Careful clinical evaluation for focal infections and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic treatment appears warranted in VL patients.

Takele, Yegnasew; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tiruneh, Moges; Mohammed, Rezika; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan

2014-01-01

174

Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia.  

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In 1967 the Kibish Formation in southern Ethiopia yielded hominid cranial remains identified as early anatomically modern humans, assigned to Homo sapiens. However, the provenance and age of the fossils have been much debated. Here we confirm that the Omo I and Omo II hominid fossils are from similar stratigraphic levels in Member I of the Kibish Formation, despite the view that Omo I is more modern in appearance than Omo II. 40Ar/39Ar ages on feldspar crystals from pumice clasts within a tuff in Member I below the hominid levels place an older limit of 198 +/- 14 kyr (weighted mean age 196 +/- 2 kyr) on the hominids. A younger age limit of 104 +/- 7 kyr is provided by feldspars from pumice clasts in a Member III tuff. Geological evidence indicates rapid deposition of each member of the Kibish Formation. Isotopic ages on the Kibish Formation correspond to ages of Mediterranean sapropels, which reflect increased flow of the Nile River, and necessarily increased flow of the Omo River. Thus the 40Ar/39Ar age measurements, together with the sapropel correlations, indicate that the hominid fossils have an age close to the older limit. Our preferred estimate of the age of the Kibish hominids is 195 +/- 5 kyr, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described. PMID:15716951

McDougall, Ian; Brown, Francis H; Fleagle, John G

2005-02-17

175

Talking Peace in the Ogaden : The search for an end to conflict in the Somali Regional State in Ethiopia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the 1990s, war in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia has claimed thousands of lives. The conflict between the Government of Ethiopia and the insurgent Ogaden National Liberation Front has impoverished the communities of Ethiopiaâ??s Somali Regional State, swollen the refugee population in Kenya, and added to insecurity in the Somali territories of the Horn of Africa. Talking Peace in the Ogaden is the outcome of extensive research in Ethiopia, East Africa and the global Ogaadeeni diaspora. It analyses the evolution of the conflict, the changing balance of forces, and the current prospects for peace.

Hagmann, Tobias

2014-01-01

176

The community-based Health Extension Program significantly improved contraceptive utilization in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Mezgebu Yitayal,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,3 Yigzaw Kebede11University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Ethiopia has implemented a nationwide primary health program at grassroots level (known as the Health Extension Program since 2003 to increase public access to basic health services. This study was conducted to assess whether households that fully implemented the Health Extension Program have improved current contraceptive use.Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted to collect data from 1,320 mothers using a structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of current contraceptive utilization. A propensity score analysis was used to determine the contribution of the Health Extension Program “model households” on current contraceptive utilization.Result: Mothers from households which fully benefited from the Health Extension Program (“model households” were 3.97 (adjusted odds ratio, 3.97; 95% confidence interval, 3.01–5.23 times more likely to use contraceptives compared with mothers from non-model households. Model household status contributed to 29.3% (t=7.08 of the increase in current contraceptive utilization.Conclusion: The Health Extension Program when implemented fully could help to increase the utilization of contraceptives in the rural community and improve family planning.Keywords: Health Extension Program, current contraceptive utilization

Yitayal M

2014-05-01

177

Educational Reform and Teacher Education in Ethiopia: Does the Tail Wag the Dog?  

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Ethiopia, a country with 82 distinctly different languages and ethnic groups, has recently emerged from decades of civil war. In the process of restoring civilian rule, alliances have formed between a wide spectrum of local interest groups. Education generally, and language policy more specifically, continues to be one of the most contentious…

Honig, Benson

178

Stigma in Ethiopia: association with depressive symptoms in people with HIV.  

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Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (? = 0.464, p ? 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (? = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia. PMID:24382290

Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa

2014-08-01

179

The potential of pathogens as biological control of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Ethiopia.  

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P. hsyterophorus is an exotic invasive annual weed now causing severe infestation in Ethiopia. Studies on diagnosis, incidence and distribution of pathogens associated with parthenium weed in Ethiopia were carried out from 1998-2002. Several fungal isolates were obtained from seed and other parts of parthenium plants. Among them were putative pathogenic fungal species of the genus Helminthosporium, Phoma, Curvularia, Chaetomium, Alternaria, and Fusarium. However, pathogenecity test of the isolates obtained showed no or non-specific symptoms. It was concluded that these pathogens could be opportunistic with insignificant potential for biological control of parthenium. Two most important diseases associated with parthenium were a rust disease, caused by Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, and a phyllody disease, caused by a phytoplasma of fababean phyllody (PBP) phytoplasma group. The rust was commonly found in cool mid altitude (1500-2500 m) areas while phyllody was observed in low to mid altitude regions (900-2500 m) of Ethiopia, with a disease incidence up to 100% and 75%, respectively, in some locations. Study of the individual effects of the rust and phyllody diseases under field conditions showed a reduction on weed morphological parameters (plant height, leaf area, and dry matter yield). Parthenium seed production was reduced by 42% and 85% due to rust and phyllody, respectively. Phyllody and rust diseases of parthenium showed significant potential for classical biological control of parthenium after further confirmation of insect vectors that transmit phyllody and host range of phyllody disease to the related economic plants in Ethiopia. PMID:12696408

Taye, T; Gossmann, M; Einhorn, G; Büttner, C; Metz, R; Abate, D

2002-01-01

180

"Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia  

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This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

Camfield, Laura

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana genotype C in head lice, Ethiopia.  

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To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014). PMID:22172306

Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Abdissa, Alemseged; Trape, Jean-François; Mediannikov, Oleg; Richet, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

2011-12-01

182

Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana Genotype C in Head Lice, Ethiopia  

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To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014).

2011-01-01

183

Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality  

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The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

2012-01-01

184

Food insecurity and linear growth of adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia  

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Background: Although many studies showed that adolescent food insecurity is a pervasive phenomenon in Southwest Ethiopia, its effect on the linear growth of adolescents has not been documented so far. This study therefore aimed to longitudinally examine the association between food insecurity and linear growth among adolescents.

2013-01-01

185

The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy  

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The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

2008-01-01

186

The impact of indoor residual spraying on malaria incidence in East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Background: In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population resides in areas prone to malaria infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS on the incidence of malaria in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia.Methods: Data from the registers of malaria cases at Debrezeit Malaria Control Center in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia were collected and analyzed. Records of 22 villages with no previous rounds of spraying that were entirely covered with IRS using DDT during the peak malaria transmission season of 2001 and 2002 and other 22 adjacent villages with similar malaria incidence but remained unsprayed were used for the analyses.Results: The incidence of malaria in 2011 and 2002 among the sprayed villages was lower than the respective preceding years for both Plasmodium species (incidence rate ratio 0.60; CI 0.35 to 0.95; p < 0.0001. After the focal spray, there was significant reduction in malaria incidence in the villages sprayed. Spraying was associated with a 62% reduction in malaria incidence.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that IRS with DDT was effective in reducing malaria incidence in highland epidemic-prone areas in the East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia. A larger scale study should evaluate the effectiveness of DDT in reducing malaria incidence against its environmental impact and alternative strategies for malaria prevention.

Shallo Daba Hamusse

2012-04-01

187

The impact of indoor residual spraying on malaria incidence in East Shoa Zone, Ethiopia  

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Background In Ethiopia, nearly 70% of the population resides in areas prone to malaria infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) on the incidence of malaria in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia. Methods Data from the registers of malaria cases at Debrezeit Malaria Control Center in East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia were collected and analyzed. Records of 22 villages with no previous rounds of spraying that were entirely covered with IRS using DDT during the peak malaria transmission season of 2001 and 2002 and other 22 adjacent villages with similar malaria incidence but remained unsprayed were used for the analyses. Results The incidence of malaria in 2011 and 2002 among the sprayed villages was lower than the respective preceding years for both Plasmodium species (incidence rate ratio 0.60; CI 0.35 to 0.95; p < 0.0001). After the focal spray, there was significant reduction in malaria incidence in the villages sprayed. Spraying was associated with a 62% reduction in malaria incidence. Conclusions This study demonstrated that IRS with DDT was effective in reducing malaria incidence in highland epidemic-prone areas in the East Shoa Zone of Ethiopia. A larger scale study should evaluate the effectiveness of DDT in reducing malaria incidence against its environmental impact and alternative strategies for malaria prevention.

Hamusse, Shallo Daba; Balcha, Taye T.; Belachew, Tefera

2012-01-01

188

Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia: Investigations in Pinybago Village and the Surrounding Area.  

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The initial appearance in 1967 of human sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, in Ethiopia was followed by an outbreak in the Gilo River area of Illubabor Province. By the end of 1971 approximately 260 confirmed cases had been record...

E. McConnell J. R. Baker

1974-01-01

189

Contrasting climate variability and meteorological drought with perceived drought and climate change in northern Ethiopia  

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The rationale of this paper is to investigate peoples’ perception of climate variability, climate change and drought frequency and compare it with measurements of rainfall variability and anomalies in northern Ethiopia. Statistical analysis of rainfall chronologies was performed and contrasted with qualitative data collected through a survey and questionnaires. Fieldwork studies showed that local authorities, farmers and pastoralists perceived regional climate to have changed ...

Meze-hausken, Elisabeth

2004-01-01

190

Displacement and Resettlement : The Livelihoods of Resettlers and Hosts in Western Oromia, Ethiopia  

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The study focuses on population displacement and the livelihood implications of state-planned resettlement schemes that have been implemented in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. It addresses the livelihoods of both the resettlers and the hosts. Although such resettlements have been implemented in the country since the 1960s, this study addresses those carried out since 2003.

2013-01-01

191

On-the-Spot Course: Early Childhood Education in Ethiopia (August 2-30, 1993). Report.  

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This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at the Ministry of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for 35 Ethiopian early childhood educators and administrators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 3-week course addressed philosophies of early childhood…

Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

192

Wild edible plants in Ethiopia: a review on their potential to combat food insecurity  

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Full Text Available This work reviews literature on ethnobotanical knowledge of wild edible plants and their potential role in combating food insecurity in Ethiopia. Information on a total of 413 wild edible plants belonging to 224 genera and 77 families was compiled in this review. Shrubs represented 31% of species followed by trees (30%, herbs (29% and climbers (9%. Families Fabaceae (35 species, Tiliaceae (20 and Capparidaceae (19 were found to be represented by the highest number of edible species. About 56% (233 of species have edibility reports from more than one community in Ethiopia. Fruits were reported as the commonly utilized edible part in 51% of species. It was found that studies on wild edible plants of Ethiopia cover only about 5% of the country’s districts which indicates the need for more ethnobotanical research addressing all districts. Although there have been some attempts to conduct nutritional analyses of wild edible plants, available results were found to be insignificant when compared to the wild edible plant wealth of the country. Results also show that wild edible plants of Ethiopia are used as supplementary, seasonal or survival food sources in many cultural groups, and hence play a role in combating food insecurity. The presence of anthropogenic and environmental factors affecting the wild plant wealth of the country calls for immediate action so as to effectively document, produce a development plan and utilize the plants.

Lulekal, Ermias

2011-12-01

193

Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia.  

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Sedimentary deposits in the Middle Awash research area of Ethiopia's Afar depression have yielded vertebrate fossils including the most ancient hominids known. Radioisotopic dating, geochemical analysis of interbedded volcanic ashes and biochronological considerations place the hominid-bearing deposits at around 4.4 million years of age. Sedimentological, botanical and faunal evidence suggests a wooded habitat for the Aramis hominids. PMID:8090201

WoldeGabriel, G; White, T D; Suwa, G; Renne, P; de Heinzelin, J; Hart, W K; Heiken, G

1994-09-22

194

Toolbox for the Development of Cadastral and Registration Proclamation for Second Level Certification Program in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Land together with its fixtures is the single most important asset in almost all societies. In Ethiopia land is also playing a pivotal role for sustainable development. Large scale cadastral projects supporting sustainable development and increased investments are planned all over the country as part of the country’s five years growth and transformation plan. But cadastral and registration proclamation is not enacted to facilitate and guide the implementation of cadastral projects. There is a consensus on the importance of cadastral and registration proclamation in Ethiopia, but there is no clear methodology for its development. The purpose of the study was to extend the land administration toolbox RRR edition to guide the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for the implementation of second level certification (mapping of parcels in Ethiopia. Field surveys, focused group discussions, expert panels, and desk work with special emphasis to the review of legal documents and state of the art experiences from other countries, were the major inputs for the study. The toolbox will be used for the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for rural land administration in Ethiopia and may guide the law development in other developing countries with a similar situation.

Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi

2014-05-01

195

Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia  

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How to cite this article: Lutala P.M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1), Art. #226, 2 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm. v3i1.226

Lutala, Prosper M.

2011-01-01

196

Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available How to cite this article: Lutala P.M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1, Art. #226, 2 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm. v3i1.226

Prosper M. Lutala

2011-02-01

197

Transitional Justice and the Creation of a Human Rights Culture in Ethiopia  

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In this thesis, it is intended to examine as to how Ethiopia has addressed the past state sponsored human rights wrongs and what measures have been taken beyond dealing with the past in order to create a human rights culture in the country. It also probes the challenges of human rights.

Enyew, Alebachew Birhanu

2008-01-01

198

Multi-criteria assessment of community-based fluoride-removal technologies for rural Ethiopia.  

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Elevated concentrations of naturally-occurring fluoride in groundwater pose a serious health risk to millions of people living in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. In the absence of low-fluoride water resources of sufficient capacity, fluoride removal from drinking water is the accepted mitigation option. To date, five different community-level fluoride-removal technologies have been implemented in Ethiopia, although only a few units have been found in a functional state in the field. Which technology should be promoted and up-scaled is the subject of controversial debate amongst key stakeholders. This paper describes a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise, which was conducted with the participation of stakeholders in Ethiopia during a one-day workshop, to assess in an objective and transparent manner the available technology options. Criteria for technology comparison were selected and weighted, thus enabling the participants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies and hear the views of other stakeholders. It was shown that there is no single most-preferable, technical solution for fluoride removal in Ethiopia. Selection of the most suitable solution depends on location-specific parameters and on the relative importance given to different criteria by the stakeholders involved. The data presented in this paper can be used as reference values for Ethiopia. PMID:24238810

Osterwalder, Lars; Johnson, C Annette; Yang, Hong; Johnston, Richard B

2014-08-01

199

Appendix : Additions to Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea volumes 2 - 7  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

En taxonomisk og floristisk redegørelse for alle de nyfundne eller nybeskrevne arter fra Etiopien og/eller Eritrea, der er blevet opdaget efter deadline for bindene 2-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, men medens floraværket var under udgivelse.

Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

2009-01-01

200

Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia  

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This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts of

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia  

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This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

Hersi, Afra Ahmed

2011-01-01

202

Federalism in Africa: The Case of Ethnic-based Federalism in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted ethnic federalism and restructured the regions along ethnic lines as soon as the EPRDF took political power by overthrowing the Marxist military government in 1991. The aim of this paper is to examine the merits and the demerits of federalism. The paper particularly assesses federalism in Africa by taking the case of Ethiopia as an example. The paper argues that in order to ensure the success of federalism, it should not be imposed from above. Since its introduction in 1991 and officially sanctioned in the country’s 1994 Constitution, ethnic federalism and Article 39 of the Constitution that awarded the self-rule states (regions the right to secede has become the major source of intense debate. For some, ethnic federalism and the right to secede discourage ethnic tensions in the country and encourage the various ethnic groups to live together peacefully. However, for others, this “experiment” can go out of hand and may lead the country into never-ending ethnic wars and eventually to disintegration. This paper, by taking into account of Ethiopia’s and other countries’ experiences, will examine both sides of the arguments.

Jan Záho?ík

2008-10-01

203

Review: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012 Buchbesprechung: Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia (2012  

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Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback, ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover, xviv + 209 pp. + maps and illustrationsBesprechung der Monographie:Volker Matthies, The Siege of Magdala: The British Empire Against the Emperor of Ethiopia, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012, ISBN 9781558765528 (paperback, ISBN 9781558765515 (hardcover, xviv + 209 Seiten + Karten und Illustrationen

Tekeste Negash

2013-01-01

204

Iron deficiency anemia is not a rare problem among women of reproductive ages in Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study  

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Abstract Background In Ethiopia, the existence of iron deficiency anemia is controversial despite the fact that Ethiopia is one of the least developed in Africa with a high burden of nutrient deficiencies. Methods The first large nutrition study of a representative sample of women in Ethiopia was conducted from June to July 2005 and a systematically selected sub-sample of 970 of these subjects, 15 to 49 years old, were used in this analysis of nutritional anemia...

2009-01-01

205

Indigenous Chicken Ecotypes in Ethiopia: Growth and Feed Utilization Potentials  

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Full Text Available Growth performances and feed utilization potentials of six chicken populations were investigated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. Five local ecotypes originated from different Agro-ecologies and corresponding market sheds in Ethiopia, namely, Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, and the Fayoumi breed was used as a reference breed. Ecotype had a significant (p<0.01 effect on overall body weight gain per bird and mean body weight gain per bird per day from day old to 12 weeks of age. The highest body weight gain per bird was recorded for Fayoumi chicks. The Fayoumi chicks were 11.9, 97.7 and 49.4% heavier than chicks from Chefe (heaviest locals at this age ecotype, Jarso (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age ecotype and mean daily gain of all local ecotypes, respectively at six weeks of age. Chefe chicks ecotypes showed 76.8% positive deviation over chicks from Jarso market sheds in terms of total body weight gain per bird at this age. The Fayoumi chicks consumed 41, 115 and 65% more feed than chicks from Chefe ecotype (highest body weight gain and feed intake among locals at this age, Jarso ecotype (lowest body weight gain and least feed intake among the locals at this age and the mean feed intake of all local ecotypes, at six weeks of age, respectively. Among the local ecotypes, Jarso and Tepi had the smaller body weight gains while Chefe and Tilili had larger weight gains. The result from the analysis of variance showed a highly significant (p<0.001 difference on body weight gain per bird, average body weight gain per bird per day, feed intake per bird, average feed intake per bird per day and feed conversion ratio (feed: gain among the different ecotypes and sex from six to 12 weeks of age. The highest body weight gain per bird and mean daily body weight gain per bird per day among the locals were recorded for Tilili growers. The Fayoumi chicks were 28, 77 and 52% heavier than chicks from Tilili ecotypes (heaviest locals at this age, Tepi ecotypes (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age and mean body weight gain of local birds, respectively. Male growers from Tilili ecotype (heaviest locals at this age, Tepi ecotype (least total body weight gain among the locals at this age and mean body weight gain of local birds, were 22, 30 and 33% heavier in body weight gain per bird over female chicken at twelve weeks of age, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was also significantly (p<0.01 affected by ecotypes. The highest feed requirement per unit gain was recorded for the Fayoumi chicks followed by chicks from Tepi and Horro chicks and the lowest feed requirement per units of gain was recorded for Tilili and Chefe chicks with feed conversion ratio of 4.95g and 5.2g feed per unit of gain, respectively.

D. Tadelle

2003-01-01

206

Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)  

Science.gov (United States)

CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.

Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

207

Disposal of obsolete pesticides, the case of Ethiopia.  

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Ethiopia has accumulated obsolete pesticide stocks since pesticides were first imported in the 1960s due to prolonged storage of pesticides, inappropriate storage conditions because of poor storage facilities, the lack of trained staff and lack of national legislation for pesticide registration and monitoring system of pesticide use in the country. The first pesticide inventory conducted in 1995 led by FAO in collaboration with the government of Ethiopia had identified about 426 tonnes of obsolete pesticides mainly on state-owned agricultural farms and held by the Ministry of Health. However, these stocks have increased to over 1500 tonnes (including 200 active ingredients) as found in a detailed inventory conducted in 1999. The stocks included organochlorines (258.3 tonnes), organophosphates (155.4 tonnes), carbamates (58.5 tonnes), coumarines (14.9 tonnes), inorganics (30.2 tonnes), others (257.2 tonnes), mixed pesticides (70.4 tonnes) and unknown pesticides (307.1 tonnes) including both liquid and solid state formulations. The obsolete organochlorine pesticides stocks were mostly pesticides such as chlordane, DDT, dieldrin and lindane that are banned or restricted in most countries. The highest amount of a single active ingredient found was the organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos methyl (172.1 tonnes). All these stocks were disposed of in the first phase of disposal in Finland (during 2000-2003) by the hazardous waste management company Ekokem at a cost of about US$ 4.44 million. Another 1000 tonnes of obsolete pesticides have been identified and are currently being eliminated in a second disposal phase at a total cost of US$ 8,135,500. Along with the disposal process, a number of activities are being implemented to prevent future pesticides accumulation. These activities include the development and enforcement of pesticide policy, the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Integrated Vector Management (IVM), capacity building in terms of providing professional trainings, creating awareness among stakeholders on the environmental and human health hazard posed by obsolete pesticides as well as other actions to prevent their accumulation and enforcement of national legislations and policies related to pesticides use. However, pesticide use in the country is increasing. For instance, 12 years of pesticides import data (1996-2007) by the Ministry of Agriculture shows that 2973 tonnes of pesticides were imported between 1996-1998, 3670 tonnes between 1999-2001, 5079 tonnes between 2002-2004 and 8302 tonnes between 2005-2007. Moreover, 6 years of insecticide import data (1996/97-2001/02) by the Ministry of Health shows that around 919 tonnes of insecticides were imported between 1996/97-1997/98, 812 tonnes between 1998/99-1999/00 and 970 tonnes between 2000/01-2001/02 for malaria and other vector borne diseases control. PMID:19073344

Haylamicheal, Israel D; Dalvie, Mohamed A

2009-04-01

208

Runoff and Sediment Modeling Using SWAT in Gumera Catchment, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine the applicability of the SWAT model in Gumera river basin upstream of Lake Tana, Ethiopia for simulating stream runoff and sediment load. The area of river basin was discretized into 24 sub-catchments using ArcSWAT interface of the model. The semi automated Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI2 and fully automated Parameter Solution (ParaSol calibration process built in SWAT calibration and uncertainty program (SWAT-CUP were used to calibrate the model parameters using time series of flow and sediment load data of 1994 to 2002 and validated with the observed data from years 2003 to 2006. The performance of the model was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to assess the capability of the model in simulating the runoff and sediment yield for the study area. The coefficient of determination (R2 and NSE values for the daily runoff by using [ParaSol] optimization technique was obtained as 0.72 and 0.71 respectively for the calibration period and 0.79 and 0.78 respectively for the validation period, R2 and NSE values of monthly flow calibration using SUFI2 are 0.83 and 0.78 respectively for validation it was 0.93 and 0.93. For monthly sediment yield by using SUFI2 calibration technique the model evaluation coefficients R2 and NS for calibration was computed as 0.61 and 0.60 respectively, for validation it was 0.84 and 0.83 respectively. The sensitivity analysis on 13 runoff producing parameters was also carried out and discussed.

Kaleab Habte Michael Mamo

2013-10-01

209

Traditional Zootherapeutic Studies in Degu'a Tembien, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals and plants for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since the distant past. In Ethiopia, many ethnic communities which are dispersed all over the country has been totally dependent on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. Thus, the aim of this study was to take an ethno zoological field survey among Tigray people (main tribal group of Degu'a Tembien. In order to document the ethno zoological information about animal and their products prevalent among the people in Degu'a Tembien district, a study was carried out from September, 2010 to January, 2011. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 purposively selected respondents. Then the name of animal and other ethno zoological information were documented. Based on the ethno zoological survey, a total of 23 animal species were used in 45 different medicinal purposes including cold, weakness, burn, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious/and ritual purposes. Based on the ethno zoological survey, 9 mammals, 7 birds, 1 reptile, 5 arthropods are used in traditional zootherauptics in the study area. Furthermore, the meat of cow used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96% and House fly has the lowest FL (20% used to treat. Some endemic and rare species such as Abyssinian black winged love bird (Agapornis taranta and Ethiopian Highland Hare (Lepus starcki are also mentioned as important medicinal resources in trado-zootherauptic practices. The results showed that ethno zoological practices have been an important alternative medicinal practice for the people residing in the study area. So, there is an urgent need to properly document to keep a record of the ethno zoological knowledge of the area. It is hoped that this information will be useful for further research in the field of ethno zoology, ethno pharmacology and conservation point of view.

Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

2012-09-01

210

Systematic assessment of a maxilla of Homo from Hadar, Ethiopia.  

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The Hadar site in Ethiopia is a prolific source of hominid fossils attributed to the species Australopithecus afarensis, which spans the period 3.4-3.0 million years (myr) in the Sidi Hakoma, Denen Dora and lower Kada Hadar Members of the Hadar Formation. Since 1992 a major focus of field work conducted at Hadar has centered on sediments younger than 3.0 myr, comprising the bulk of the Kada Hadar Member. Witnessing the rise of the "robust" Australopithecus clade(s), the origin of Homo, and the first record of lithic artifacts, the period between 3.0 and 2.0 myr is strategically vital for paleoanthropology. However, in eastern Africa it is a particularly poorly sampled temporal interval. This paper provides a detailed comparative description of a hominid maxilla with partial dentition found at Hadar in 1994. The specimen, A.L. 666-1, derives from a lithic artifact-bearing horizon high in the Kada Hadar Member, 0.8 m below the BKT-3 tephra, dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method to 2.33 +/- 0.07 myr. Our preliminary investigation of the hominid specimen showed unambiguous affinities with early representatives of the Homo clade (Kimbel et al. [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:549-561). Further studies on maxillary and dental morphology lead us to attribute A.L. 666-1 to Homo aff. H. habilis. The new Hadar jaw is the first paleontological evidence for the projection of the H. habilis maxillofacial morphotype well back into the Pliocene. It may represent a male of this species, whose maxillary hypodigm consists chiefly of females. A subsidiary finding of our study is that of the three earliest recorded species of Homo (H. habilis, H. rudolfensis, H. erectus), it is H. habilis that exhibits facial morphology closest to that expected in their last common ancestor. PMID:9209580

Kimbel, W H; Johanson, D C; Rak, Y

1997-06-01

211

Rinderpest disease and sero-survey in Ethiopia  

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Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

1994-11-01

212

Seismic performance analysis of Tendaho earth fill dam, Ethiopia.  

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The Tendaho dam is found in the Afar regional state, North Eastern part of Ethiopia. It is located within an area known as the ‘Tendaho Graben' ,which forms the center of Afar triangle, a low lying area of land where East African, Red sea and the Gulf of Eden Rift systems converge. The dam is an earthfill dam with a volume of about 4 Million cubic meters and with mixed clay core. The geological setting associated with the site of the dam, the geotechnical properties of the dam materials and seismicity of the region are reviewed. Based on this review, the foundation materials and dam body include some liquefiable granular soils. Moreover, the active East African Rift Valley fault, which can generate an earthquake of magnitude greater than 6, passes through the dam body. This valley is the primary seismic source contributing to the hazard at the Tendaho dam site. The availability of liquefiable materials beneath and within the dam body and the presence of the active fault crossing the dam site demand a thorough seismic analysis of the dam. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is selected as a measure of ground motion severity. The PGA was selected according to the guidelines of the International Commission on Large Dams, ICOLD. Based on the criteria set by the ICOLD, the dam is analyzed for two different earthquake magnitudes, the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) and the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE). Numerical codes are useful tools to investigate the safety of dams in seismic prone areas. In this paper, FLAC3D numerical tool is used to investigate the performance of the dam under dynamic loading. Based on the numerical analysis, the seismic performance of the dam is investigated.

Berhe, T.; Wu, W.

2009-04-01

213

Study on Poultry Coccidiosis in Tiyo District, Arsi Zone, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was first to investigate the prevalence of poultry coccidiosis and to identify the coccidial species occurring in the study area on local strain and Rhode Island Red breed chicken. The study involved questionnaire survey, fecal examination, necropsy examination and identification of coccidial species based on their morphology, predilection site in the intestine and sporulation time. More than 75% respondents indicated that poultry production and income generated from poultry production in the rural community is the major income source for females and youth and bloody diarrhea predominantly appeared during wet season than chalky, yellow or green diarrhea. Public and private veterinary service centers have no anti coccidial drugs and other medicaments used for poultry diseases. Frequency detection of oocyst in the fecal samples from Rhode Island Red breed and local strain chicken was 80.65% and 61.25% respectively. This finding indicated that coccidial infection in Rhode Island Red breed was significantly higher than in local strain chicken (p < 0.05. The lesion score and mean oocyst output per gram feces was also considerably higher in Rhode Island Red breed than in local strain chicken (p < 0.05, p < 0.001 respectively, which may be the difference due to management system and breed. Clinical coccidiosis occurrence in Rhode Island Red breed and local strain chicken was 22.58% and 12.25% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical coccidiosis occurrence between the two genotype chickens and system. Eimeria species identified in descending order of their occurrence were E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. mitis. Mixed infections were the predominant in both production systems. E. mitis was diagnosed for the first time in Ethiopia.

Getachew Gari

2008-01-01

214

Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest prevalence was observed from animals greater than 3 years of age, 48 (18.32 % while the lowest, 9 (0.96 % in those one to three years. 18.25% and 11.1% was recorded in female and male animals respectively. The spatial distribution of demodex on shoulder was 8.08 % and 1.04 % on ears and eyes respectively. Production system of semiintensive and extensive managements was found almost affecting similarly with 13.66% and 13.43% respectively. In lime-sulphide treated hides large nodules were prominent with dark contents; small nonprotruding nodules, enlarged openings and ragged depressions near the grain surface were dipcted. In conclusion the highest overall prevalence (15.63% of D. bovis infestation was recorded. This indicates that despite many efforts tried to study infectious diseases prevalence in the study area, demodicosis has been given lesser attention to be treated as a separate health problem. Therefore, Prevention and control measures should be taken rather than treating demodicosis.

Tewodros Fantahun

2012-09-01

215

Levels of essential and non-essential metals in Rhamnus prinoides (Gesho) cultivated in Ethiopia  

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The objective of this study was to assess the levels of essential and toxic metals in leaf and stem of Rhamnus prinoides which are used for bitterness of local alcoholic beverages in Ethiopia and as traditional medicine in some African countries. Levels of essential metals (Ca, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) and toxic metals (Cd and Pb) in the leaves and stems of Rhamnus prinoides (Gesho) cultivated in Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Known w...

2012-01-01

216

Combating Desertification in Tigray, Ethiopia : Field study on the implementation of the UNCCD in the rural region of Tigray  

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In this study a field study on the implementation of the United Nations Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD) in Tigray, Ethiopia has been carried out. The objective of this thesis is to study in general the implementa-tion of the UNCCD in Ethiopia. This thesis consequently focuses on how these issues are executed in practice at different levels, thus national, regional, district and community levels. However the focus is on some of the highly prioritised action programs that are pr...

Asgedom, Aster

2007-01-01

217

Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to be a major public health problem among women of reproductive age in South East Asia and Africa. In Ethiopia, there are no studies conducted on serum vitamin A status of HIV-infected pregnant women. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the level of serum vitamin A and VAD among pregnant women with and without HIV infection in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In this cross-...

Mulu Andargachew; Kassu Afework; Huruy Kahsay; Tegene Birhanemeskel; Yitayaw Gashaw; Nakamori Masayo; Van Nhien Nguyen; Bekele Assegedech; Wondimhun Yared; Yamamoto Shigeru; Ota Fusao

2011-01-01

218

Negotiating gender and sexuality in the HIV/AIDS discourse in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Contradictions and paradoxes.  

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The AIDS epidemic has been recognized as the most pressing national health problem in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Zenebe argues that HIV/AIDS prevention programs in Ethiopia are not producing expected results because they are not based on understanding the distinctive characteristics of the people’s sexual cultures shaped by relations of power, by history, and by differentiated traditions within the particular society. The focus of the thesis is on how dominant medical discourses about preventio...

Zenebe, Mulumebet

2006-01-01

219

Food Insecurity, Food Based Coping Strategies and Suboptimal Dietary Practices of Adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia  

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Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified r...

2013-01-01

220

Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia  

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Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified r...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Voices on adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda: A matter of choice or simply not an option?  

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Abstract This paper explores HIV patients’ adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited contexts in Uganda and Ethiopia where ART is provided free of charge. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counsellors and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Interviewees voiced their experiences of, and views on ART adherence both from an individual and a system level perspective. Two ma...

2009-01-01

222

Land Degradation and Farmers' Acceptance and Adoption of Conservation Technologies in the Digil Watershed, Northwestern Highlands of Ethiopia  

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Land degradation has become a critical problem in many parts of highland Ethiopia. There is great need for rehabilitation and conservation works in such areas. The aim of this study is to empirically determine the magnitude and rate of land degradation and identify factors affecting farmersż acceptance and adoption of newly introduced land management technologies, with emphasis on SWC measures, in a typical microwatershed in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Changes in land cover/use a...

Bewket, W.

2003-01-01

223

Determinants of fertility decisions at a household level in the Alaje District of Southern Tigray-Ethiopia.  

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High fertility has the potential to affect the health and well being of mothers and the survival of their children. Even though fertility in Ethiopia shows a declining trend at the national level, the onset of fertility decline is yet to come in rural areas. The main objective of this research is to identify major factors affecting the observed high fertility in rural Ethiopia. The study area was selected based on the Ethiopian demographic and health survey made by the Central Statistical Age...

Woldesenbet, Abeba K.

2011-01-01

224

Climate-growth relationships of the dominant tree species from semi-arid savanna woodland in Ethiopia  

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Long-term climategrowth relationships, were examined in tree rings of four co-occurring tree species from semi-arid Acacia savanna woodlands in Ethiopia. The main purpose of the study was to prove the presence of annual tree rings, evaluate the relationship between radial growth and climate parameters, and evaluate the association of El Niño and drought years in Ethiopia. The results showed that all species studied form distinct growth boundaries, though differences in distinctiveness were...

Gebrekirstos, Aster; Mitlo?hner, Ralph; Teketay, Demel; Worbes, Martin

2008-01-01

225

Factors Predisposing Out-of-School Youths to HIV/AIDS-related Risky Sexual Behaviour in Northwest Ethiopia  

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Ethiopia is a developing country with a demographic profile dominated by a young population. Due to biological, psychological, sociocultural and economic factors, young people, particularly those aged 15–24 years, are generally at a high risk of HIV/AIDS and other reproductive health problems. This paper presents results of a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia, to assess factors that predispose out-of-school youths to HIV/AIDS-related risk beha...

Alemu, Hibret; Mariam, Damen Haile; Belay, Kassahun Abate; Davey, Gail

2007-01-01

226

No Independence without Sovereignty! The Resistance of Emperor ?aylä ??llase I to the British Occupation of Ethiopia (1941–1944)  

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This article examines how Emperor ?aylä ??llase I succeeded in removing the British military occupation of Ethiopia during World War II with only a minimum of bloodshed. It outlines the various strategies and tactics the Emperor of Ethiopia employed to regain control over his empire. The text also asserts that he engaged in a pre-Cold War variant of the policy of flexible response which permitted him to resist British military rule without provoking a violent response from his occupier. ...

2011-01-01

227

Competency and constraints of higher education and research institutions for rural transformation in the Amhara region, Ethiopia  

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Ethiopia is an agrarian country and agriculture is the backbone of its economy. Consequently, the government of Ethiopia has devised Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) as the country’s overall economic development policy. For the last 15 years, public investment towards the expansion of higher education, research and extension in agriculture has been so enormous. In reality, however, these higher education and research institutions were not sufficiently responsive to rura...

Getachew Alemayehu; Sisay Yehuala; Yonas Worku; Zerihun Nigussie; Girmachew Seraw

2012-01-01

228

Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011  

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Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three...

Debere Mesfin Kote; Gelaye Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa Zemedu Mehamed

2013-01-01

229

Women's knowledge and perceptions of malaria and use of malaria vector control interventions in Kersa, eastern Ethiopia  

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Background: Ethiopia has a long history of controlling malaria using vector control tools. Community knowledge and perceptions of malaria and use of malaria vector control interventions vary. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine malaria-related knowledge and perceptions among women and to determine the use of malaria vector control interventions, mainly indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), among households in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. Design: A cross...

Tesfaye Gobena; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

2013-01-01

230

Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical stud...

2012-01-01

231

Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia  

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Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)

2007-09-01

232

Maternal delays in utilizing institutional delivery services, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Timely referrals and access to appropriate health care had a great impact on reduction to maternal deaths and disabilities. Maternal delay is one of the contributing factors for high maternal mortality in developing countries. Maternal delays were categorized into three levels: delay in making the decision for seeking care, delay in arrival at a health facility, and delay in receiving adequate treatment. They have been named first, second, and third delay maternal delays; respectively. This study was aimed at assessing maternal delays in utilizing institutional delivery service sin Bahir Dar, North-Western Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional facility based study was conducted on a sample of 422 women attending at a public health facility for delivery services. The sample size was determined by using single population proportion formula and the study participants were selected by using a systematic random sampling method. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested, standardized questionnaire; analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Results: Data was collected from 410 laboring mothers. First delay, 155 (37.8% of mothers was delayed in decision making for seeking care from the public health facility and the mean delay was 8 hours. Delay in seeking emergency obstetric care [EOC] was about seven fold among illiterate mothers (AOR, 6.71; 95%CI, 3.66 -12.29 than literate mothers; the odds of delay for EOC were three times more likely among mother were unable to make decisions by their own (AOR, 3.30; 95%CI, 1.25 -7.20 than those mothers who made the decisions of their own. Unemployed mothers were 4 times more likely to have the maternal delay in seeking EOC (AOR, 3.94; 95%CI, 2.36 -6.57 than employed mothers. Second delay, 130 (31.7% of mothers had transportation problems in reaching health care facilities. Predictors in the first maternal delay were also the major contributing factors for this delay. The third delay, after their arrival at health facilities, 126 (30.7% mothers reported that they did not get the services on time; the mean waiting time for getting the service was 4 hours. Conclusions: Many mothers were not getting institutional delivery care services in a timely manner, due to the “three maternal delays”. Mothers’ literacy, decision making power and employment status were the main predictors for delivery service utilization. Hence, emphasis should be given for awareness creation on the risks of maternal delays, designing income generating mechanism, women empowering for in decision making and ambulance services should be strengthened.

Worku Awoke

2013-06-01

233

Trachoma and women: latrines in Ethiopia and surgery in Southern Sudan  

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Full Text Available Although there may be an underlying biological reason that more women are affected by trachoma and trichiasis, the role of women as childcare providers is a likely cause. In most countries where trachoma is endemic, girls grow up in environments where one of their primary activities is taking care of their younger family members and siblings. This continues into adulthood, with women carrying the main responsibility of caring for children. During their lifetime, women therefore spend more time in direct contact with children who may be infected. Ethiopia and Southern Sudan are two locations with an exceedingly high burden of trachoma. Projects focusing on environmental improvement (in Ethiopia and increasing access to surgery (in Southern Sudan have made significant progress towards reducing the impact of the disease on women. These examples show how trachoma programmes can address the particular needs of women while designing interventions aimed at eliminating blinding trachoma in the community as a whole.

Paul M Emerson

2009-06-01

234

Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes to, and exposure to tobacco advertisements among adolescents. Results Of the 1868 respondents, 4.5% males and 1% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Ethiopia is lower than in many other African countries. There is however need to strengthen anti-tobacco messages especially among adolescents.

Abdo Abdurahman

2007-07-01

235

Molecular surveillance of mutations in the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium falciparum in Gabon and Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Atovaquone is part of the antimalarial drug combination atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone® and inhibits the cytochrome bc1 complex of the electron transport chain in Plasmodium spp. Molecular modelling showed that amino acid mutations are clustered around a putative atovaquone-binding site resulting in a reduced binding affinity of atovaquone for plasmodial cytochrome b, thus resulting in drug resistance. Methods The prevalence of cytochrome b point mutations possibly conferring atovaquone resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in atovaquone treatment-naďve patient cohorts from Lambaréné, Gabon and from South Western Ethiopia was assessed. Results Four/40 (10% mutant types (four different single polymorphisms, one leading to an amino acid change from M to I in a single case in Gabonese isolates, but all 141/141 isolates were wild type in Ethiopia were found. Conclusion In the absence of drug pressure, spontaneous and possibly resistance-conferring mutations are rare.

Kremsner Peter G

2006-11-01

236

River-margin habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus at Aramis, Ethiopia 4.4 million years ago  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature and type of landscape that hominins (early humans) frequented has been of considerable interest. The recent works on Ardipithecus ramidus, a 4.4 million years old hominin found at Middle Awash, Ethiopia, provided critical information about the early part of human evolution. However, habitat characterization of this basal hominin has been highly contested. Here we present new sedimentological and stable isotopic (carbon and oxygen) data from Aramis, where the in situ, partial skeleton of Ar. ramidus (nicknamed 'Ardi') was excavated. These data are interpreted to indicate the presence of major rivers and associated mixed vegetations (grasses and trees) in adjacent floodplains. Our finding suggests that, in contrast to a woodland habitat far from a river, Ar. ramidus lived in a river-margin forest in an otherwise savanna (wooded grassland) landscape at Aramis, Ethiopia. Correct interpretation of habitat of Ar. ramidus is crucial for proper assessment of causes and mechanisms of early hominin evolution, including the development of bipedalism.

Gani, M. Royhan; Gani, Nahid D.

2011-12-01

237

Descriptions of members of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) from southern Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents cytotaxonomic details of five populations of the Simulium damnosum complex from South Africa, Swaziland and Ethiopia. The 'Nkusi SW' and 'Pienaars' forms are newly designated members of the complex from South Africa, but the taxonomic rank of an isolate indistinguishable chromosomally from the 'Nkusi' cytoform remains unclear. From Ethiopia two cytoforms were identified, one of which shares two diagnostic chromosome inversions with the cytoform 'Kisiwani' from Tanzania. The second form belongs to S. kaffaense, and is the suspected local vector of Onchocerca volvulus. In addition, a re-analysis of the cytoform 'Kibwezi' from north-eastern Tanzania provided further insights into its population subdivision, and its genetic and morphological characteristics. Cytotaxonomic similarities between 'Kibwezi', S. mengense and S. pandanophilum, along with their biogeography, indicate a relict status of each of these taxa. PMID:15829137

Krüger, A; Car, M; Maegga, B T A

2005-04-01

238

Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p 0.05. The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry.

Nesibu Awo

2014-04-01

239

The recent droughts in Western Ethiopia and Sudan in a climatic context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examined here are two recent episodes of drought that occurred in western Ethiopia, Sudan and elsewhere in the Sahelian zone immediately south of the Sahara during the periods 1968-1973 and 1979-1984. These are shown to have followed a series of similar episodes during the earlier decades of the 1900s. Another disaster of drought, war and famine struck western Ethiopia and Sudan in 1990-1991. The zone has been arid for the past 4000 years at least. The dryland degradation associated with episodes of drought is considered to result from a combination of climatic and human impact factors. It is suggested that recently elucidated correlations between the Sahelian drought episodes and oceanic temperatures and circulation lead to the possibility of developing a predictive system for Sahelian droughts. However, to establish a functional early-warning system will require a sustained trans-disciplinary research and development effort of some magnitude.

Mattsson, J.O.; Rapp, A. (University of Lund, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography)

1991-08-01

240

High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resista...

Schunk Mirjam; Kumma Wondimagegn P; Miranda Isabel; Osman Maha E; Roewer Susanne; Alano Abraham; Löscher Thomas; Bienzle Ulrich; Mockenhaupt Frank P

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia  

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The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in zinc and iron, many also contained high levels of phytic acid and tannins, which impair bioavailability of zinc and iron. The phytate:zinc molar ratios were >20 for non-fermented cereal foods, >15...

Umeta, M.; West, C. E.; Fufa, H.

2005-01-01

242

Long-term Bioethanol Shift and Transport Fuel Substitution in Ethiopia : Status, Prospects, and Implications  

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In an effort to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels with a sustainable and environmentally sound improvements, the government of Ethiopia has recognized the need to promote biofuels development so as to support the green economy strategy of the country designed to bring a breakthrough for socio-economic and environmental transformations which are becoming the central excellence for current and future prosperity of the country towards the quality of life and global competitiveness. Unde...

Yacob Gebreyohannes Hiben, Yacob

2013-01-01

243

Farmers' opinion on seed potato management attributes in Ethiopia: a conjoint analysis  

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A low adoption of recommended seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) technologies in Ethiopia could be due to a lack of alternative seed potato production methods compatible with farmers’ economic and agro-ecological conditions. A conjoint analysis (a technique used to measure relative contribution of product attributes) was conducted to elicit farmers’ opinions on management attributes that they believed to affect yield and quality of potato. The study involved interviewing 324 farmers who g...

Tufa, A. H.; Meuwissen, M. P. M.; Lans, I. A.; Lommen, W. J. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P. C.

2012-01-01

244

Self-treatment of malaria in rural communities, Butajira, southern Ethiopia.  

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OBJECTIVES: To quantify the use of self-treatment and to determine the actions taken to manage malaria illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in six peasant associations in Butajira district, southern Ethiopia, between January and September 1999. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 630 households with malaria cases within the last six months. FINDINGS: Overall, 616 (>97%) of the study households acted to manage malaria, including the use of antimalarial dru...

Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, A.; Enqusellassie, F.

2003-01-01

245

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia  

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Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and ...

Teklehaymanot Tilahun; Giday Mirutse

2007-01-01

246

Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation  

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Abstract Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent...

Giday Mirutse; Asfaw Zemede; Woldu Zerihun; Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2009-01-01

247

Comparative performance evaluation of Horro and Menz sheep of Ethiopia under grazing and intensive feeding conditions  

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This study has been carried out at the former International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), that is now the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) experiment station at Debre Birhan, Ethiopia. This research is part of an ILCA (now ILRI) Pan-African research programme designed to investigate and characterise genetic resistance to endoparasites in some indigenous small ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study was, therefore, undertaken in an attempt to generate informat...

2000-01-01

248

Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey  

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Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demograph...

2012-01-01

249

SHIFTING TO ALTERNATIVE FOOD SOURCE: POTENTIAL TO OVERCOME ETHIOPIAS' MALNUTRITION AND POVERTY PROBLEMS  

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The currently population of more than 70 million people in Ethiopia is expected to double within the next 30 years. Almost 80% of the populations are living in the countryside while the rest situated in urban area. An estimated five million people are suffering from lack of vitamins and essential minerals, of which 80% are children for the next generation. Every year, on the average, about five million people have problems securing enough food for them and need assistance. Preliminary surveys...

Gelmesa, Dandena

2010-01-01

250

Can cities or towns drive African development? Economy-wide analysis for Ethiopia and Uganda  

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Rapid urbanization is an important characteristic of African development and yet the structural transformation debate focuses on agriculture's relative merits without also considering the benefits from urban agglomeration. As a result, African governments are often provided conflicting recommendations on the importance of rural agriculture or urban industry. We develop dynamic economy-wide models for Ethiopia and Uganda that capture both traditional aspects of the debate (growth linkages and ...

Dorosh, Paul; Thurlow, James

2012-01-01

251

AFLP Analysis of Enset Clonal Diversity in South and Southwestern Ethiopia for Conservation  

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Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is a major multi-purpose crop in Ethiopia, which has been identified as the center of origin and diversity of enset. During the last decades, the local farming systems in which enset is maintained have become endangered. Conservation of clonally propagated crops like enset is complex and relatively expensive. Consequently, an assessment of clonal diversity is essential in order to maximize conservation efforts. In the present study, 146 clones from ...

Negash, A.; Tsegaye, A.; Treuren, R.; Visser, B.

2002-01-01

252

Population structure, genetic variation and morphological diversity in indigenous sheep of Ethiopia  

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We investigated genetic and morphological diversity and population structure of 14 traditional sheep populations originating from four ecological zones in Ethiopia (sub-alpine, wet highland, sub-humid lowland and arid lowland). All animals (n = 672) were genotyped for 17 microsatellite markers and scored for 12 morphological characters. The sheep were initially classified as fat-tailed (11 populations), thin-tailed (one population) and fat-rumped sheep (two populations). These classifications...

Gizaw, S.; Arendonk, J. A. M.; Komen, J.; Windig, J. J.; Hanotte, O.

2007-01-01

253

Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional stu...

2012-01-01

254

Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication  

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Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose...

Megersa Bekele; Biffa Demelash; Niguse Fekadu; Rufael Tesfaye; Asmare Kassahun; Skjerve Eystein

2011-01-01

255

The World Health Organization work and experiences in combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

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This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practiced ...

Mladonova, Anna

2007-01-01

256

The World Health Organization work and experiences in combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practic...

Mladonova, Anna

2007-01-01

257

Freely distributed bed-net use among Chano Mille residents, south Ethiopia: a longitudinal study  

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Abstract Background A huge discrepancy was reported between ownership versus utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). To acquire the benefits of ITNs, households need to use and not merely own them. The objective of this study was to characterize the pattern of, and assess factors related to ITN use in one village in south Ethiopia. Methods A prospective cohort study involving 8,121 residents (in 1,388 households) was carried out from April 2...

2013-01-01

258

The invisibility of children's paid and unpaid work: implications for Ethiopia's national poverty reduction policy  

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The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household survey data results highlight the importance of household wealth and assets, family composition and access to education services, while the qualitative ...

2008-01-01

259

Patients satisfaction with laboratory services at antiretroviral therapy clinics in public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Despite the fact that Ethiopia has scale up antiretroviral treatment (ART) program, little is known about the patient satisfaction with ART monitoring laboratory services in health facilities. We therefore aimed to assess patient satisfaction with laboratory services at ART clinics in public hospitals. Methods Hospital based, descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from October to November 2010 among clients attending in nine public h...

Mindaye Tedla; Taye Bineyam

2012-01-01

260

Livelihood Impacts of Environmental Conservation Programmes in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia  

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In an era where climate change and environmental variability is having an overwhelming impact on the livelihoods and well-being of poor rural households, ecological conservation and development interventions that ensure sustainable livelihood security of such households have been posited as the most effective approach in addressing both environmental degradations and household well-being in the rural communities of Ethiopia. This study investigated the impact of the ?...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Social impact and impoverishment risks of the Koga irrigation scheme, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia  

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The Koga project is the first new large-scale irrigation scheme in the Blue Nile river basin since the 1970s and may thus serve as an example of the tremendous changes of landscape and livelihood that are accompanying current water development projects in Ethiopia. This article analyzes the impoverishment risks arising out of the development-induced relocation of households in Koga. Following the Impoverishment Risk and Reconstruction model, seven of eight impoverishment risks could be identi...

2012-01-01

262

Developing and optimizing processes for biological nitrogen removal from tannery wastewaters in Ethiopia  

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In Ethiopia industrial effluents containing high contents of organic matter, nitrogen and heavy metals are discharged into inland surface waters with little or no pre-treatment. Significant pollution concerns related to these effluents include dissolved oxygen depletion, toxicity and eutrophication of the receiving waters. This has not only forced the government to formulate regulations and standards for discharge limits but also resulted in an increasing interest and development of methods a...

Leta, Seyoum

2004-01-01

263

Predictors of antiretroviral treatment-associated tuberculosis in Ethiopia: a nested case-control study  

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Little is known about the predictors of antiretroviral treatment (ART)-associated tuberculosis (TB) in developing nations. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of ART-associated TB in adults with HIV infection at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia. A nested case-control study was conducted in October 2009. The study population consisted of adults with HIV infection (aged >14 years) who developed active TB in the first six months since ART initiation and controls that did n...

Mesfin, N.; Deribew, A.; Yami, A.; Solomon, T; Geertruyden, J. P.; Colebunders, R.

2012-01-01

264

Ethnographic Reflections on Marriage in Mursi : A group of transhumant agro-pastoralists in Southwestern Ethiopia  

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This thesis is the outcome of a fieldwork which I carried out among the Mursi people of Southwestern Ethiopia from January until June 2010. The Mursi are transhumant agropastoralists and inhabit an area marked by long periods of drought. Over the past few decades they and their neighbors` livelihood have first and foremost been threatened by the growing shortage of water in dry-season grazing areas. As a result there has been a northward migration within Mursiland. Moreover, there are also ot...

Jřrgensen, Stine Lise

2011-01-01

265

Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking preva...

Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Abdo Abdurahman; Muula Adamson S

2007-01-01

266

A description of seed potato systems in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia  

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Seed potato systems in East Africa are described and opportunities for improvement identified on the basis of interviews with potato producers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia, and an assessment of Ralstonia solanacearum and virus disease levels in Kenya. 3% of seed potato sold in Kenyan markets was virus free. Ralstonia solanacearum was found in 74% of potato farms. Less than 5% of the farmers interviewed source seed potato from specialized seed growers. Over 50% rely entirely on farm-saved see...

2009-01-01

267

Efficacy of flumethrin 1% pour-on against ticks on cattle under field conditions in Ethiopia  

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The efficacy of a flumethrin 1% pour-on (Bayticol, Bayer AH) was evaluated against natural infestations of ticks on cattle on a dairy farm in Ethiopia during 1997/98. The cattle, (n = 92), which were Friesian/ Zebu crosses, were heavily infested with Boophilus decoloratus. Dry cows (n = 8) were randomly selected and allocated either into a treatment or a control group. Flumethrin 1 % pour-on was applied to the treatment group according to the manufacturer's recommendation, i.e. al...

Mekonnen, S.

2000-01-01

268

INTERNATIONAL TOURISM MARKETING : PROMOTING BRC BUDGET CAR RENTAL AND TOUR, ETHIOPIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This practice based thesis project was launched by the author who has studied the background about Ethiopian tourism, where the commissioner company is based in. The goal of the project was to establish international partnership with tour operators and travel agents in different destinations in order to internationalize BRC Budget Car Rental and Tour to develop international marketing practices with the aim of maximizing its effort to attract international tourists to Ethiopia.

Jauhoja?rvi, Tutu

2011-01-01

269

Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Informationer baseret på alle tilgængelige kilder om fulde navn, nationalitet, profession, område og periode i hvilke vedkommende har indsamlet planter inden for floraens område, men hvem de vides at have foretaget fælles indsamlinger, herbarier i hvilke dubletter af indsamlingerne er deponeret, o.s.v., for alle indsamlere af planter nævnt i bindene 1-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Friis, Ib

2009-01-01

270

The role of NGO in informal seed production and dissemination: The case of eastern Ethiopia  

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Seed is the basic input to crop production. Farmer-based seed production as an alternative agricultural technology transfer is increasingly given especial attention in developing countries where food insecurity is critical. This paper aims to assess the seed production and dissemination strategy among smallholder farmers in eastern Ethiopia that has been introduced by Hararghe Catholic Secretariat (a Non-GovernmentalOrganization). A survey of 160 households in four administrative districts an...

Beyene, Fekadu

2011-01-01

271

Adigrat Sandstone in Northern and Central Ethiopia: Stratigraphy, Facies, Depositional Environments and Palynology  

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In northern and central Ethiopia, continental to shallow-marine siliciclastic sediments of up to 430 m thick are exposed. These sediments are referred to as the ‘Adigrat Sandstone’. This study provides a detailed investigation of the stratigraphy, sedimentary facies, depositional environments and palynology of the ‘Adigrat Sandstone’ succession in the Mekelle and Blue Nile basins in order to obtain a complete picture of the large-scale spatial/temporal stacking patterns of depositiona...

Enkurie, Dawit Lebenie

2010-01-01

272

INTERNATIONAL TOURISM MARKETING : PROMOTING BRC BUDGET CAR RENTAL AND TOUR, ETHIOPIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This practice based thesis project was launched by the author who has studied the background about Ethiopian tourism, where the commissioner company is based in. The goal of the project was to establish international partnership with tour operators and travel agents in different destinations in order to internationalize BRC Budget Car Rental and Tour to develop international marketing practices with the aim of maximizing its effort to attract international tourists to Ethiopia. Qualitat...

Jauhoja?rvi, Tutu

2011-01-01

273

Medication prescribing errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asrat Agalu1, Yemane Ayele2, Worku Bedada2, Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Wollo University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Dessie, Ethiopia; 2Jimma University, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: A number of studies indicated that prescribing errors in the intensive care unit (ICU are frequent and lead to patient morbidity and mortality, increased length of stay, and substantial extra costs. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU has not previously been studied. Objective: To assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital from February 7 to April 15, 2011. All medication-prescribing interventions by physicians during the study period were included in the study. Data regarding prescribing interventions were collected from patient cards and medication charts. Prescribing errors were determined by comparing prescribed drugs with standard treatment guidelines, textbooks, handbooks, and software. Descriptive statistics were generated to meet the study objective. Results: The prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was 209/398 (52.5%. Common prescribing errors were using the wrong combinations of drugs (25.7%, wrong frequency (15.5%, and wrong dose (15.1%. Errors associated with antibiotics represented a major part of the medication prescribing errors (32.5%. Conclusion: Medication errors at the prescribing phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Health care providers need to establish a system which can support the prescribing physicians to ensure appropriate medication prescribing practices. Keywords: medication error, prescribing error, intensive care unit

Woldie M

2011-10-01

274

Exploring co-investments in sustainable land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia  

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In Ethiopia, not only farmers but also the public and private sector partners are still hesitant to invest in sustainable land management (SLM). This study focuses on the Central Rift Valley and explores the potential for co-investments in SLM, where public and private sector partners support farmers with material, capital, knowledge, etc. A survey revealed current bottlenecks for co-investments and requirements needed to collaboratively invest in SLM. It covered 165 public sector partners (m...

Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, C. A.; Stroosnijder, L.

2013-01-01

275

Screening rhizobacteria for biological control of Fusarium root and crown rot of sorghum in Ethiopia  

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Fusarium oxysporum Schlectend causes root and crown rot in several crops including sorghum that results in low grain yield in Ethiopia and other East African countries. Seventy-eight bacterial isolates were obtained and subsequently tested both in vitro and in the greenhouse. Of the 78 isolates tested, 23 displayed between 30 and 66.3% inhibition of in vitro mycelial growth of F. oxysporum and also showed significant root colonization ability on sorghum seedlings. These isolates were further ...

2007-01-01

276

The impact of podoconiosis on quality of life in Northern Ethiopia  

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Background: Podoconiosis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases, which untreated, causes considerable physical disability and stigma for affected individuals. Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) of patients with podoconiosis. This study aimed to assess the QoL of patients with podoconiosis in comparison with healthy controls in Ethiopia. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2012, among 346 clinically confirmed adult patients with podoconiosis, ...

Mousley, Elizabeth; Deribe, Kebede; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail

2013-01-01

277

Determinants of tillage frequency among smallholder farmers in two semi-arid areas in Ethiopia  

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Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can alleviate land degradation problems. However, before introducing reduced tillage systems, it was found necessary to study why farmers undertake repeated plowing. The study was undertaken in two semi...

Temesgen, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Alemu, D.

2008-01-01

278

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Sh...

Wegayehu Teklu; Tsalla Tsegaye; Seifu Belete; Teklu Takele

2013-01-01

279

Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Anaemia is known to be one of the outcomes of parasitic infection and it may result in impaired cognitive development, reduced physical work capacity and in severe cases increased risk of mortality, particularly during the prenatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anaemia among pregnant women in Gilgel-Gibe dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based st...

Getachew Million; Yewhalaw Delenesaw; Tafess Ketema; Getachew Yehenew; Zeynudin Ahmed

2012-01-01

280

Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibilities of implementing integrated watershed management (IWM) approach. A typical highland watershed (the Chemoga watershed) was selected for the research, and multifaceted investigations were condu...

Bewket, W.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in Central-Northern Ethiopia by crossdating and radiocarbon dating. The crossdating process is described more transparently than usual to allow open discussion of the methodology employed. Although t...

Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

2009-01-01

282

Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conservation tillage systems have been adopted by farmers in many countries to solve the problem of land degradation and declining water productivity. However, direct application of such tillage systems was not possible among resource poor smallholder farmers in semi arid areas of Ethiopia. Problems such as shortage of rainfall, cost of herbicides, cost of implements and the small seeded crop, tef, which can not be planted in rows required development of locally adapted conservation tillage s...

Temesgen, M. L.

2007-01-01

283

Examining Perceptions of Rapid Population Growth in North and South Gondar Zones, Northwest Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethiopia is one of the most populous countries in Africa and ranks second only to Nigeria. Rapid population growth has hampered the country's development, making the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger difficult. This study which had two components—quantitative and qualitative—was aimed at exploring the perceptions of women and other social groups on the prevailing population pressures. The quantitative study involved 3,512 women aged 15–49 years. The qualitative study consisted o...

Alene, Getu Degu; Worku, Alemayehu

2009-01-01

284

Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A woman's satisfaction with the delivery service may have immediate and long-term effects on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Providing satisfying delivery care increases service utilization. The objective of this study is to assess the satisfaction of mothers with referral hospitals' delivery service and identify some possible factors affecting satisfaction in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-se...

Tayelgn Azmeraw; Zegeye Desalegn T; Kebede Yigzaw

2011-01-01

285

Influences of Individual and Contextual Factors on Improving the Professional Development of TVET Teachers in Ethiopia  

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This Dissertation tried to provide insights into the influences of individual and contextual factors on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) teachers’ learning and professional development in Ethiopia. Specifically, this research focused on identifying and determining the influences of teachers’ self perception as learners and professionals, and investigates the impact of the context, process and content of their learning and experiences on their professional development...

Abebe, Ayele

2009-01-01

286

Urban malaria and associated risk factors in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Malaria kills millions around the world. Until recently it was believed to be a disease of rural areas, since the Anopheles mosquito, which transmits Plasmodium species breeds in rural areas. Urban malaria is emerging as a potential, but "avertable" crisis, in Africa. In view of the rapidly growing number of small and medium-sized towns in Ethiopia there is a pressing need to improve the understanding of the epidemiology of malari...

Alemu Abebe; Tsegaye Wondewosen; Golassa Lemu; Abebe Gemeda

2011-01-01

287

Characteristic of oil-shale in Achibo-Sombo area of Yayu coalfield in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of introducing the location, condition of strata, and the development of the coal-bearing strata of Achibo-Sombo area of Yayu coal field in Ethiopia, the distributing regularities, thickness, physical and chemical characteristics of the oil-shale in this area which are of industrial utilization are studied. And the reserves of the oil-shale has been calculated. The various aspects of industrial utilization of oil-shale are outlined. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Fan, S.; Tang, Z. [Exploration Institute of Shandong Coal Geology Bureau, Taian (China)

2001-02-01

288

Evolutionary origin of Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) small Barbus species: indications of rapid ecological divergence and speciation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lake Tana, located in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia, contains a unique assemblage of cyprinid fishes. In addition to the only known intact species flock of large (max. 100 cm forklength (FL)) Labeobarbus species, the lake harbours three small (<10 cm FL) Barbus species: B. humilis Boulenger, 1902, B. pleurogramma Boulenger, 1902 and B. tanapelagius de Graaf, Dejen, Sibbing and Osse, 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of the small Barbus species of Lake Tana were investigated using the...

Graaf, M.; Megens, H. J. W. C.; Samallo, J.; Sibbing, F. A.

2007-01-01

289

Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from these rivers and probably developed a new strategy of lacustrine spawning (macro-spatial segregation). One species (L....

Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F. A.; Nagelkerke, L. A. J.; Graaf, M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A. P.

2012-01-01

290

Adaptive radiation of Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) Labeobarbus species flock (Pisces, Cyprinidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studying species flocks (e.g. Darwinżs finches, Caribbean anoline lizards, East African cichlid fishes) has proven to be highly successful in understanding the forces driving speciation. The only known, intact species flock of cyprinid fishes, the 15 Labeobarbus species in Lake Tana (Ethiopia), includes eight piscivorous species. Piscivory is a rare specialisation among the highly successful (>2000 species) but mostly benthivorous Cyprinidae. The extent and mechanisms of diversification of t...

Graaf, M.; Dejen, E.; Osse, J. W. M.; Sibbing, F. A.

2008-01-01

291

Ecology and potential for fishery of the small barbs (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) of Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lake Tana is by far the largest lake of Ethiopia and source of the Blue Nile. By feeding on zooplankton, small barbs (< 10 cm) occupy a central position in Lake Tana's ecosystem. Catching them could release pressure on the overexploited, unique species flock of large barbs (up to 100 cm). Aiming at small barbs, we need first to assess its possible impact on the food web and productivity. To advise on sustainable management, the biology and ecology of the small Barbus species...

Dejen, E.

2003-01-01

292

Unwanted pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women in Hosanna town, southern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residi...

Hamdela, Belayneh; G Mariam, Abebe; Degfie, Tizta Tilahun

2012-01-01

293

The impact of social networks on dairy technology adoption: evidence from Northwest Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social structure, especially in the form of social networks, affects the adoption of agricultural technologies. In light of an increasing focus on new demand-driven agricultural extension approaches that leverage social networks as an opportunity, too little is known about (a) which network characteristics matter? and (b) how do specific network characteristics matter?. This paper uses survey data from Ethiopia to investigate the impact of social networks on smallholder dairy production techn...

2012-01-01

294

Participatory approach in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding for drought tolerance for southern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study employed and compared different methods for capturing farmers’ preference for common bean varieties in southern Ethiopia and tested their expressed preference using active selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The results showed considerable variation in farmers’ variety preferences, but the most important variation consistently focused on a fairly consistent set of variety traits. Different methods indicated that farmers considered earliness as the most important trait. Cul...

Asfaw, A.; Almekinders, C. J. M.; Struik, P. C.

2012-01-01

295

Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book describes the unique problems faced by smallholder farmers in semi arid regions of Ethiopia. It is the result of years of on-farm research that involved farmers and incorporated their indigenous knowledge to develop appropriate tillage systems and implements. It describes tillage implements that were developed as modifications of or attachments to the traditional tillage implement, which is simple, light and inexpensive. The book shows how simple and low cost technologies can conser...

Temesgen, M.

2007-01-01

296

Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) Labeobarbus Species Flock (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): a Future of Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lake Tana, the source of the (Blue) Nile, is situated in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia and harbours an extraordinary diversity of cyprinid fishes. While cyprinid fishes are common and abundant throughout the world’s fresh water systems, the Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana form the only remaining intact species flock of large cyprinid fishes. Lake Tana and its Labeobarbus species flock provide(d?) an unique opportunity to study the selective forces driving speciation due, among ot...

Graaf, M.; Nagelkerke, L. A. J.; Dejen, E.; Wudneh, T.; Osse, J. W. M.; Sibbing, F. A.

2008-01-01

297

Feasibility Study of Pumped Storage System for Application in Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In these days environmental issues are critical. Environmental concerns mainly rise from energy productions. Fortunately Ethiopia is trying to use renewable energy sources as a means for electrical power production and it is a great start for a long, tiresome green energy journey. The basic job to be done in green energy sectors is to maximize the capacity of renewable technologies to fulfil the best efficiency.  Intermittent nature of the energy production and their inefficiency to meet pea...

Tilahun, Mastewal Alemu

2012-01-01

298

Gender disparities in Africa's labour markets : An analysis of survey data from Ethiopia and Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to our better understanding of the main factors behind large and persistent gender disparities in Africa's labour markets. This work looks at three key dimensions of labour market gender inequality in Africa: (i) the gender wage gap, (ii) gender inequalities in allocating time to market and household work, and (iii) the gender-differentiated income effect of informality. Chapter 2 shows that, in Ethiopia, progress towards gender equity in edu...

Suarez Robles, Pablo

2012-01-01

299

Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3% have mor...

Balemie, Kebu; Kebebew, Fassil

2006-01-01

300

Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile) is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeli...

Uhlenbrook, S.; Mohamed, Y.; Gragne, A. S.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residi...

Hamdela, Belayneh; G Mariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Tizta

2012-01-01

302

Rural Water Supply Management and Sustainability: The Case of Adama Area, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wise utilization of water resources is becoming very important as world faces water crises. The main objective of this study was to investigate the rural water supply systems with case study in Adama area, in central Ethiopia. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Four sample water schemes were selected and totally 148 (63 were female) representative households were selected for answering the questionnaires. ...

Abebe Tadesse; Techane Bosona; Girma Gebresenbet

2013-01-01

303

The Socio-Economic Role and Status of Handicraftsmen among the Kambaata of Southern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although traditional handicraftsmen play an indispensable economic and socio-cultural role within the society, they have been marginalized and segregated by the peasant population in southern Ethiopia. The handicraftsmen produce a wide range of production, household consumption and defence tools and implements. Besides, they have an important socio-cultural role as ritual performers, initiators, drummers, musicians, entertainers, operators, professional mourners, traditional medical experts, ...

Abbute, Wolde-selassie

2013-01-01

304

Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: a microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Livestock fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of what type of animal to keep and on accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. Using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia, this paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households' livestock holding to identify determinants of choice and accumulation of livestock overtime. Choice is analyzed for a principal animal, the ani...

Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Tollens, Eric

2012-01-01

305

Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Ethiopia, although there are numerous small-scale and medium industries which use lead-based raw materials that may pose health risks to workers, there are no workplace regulations for lead exposure. Moreover, there are no studies carried out on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of workers or on the contribution of common workplace practices to lead poisoning. Method A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non...

Adela Yalemsew; Ambelu Argaw; Tessema Dejene A

2012-01-01

306

Physico-chemical pollution pattern along Akaki River basin, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study focuses on the analysis of physico-chemical parameters: electrical conductivity, nitrate and phosphate in the Akaki River basin of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. These secondary water quality parameters were obtained from two different sources: the surface water quality data both for Little and Great Akaki were retrieved from Addis Ababa Environmental Protection Agency (AAEPA). Whereas, the groundwater quality data for four water wells were obtained from Addis Ababa Water and Sewera...

Tegegn, Ferezer

2012-01-01

307

Multilingual Education: An Emerging Threat to Quality English Education in Eastern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1994, Ethiopian constitutions underwent an amendment in which each regional state was given a right to choose, use, and diffuse its language from both cultural and educational perspectives. This amendment marked the welcoming sign of multilingual education in Ethiopia, but the current pattern of multilingual education has caused more harm than good to the end users (students) in terms of learning and mastering English language to an optimal level. The paper hypothesizes that multilingua...

Sanjay Kumar Jha

2013-01-01

308

Water quality in the Koga Irrigation Project, Ethiopia: A snapshot of general quality parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The government of Ethiopia has initialized an investment in the agricultural sector in order to secure food production for a growing population. The Koga Irrigation and Water Management Project is a pilot project and hopes are that crop production will double. Water quality is an important factor to meet these expectations. The aim of this study is to assess the irrigation water’s biological and chemical quality by using locally available methods and compare the results with international w...

Eriksson, Simon

2012-01-01

309

Costs of Nutrient Losses in Priceless Soils Eroded From the Highlands of Northwestern Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate soil and nutrient losses caused by water erosion and predict nutrient replacement costs on different land use types and slope classes at Harfetay watershed, Northwestern Ethiopia. The revised soil loss equation (RUSLE) was used to estimate the soil loss from the different land uses and slope classes in watershed. Moreover, nutrient loss from similar units was calculated by multiplying the in situ nutrient concentration of soil samples by the estima...

2013-01-01

310

Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the country in 1973, the international community and the Ethiopian government began to carry out massive conservation measures that covered extensive areas. Since then, the conservation movement has co...

Beshah, T.

2003-01-01

311

Civil society in poverty alleviation: perspectives from Tanzania, Ethiopia and Central America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although donor discourse on international development policy places less emphasis on civil society than formerly this paper present evidence from Tanzania, Ethiopia and Central America that aid for civil society has had a positive effect on the capacity of Southern civil society. As a result of international pressure, civil society in these developing states now face a more open environment for both advocacy and service provision, while financial support has allowed a much greater level of a...

2007-01-01

312

Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic distribution, origin, resistance to CBD, chemical control and control through resistance.Experimental part. Coffee trees (mother trees) were selected that showed a low level of CBD in areas with s...

Graaff, N. A.

1981-01-01

313

Sexually transmitted diseases in Ethiopia. Social factors contributing to their spread and implications for developing countries.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to ...

Plorde, D. S.

1981-01-01

314

Factors associated with home delivery in Bahirdar, Ethiopia: A case control study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Ethiopia although pregnant mothers increasingly attend antenatal clinics, utilization of skilled delivery service remains very low. The individual or health system factors that affect women’s preferences for delivery places are not well known. Method A case control study was conducted in July 2010 to assess factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery service. A total of 324 mothers who recently delivered and visited eit...

Abebe Fantu; Berhane Yemane; Girma Belaineh

2012-01-01

315

Watershed Management: An Option to Sustain Dam and Reservoir Function in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inappropriate use of land for agriculture and poor management of its ecosystem lead to environmental problems such as land degradation through soil erosion. Accelerated soil erosion is a major watershed problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Climate change, which apparently causes major climatic events such as flooding or drought, also accelerates soil erosion. Soil erosion in various forms such as sheet, rill, gully bank and bed, river bed and bank and landslides provide se...

Kebede Wolka Wolancho

2012-01-01

316

The influence of decentralization on effectiveness of extension organization in Oromia State, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Against the background of frequent organisational changes and restructuring, often based on impulsive decisions rather than structured feasibility studies or evaluations, this article examines the influence of decentralization on the performance of an extension organization. Based on a survey of 353 respondents from Oromia region, one of the nine regions in Ethiopia, representing various agro ecological zones and managerial positions, it examines the current level of organizational performanc...

Jibba, K. B.; Duvel, G. H.

2008-01-01

317

Famine, gold and guns : the Suri of southwestern Ethiopia, 1985-91  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past few years (1985-1991), the Suri of the far southwest of Ethiopia have lived through a deep ecological and social crisis without substantial external aid from either the Ethiopian government or international aid agencies. They have experienced drought, cattle disease and an increasing level of violent conflict with their southern neighbours, the Nyangatom, leading to severe disruption of their traditional agropastoral subsistence system and settlement pattern. Through migration, ...

1993-01-01

318

Vulnerability to episodes of extreme weather : Butajira, Ethiopia, 1998-1999  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: During 1999-2000, great parts of Ethiopia experienced a period of famine which was recognised internationally. The aim of this paper is to characterise the epidemiology of mortality of the period, making use of individual, longitudinal population-based data from the Butajira demographic surveillance site and rainfall data from a local site. METHODS: Vital statistics and household data were routinely collected in a cluster sample of 10 sub-communities in the Butajira district in ce...

2009-01-01

319

Multi-stakeholder Platforms Strengthening Selection and use of Fodder Options in Ethiopia: Lessons and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although existing literature eloquently elaborates the role of an “innovation systems perspective” in rural development and provides theoretical insights into the concepts of the approach, there are few practical lessons emerging from application of the approach in research for development projects in various contexts. This paper analyzes a project designed to strengthen the ability of smallholders to innovate in ways that improved the returns to fodder use in Ethiopia. The paper applies ...

Ergano, K.; Duncan, A.; Adie, A.; Tedla, A.; Woldewahid, G.; Ayele, Z.; Berhanu, G.; Alemayehu, N.

2010-01-01

320

A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number of reasons for the failure. Methodical and technological problems are evident. Exclusion of farmers and the...

Bekele-tesemma, A.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Prevalence of ectoparasite infestations of cattle in Bench Maji zone, southwest Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence and type of ectoparasitic fauna and associated host-related risk factors in cattle in Bench Maji Zone, Southwestern, Ethiopia, from October 2011 to April 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 212 cattle (84 male and 128 female) were sampled and examined. Both physical examination and laboratory investigation were employed in the study. Results: The study revealed that cattle in the study area were infested with single ...

Tesfaheywet Zeryehun Shiferaw; Simeon Haile Onu

2013-01-01

322

Determinants of low family planning use and high unmet need in Butajira District, South Central Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The rapid population growth does not match with available resource in Ethiopia. Though household level family planning delivery has been put in place, the impact of such programs in densely populated rural areas was not studied. The study aims at measuring contraception and unmet need and identifying its determinants among married women. Methods A total of 5746 married women are interviewed from October to December 2009 in the Butajira Demogr...

Mekonnen Wubegzier; Worku Alemayehu

2011-01-01

323

High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP and chloroquine (CQ is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assessed. Results P. falciparum and P. vivax were observed in 69% and 31% of the patients, respectively. Pfdhfr triple mutations and pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutations occurred in 87% and 86% of P. falciparum isolates, respectively. Pfcrt T76 was seen in all and pfmdr1 Y86 in 81% of P. falciparum. The P. vivax dhfr core mutations N117 and R58 were present in 94% and 74%, respectively. Conclusion These data point to an extraordinarily high frequency of drug-resistance mutations in both P. falciparum and P. vivax in southern Ethiopia, and strongly support that both SP and CQ are inadequate drugs for this region.

Löscher Thomas

2006-07-01

324

Persistent Soil Seed Banks for Natural Rehabilitation of Dry Tropical Forests in Northern Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute to natural forest regeneration in the dry forest of Ethiopia. Therefore, the composition of the seed bank in relation to vegetation and abiotic environment was analysed in four forest relics and four exclosures, i.e. demarcated land areas under strict conservation management, in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Results show strong relationships between natural vegetation, seed bank composition, soil chemical characteristics and environmental degradation, as evidenced through characteristics such as land use impact and soil depth. Most striking is the presence of only very few woody species in the seed bank of degraded areas. This suggests that seed banks only play a minimal role in natural forest recovery in the study area. If this is true, natural recovery will primarily depend on presence of seed trees in the vicinity and successful seed dispersal mechanisms. This result underlines the importance of sustainable management of the few remaining forest relics and trees outside these relics.

Gebrehiwot, K.

2007-01-01

325

Molecular identification of unilocular hydatid cysts from domestic ungulates in Ethiopia: implications for human infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify the etiologic agents of cystic echinococcosis in Ethiopia, unilocular hydatid cysts were collected from 11 sheep, 16 cattle and 16 camels slaughtered in abattoirs of Aweday, Jijiga, Haramaya and Addis Ababa during June 2010 to February 2011. A PCR-based DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) was conducted for 40 cysts. The majority of cysts (87.5%) were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and the rest as Echinococcus canadensis. The fertile cysts of E. granulosus s.s. were found only from sheep, although it occurred in all the host species. The predominance of E. granulosus s.s. has important implications for public health since this species is the most typical causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide. The major cox1 haplotype of E. granulosus s.s. detected in Ethiopia was the same as that has been reported to be most common in Peru and China. However, a few cox1 haplotypes unique to Ethiopia were found in both of the two Echinococcus species. The present regional data would serve as baseline information in determining the local transmission patterns and in designing appropriate control strategies. PMID:22329916

Hailemariam, Zerihun; Nakao, Minoru; Menkir, Sissay; Lavikainen, Antti; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2012-06-01

326

Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia  

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Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)

2010-09-15

327

Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR?=?5.67; 95% CI?=?2.30, 13.00; p? Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

Assefa Dereje

2012-12-01

328

Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia  

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Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed

2012-01-01

329

Aid Donor Meets Strategic Partner? The European Union’s and China’s Relations with Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The motives, instruments and effects of China’s Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the “competitive pressure” that China’s growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one of the most important countries in Chinese as well as European cooperation with Africa. Yet, Chinese and European policies toward Ethiopia differ greatly. The EU mainly engages Ethiopia as an aid recipient, whereas China has developed a comprehensive political and economic partnership with the East African state. China has thereby become an alternative partner to the Ethiopian government, a development that both sheds light on the gap between European rhetoric and policy practice and puts pressure on the EU to make more efforts to reform its development policy system.

Christine Hackenesch

2013-01-01

330

Satellite-based hybrid drought monitoring tool for prediction of vegetation condition in Eastern Africa: A case study for Ethiopia  

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experimental drought monitoring tool has been developed that predicts the vegetation condition (Vegetation Outlook) using a regression-tree technique at a monthly time step during the growing season in Eastern Africa. This prediction tool (VegOut-Ethiopia) is demonstrated for Ethiopia as a case study. VegOut-Ethiopia predicts the standardized values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at multiple time steps (weeks to months into the future) based on analysis of "historical patterns" of satellite, climate, and oceanic data over historical records. The model underlying VegOut-Ethiopia capitalizes on historical climate-vegetation interactions and ocean-climate teleconnections (such as El Nińo and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) expressed over the 24 year data record and also considers several environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover and elevation) that influence vegetation's response to weather conditions to produce 8 km maps that depict future general vegetation conditions. VegOut-Ethiopia could provide vegetation monitoring capabilities at local, national, and regional levels that can complement more traditional remote sensing-based approaches that monitor "current" vegetation conditions. The preliminary results of this case study showed that the models were able to predict the vegetation stress (both spatial extent and severity) in drought years 1-3 months ahead during the growing season in Ethiopia. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and satellite-observed vegetation condition range from 0.50 to 0.90. Based on the lessons learned from past research activities and emerging experimental forecast models, future studies are recommended that could help Eastern Africa in advancing knowledge of climate, remote sensing, hydrology, and water resources.

Tadesse, Tsegaye; Demisse, Getachew Berhan; Zaitchik, Ben; Dinku, Tufa

2014-03-01

331

Education in focus :impacts of school feeding program on school participation  

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It has been claimed that School Feeding Programs increase school participation among poor and food insecure group of people. This study investigates if the program has significant positive impact on school enrollment, class attendance, and student drop-out patterns among primary school children in Dara Woreda of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 102 households as well as 17 selected individual stakeholders. Household Questionnaire, Key Informant Interviews and Observati...

Dheressa, Desalegn Keba

2011-01-01

332

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.  

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A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p  0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319

Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula

2012-01-01

333

Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59?years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ?44?years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

Leta Tesfaye H

2012-06-01

334

Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

Bersissa Kumsa

2012-10-01

335

Gravity tectonics of topographic ridges: Halokinesis and gravitational spreading in the western Ogaden, Ethiopia  

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The Cenozoic history of the western Ogaden region of Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian rift and the South Afar margin, is marked by uplift and incision of the Ogaden plateau down to the Gorrahei Formation, an upper Cretaceous evaporite formation. Debuttressing of this and the overlying sedimentary formations resulted in widespread and spectacular gravitational spreading landforms over a minimum surface area of 15,000 km2, most of which remains unstudied. After clearing up some misconceptions about the surface geology of the study area, the Kebenawa Ridge in the Audo Range, observations are reported that point to a tectonic style controlled by halokinesis and subsequently, gravitational spreading. The role of diapirism and karstification in the observed halokinesis is discussed, as well as the influence of halokinesis on gravitational spreading. Spreading is in part akin to sackung, in that ridge deformation features include a crestal graben and basal ridge topography extrusion, and deformation was triggered by lateral ridge debuttressing. Ridge spreading also presents analogy with gravitational spreading of the Canyonlands grabens in the Needles District, Canyonlands National Park, Utah. The scale and the mechanisms are found to be basically similar, but two differences are noted. First, incision by the drainage network in response to plateau uplift in Ethiopia has debuttressed the topography along two parallel rivers, instead of a single river (the Colorado River) in Utah. Secondly, incision proceeded to the base of the evaporite layer in the Ogaden, whereas incision has not exceeded the top of the evaporite layer in Utah. These differences may have influenced the details of the spreading mechanisms in ways that remain to be investigated. Overall, in Ethiopia, association of halokinesis and a transitional mode of gravitational spreading at the interface between narrow ridge spreading (sackung) and plateau spreading (Canyonlands-type), illustrates a fascinating and unusual ridge evolution style.

Mčge, Daniel; Le Deit, Laetitia; Rango, Tewodros; Korme, Tesfaye

2013-07-01

336

Livelihood Impacts of Environmental Conservation Programmes in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In an era where climate change and environmental variability is having an overwhelming impact on the livelihoods and well-being of poor rural households, ecological conservation and development interventions that ensure sustainable livelihood security of such households have been posited as the most effective approach in addressing both environmental degradations and household well-being in the rural communities of Ethiopia. This study investigated the impact of the ‘Tree Gudifecha’ ecological conservation project on the livelihoods and well-being of rural households located in two villages in the Amhara regional states of Ethiopia. The data collection and analysis was done using mixed approaches involving household surveys, interviews and focus groups meetings over a period of twelve weeks. The findings show an increase in both household income and savings after the implementation of the ‘Tree Gudifecha’ ecological conservation project with disparities between households and communities. A moderate association was observed between livelihood diversifications and household income after the ‘Tree Gudifecha’ ecological conservation project has been implemented. The study also revealed that the extent and amount of the share that each diversification activity brings to the household income is equally important for participation in conservation programmes. The research revealed that skill enhancement interventions in livelihood activities by itself does not necessarily make a contribution to increasing community participation or household income unless a comprehensive livelihood package and adequate credit scheme is made available for potential diversification activities. The results suggest the need to incorporate indigenous livelihood security programmes at both development practice and policy levels aimed at addressing environmental/ecological degradation in rural Ethiopia. Such programmes should involve a composite framework that includes the profitability of diversification activities, identification of new livelihood activities and capacity enhancement.

Joseph Kweku Assan

2013-09-01

337

Treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring the outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program. This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Methods Medical records of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients registered from September 2009 to June 2011 in 15 districts of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, were reviewed. Additional data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered through house-to-house visits by trained nurses. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes were assessed according to WHO guidelines. The association of unsuccessful treatment outcome with socio-demographic and clinical factors was analyzed using logistic regression model. Results Out of the 407 PTB patients (221 males and 186 females aged 15 years and above, 89.2% had successful and 10.8% had unsuccessful treatment outcome. In the final multivariate logistic model, the odds of unsuccessful treatment outcome was higher among patients older than 40 years of age (adj. OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.12-5.59, family size greater than 5 persons (adj. OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.43-7.44, unemployed (adj. OR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.33-7.24 and among retreatment cases (adj. OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.37-2.92 as compared to their respective comparison groups. Conclusions Treatment outcome among smear-positive PTB patients was satisfactory in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Nonetheless, those patients at high risk of an unfavorable treatment outcome should be identified early and given additional follow-up and social support.

Berhe Gebretsadik

2012-07-01

338

Barbers' knowledge and practice about occupational biological hazards was low in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several health hazards including communicable diseases and skin conditions are associated with Barbers’ profession to which their visitors are exposed. Thus, knowledge and practice of Barbers would play a vital part in prevention and control of these health hazards. So, the aim of this study is to assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Methods To assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia, A work place based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 28 to April 6, 2012. The total numbers of Barbers in the town were 960 of which 400 Barbers were participated in the study. Sample size was determined using the formula for single population proportion by considering, 51% proportion, knowledgeable Barbers from Jimma, Ethiopia, 95% level of confidence, 5% margin of error and 15% none response rate. The numbers of barbers included in the study were selected by using systematic random sampling. Data was collected by face to face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and practice of barbers. Results Of 400 barbers, only 72 (18% had good knowledge about biological hazards associated to their profession, While only 61 (15.3% were practicing safely during barbering. Knowledge of the barbers was associated significantly with educational level, owner of the business, working hour and work experience, while practice was associated only with availability of UV sterilizers in the room and working hour. Conclusion Barbers’ practice and knowledge to prevent biological hazards associated with their profession is very poor. Thus, giving training for the Barbers is required toward prevention of biological hazards associated to their profession.

Beyen Teresa Kisi

2012-11-01

339

Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Population studies on normal and dysfunctional characteristics of menstrual cycles are scarce in Ethiopia. In addition variability in menarcheal age and menstrual characteristics are common. Knowledge on this variability is necessary for patient education and to guide clinical evaluation. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampling method was used to select 622 school girls from two secondary schools. A pretested questionnaire prepared in Amharic was used to gather data. Selected girls cooperated in answering the questionnaire in their classrooms under the supervision of the research team. Only 612 of the adolescent females were included in the final analysis, of which 305 were from Koladiba High School and 307 from Dabat. Results The age of the study subjects ranges between 14 and 19 with a mean (standard deviation of 16.9 ± 1 years. About 92.2% had attained menarche by the time the survey was conducted. The probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median (CI age at menarche of 14.8 (13.9-15.3 years. The average age at menarche by recall method was 15.8 ± 1 years. The mean age at menarche was 0.3 years younger for urban females compared with rural ones (p Conclusion In this study age of menarche was found to be delayed which is even higher than the findings indicated similar studies conducted in Ethiopia and other African countries. A significant number of students complain of abnormal menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhoea and premenstrual symptoms which call for appropriate counselling and management.

Megabiaw Berihun

2009-10-01

340

Sediment storage dam: A structural gully erosion control and sediment trapping measure, northern Ethiopia  

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Gully erosion is a prime problem in Ethiopia. This study assessed the severity of gully erosion and the role of sediment storage dams (SSD) in restoring gullies and preventing further gully development, its sediment trapping efficacy (STE) and its capacity in converting degraded gully lands to productive land. On average 2.5 m deep, 6.6 m wide and 28.3 m long gullies were formed in Minizr watershed, northwest Ethiopia, in 2013. Concentrated surface runoff, traditional ditches, graded terraces without suitable water ways and road construction are the main causes of such serious gully erosion. Over grazing, tunnel flow and lack of proper immediate gully treatment actions after gully initiation are found to be additional causes of the problem. Gully erosion was also found as the major source of sediment for downstream rivers and water reservoirs. The annual volume of soil eroded from only four gullies was 1941.3 m3. To control gully erosion, SSDs were found to be important physical structures, which can trap significant amount of sediment within gullies and they can convert unproductive gully land to productive agricultural land for fruit and crop production. Eight SSDs trapped about 44*103 m3 of sediment within 2 to 8 years. Two representative SSDs constructed using gabion and stone were tested for their STE. Results showed that their efficacy was 74.1% and 66.4% for the gabion and stone SSDs, respectively. Six of the older SSDs were already full of sediment and created 0.75 ha of productive land within 2 to 8 years. SSDs best fits to treat large size and deep gullies where other gully control measures, check dams, could not function well. To prevent gully formation, controlling its causes that is avoiding traditional ditches, practicing grassed water ways to safely remove runoff water from graded terraces, integrated watershed and road side management practices are important solutions. KEY WORDS: Sediment storage dam, gully erosion, sediment trapping efficacy, productive land, Ethiopia

Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

SURVIVAL AND PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY AMONG PATIENTS UNDER MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT IN ETHIOPIA: ST. PETER'S SPECIALIZED TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB is an increasing global problem. The extent and burden of MDR-TB varies significantly from country to country. Survival of MDR-TB treatment is not described in Ethiopia. Therefore, examining a cohort who received second-line therapy for MDR-TB to determine overall survival has a great importance.Objectives: To assess survival and predictors of mortality among patients under MDR-TB treatment in Ethiopia: St Peter’s specialized TB Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective analysis of records was conducted from Oct, 2011 - May, 2012 among cohorts of MDR-TB patients in St. Peter’s specialized TB hospital that starts treatment from February 2009. Data were collected using checklist from 188 patients’ record that is determined and analyzed using the STATA Statistical package, Version 11.0. Risk was estimated for the entire follow-up time corresponding to each event occurrence using Kaplan-Meier method and the covariates are fitted to Cox proportional hazard regression model.Result: The 188 patients were followed for a total of 79,600 person-days. Median follow up time was 466.5 days or 1.28 years. Among the total subjects, 87 (46.28% are male and the rest 101 (53.72% are female with a median age of 27 years. There were 29 (15.43 % known deaths (incidence rate: 3.6 per 10,000 person-days. Survival rate at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment were 88.53 %, 85.83 %, 82.71 % and 78.95 % respectively. The mean survival time for patients under MDR-TB was 9.7 years. Comparison of the groups showed that there is a significant difference in the probability of surviving between HIV status, smoking status, therapeutic delay, No. of first line resistant drugs at initiation, co-morbidities, region and clinical complication. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression, factors independently associated with mortality of patients were smoking (HR: 4.01, 95% CI 1.42 - 11.37, P = 0.009, therapeutic delay > 1 month (HR: 3.61, 95% CI 1.41 - 9.20, P = 0.007, HIV seropositive (HR: 5.94, 95% CI 2.40 - 14.72, P < 0.0001 and clinical complication (HR: 1.90, 95% CI 1.52 - 2.39, P < 0.001.Conclusion and recommendation: Survival of patients was higher and higher hazard of death was noted in patients who started treatment after a month, smoker, HIV positive and patients who develop a clinical complication. Although survival is good, reinforcing the existing treatment program will further improve patients’ survival in Ethiopia.

Theodros Getachew, Alemayehu Bayray and Berhe Weldearegay

2013-02-01

342

Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Males and Females in Arba Minch Town of South Ethiopia  

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Prevalence of tuberculosis disease in males and females was studied in Arba Minch town of South Ethiopia from the records of Arba Minch hospital for four years from 2006 to 2009. The patients were classified as TB suspected and TB positive cases which were divided into ten yearly different age groups. In infant group up to 10 years, the TB suspected cases were 9 to 10% and positive TB patients were 2 to 6% in both males and females. The percentages of TB positive and suspected patients were h...

2013-01-01

343

Determinants of Institutional Delivery among Childbearing Age Women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: Unmatched Case Control Study  

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Background Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Results Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI))?=?2.754(1.510–8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI)?=?.454(.209–.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI)?=?3.822 (1.766–8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI)?=?2.914(1.105–7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI)?=?.136(.054–.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI)?=?9.995(2.101–47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI)?=?6.957(2.422–19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI)?=?3.541(1.732–7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI)?=?.665(.173–.954)], respondents’ awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI)?=?2.454 (1.663–6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI)?=?.258(.122–.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions and Recommendations Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have to consider the predictors of institutional delivery like education, birth order, antenatal care utilization and residence to improve institutional delivery in the area.

Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

2014-01-01

344

Effects of agroecological land use succession on soil properties in Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia  

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This study appraises the effects of land use on soil properties in a typical watershed in the northwestern highland of Ethiopia. Soil samples were collected from major land use types in the watershed: natural forests, cultivated lands, grazing lands and Eucalyptus plantations. The natural forests served as a control against which to assess changes in soil properties resulting from the establishment of the other land use types. Samples were taken at two depths (0–15 and 15–30 cm) in the up...

Bewket, W.; Stroosnijder, L.

2003-01-01

345

Quality and safety of camel milk along the value chain in Eastern Ethiopia  

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The safety of camel milk was assessed along the value chain in Erer, eastern Ethiopia. A total of 24 camel milk samples were aseptically collected from producers in Erer (n=12), and wholesalers and retailers (n=12) along the chain. Milk quality parameters were analyzed following standard procedures. The mean (±SD) total bacteria (TBC), Enterobacteriaceae (EC), coliform (CC), spore-forming bacteria (SFBC) and yeast and mould (YMC) counts of the milk samples analyzed were 5.2 ± 1.90, 3.2 ?...

Mulugojjam Adugna; Eyassu Seifu; Ameha Kebeded; Reiner Doluschitz

2013-01-01

346

Outbreak of louse-borne relapsing fever in Jimma, south western Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some epidemiological aspects of louse-borne relapsing fever during the epidemic of 1991 in Ethiopia are described. There was male preponderance and the age ranged from two months to 58 years (mean, sd = 18.05,11.19). There was no sex differential in children. Students, soldiers and jobless contributed the majority. There were two peaks (August and March) in the seasonal pattern. About two-thirds was infested with lice and significant associations were found among adults, soldiers, ethnicity, illiterate persons and family size above seven. The household attack rate was 15.1%, the attack being higher among children. Promotion of preventive measures are recommended. PMID:8625865

Mekasha, A; Meharie, S

1996-01-01

347

Shear-Wave Splitting due to Rifting and Precambrian Accretion of Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

We have utilized a dataset from the broadband seismic experiment of Nyblade and Langston (EOS v.83 p. 405, 2002) for a shear-wave splitting analysis in Ethiopia. A total of twenty-five broadband seismic stations, widely distributed in various physiographic regions in Ethiopia, were used. Six stations were installed on the southeastern plateau, twelve stations on the western plateau, and seven stations inside the Rift Valley, which runs northeast-southwest and separates the western and eastern highlands. The distribution of the broadband stations in the present study spans a broad region and allows us to compare the results of shear-wave splitting analysis inside the rift and on the rift-bounding plateaus. Previous shear-wave splitting results in Kenya, located south of Ethiopia, show fast polarization azimuths sub-parallel to the strike of the rift which are interpreted to be the result of vertical magma-filled cracks in the lithosphere opening in the direction perpendicular to the extension direction (Gao et al., 1997; Barruol and Ismail, 2001). However, this orientation is also perpendicular to the collision direction for the Mozambique belt and thus consistent with the fast azimuth being the result of fossilized anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere. Results from an SKS splitting analysis in Ethiopia (Maguire et al., EOS 2003 in press; Kendall et al., this session) show the orientation of the fast polarization azimuth within the Main Ethiopian Rift to be approximately NNE-SSW. Similar to the results from Kenya, this is parallel to the volcanic centers in the rift and perpendicular to the geodetically determined opening direction. Splitting directions on the rift shoulders are closer to NE, parallel to both the rift-bounding faults (perpendicular to the inferred average Neogene opening direction) and to the Precambrian accretionary structures. Our preliminary result from Addis Ababa suggests a fast azimuth of N23E, sub-parallel to the rift orientation in agreement with previous results by other workers. Further south near Arbaminch, results suggest an azimuth of N6E possibly due to the shift of rift orientation from NE-SW to nearly N-S in this region. Stations 250 km NW of the rift axis (Debre Markos) and 250 km SE of the rift axis (Goba) both show more north-easterly trends (N37E and N21E, respectively). Because of the distance of these stations from the rift, we suggest that this NE fast splitting direction is more likely related to fossilized anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere than to Neogene rifting.

Gashawbeza, E.; Keranen, K.; Nyblade, A.; Klemperer, S. L.; Walker, K.

2003-12-01

348

Community based study on maternal mortality in Jimma town, south western Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional five years retrospective community based study was conducted in 1990 to determine maternal mortality rate in Jimma town, south-western Ethiopia. The maternal mortality rate was found to be 4.02/1000 live births. The results of the study revealed that major causes of maternal mortality in this area are sepsis, eclampsia and abortion. Out of all deaths, more than 50% occurred after delivery of a child. Besides, the study indicates poor trend in following antenatal care and family planning among maternal mortality cases. Recommendations are made for detailed wide scale study to generate policy issues on the subject. PMID:9090901

Mersha, A; Jira, C; Demessie, S

1996-01-01

349

Low Prevalence of Leishmania Infection in Post-Epidemic Areas of Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia  

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In Libo Kemkem (a district of Amhara region, Ethiopia), no cases of kala-azar had ever been reported until 2005 when an outbreak occurred. Over one-third of those cases were children under 15 years of age. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in children aged 4–15 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009. Children participating in the survey were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling method. A total of 386 children were in...

Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefani?a; Cruz, Israel; Simo?n, Fernando; Abraham, Zelalem; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Tsegaye, Hailu; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Can?avate, Carmen

2012-01-01

350

Low prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Somali pastoral livestock, southeast Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) detected by the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) was conducted in livestock of the Somali region in southeast Ethiopia—in four pastoral associations from January to August 2009. In 94 herds, each of 15 cattle, camels, and goats was tested per herd leading to a total of 1,418 CIDT tested animals, with 421 cattle, 479 camels, and 518 goats. A herd was considered positive if it had at least one reactor. Prevalence per animal sp...

2012-01-01

351

Child labour in Addis Ketema, Ethiopia : a study in mental health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Child labour is a very common global problem. There are an estimated over 250 million in the world, and about 7.5 million child labourers in Ethiopia. Most of the studies available to date focus on the social, political, and economical issues, but very little on mental health or psychosocial problems of child labourers. There is no study describing the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among this group of children. Aims: 1. to assess the level of awareness and attitude of an u...

Fekadu Wolde-giorgis, Daniel

2008-01-01

352

Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women's health.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years, in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5% of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1% reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9% respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]. Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1% respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003, illiteracy (P = 0.01, and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012. The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3% were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM.Conclusion: In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it. Local healers were the main performers of FGM. Some of the women knew about the negative reproductive health effects of FGM and some had also experienced these themselves. However, only a few had tried to stop the practice and the majority had taken no steps to do so. This may be attributable to the fear of becoming alienated from the cultural system and fear of isolation.Keywords: female genital mutilation, reasons, health consequences, Ethiopia

Gebremichael MW

2012-02-01

353

Phylogeny of early Australopithecus: new fossil evidence from the Woranso-Mille (central Afar, Ethiopia)  

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The earliest evidence of Australopithecus goes back to ca 4.2 Ma with the first recorded appearance of Australopithecus ‘anamensis’ at Kanapoi, Kenya. Australopithecus afarensis is well documented between 3.6 and 3.0 Ma mainly from deposits at Laetoli (Tanzania) and Hadar (Ethiopia). The phylogenetic relationship of these two ‘species’ is hypothesized as ancestor–descendant. However, the lack of fossil evidence from the time between 3.6 and 3.9 Ma has been one of its weakest points....

Haile-selassie, Yohannes

2010-01-01

354

Violence against women in relation to literacy and area of residence in Ethiopia  

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Objective: This study explores violence against women in a low-income setting in relation to residency and literacy. Setting: The study was conducted within the Butajira Rural Health Programme (a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site), which includes rural and semi-urban settings in south-central Ethiopia. Design: This is a community-based cross-sectional study and is part of the WHO Women's Health and Life Events multi-country study. It included 1,994 randomly selected married wome...

Negussie Deyessa; Yemane Berhane; Mary Ellsberg; Maria Emmelin; Gunnar Kullgren; Gberg, Ulf H. X. F.

2010-01-01

355

Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC) utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1%) had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3%) attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9%) delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91). Conclusion This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is located even when not included in the surveillance system.

Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Gebregiorgis, Seifu Hagos; Roro, Meselech Assegid; Lemma, Alemayehu Mekonnen; Ahmed, Saifuddin

2014-01-01

356

The status of safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1993, the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) has been empowered by the 'Radiation Protection Proclamation no. 79/1993' to authorize and inspect regulated activities, issue guidelines and standards and enforce the legislation and regulations. The report describes the status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia and the progress made towards building a sound and effective national regulatory infrastructure. Also, the report highlights the challenges and difficulties encountered and concludes by indicating the way forward towards the strategic goals. (author)

2001-08-01

357

Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon and Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the candidature of ten foreign companies for the introduction of natural gas in 1996 and the first enhanced recovery contract will relate to Rhourde El Baguel natural gas field (Algeria). New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Gabon, Ethiopia and Libya. Iraq has restarted its petroleum exports and Iranian production has diminished

1993-05-16

358

Correlating Individual Oligocene Silicic Flood Volcanic Eruptions Across the Conjugate Rifted Margins of Yemen and Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-volume silicic pyroclastic volcanism is an important component of the Afro-Arabian Oligocene flood volcanic province and subsequent syn-rift volcanism. It provides ideal marker horizons for correlating individual eruption units within and between Yemen and Ethiopia. The volcano-stratigraphy preserved in Yemen is well-exposed and relatively untectonized. Using detailed stratigraphic and geochemical studies we have reconstructed the complete flood volcanic succession which we use to correlate to the structurally complex Ethiopian margin. For the first time, in situ analysis of Pb isotopes in feldspar and groundmass by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS has enabled correlation of individual ignimbrite units from Yemen to Ethiopia. These correlations are also supported by major, trace and REE geochemistry, Nd isotopic data and 40Ar/39Ar dating studies from Yemen and Ethiopia. Subtle Pb isotopic variations among units reflect differences in crustal contamination by juvenile Pan-African basement (in Oligocene flood volcanic units) or Archaean basement (in syn-rift volcanic units). Differences in 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb between units range from 0.003 to >0.02. We have measured these Pb isotopic ratios to better than +/-0.0009, which is at least a factor of 3 less than the smallest observed inter-unit variation. Variations within individual units sampled from multiple sections ranging from 20 to >100 km apart, are identical within analytical error, demonstrating the lateral homogeneity of units. Preliminary estimates of eruption volumes for individual silicic units in Yemen range from 200 to >1000 km3. Units found in both Yemen and Ethiopia may have total volumes >2000 km3. With 13 major silicic units found in Yemen, which were erupted in less than 2 Ma, this represents one of the largest outpourings of silicic volcanism on Earth. Detailed volcano-stratigraphic correlations allow a more accurate estimation of eruption volumes and possible climatic impact of large-volume silicic pyroclastic volcanism associated with the Afro-Arabian flood volcanic province. In situ Pb isotopes may also be a powerful tool for correlating Neogene silicic ash units in Afar associated with hominid-bearing fossiliferous sediments.

Ukstins, I. A.; Baker, J. A.; Ayalew, D.; Menzies, M.

2002-05-01

359

Neonatal and post-neonatal mortality decline in Ethiopia: evidence from DHS 2005  

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Full Text Available Neonatal mortality declined 17 per cent in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2005 Demographic and Health Survey, infant mortality declined 21 per cent and underfive mortality declined 26 per cent. However, mortality rates are still high but birth interval, breastfeeding and birth order reflect strong neonatal and postneonatal mortality decline in many regions. Birth order, mother’s age at childbirth, length of breastfeeding, subsequent birth intervals, and mortality of an older sibling all have large effects on neonatal and post neonatal mortality. Among health interventions strongly associated with reduced neonatal mortality.

Appunni SATHIYASUSUMAN

2011-03-01

360

HIV associated hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Hypocalcaemia, defined by serum calcium level less than 8.5 mg/dl, could be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diarrheal diseases. In Ethiopia, while morbidities from diarrheal diseases and HIV are serious health problems, studies assessing the interactions amongst of the three do not exist. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the level of calcium among diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection. Methods Consecutive diarrheic patients attending Gondar University Hospital in Ethiopia were enrolled and screened for HIV, intestinal parasites, Shigella and Salmonella. Concentration of calcium in serum was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results A total of 206 diarrheic patients were included in the study (109?=?HIV positive, 97?=?HIV negative). Intestinal parasites and Shigella species were detected in 32.2% and 8.5% of the patients, respectively. The serum calcium levels in the patients who were found positive for Shigella species or intestinal parasites was not significantly different by the presence or absence of HIV co-infection. HIV infected diarrheic patients had significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.82?±?1.23 mg/dl) than those negative for HIV (8.38?±?1.97) (P?=?0.015). The age groups 25–35 and greater than 45 years showed significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.77?±?1.55 mg/dl) in comparison to the other age groups (7.84?±?1.41 mg/dl, P?=?0.009). On the other hand, females presented with significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.79?±?1.60 mg/dl, P?=?0.044) than males (8.26?±?1.65 mg/dl). Conclusion There is high prevalence of hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. And HIV stood out to be a major risk factor for development of hypocalcaemia among the diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. Further studies are required to substantiate and characterize the mechanisms and consequences of calcium metabolism disorders among HIV infected individuals in the study area.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The roads of decentralisation. The history of rural road construction in Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roads, in particular rural roads, play a major role in deve- lopment. In Ethiopia, where the vast majority of the popula- tion depends on agricultural production, this is even more so, and the country’s road network has become a major po- licy issue with significant consequences for the population. An extensive network of 114,397 km of different roads has been constructed, maintained, and classified to date. Alt- hough community roads account for nearly two-thirds of the country’s total r...

Emmenegger, Rony

2012-01-01

362

Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five - year retrospective study  

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Abstract Background In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO), treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods

Tessema Belay; Muche Abebe; Bekele Assegedech; Reissig Dieter; Emmrich Frank; Sack Ulrich

2009-01-01

363

English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

364

Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

2011-01-01

365

Design of Sustainable Relief Housing in Ethiopia: An Implementation of Cradle to Cradle Design in Earthbag Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Urbanization in Ethiopia resulted in urban poverty and homelessness. In this study, a sustainable relief housing prototype that aided in sheltering homeless citizens was designed. To avoid repeating errors in urban development such as unsustainable resource consumption, it was necessary to look beyond traditional construction materials and methods. Approach: This design applied cradle to cradle design model to the earthbag construction technique and developed a prototype for sustainable relief housing in Ethiopia. Results: Based on environmental and human health, all materials selected for construction were naturally occurring and could safely return to nature after use. Structural design maximized natural energy use and housing and interior design considered the local culture in Ethiopia. Conclusion: With locally available materials, inexpensive construction, maintenance and use, this design provided affordable shelter for the Ethiopian people. Material selection ensured the most effective use of material resources, no synthetic material and toxin deposition and the best indoor air quality for human health. Using earthbags rather than wood for the structure, this housing design helped prevent deforestation and the resulting desertification in Ethiopia.

Brooke Barnes

2009-01-01

366

Schools Serving as Centres for Dissemination of Alternative Energy Know-How and Technologies: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive…

Dalelo, Aklilu

2008-01-01

367

A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region  

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Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

Harry Smit

2011-03-01

368

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

Mehari, A.

1997-11-01

369

Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

A. Mehari

1997-01-01

370

Calves' sex ratio in naturally and artificially bred cattle in central Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was undertaken with the objective to identify some intrinsic (genotype of the cow, estrus time and parity) and extrinsic factors (service type, service time and estrus seasons) that affect calf sex ratio in naturally and artificially bred cattle in the central highlands of Ethiopia. A total of 4657 calving events were extracted from the long-term dairy cattle genetic improvement experiment at Holetta Agricultural Research Center. Factors that affect the logit of the probability of a female calf being born were obtained by using PROC GENMODE in Statistical Analysis System. Moreover, multivariate analysis was performed using PROC LOGISTIC procedure using forward selection procedure. Accordingly, genotype of the cow, parity, estrus season, and service type had considerable influences on calf sex ratio. However, estrus time and service time did not affect calf sex ratio (?(2) = 0.83 and 0.79, respectively). In Ethiopia, smallholder dairy farmers often complain that artificial insemination (AI) skewed to producing more male calves. However, our study showed that AI did not alter female-to-male calf sex ratio. On the contrary, natural mating increases the probability of female calves born (odds ratio 1.38) over AI. Heifer/cows that showed estrus and bred during the harsh seasons of the years produced more female calves than those that bred during the good seasons of the year. This strongly agreed with Trivers and Willard sex allocation theory. PMID:24908336

Delesa, Effa Kefena; Yohannes, Aster; Alemayehu, Mengistu; Samuel, Temesgen; Yehualaeshet, Teshome

2014-08-01

371

DSS and DHS: longitudinal and cross-sectional viewpoints on child and adolescent mortality in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In countries where routine vital registration data are scarce, Demographic Surveillance Sites (DSS: locally defined populations under longitudinal surveillance for vital events and other characteristics and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS: periodic national cluster samples responding to cross-sectional surveys have become standard approaches for gathering at least some data. This paper aims to compare DSS and DHS approaches, seeing how they complement each other in the specific instance of child and adolescent mortality in Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Butajira DSS 1987–2004 and the Ethiopia DHS rounds for 2000 and 2005 formed the basis of comparative analyses of mortality rates among those aged under 20 years, using Poisson regression models for adjusted rate ratios. Results Patterns of mortality over time were broadly comparable using DSS and DHS approaches. DSS data were more susceptible to local epidemic variations, while DHS data tended to smooth out local variation, and be more subject to recall bias. Conclusion Both DSS and DHS approaches to mortality surveillance gave similar overall results, but both showed method-dependent advantages and disadvantages. In many settings, this kind of joint-source data analysis could offer significant added value to results.

Emmelin Anders

2007-12-01

372

Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. PMID:24326024

Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

2014-01-01

373

Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A woman's satisfaction with the delivery service may have immediate and long-term effects on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Providing satisfying delivery care increases service utilization. The objective of this study is to assess the satisfaction of mothers with referral hospitals' delivery service and identify some possible factors affecting satisfaction in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional survey that involved an exit interview was conducted from September to November 2009 in three referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A total of 417 delivering mothers were enrolled in the study. Client satisfaction was measured using a survey instrument adopted from the Donabedian quality assessment framework. We collect data systematically from every other postnatal woman who delivered in the referral hospitals. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was applied to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome (satisfaction. Results The proportion of mothers who were satisfied with delivery care in this study was 61.9%. Women's satisfaction with delivery care was associated with wanted status of the pregnancy, immediate maternal condition after delivery, waiting time to see the health worker, availability of waiting area, care providers' measure taken to assure privacy during examinations, and amount of cost paid for service. Conclusions The overall satisfaction of hospital delivery services in this study is found to be suboptimal. The study strongly suggests that more could be done to assure that services provided are more patient centered.

Tayelgn Azmeraw

2011-10-01

374

Strain diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Afar pastoral region of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is important to understand its epidemiology, human adaptation, clinical phenotypes, and drug resistance. This study aimed to characterize MTBC clinical isolates circulating in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia, a country where tuberculosis is the second leading cause of mortality. Culture of sputum samples collected from a total of 325 pulmonary TB suspects was done to isolate MTBC. Spoligotyping was used to characterize 105 isolates from culture positive slopes and the result was compared with an international database. Forty-four spoligotype patterns were observed to correspond to 35 shared-types (SITs) containing 96 isolates and 9 orphan patterns; 27 SITs containing 83 isolates matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 8 SITs (n = 13 isolates) were newly created. A total of 19 SITs containing 80 isolates were clustered within this study (overall clustering of 76.19%). Three dominant lineages (T, CAS, and Manu) accounted for 76.19% of the isolates. SIT149/T3-ETH was one of the two most dominant sublineages. Unlike previous reports, we show that Manu lineage strains not only constitute a dominant lineage, but are also associated with HIV infection in Afar region of Ethiopia. The high level of clustering suggests the presence of recent transmission that should be further studied using additional genotyping markers. PMID:24734230

Belay, Mulugeta; Ameni, Gobena; Bjune, Gunnar; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Abebe, Fekadu

2014-01-01

375

Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key actors along the value chain. Results revealed distinctive differences in proportion of cash income, value chain structure, and management engagement among the districts. Percentages of cash income were 60.15, 42.60, and 9.48 at Awi, Sidam, and Sheka, respectively. Differences were statistically significant between Sheka and both other districts (p = 0.05, but not between Awi and Sidama. The value chain structure showed that compared with Sheka, Awi and Sidama have a relatively large number of actors involved. The major factors explaining commercialization differences among regions were distance to market and presence of alternative forest products. Within Sheka, households with larger family size, higher education attainment, and access to training reportedly engaged more in commercial extraction. Therefore, we conclude that development of infrastructure for linking resource and consumer centers and expansion of extension education among producers may enhance the commercial engagement of producers and improve the accessibility of bamboo resources for commercial production.

André Lindner

2013-09-01

376

Rural electrification in developing countries. Social acceptance of small photovoltaic lanterns in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to combat poverty and fight for the Millennium Development Goals through providing access to modern energy, it is necessary to analyze social acceptance of new forms of energy in order to implement them successfully. Nine different Pico Photovoltaic systems were tested during a field study in a non-electrified village in Ethiopia. Each lamp was tested for a week by one of 24 families. Quantitative methods (interviews, focus groups, participant observation) were conducted in order to explore technology change and its social impacts. With these methods, an alternating change of induction and deduction is achieved to gain insight. The most important results are: Apart from expected benefits in health, work, education and economy, people also noticed improvements in the autonomy of children, flexibility, stress, security and family life. Negative aspects were found regarding inter-social relations and in the absence of possible activities. Quality of lamps is defined by respondents according to brightness, duration and cone of light. Furthermore, people prefer white, bright light as well as a built-in switch. Systems considered best in European laboratory tests were evaluated poorly in Ethiopia. In the end, people ordered 30 systems. The decision to buy was a collective one. Even though energy supply is the responsibility of women, men made the final deicision about the purchase of the lamps. (orig.)

Mueggenburg, Hannah; Schweizer-Ries, Petra [Saarbruecken Univ. (DE). Forschungsgruppe Umweltpsychologie (FG-UPSY); Raabe, Tim [Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), Eschborn (Germany); Tillmans, Annika

2011-07-01

377

In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia.  

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THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF TWO INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF ETHIOPIA: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentration dependent. Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. burgensis leaves exerted greater inhibitory effects than C. longicauda extracts whereas aqueous extracts of both plants were inactive. The MIC study revealed a concentration of 0.78 mg/ml on bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on fungi for methanol extract and 1.56 mg/ml on both fungi and bacteria for petroleum ether extract. Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of proteins, fixed oils, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Preliminary chromatographic investigation showed fluorescing spots with R(f) values that ranged from 0.05 to 0.96 for phenolic compounds and saponins. As the study is one of the first reports on the two indigenous species of Clematis; isolation, purification and characterization of the different primary and secondary metabolites may further yield alternative options to the microbial chemotherapy. PMID:23204619

Hawaze, S; Deti, H; Suleman, S

2012-01-01

378

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

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Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care.

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

379

Multilingual Education: An Emerging Threat to Quality English Education in Eastern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available In 1994, Ethiopian constitutions underwent an amendment in which each regional state was given a right to choose, use, and diffuse its language from both cultural and educational perspectives. This amendment marked the welcoming sign of multilingual education in Ethiopia, but the current pattern of multilingual education has caused more harm than good to the end users (students in terms of learning and mastering English language to an optimal level. The paper hypothesizes that multilingual education is one of the determinants for impairing the quality of English education in Eastern Ethiopia. So this research took the shape of an ethnographic perception-study not only to explore the adverse impacts of multilingual education on the quality of English education but also to seek mass views on reversing the current trend of multilingual (trilingual education from (Mother Tongue + Amharic + English to (English + Amharic + Mother Tongue as a remedy. In this pursuit, 150 participants comprising 50 students, 50 teachers, and 50 government employees were selected using convenience sampling. The data were collected through unstructured interview and participant observation; whereas, the analysis of the data was made through analytic induction and percentile. As a part of findings, the paper presents six adverse impacts of multilingual education on English Education; and the participants’ varied degree of consent on reversing the current pattern of trilingual education. The paper finally forwards apposite recommendations to streamline English in mainstream education to enhance the quality of English education.

Sanjay Kumar Jha

2013-10-01

380

Productive performance of indigenous and HF crossbred dairy cows in Gondar, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the magnitude of variation in lactation length (LL, lactation milk yield (LMY and peak-yield (PYdue to genetic and non-genetic cases in indigenous and crossbred cattle reared under private dairy unit in and around Gondar, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 411 milch animals from 86 dairy farmers comprising of 172 indigenous and 239 Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbred cows. These cows were maintained under farmer's management system in and around Gondar (Ethiopia and were analyzed by Least squares analysis to study the magnitude of variation in their LL, LMY and PY due to genetic and some non-genetic factors. Result: The overall Least squares means for LL, LMY and PY were estimated to be 275.1165.23 days, 1407.3471.34 litres and 6.880.38 litres respectively. Genetic group and lactation order had significant effect (P0.01 on LL, LMY and PY. Season of calving had significant effect (P0.01 on LMY and PY but its effect on LL was non-significant. Effect of location of herd was significant (P0.05 on LMY and PY while its effect on LL was non-significant. Variations in all the traits due to herd size and farming system were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Productive performance of dairy cows in this study was found to be lesser than the optimum values desirable for profitable milk production.

Niraj Kumar

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

Trend Analysis of Visceral Leishmaniasis at Addis Zemen Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia  

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Background. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex. It is one of the fatal diseases if left untreated. In Ethiopia, there are many VL endemic foci. The aim of this study was to determine the trends of VL in the study area. Methodology. A retrospective study was conducted at Addis Zemen health center from September 2005 to August 2011. Data were collected from laboratory registration book and entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software and P value of ?0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. A total of 7161 VL suspected cases were reported in the study area. The overall prevalence of VL was 2801 (39.1%). Of the 2801 VL positive cases, the highest annual prevalence, 988 (46.8%), was reported in 2005 but the trend gradually decreases. Majority of the VL confirmed cases were in the age groups of 5–14 years and males were more affected. Conclusion. The prevalence of VL in the study area was high in early 2005 but, gradually, the trend has been decreased and it becomes one of VL endemic foci in Ethiopia.

Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Takele, Yegnasew; Atnafu, Asmamaw; Ferede, Getachew; Muluye, Dagnachew

2014-01-01

382

Newcastle Disease in Village Chickens in the Southern and Rift Valley Districts in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available A sero-prevalence study of Newcastle disease in village chickens in Ethiopia was conducted on non-vaccinated chickens raised under traditional backyard management system. The study covered dry and wet districts in the Rift Valley and Southern regions, respectively. Higher sero-prevalence rates of Newcastle disease (NCD virus antibodies were verified in all the dry areas of the Rift Valley and in part of the wet Southern districts. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HAI Test was used to analyze 283 chicken sera for NCD virus antibodies and the overall sero-positive rate was found to be 19.78%, (n=283. 22.51 % ( n=191 sero positive chicken were found in the dry areas while 14.13 % (n=92 were positive in the wet areas. Comparison was made on the sero prevalence of dry and wet areas as well as between sexes. Chickens from all dry areas showed various titter of NCD antibody but sera collected from the high mountain wet areas were negative. The differences in the sero prevalence, however, were not statistically significant between the sexes and the agro climatic areas. In this study NCD virus circulation was evidenced in village chickens reared in various parts of Ethiopia.

Aschalew Zeleke

2005-01-01

383

Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe Zone, southern Ethiopia.  

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Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

384

Khat use among HIV voluntary counselling and testing centre clients in Ethiopia.  

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Khat (Catha edulis, a natural stimulant), has been used in Ethiopia for centuries. Over the past few decades, however, its use has dramatically increased, with recent research linking khat use to HIV status. Using qualitative methods, we explored the individual and micro-environmental characteristics of khat use and the social and physical contexts influencing type, acceptability and consequences of khat use. Among khat chewers attending an HIV voluntary counselling and testing centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, we found that chewing typically starts at an early age (15-18 years). The majority of users are young (aged 18-35) and chew for pleasure, primarily in social settings. Over 25 types of khat, with varying effects were reported. Approximately half of the participants perceived khat to enhance sexual desire, while the rest claimed the effect on sexual desire to be the opposite. Alcohol use among chewers was high. Our findings suggest the need for culturally appropriate interventions that highlight the factors associated with khat use and the potential interplay between khat, alcohol and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:22988913

Berhanu, Della; Go, Vivian F; Ruff, Andrea; Celentano, David D; Bishaw, Tewabech

2012-01-01

385

Risk factors associated with observed clinical lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia.  

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A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and associated risk factors in three main agro-climatic zones of Ethiopia. A total of 330 questionnaire surveys were collected from 44 peasant associations (PA) distributed in 15 districts. Across agro-climate zones, herd-level LSD prevalence in the midland agro-climate was significantly higher 55.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 47.5-62.6] than in highland and lowland agro-climate zones. Overall observed LSD prevalence at animal-level was 8.1% (95% CI 7.3-8.9) and observed mortality was 2.12% (95% CI 1.73-2.6). The odds ratio (OR) of LSD occurrence in midland vs. highland and lowland vs. highland zones was 3.86 (95% CI 2.61-5.11) and 4.85 (95% CI 2.59-7.1), respectively. Significantly high risk of LSD occurrence was associated with communal grazing and watering management (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.02-6.18) and introduction of new cattle (OR 8.5, 95% CI 6.0-11.0). Our findings describe the distribution of LSD in different agro-climates in Ethiopia along with associated risk factors, and can help shed light on the epidemiology of LSD in other African countries suffering from the disease. PMID:20233495

Gari, G; Waret-Szkuta, A; Grosbois, V; Jacquiet, P; Roger, F

2010-11-01

386

Phenotypic Diversity in Rhynchosporium secalis from Ethiopia and Host Response to Barley Scald  

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Full Text Available Knowledge of Rhynchosporium secalis variability and host response to scald is important in the context of breeding for resistance. The variation in R. secalis isolates from barley in different agroecological zones of Ethiopia was investigated with respect to colony and conidial morphology, colony growth rate, sporulation and virulence spectrum on a set of ten barley differentials. The R. secalis isolates differed markedly in several cultural characteristics but no correlation was found between these characteristics and isolate virulence. Five R. secalis pathotypes were selected from a total of 19 pathotypes and used to screen 35 barley lines in a glasshouse and also under natural infection in the field. Discriminant analysis revealed considerable divergence in host response, as well as in R. secalis virulence. Percent leaf area affected (PLAA and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC were negatively correlated with grain yield and 1000-grain weight and more closely reflected host resistance than apparent infection rate (r. High yielding barley lines such as HB-100 that showed resistance to all five pathotypes in the glasshouse and had low AUDPC, r and PLAA values in the field appear promising as donors of quantitative resistance genes in scald resistance breeding in the high altitude zones of Ethiopia.

Kiros Meles

2004-01-01

387

Household food insecurity and symptoms of neurologic disorder in Ethiopia: An observational analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity (FI has been shown to be associated with poor health both in developing and developed countries. Little is known about the relation between FI and neurological disorder. We assessed the relation between FI and risk for neurologic symptoms in southwest Ethiopia. Methods Data about food security, gender, age, household assets, and self-reported neurologic symptoms were collected from a representative, community-based sample of adults (N = 900 in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. We calculated univariate statistics and used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between FI and risk of neurologic symptoms including seizures, extremity weakness, extremity numbness, tremors/ataxia, aphasia, carpal tunnel syndrome, vision dysfunction, and spinal pain. Results In separate multivariate models by outcome and gender, adjusting for age and household socioeconomic status, severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, movement abnormalities, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, spinal pain, and comorbid disorders among women. Severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, extremity numbness, movement abnormalities, difficulty speaking, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, and comorbid disorders among men. Conclusion We found that FI was associated with symptoms of neurologic disorder. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, the directionality of these associations is unclear. Future research should assess causal mechanisms relating FI to neurologic symptoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

Tessema Fasil

2010-12-01

388

Postconflict internally displaced persons in Ethiopia : mental distress and quality of life in relation to traumatic life events, coping strategy, social support, and living conditions  

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Background: There are about 23.7 million internally displaced persons worldwide today, still living in the low-income countries. Ethiopia has for the past four decades been ravaged by war and famine. A lengthy civil war resulted in Eritrea, formerly a part of Ethiopia, becoming an independent state in 1991. This war led to displacement of one million people, and currently there are about 55000 internally displaced Ethiopians in Addis Ababa, most of them living in temporary shelters. A minorit...

Araya, Mesfin

2007-01-01

389

Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment  

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Abstract Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified conv...

Otten Mac; Aregawi Maru; Were Wilson; Karema Corine; Medin Ambachew; Bekele Worku; Jima Daddi; Gausi Khoti; Komatsu Ryuichi; Korenromp Eline; Low-Beer Daniel; Grabowsky Mark

2009-01-01

390

Predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited setting of southwest ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Good adherence to antiretroviral therapy is necessary to achieve the best virological response, lower the risk that drug resistance will develop, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the rate and predictors of adherence in Ethiopia. Therefore this study determines the magnitude and predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was...

2010-01-01

391

Preliminary insight into the age and origin of the Labeobarbus fish species flock from Lake Tana (Ethiopia) using the mtDNA cytochrome b gene  

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The high diversity of Cyprinid fish in Ethiopia’s Lake Tana appears to be an example of ecological differentiation and assortative mating leading to rapid sympatric speciation. Lake Tana’s Labeobarbus species flock consists of 15 morphological and ecological distinct species. This is the first attempt to determine the age and origin and inter-species relationships of Lake Tana’s Labeobarbus species using the mtDNA cytochrome b gene. Analysis of cytchrome b sequences shows that Lake Tana...

Graaf, M.; Megens, H. J. W. C.; Samallo, J.; Sibbing, F. A.

2010-01-01

392

Coffee Wilt Disease (Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas) in Forest Coffee Systems of Southwest and Southeast Ethiopia  

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Coffee diseases are presumed to be less important in the forest coffee as compared to the garden and plantation systems of coffee production in Ethiopia. In this article, the results of a study conducted on the occurrence and incidence of Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD) and the major factors influencing the disease in four major forests coffee sites in southwest and southeast Ethiopia are discussed. In each forest coffee site, coffee wilt syndrome was assessed in three systematically selected sampl...

Sihen Getachew; Girma Adugna; Fikre Lemessa; Hindorf, H.

2012-01-01

393

Predictors of Breastfeeding Cessation among HIV Infected Mothers in Southern Ethiopia: A Survival Analysis  

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Background Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through breastfeeding remains the most significant route infection among children. Although the current guideline is recommending continued breastfeeding for HIV exposed infants, significant proportion of infants have been subjected to early weaning to prevent HIV transmission. However the predictors of breastfeeding cessation among HIV positive mothers were not documented in Ethiopia. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the predictors of breastfeeding cessation among HIV-infected women in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross sectional study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia. The samples were selected by cluster sampling technique. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to describe the survival time of breastfeeding and a step-wise multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression model were used to identify the predictors of breastfeeding cessation. Both crude and adjusted hazard ratio were determined and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result The mean duration of breastfeeding among HIV positive mothers was 13.79 [95% CI: (12.97–14.59)] months. The Kaplan-Meier estimate showed that proportions of women who were breastfeeding at 6, 9, 12 and 17 months were 89.3%, 75.3%, 66% and 17%, respectively. Those mothers having a monthly income of ?500 ETB [AHR?=?0.16, 95% CI :(0.03–0.76)], having a family size of three and below [AHR?=?0.12, 95%CI: (0.02–0.68), four and above [AHR?=?0.07, 95%CI: (0.01–0.35)] and bottle feeding [AHR?=?3.95, 95%CI: (1.64–9.51)] were also independent factors associated with breastfeeding cessation. Conclusion Above one third of HIV positive mothers stopped breastfeeding before 12 months. Monthly income, bottle feeding and family size were the independent predictors of breastfeeding cessations. Strengthening the current counseling and promotion modality on avoidance of bottle feeding and continued breastfeeding is recommended for improved HIV free survival.

Haile, Demewoz; Belachew, Tefera; Birhanu, Getenesh; Setegn, Tesfaye; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

2014-01-01

394

A description of malaria sentinel surveillance: a case study in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

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Background In the context of the massive scale up of malaria interventions, there is increasing recognition that the current capacity of routine malaria surveillance conducted in most African countries through integrated health management information systems is inadequate. The timeliness of reporting to higher levels of the health system through health management information systems is often too slow for rapid action on focal infectious diseases such as malaria. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) describe the implementation of a malaria sentinel surveillance system in Ethiopia to help fill this gap; 2) describe data use for epidemic detection and response as well as programmatic decision making; and 3) discuss lessons learned in the context of creating and running this system. Case description As part of a comprehensive strategy to monitor malaria trends in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, a system of ten malaria sentinel sites was established to collect data on key malaria morbidity and mortality indicators. To ensure the sentinel surveillance system provides timely, actionable data, the sentinel facilities send aggregate data weekly through short message service (SMS) to a central database server. Bland-Altman plots and Poisson regression models were used to investigate concordance of malaria indicator reports and malaria trends over time, respectively. Discussion This paper describes three implementation challenges that impacted system performance in terms of: 1) ensuring a timely and accurate data reporting process; 2) capturing complete and accurate patient-level data; and 3) expanding the usefulness and generalizability of the system’s data to monitor progress towards the national malaria control goals of reducing malaria deaths and eventual elimination of transmission. Conclusions The use of SMS for reporting surveillance data was identified as a promising practice for accurately tracking malaria trends in Oromia. The rapid spread of this technology across Africa offers promising opportunities to collect and disseminate surveillance data in a timely way. High quality malaria surveillance in Ethiopia remains a resource intensive activity and extending the generalizability of sentinel surveillance findings to other contexts remains a major limitation of these strategies.

2014-01-01

395

Assessment of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge level among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In Ethiopia, more adolescents are in school today than ever before; however, there are no studies that have assessed their comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Thus, this study tried to assess the level of this knowledge and the factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator-guided self-administered questionnaire. The respondents were students attending regular school in 14 high schools located in 14 different districts in eastern Ethiopia. The proportion of in-school adolescents with comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge was computed and compared by sex. The factors that were associated with the comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Only about one in four, 677 (24.5%, in-school adolescents have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. The knowledge was better among in-school adolescents from families with a relatively middle or high wealth index (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.39 [1.03–1.87] and 1.75 [1.24–2.48], respectively, who got HIV/AIDS information mainly from friends or mass media (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.63 [1.17–2.27] and 1.55 [1.14–2.11], respectively and who received education on HIV/AIDS and sexual matters at school (adjusted OR [95% CI]=1.59 [1.22–2.08]. The females were less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge compared to males (adjusted OR and [95% CI]=0.60 [0.49–0.75]. Conclusions: In general, only about a quarter of in-school adolescents had comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. Although the female adolescents are highly vulnerable to HIV infection and its effects, they were by far less likely to have comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. HIV/AIDS information, education and communication activities need to be intensified in high schools.

Lemessa Oljira

2013-03-01

396

Health Sector Initiatives for Disaster Risk Management in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Methods: Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Results: Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Conclusions: Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster management phases; and impacts of drought and epidemics seem to be declining. However, the remaining challenge is to address disasters arising from other hazards such as flooding in terms of mitigation, prevention, preparedness and integrating them in the health care system. Key Words: Disaster, Emergency Health, Health System, Ethiopia

Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

2014-01-01

397

Impact of drought-related vaccination on livestock mortality in pastoralist areas of Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under a national Livestock Policy Forum in Ethiopia the impact of livestock vaccination during drought was assessed in order to inform the development of a best-practice guideline. For each of the different types of vaccine used during drought years there was no significant difference in livestock mortality, for any species, in vaccinated compared with non-vaccinated herds. The limited impact of vaccination on livestock mortality was attributed to weaknesses in the design and implementation of vaccination programmes, including use of inappropriate vaccines, low vaccination coverage, problems with vaccine dosing, incorrect timing of vaccination and problems with vaccine storage. If these weaknesses could be overcome vaccination could be a useful means to protect livestock assets, with considerable benefit-cost ratios. Vaccination should be conducted as a standard preventive measure during normal years, and programme design should be informed by participatory epidemiological studies. PMID:19260936

Catley, Andy; Abebe, Dawit; Admassu, Berhanu; Bekele, Gezu; Abera, Bayou; Eshete, Gezahegn; Rufael, Tesfaye; Haile, Tesfaye

2009-10-01

398

Essential and toxic metals in tea (Camellia sinensis) imported and produced in Ethiopia.  

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Sixteen samples of packed tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) were purchased from supermarkets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for metal analysis. Elements were measured by FAAS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) employing external calibration curves. The levels in mg/kg dried weight basis varied from Cu: 4.7-12.9; Cd: 0.02-2.83; Pb: tea were checked with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of the WHO/FAO. Considering the average daily consumption rate of tea alone, the possible daily intakes of Al, Ba and Mn surpass the amenability to the side effects associated with these elements like Alzheimer's disease, kidney damage and Parkinson's disease, respectively, for which drinking tea should cause awareness. The other investigated elements are in the acceptable range. PMID:24779976

Ashenef, Ayenew

2014-03-01

399

Social and Ecological Aspects of Resettlement and Villagization among the Konso of Southwestern Ethiopia.  

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TEKLEMARIAM AYELE(2) This is a study of the changing settlement and land use patterns of the Konso in three peasant associations in southwestern Ethiopia and an evaluation of their attitudes toward government-sponsored villagization in the lowlands. Over the years, the Konso have moved spontaneously from the overpopulated highlands toward lower elevations and have recently begun to cultivate on the Yanda plain, but without settling there. Fear of tropical diseases, armed conflict with pastoralists and the Konso perception of lowland living continue to be powerful deterrents to settlement in the lowlands. Major objectives of the government villagization programme are unlikely to be achieved in the Konso area and may instead lead to disaster unless this programme is drastically revised to provide suitable conditions for resettlement and to meet the specific needs of the population. PMID:20958708

Kloos, H; Abate, T; Hailu, A; Ayele, T

1990-12-01

400

Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receiving transfers from the PSNP, on average, did not increase farm or non-farm income but significantly increases natural-resource extraction (one component of off-farm income). While these results should be treated with caution, they suggest that the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNPâ??s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies.

Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Evaluation of integrated registers for tuberculosis and HIV surveillance in children, Ethiopia, 2007-2009.  

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In 2008, Ethiopia implemented tuberculosis (TB) treatment registers that included columns for recording human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test results (integrated registers) to replace the previous system of separate TB and HIV registers (pre-integration registers). We compared the proportion of children with documented HIV rapid test results at eight hospitals before and after adopting the integrated registers. HIV status was more consistently documented in the integrated registers; however, HIV status for infants aged <18 months could not be assessed, as the registers did not capture results from polymerase chain reaction-based testing. Recording procedures should be revised to document age-appropriate HIV diagnostic results and ensure referral for appropriate care. PMID:22417732

Click, E S; Feleke, B; Pevzner, E; Fantu, R; Gadisa, T; Assefa, D; Melaku, Z; Cain, K; Menzies, H

2012-05-01

402

Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam. The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Results Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5% children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3% for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2% for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5% for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32 and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 0.84, 6.88. A classification tree revealed insights in the importance of the dam as a risk factor for malaria. Assuming that the relationship between the dam and malaria is causal, 43% of the malaria occurring in children was due to living in close proximity to the dam. Conclusion This study indicates that children living in close proximity to a man-made reservoir in Ethiopia are at higher risk of malaria compared to those living farther away. It is recommended that sound prevention and control programme be designed and implemented around the reservoir to reduce the prevalence of malaria. In this respect, in localities near large dams, health impact assessment through periodic survey of potential vectors and periodic medical screening is warranted. Moreover, strategies to mitigate predicted negative health outcomes should be integral parts in the preparation, construction and operational phases of future water resource development and management projects.

Kloos Helmut

2009-01-01

403

The Tana basin, Ethiopia: intra-plateau uplift, rifting and subsidence  

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The Tana basin is situated on the northwestern plateau of Ethiopia, west of the Afar depression. The basin is perched on a topographic high. New data from digital elevation modelling and satellite imagery analysis confirm the basin's location at the junction of three grabens: the Dengel Ber (buried), Gondar (exposed by erosion) and Debre Tabor (reactivated). This structural complex was notably active during the build-up of the mid-Tertiary flood basalt pile, into which the Tana basin is impressed. Fault reactivation occurred in the Late Miocene-Quaternary, accompanied locally by predominantly basaltic volcanism. Fault-slip indicators are consistent with crustal subsidence centred on the present morphologic basin. Concentric and radial dike patterns in the Tana region indicate that diking and basin formation were contemporary. Tana rifting and magmatism occurred above the inferred western side of the Afar mantle plume-head.

Chorowicz, J.; Collet, B.; Bonavia, F. F.; Mohr, P.; Parrot, J. F.; Korme, T.

1998-10-01

404

The increased frequency of flash floods in Ethiopia: climate change or human impact?  

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In the last decade the frequency of flash floods has markedly increased all over Ethiopia. They have caused a number of fatalities and a large amount of property damage. The occurrence of such flash floods is recorded mainly in semi-arid areas with the monsoon-like rain distribution typical of Ethiopia and an annual rainfall around 500-700 mm. In order to investigate the effect of climate change, the rainfall intensity in 24 hours data from 19 meteo station evenly distributed across Ethiopia have been considered. The data cover different time intervals with the longer series spanning the last 60 years. Taking the value of 100 mm/24hr as a reference threshold to trigger a flash flood, based on the data of the devastating flood of the Dechatu River that severely affected the town of Dire Dawa in 2006, the data analysis has shown that for half of the rain gauges a rainfall intensity of 100 mm in 25 hours occurs with a frequency of less than 20 years and two thirds of the meteo stations record a rainfall intensity of 80 mm in 24 hours with a frequency of less than 10 years. These results indicate that the whole country is potentially prone to flash floods hazard. The shortest return intervals (less than 10 years) were found in semiarid areas and at rain gauges located near the main rifting escarpments, i.e. where commonly the headwater of the most of the river catchment is located. The highest rainfall intensities may occur in every month, though they are more common in July and August and, subordinately in March April. By contrast no relation was found between maximum rainfall intensity and annual precipitation or elevation. The data analysis indicates also that there is no clear trend in peak rainfall intensity throughout the six decades investigated. Therefore, the increased frequency of flash floods in a few areas of Ethiopia cannot be accounted for by any significant change in rainfall intensity. In order to investigate man induced effect, two study areas were considered. They are the Dechatu R. in Dire Dawa and a few rivers in the Kobo-Alamata basin. The rivers of both these areas are ephemeral and have water flowing only in response to very intense downpours. These two case studies show that man impact can be even more important than climate factors. In the Dechatu river a marked change in land use and vegetation, consisting mainly of forest clearing and a substantial increase in household settling, occurred in the last decades, whereas in the Kobo-Alamata basin the recent construction of under fitted bridges are investigated as the main causes that led these ephemeral rivers to accentuate their main distinctive natural characteristics that are flash floods and a very large sediment transport, with this latter factor exacerbating their devastating effects.

Billi, Paolo; Tadesse, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

2013-04-01

405

Exposure and health risk assessment of lead in communities of jimma town, southwestern ethiopia.  

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Human beings could be exposed to lead arising from different environmental sources, such as air, water and soil. Tap water, air and soil samples were collected from four quadrants of Jimma town in southwestern Ethiopia. Eighty samples from each environmental source: water, air and soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead concentration. Prediction of the blood lead level and risk characterization was made using integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model and lead risk was calculated using USEPA guideline. Average concentration of lead in water, air and soils were 24.55 ± 10.01, 1.01 ± 0.41 µg/m(3), and 220.08 ± 135.95 µg/g respectively. Uptake of lead by children is significantly higher than the adults. The total risk value was 1.41 for children and 0.37 for adults. The finding revealed that children are more at risk than adults. PMID:24859516

Getaneh, Zerihun; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

2014-08-01

406

The Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of Aid and Disaggregated Aid in Ethiopia  

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This article investigates the long-run macroeconomic effects of aid and disaggregated aid flows in Ethiopia, currently the world's largest recipient of official development assistance, for the period 1960-2009. The results show that aid affects gross domestic product (GDP), investment and imports positively, whereas it is negatively associated with government consumption. Our results concerning the impacts of disaggregated aid stand in stark contrast to earlier work. Bilateral aid increases investment and GDP and is negatively associated with government consumption, whereas multilateral aid is only positively associated with imports. Grants contribute to GDP, investment and imports, whereas loans affect none of the variables. Finally, there is evidence to suggest that multilateral aid and loans have been disbursed in a procyclical fashion

Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

2014-01-01

407

Population ecology of rodents of maize fields and grassland in central Ethiopia  

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We report on the presence of rodents in grassland and maize fields in central Ethiopia, during the course of a 21-month study by means of removal and capture-recapture trapping. In both habitats, the small mammal fauna consisted of the same species but in different relative proportions: Arvicanthis dembeensis, Mastomys erythroleucus, Tatera robusta, Rattus rattus, Mus mahomet and Crocidura olivieri. A. dembeensis and M. erythroleucus were the dominant species. Densities were generally low throughout the study period, but at the end of the breeding season in the second year of the study, the numbers of A.dembeensis reached high values in the grassland. Breeding was seasonal and related to rainfall periods: extended rainy seasons resulting in longer periods with breeding females and higher litter sizes and, consequently, population size increases. These observations suggest that rodent population dynamics in the study area are linked to rainfall patterns and this information can be used to develop forecasting models.

Bekel'e, Afework; Leirs, Herwig

1997-01-01

408

Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on water erosion in northern Ethiopia  

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Soil degradation in northern Ethiopia results from intensive land-use, massive deforestation in the past and missing conservation measures. Every year huge amounts of fertile soil are flushed away irreversibly into the rivers. In order to prevent soil erosion, conservation methods are necessary, because otherwise erosion may cause severe problems in the future, especially in the cases of nutrition supply and agricultural land-use. In this study, the effectiveness of stone bonds as a soil conservation method was evaluated. The assessments took part during the raining season from June to September 2013 in the Gumara - Maksegnit watershed in the Amhara region in northern Ethiopia. On farmland two erosion plots were constructed at a representative hillslope. The plots were 20m long, 3m wide and bordered with metal sheets. In order to compare the effectiveness of stone bunds on soil erosion, one plot was constructed with a stone bund on his toe slope the other plot was constructed without a stone bund. The investigated slope was selected that all characteristics like slope, crop cover, stone cover, soil aggregate size, etc... could be considered as similar. To evaluate the impact of stone bunds on soil erosion, the lateral and the longitudinal runoff from the plot with the stone bund were collected separately. Surface runoff and eroded sediment were collected at the downward end of the plot using a trough leading to a divider sampling 10% of the total runoff. The sample was then collected in a pond (1,8m long, 1m wide and 0,5m deep). During the investigated period soil loss from the untreated plot amounted to 23.0 t.ha-1, whereas only 13.5 t.ha-1 were measured spilling over the stone bunds. This corresponds to a decrease by 41%. Beside the erosion monitoring, stone and crop cover were analyzed regularly as well as surface roughness and soil texture.

Rieder, Jakob; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

2014-05-01

409

Breast cancer survival in Ethiopia: A cohort study of 1,070 women.  

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There is little information on breast cancer (BC) survival in Ethiopia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Our study estimated cumulative probabilities of distant metastasis-free survival (MFS) in patients at Addis Ababa (AA) University Radiotherapy Center, the only public oncologic institution in Ethiopia. We analyzed 1,070 females with BC stage 1-3 seen in 2005-2010. Patients underwent regular follow-up; estrogen receptor-positive and -unknown patients received free endocrine treatment (an independent project funded by AstraZeneca Ltd. and facilitated by the Axios Foundation). The primary endpoint was distant metastasis. Sensitivity analysis (worst-case scenario) assumed that patients with incomplete follow-up had events 3 months after the last appointment. The median age was 43.0 (20-88) years. The median tumor size was 4.96 cm [standard deviation (SD) 2.81 cm; n = 709 information available]. Stages 1, 2 and 3 represented 4, 25 and 71%, respectively (n = 644). Ductal carcinoma predominated (79.2%, n = 1,070) as well as grade 2 tumors (57%, n = 509). Median follow-up was 23.1 (0-65.6) months, during which 285 women developed metastases. MFS after 2 years was 74% (69-79%), declining to 59% (53-64%) in the worst-case scenario. Patients with early stage (1-2) showed better MFS than patients with stage 3 (85 and 66%, respectively). The 5-year MFS was 72% for stages 1 and 2 and 33% for stage 3. We present a first overview on MFS in a large cohort of female BC patients (1,070 patients) from sub-Saharan Africa. Young age and advanced stage were associated with poor outcome. PMID:24375396

Kantelhardt, E J; Zerche, P; Mathewos, A; Trocchi, P; Addissie, A; Aynalem, A; Wondemagegnehu, T; Ersumo, T; Reeler, A; Yonas, B; Tinsae, M; Gemechu, T; Jemal, A; Thomssen, C; Stang, A; Bogale, S

2014-08-01

410

Pastoralist Community's Perception of Tuberculosis: A Quantitative Study from Shinille Area of Ethiopia.  

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Background. In Ethiopia the prevalence of all forms of TB is estimated at 261/100 000 population, leading to an annual mortality rate of 64/100 000 population. The incidence rate of smear-positive TB is 108/100 000 population. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding TB among pastoralists in Shinille district, Somali region, Ethiopia. Method. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 821 pastoralists aged >18 years and above from February to May, 2011 using self-structured questionnaire. Results. Most (92.8%) of the study participants heard about TB, but only 10.1% knew about its causative agent. Weight loss as main symptom, transmittance through respiratory air droplets, and sputum examination for diagnosis were the answers of 34.3%, 29.9%, and 37.9% of pastoralists, respectively. The majority (98.3%) of respondents reported that TB could be cured, of which 93.3% believed with modern drugs. About 41.3% of participants mentioned covering the nose and mouth during sneezing and coughing as a preventive measure. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that household income >300 Ethiopian Birr and Somali ethnicity were associated with high TB knowledge. Regarding health seeking behaviour practice only 48.0% of the respondents preferred to visit government hospital and discuss their problems with doctors/health care providers. Conclusion. This study observed familiarity with gaps and low overall knowledge on TB and revealed negative attitudes like discrimination intentions in the studied pastoral community. PMID:24381757

Melaku, Samuel; Sharma, Hardeep Rai; Alemie, Getahun Asres

2013-01-01

411

Pattern of microbial translocation in patients living with HIV-1 from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The role of microbial translocation (MT in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden. Methods: Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naďve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46, Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50 and Sweden (n=51; n=19. Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24 in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had significantly higher levels of anti-flagellin IgG and LPS, as compared to Swedes. ART reduced these levels for the Vietnamese. Vietnamese patients given tuberculostatics at initiation of ART had significantly lower levels of anti-flagellin IgG and higher sCD14. The biomarkers were lower in Vietnamese who did not develop opportunistic infection. Conclusions: Higher MT is common in patients living with HIV compared to healthy individuals, and in patients from LMICs compared to patients from a high-income country. Treatment with tuberculostatics decreased MT while higher levels of MT are associated with a poorer clinical outcome.

Samir Abdurahman

2014-01-01

412

Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the clean development mechanism: A case study from Humbo, Ethiopia.  

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Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation--the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits--facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project--empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands. PMID:21132292

Brown, Douglas R; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa

2011-08-01

413

Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Antimalarials in the Community of Silte Zone, South Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available AIM: Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials occurs among the population in Ethiopian. We studied to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in Ethiopia and evaluate factors associated with self-medications. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 households, selected from Silte Zone in South Ethiopia, using a random sampling technique by employing a pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Chi-square test was used to observe the association of variables. RESULT: The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics/ antimalarials in this study was 14.5%. Twenty seven (6.7% participants were self medicated with antibiotics, 2.7% used antimalarials drugs while 21 (5.2% used both. Level of monthly income and educational status significantly influence pattern of antibiotics and antimalarials self medication (P<0.05.The top three diseases that led to self medication in this study were headache (38.5%, fever (35.9%, and cough (14.1%. Among self-medicated antibiotics, Amoxicillin (13.5% followed by Ciprofloxacin (8.5% were the most commonly used class of drug. From antimalarials chloroquine (10.1% were highly abused. The main source of antibiotics /antimalarials was pharmacies (59.0% followed by shops (Kiosks (17.9%. The majority (20.5% of the respondents practiced self medication to avoid waiting time at health facilities. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of self-medication with anti-biotic/ antimalarials in the study community was low. Self medication tended to be higher in people with a higher education and those on higher monthly incomes. The major reason for self-medication is found to be to avoid waiting time at health facility. Community pharmacies are the major source drugs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 529-536

Nasir Tajure Wabe

2012-10-01

414

Innovative Community-Based Approaches Doubled Tuberculosis Case Notification and Improve Treatment Outcome in Southern Ethiopia  

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Background TB Control Programmes rely on passive case-finding to detect cases. TB notification remains low in Ethiopia despite major expansion of health services. Poor rural communities face many barriers to service access. Methods and Findings A community-based intervention package was implemented in Sidama zone, Ethiopia. The package included advocacy, training, engaging stakeholders and communities and active case-finding by female Health Extension Workers (HEWs) at village level. HEWs conducted house-to-house visits, identified individuals with a cough for two or more weeks, with or without other symptoms, collected sputum, prepared smears and supervised treatment. Supervisors transported smears for microscopy, started treatment, screened contacts and initiated Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children. Outcomes were compared with the pre-implementation period and a control zone. Qualitative research was conducted to understand community and provider perceptions and experiences. HEWs screened 49,857 symptomatic individuals (60% women) from October 2010 to December 2011. 2,262 (4·5%) had smear-positive TB (53% women). Case notification increased from 64 to 127/100,000 population/year resulting in 5,090 PTB+ and 7,071 cases of all forms of TB. Of 8,005 contacts visited, 1,949 were symptomatic, 1,290 symptomatic were tested and 69 diagnosed with TB. 1,080 children received IPT. Treatment success for smear-positive TB increased from 77% to 93% and treatment default decreased from 11% to 3%. Service users and providers found the intervention package highly acceptable. Conclusions Community-based interventions made TB diagnostic and treatment services more accessible to the poor, women, elderly and children, doubling the notification rate and improving treatment outcome. This approach could improve TB diagnosis and treatment in other high burden settings.

Yassin, Mohammed A.; Datiko, Daniel G.; Tulloch, Olivia; Markos, Paulos; Aschalew, Melkamsew; Shargie, Estifanos B.; Dangisso, Mesay H.; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Sahu, Suvanand; Blok, Lucie; Cuevas, Luis E.; Theobald, Sally

2013-01-01

415

Stomatal Characteristics in Arabica Coffee Germplasm Accessions under Contrasting Environments at Jimma, Southwestern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the only known centres of origin and genetic diversity for Coffea arabica. However, the remnant coffee forest environments with the spontaneously grown wild coffee populations are under continuous threat of genetic erosion, largely due to anthropogenic activities. The study was conducted with the objective to investigate stomatal characteristics in Arabica coffee accessions under contrasting shade regimes at Jimma (7°46? N and 36°0? E, 1750 m, southwestern Ethiopia. For this, two shade levels (full sunlight and moderate shading and twelve-coffee germplasm accessions were arranged as main and sub-plot treatments in a split-plot design with three replicates. The results depicted that stomata were sparsely distributed and had elliptical guard cells with pores randomly oriented pattern in Arabica coffee leaf. Maximum and minimum average stomatal densities were determined in full sunlight and moderate shade conditions, respectively. In addition, the stomatal area index was significantly higher in sun-exposed than in shaded leaves. The lowest and highest values were determined for the Harenna and Yayu accessions, respectively. The interaction between season and radiation was significant (p<0.05 on the frequency of stomata. The contrasting shade levels had significant influence on the density of stomata in both wet (p<0.05 and dry (p<0.001 seasons. Accordingly, higher stomatal frequency was recorded in dry as compared with wet season, though the range differed among the genotypes. Overall, stomatal size values followed the rainfall gradient with the order: Harenna>Bonga>Berhane-Kontir>Yayu coffee genotypes. The results would demonstrate that coffee accessions in drier Harenna areas may be more productive under higher radiation when soil moisture is sufficient. This underlines the need to consider stomata traits in identifying and developing suitable coffee cultivars against the changing environments.

Jurgen Burkhardt

2011-01-01

416

Becoming and remaining community health workers: perspectives from Ethiopia and Mozambique.  

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Many global health practitioners are currently reaffirming the importance of recruiting and retaining effective community health workers (CHWs) in order to achieve major public health goals. This raises policy-relevant questions about why people become and remain CHWs. This paper addresses these questions, drawing on ethnographic work in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, between 2006 and 2009, and in Chimoio, a provincial town in central Mozambique, between 2003 and 2010. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to understand the life histories that lead people to become CHWs, their relationships with intended beneficiaries after becoming CHWs, and their social and economic aspirations. People in Ethiopia and Mozambique have faced similar political and economic challenges in the last few decades, involving war, structural adjustment, and food price inflation. Results suggest that these challenges, as well as the socio-moral values that people come to uphold through the example of parents and religious communities, influence why and how men and women become CHWs. Relationships with intended beneficiaries strongly influence why people remain CHWs, and why some may come to experience frustration and distress. There are complex reasons why CHWs come to seek greater compensation, including desires to escape poverty and to materially support families and other community members, a sense of deservingness given the emotional and social work involved in maintaining relationships with beneficiaries, and inequity vis-ŕ-vis higher-salaried elites. Ethnographic work is needed to engage CHWs in the policy process, help shape new standards for CHW programs based on rooting out social and economic inequities, and develop appropriate solutions to complex CHW policy problems. PMID:23631778

Maes, Kenneth; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

2013-06-01

417

Sexually transmitted infections based on the syndromic approach in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections are among the most common causes of illnesses in the world and have far reaching health, social and economic consequences. They are important because of their magnitude, potential complications and interactions with HIV/AIDS. Though the problem may be generally similar to other developing countries, there is scarce information on the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in Ethiopia. This study was then aimed to determine the magnitude of sexually transmitted infections among patients visiting a clinic in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Medical records of patients who visited the clinic from January 2011 to December 2011 were reviewed. Sociodemographic and clinical data were extracted using data extraction form. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were carried out. Results A total of 1071 clients visited the clinic during the study period. Among these, 383 (35.8% had complained symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. The mean (SD age of the patients was 26.8?±?7.4 years. The commonest chief complaints were vaginal discharge (38.4% and urethral discharge (13.6%. Seventy seven percent of the cases did not bring their sexual partners for treatment. Conclusion There was a high magnitude of STIs in the clinic according to the syndromic approach. However, the actual prevalence of STIs and the associated factors in the community need to be determined through further studies. The results of this study also urge the need for evaluation of the syndromic approach and test for antimicrobial resistance.

Moges Beyene

2013-02-01

418

Internal parasites and health management of pigs in Burayu District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The study determined the prevalence and major types of gastrointestinal parasites in pigs and assessed the health management practices on farms in Burayu District in West Shoa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The study was performed from November 2007 to April 2008 using standard coprologica [...] l examination and a well-organised questionnaire survey. Of the 272 pigs examined for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites, 36 (13.2%) were infected with one or more types of parasite. Neither age nor management system proved to be a statistically significant factor in the prevalence of parasites. The highest prevalence of parasites was recorded in December, January and April, whereas the lowest was observed in February. Significant variation in the prevalence of parasites was noticed amongst study months. The majority of farmers did not use acaricides to treat and control external parasites. Anthelmintics were not used by any of the farmers. Some 76.1% of the farmers never used any type of treatment for sick pigs; 21.7% of the farmers used modern treatment and 2.2% of the farmers used traditional medicines. More than 95.0% of pigs were kept on soil floors and only 10.9% of the housing systems had good ventilation. Dung was removed at least every three days, with the majority of farmers (91.2%) removing it every morning. This study provided evidence for the occurrence of internal parasites in pigs kept in Burayu District in Oromia. Further epidemiological studies are needed to determine the zoonotic and economic importance of pig parasites in other parts of Ethiopia.

Bersissa, Kumsa; Elias, Kifle.

419

Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern