WorldWideScience

Sample records for woreda snnpr ethiopia

  1. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Teklehaymanot Tilahun; Demissew Sebsebe; Mesfin Fisseha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, a...

  2. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for

  3. Towards a regional assessment of self supply potential in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Macdonald, David M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a mapping approach to assess whether readily available spatial datasets and expert knowledge can be used to assess regional potential for self supply in Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. Self supply can be defined as improvement to water supplies developed largely or wholly through user investment, usually at household level. The study was funded by the RiPPLE Programme (Research-inspired Policy and Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the Nil...

  4. Feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women in Samre Woreda, South Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

    Haileslassie, Kiday; Mulugeta, Afework; Girma, Meron

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactating mothers from low-income settings are considered as a nutritionally vulnerable group. Due to the nursing process, mothers are subjected to nutritional stresses. Frequent pregnancies followed by lactation increase the health risk of mothers resulting in a high maternal mortality. Objective To assess the feeding practices, nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women from Samre Woreda, South Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. Design Community based cross-sectional sur...

  5. Physicochemical characteristics of the rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa, Ethiopia

    Louis E. Attah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa in Ethiopia have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from four different localities, viz. Awaro, Senkele, Meja and Guder, and their edaphic characteristics are determined. The soils are dominated by clay (40.4-45.8% along with coarse particles of sand. Bulk density, organic carbon (1.52-1.81% and electrical conductivity (1.3-1.9 dSm are low in all the soil samples. The soils are acidic with pH varying from 6.2 to 6.7. There are similarities in the relatively low content of available phosphorus (1.4-2.4 mg kg-1 and high available nitrogen content (480-986 mg kg-1 in all the soil samples while available potassium content (240-496 mg kg-1 is found to be medium in Awaro soil but high in the other three soil samples. Deficiencies are observed in the levels of available micro-nutrients (Cu: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1, Zn: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1 and Mn: 3.2-3.8 µg g-1 while the Fe content is sufficient in all the soil samples (340-496 µg g-1. With proper soil management, the farmlands studied are recommended for the cultivation of cereal crops.

  6. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Ruth Jackson

    Full Text Available The maternal health system in Ethiopia links health posts in rural communities (kebeles with district (woreda health centres, and health centres with primary hospitals. At each health post two Health Extension Workers (HEWs assist women with birth preparedness, complication readiness, and mobilize communities to facilitate timely referral to mid-level service providers. This study explored HEWs' and mother's attitudes to maternal health services in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region.In this qualitative study, we trained 16 HEWs to interview 45 women to gain a better understanding of the social context of maternal health related behaviours. Themes included barriers to health services; women's social status and mobility; and women's perceptions of skilled birth attendant's care. All data were analyzed thematically.There have been substantial efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality in Adwa Woreda. Women identified barriers to healthcare including distance and lack of transportation due to geographical factors; the absence of many husbands due to off-woreda farming; traditional factors such as zwar (some pregnant women are afraid of meeting other pregnant women, and discouragement from mothers and mothers-in-law who delivered their children at home. Some women experienced disrespectful care at the hospital. Facilitators to skilled birth attendance included: identification of pregnant women through Women's Development Groups (WDGs, and referral by ambulance to health facilities either before a woman's Expected Due Date (EDD or if labour started at home.With the support of WDGs, HEWs have increased the rate of skilled birth attendance by calling ambulances to transfer women to health centres either before their EDD or when labour starts at home. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that health workers at the community level can work with women's groups to improve maternal health, thus reducing the need for emergency

  7. Prevalence and determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers in Enderta woreda, Tigray, North Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Teka, Bahre; Assefa, Huruy; Haileslassie, Kiday

    2015-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia national breastfeeding practice is poor because of traditional and cultural beliefs, low educational levels, heavy workload of mothers, poor sanitary conditions, type of assistance at delivery, duration of stay at home, ethnicity, poor maternal knowledge, age, parity, antenatal service utilization and place of delivery. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practice in mothers in Enderta woreda (district), Ethiopia. Met...

  8. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  9. Education in focus: impacts of school feeding program on school participation : a case study in Dara Woreda of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Dheressa, Desalegn Keba

    2011-01-01

    It has been claimed that School Feeding Programs increase school participation among poor and food insecure group of people. This study investigates if the program has significant positive impact on school enrollment, class attendance, and student drop-out patterns among primary school children in Dara Woreda of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 102 households as well as 17 selected individual stakeholders. Household Questionnaire, Key Informant Interviews and Observati...

  10. Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia

    Fikre Addis Alem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. Methods A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10–30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P  Conclusion Institutional Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of

  11. Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    Amano Abdella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is a global priority which is particularly relevant to developing countries like Ethiopia. One of the key strategies for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is increasing institutional delivery service utilization of mothers under the care of skilled birth attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the level of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 1–20, 2011, among mothers who gave birth 12 months before the study began in Munesa Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Southeast Ethiopia. A stratified cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 855 participants. Results Out of all deliveries, only 12.3% took place at health facilities. Women who were urban residents (AOR = 2.27, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.40, women of age at interview less than 20 years (AOR = 6.06, 95%CI: 1.54, 23.78, women with first pregnancy (AOR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.97 and, women who had ANC visit during the last pregnancy (AOR = 4.18, 95%CI: 2.54, 6.89 were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education had also a significant effect on health institution delivery with AOR = 4.31 (95%CI: 1.62, 11.46 and AOR = 2.77 (95%CI: 1.07, 7.19 respectively. Conclusion Institutional delivery service utilization was found to be low in the study area. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education, urban residence and ANC visit were amongst the main factors that had an influence on health institution delivery. Increasing the awareness of mothers and their partners about the benefits of institutional delivery services are recommended.

  12. Managing frame diversity in environmental participatory processes - Example from the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia.

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Brugnach, Marcela; Cullen, Beth; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-07-15

    Many participatory processes fail to generate social change and collaborative outcomes. This failure can partly be explained by how divergent stakeholders' frames are handled. This paper builds on the framing and participation literature to explain how facilitators can manage frame diversity and foster collaborative outcomes. It suggests two pragmatic steps: identifying frames and managing frames. The two steps are applied to a participatory process for natural resource management in Fogera, Ethiopia. Effectiveness of facilitators' strategies to manage frame diversity in the Fogera case is discussed. Two main elements challenging effectiveness are identified: counter-strategies used by facilitators and most-powerful stakeholders, and the constraining factors knowledge, champions and frame sponsorship. We argue that these elements need to be taken into account by participatory process facilitators when managing frame diversity. PMID:27107955

  13. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2

  14. Food Security, Gender and Community Relations. Challenges and Strategies of Rural Women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda, Ethiopia, and the Role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in Empowering Women.

    Mekonnen, Addis Bezabih

    2013-01-01

    The study was designed to explore Food security, gender and community relations. Challenges and strategies of rural women in Goncha Siso Enese Woreda,Ethiopia, and the role of the Productive Safety Net Programme in empowering women. The research applied qualitative methods such as in- depth interviews, Focused Group Discussions and observation to address issues from a gender perspective. The livelihood approach and empowerment approach have been the theoretical frameworks that underpin this s...

  15. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Batisso Esey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS, and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8 of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4 of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0. Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7% were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8% of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6% reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7. Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1. Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little

  16. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

    Belachew Tefera; Gerbaba Mulusew; Setegn Tesfaye

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little informati...

  17. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study

    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes’ to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associat...

  18. Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    Metadel Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3% of urban and 85 (18.6% of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89, presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18, and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89 were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33, those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81, and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62 were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community

  19. Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia

    Tamiru Dessalegn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. Results More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94] and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]. The majority (67.02% of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child’s age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47 and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73 and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88], but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]. Conclusion The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community

  20. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers

  1. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (α = 0.05 was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (α = 0.05 was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05 were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50% of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29% were shrubs, six (16% were herbs and two (5% were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97% fruits, 13 (33.33% leaves, 3 (7.69% roots and one (2.56% seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.872 and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.994 by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of

  2. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia

    Woldemariam Zemede; Woodmatas Sebsebe; Bekalo Tesfaye

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District); it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the...

  3. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  4. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia

    Woldemariam Zemede

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District; it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3% and 14 (12% species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6% are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90% were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5% for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5% were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8% followed by fire (22.3% and construction (19%. Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34 were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community, which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process

  5. Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Bekele, Mammo

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future. PMID:20701879

  6. Agricultural extension in Ethiopia through a gender and governance lens:

    Mogues, Tewodaj; Cohen, Marc J.; Birner, Regina; Lemma, Mamusha; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Tadesse, Fanaye; Paulos, Zelekawork

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on a household survey collected in eight woredas in seven Ethiopian regions in 2009, as well as on qualitative fieldwork in four of the eight woredas, this paper provides analysis of agricultural extension delivery in Ethiopia. While overall extension services are relatively accessible in Ethiopia, there are differences in access between men and women, and particularly stark differences by region. Individual visits by public sector extension agents to household farms are by far the mo...

  7. Ethiopia.

    1984-03-01

    This discussion of Ethiopia reviews the history of the country's demographic situation and reports on the government's overall approach to population problems; the population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Ethiopia is 1 of the few remaining countries in the world that has never conducted a population census. The prevailing demographic data come from sample surveys, none of which had a complete national coverage. UN estimates indicate a crude birthrate of 51.8/1000 for the 1950s, with a slight decline to 49.6/1000 by 1970-75. The crude death rate was estimated to have dropped from 30.6/1000 in the early 1950s to 23.2/1000 in the early 1970s. Infant mortality is reported to have declined from 208/1000 in the early 1950s to 155/1000 during 1970-75. and life expectancy increased from 32.9 years in 1950-55 to 40.9 in 1970-75. Historically, Ethiopia is not known to have experienced any serious migration problems except for the massive exodus of refugees into neighboring countries in recent years due to continuous military operations. The government has no explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth, although in recent years it has acknowledged that these rates are too high. The most pressing concern is the improvement of the health situation through a primary health care approach. Institutional arrangements in the area of population remain at an early stage of development. The government explicitly recognizes the interrelationships between population and socioeconomic development. The Central Statistical Office estimated the population size at 24.1 million in January 1970, and the annual rate of population growth at 2.2% for the early

  8. Pastoral Livelihoods in South Ethiopia - Value Chain Assessment of Gum & Resins in Moyale Area

    Bernabini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    This research assessed the value chain of gum and resins, which are available in four woreda in the southern lowlands of Ethiopia. They are Moyale Somali, Moyale Oromia, Dhas and Dire woreda. The output of this research is the elaboration of three value chains. The first is a general one for all the woreda, while the other two concern the Moyale and Dubluk markets. The assessed products are the gum arabic from Acacia trees and the resin exuded by the dunkhal tree - Boswellia family. The aim o...

  9. LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND FEEDING SYSTEM IN ENSET (Ensete ventricosum) DOMINATED MIXED FARMING SYSTEM OF SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Samuel MENBERE AFELE

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the livestock feeds resources, feeding systems, feed related problems and the determinant factors under smallholder farmers’ livestock production system in the Sidama zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. A total of 135 sample household heads which represents about 10 percent of the household heads in the two study districts (Shebedino and Dale) were included in the study. According to the order of importance, nat...

  10. Women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia:

    Woldu, Thomas; Tadesse, Fanaye; Waller, Marie-Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a rich dataset from a survey undertaken by the Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA) and the Interna-tional Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2009 in eight woredas in seven regions of Ethiopia with a sample of 1,117 households and 73 agricultural cooperatives. Using descriptive statistics and econometric analysis under a critical gender lens, the paper identifies which cooperative, household, and individual level characteristics influence women’s participation in agricu...

  11. GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia

    Yayis Rezene; Agdew Bekele; Yasin Goa

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted for two consecutive years across four locations using 16 field pea genotypes. The objective of this paper is to determine the magnitude of genotype by environment interactionand performance stability of genotypes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression of genotype on the environmental mean, AMMI analysis, ASV estimation and GGE biplot analysis were carried out following their respective procedures. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed significance ...

  12. Environmental Resource Collection versus Children’s Schooling: Evidence from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Bahre Gebru; Sosina Bezu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in Ethiopia treat child labour and schooling in a broader sense without much attention to the kind of labor they are engaged in. This paper distinctively examines the adverse effect of natural resources scarcity on children’s schooling and the possible gender bias against girls’ schooling due to resource collection work. It uses a cross sectional data of 316 children aging 7 to 18 years collected from 120 rural households of Enderta and Hintalo Wajerat woredas in Tigray, nort...

  13. Perception of Gender Mainstreaming in Agricultural Extension in Fogera Woreda, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Azanaw Abebe; Merkuz Abera

    2014-01-01

    Gender is a key analytic category for understanding global economic processes and gender mainstreaming is the core strategy to eliminate gender inequalities. Despite the increasing appreciation of gender and gender mainstreaming which is decisive for women and men equal participation in development, the concept of gender mainstreaming is not always understood in the same fashion. Perception of gender mainstreaming by various community members in the agriculture sector is not known. This study...

  14. HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors among Migrants and Non-migrants in Rural Ethiopia: Role of Rural to Urban Migration in HIV Transmission

    Tamiru, Melesse; Hailemariam, Damen; Mitike, Getnet; Haidar, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare HIV-related sexual risk behavior among temporary rural to urban migrants and non-migrants and to explore the role of migration in HIV transmission in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Bure Woreda, West Gojam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A total of 1,310 male subjects (655 rural to urban migrants and 655 non-migrants) were selected randomly and were assessed, analyzed using SPSS version 17 software for their HIV related s...

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Halaba district, South Ethiopia

    Bacha Ketema

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine is an anti-malarial drug being used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Ethiopia. However, emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the parasite has challenged the current efficacy of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chloroquine against P. vivax strains in one of the malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia, namely Halaba district, located in South Nations and Nationalities Peoples Region (SNNPR of South Ethiopia Results Among 87 malaria patients enrolled in the study, only 80 of them completed the 28-days follow-up. Seven of them dropped from the study for different reasons. Among those study participants that completed their follow-up, 69 were classified under the category of adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. However, the remaining 11 cases were considered as under treatment failure mainly due to recurrence of parasitemia on day 7 (four patients, day 14 (six patients, and day 21 (one patient. The age of all cases of treatment failures was found to be less than 20 years. The load of parasitemia of patients with treatment failure on day of admission (4709.4/μl was higher than day of recurrence (372.37/μl. Parasite reduction ratio (PRR of treatment failure cases was 12.6/μl. Conclusion This report revealed the rise in treatment failure (13% [95% CI = 0.074 - 0.217] as compared to earlier reports from Ethiopia. It signals the spreading of chloroquine resistant P. vivax (CRPv strains to malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia. It is recommended that all concerned bodies should act aggressively before further expansion of the current drug resistant malaria.

  16. A systems approach to improving rural care in Ethiopia.

    Elizabeth H Bradley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple interventions have been launched to improve the quality, access, and utilization of primary health care in rural, low-income settings; however, the success of these interventions varies substantially, even within single studies where the measured impact of interventions differs across sites, centers, and regions. Accordingly, we sought to examine the variation in impact of a health systems strengthening intervention and understand factors that might explain the variation in impact across primary health care units. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a mixed methods positive deviance study of 20 Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs in rural Ethiopia. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI, we identified PHCUs with consistently higher performance (n = 2, most improved performance (n = 3, or consistently lower performance (n = 2 in the provision of antenatal care, HIV testing in antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance rates. Using data from site visits and in-depth interviews (n = 51, we applied the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify key themes that distinguished PHCUs with different performance trajectories. Key themes that distinguished PHCUs were 1 managerial problem solving capacity, 2 relationship with the woreda (district health office, and 3 community engagement. In higher performing PHCUs and those with the greatest improvement after the EMRI intervention, health center and health post staff were more able to solve day-to-day problems, staff had better relationships with the woreda health official, and PHCU communities' leadership, particularly religious leadership, were strongly engaged with the health improvement effort. Distance from the nearest city, quality of roads and transportation, and cultural norms did not differ substantially among PHCUs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Effective health strengthening efforts may require intensive

  17. Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Chaka, H; Goutard, F; Bisschop, S P R; Thompson, P N

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P backyard poultry production in Ethiopia. PMID:22399725

  18. Review of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia using Enhanced Climate Services (ENACTS)

    Muhammad, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a disease directly linked to temperature and rainfall. In Ethiopia, the influence of climate variables on malaria transmission and the subsequent role of ENSO in the rise of malaria incidence are becoming more recognized. Numerous publications attest to the extreme sensitivity of malaria to climate in Ethiopia. The majority of large-scale epidemics in the past were associated with climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall. However, there is limited information on climate variability and ENSO at the district level to aid in public health decision-making. Since 2008, the National Meteorogy Agency (NMA) and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) have been collaborating on improving climate services in Ethiopia. This collaboration spurred the implementation of the Enhancing National Climate Services (ENACTS) initiative and the creation of the IRI Data Library (DL) NMA Ethiopia Maproom. ENACTS provides reliable and readily accessible climate data at high resolutions and the Maproom uses ENACTS to build a collection of maps and other figures that monitor climate and societal conditions at present and in the recent past (1981-2010). A recent analysis exploring the relationship of rainfall and temperature ENACTS products to malaria epidemics in proceeding rainy seasons within 12 woredas found above normal temperature anomalies to be more readily associated with epidemics when compared to above normal rainfall anomalies, regardless of the ENSO phase (Figure 1-2).

  19. Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia.

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%. 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15-64 years. On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7% or third (36.1% clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ(2 = 11.6 p = 0.001. At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.

  20. Immunization Coverage Surveys and Linked Biomarker Serosurveys in Three Regions in Ethiopia.

    Mark A Travassos

    Full Text Available Demographic and health surveys, immunization coverage surveys and administrative data often divergently estimate vaccination coverage, which hinders pinpointing districts where immunization services require strengthening. We assayed vaccination coverage in three regions in Ethiopia by coverage surveys and linked serosurveys.Households with children aged 12-23 (N = 300 or 6-8 months (N = 100 in each of three districts (woredas were randomly selected for immunization coverage surveys (inspection of vaccination cards and immunization clinic records and maternal recall and linked serosurveys. IgG-ELISA serologic biomarkers included tetanus antitoxin ≥ 0.15 IU/ml in toddlers (receipt of tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib anti-capsular titers ≥ 1.0 mcg/ml in infants (timely receipt of Hib vaccine.Coverage surveys enrolled 1,181 children across three woredas; 1,023 (87% also enrolled in linked serosurveys. Administrative data over-estimated coverage compared to surveys, while maternal recall was unreliable. Serologic biomarkers documented a hierarchy among the districts. Biomarker measurement in infants provided insight on timeliness of vaccination not deducible from toddler results.Neither administrative projections, vaccination card or EPI register inspections, nor parental recall, substitute for objective serological biomarker measurement. Including infants in serosurveys informs on vaccination timeliness.

  1. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus...

  2. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Ketema Deribew; Zinaye Tekeste; Beyene Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions: The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  3. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

    2001-12-01

    A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P agro-ecology has a major influence on the distribution of helminth parasites. Nematodes recovered included Heterakis gallinarum (17.28%), Subulura brumpti (17.60%), Ascaridia galli (35.58%), Cheilospirura hamulosa (0.75%) and Dyspharynx spiralis (2.62%). The principal cestode species encountered were Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%). PMID:11732422

  4. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Ethiopia.

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tesfaye, Weghata; Anagaw, Belay; Tessema, Belay; Debebe, Tewodrose; Anagaw, Berhanu; Mulu, Andargachew; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia. PMID:23883834

  5. Dairy development in Ethiopia:

    Ahmed, Mohamed A. M.; Ehui, Simeon; Yemesrach, Assefa

    2004-01-01

    Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development due to its large livestock population, the favorable climate for improved, high-yielding animal breeds, and the relatively disease-free environment for livestock. Given the considerable potential for smallholder income and employment generation from high-value dairy products, development of the dairy sector in Ethiopia can contribute significantly to poverty alleviation and nutrition in the country. Like other sectors of the economy, the da...

  6. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Ketema; Deribew; Zinaye; Tekeste; Beyene; Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis,malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases.Methods:Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children(216 males and 171 females)to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda,Afar region,Ethiopia.Results:The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54%and 6.20%respectively.Only 2.84%of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites.There was high percentage of anemic patients(81.81%)in the coinfected cases than in either malaria(33.3%)or schistosomiasis(38.94%)cases.There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected(P<0.05).The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S.haematobium infected children showed no significant difference(P>0.05).The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs/10 mL urine(r=-0.6)and malaria parasitemia(r=-0.53).Conclusions:The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected.Furthermore,level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia.Therefore,examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  7. Epidemiology and individual, household and geographical risk factors of podoconiosis in Ethiopia: results from the first nationwide mapping.

    Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9-4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

  8. Ethiopia : Accounting and Auditing

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides a review of the accounting and auditing practices and the institutions underpinning the accounting and auditing environment in the corporate sector in Ethiopia. The review drew on best international practices and makes policy recommendations aimed at improving the quality of financial reporting in the country. There are some...

  9. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  10. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...

  11. Ethiopia : Regionalization Study

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study outlines the development strategy Ethiopia will need to pursue to achieve a balanced regional progress, and indicates some policy areas for attention, as the strategy develops. It examines the recent constitutional structure, government spending, and fiscal imbalances, including the capacity constraints the country faces, and governance issues. In addition, the role of municipali...

  12. Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

    John Butterworth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

  13. Endline report – Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  14. Ethiopia Poverty Assessment 2014

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 Ethiopia had one of the highest poverty rates in the world, with 56 percent of the population living on less than United States (U.S.) $1.25 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day. Ethiopian households experienced a decade of remarkable progress in wellbeing since then and by the start of this decade less than 30 percent of the population was counted as poor. This poverty assessment d...

  15. Educational choices in Ethiopia

    Pereznieto, Paola; Jones, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Ethiopia has one of the lowest primary school enrolment rates and one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world. These rates are significantly lower than those of other similarly low-income countries. There are concerns that education quality is falling due to insufficient spending to provide more teachers and textbooks and reform the curriculum. Other key problems include disparities between regions, between boys and girls, and between rural and urban areas. It remains uncertain whether E...

  16. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) from Ethiopia

    Józef Razowski; Pasquale Trematerra

    2010-01-01

    Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epi...

  17. Rural Risk Management Ethiopia

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This document investigates prospects for the use of index based weather insurance in Ethiopia for commercial and semi-commercial farmers. The document first summarizes the impact of risk weather risk in particular on Ethiopian agriculture and the need to balance investments in weather risk mitigation and weather risk management. Because the focus of this document is on risk management in the face of potential weather shocks, this introduction is followed by a summary of the traditional risk...

  18. Ethiopia Health Extension Program

    Wang, Huihui; Tesfaye, Roman; Ramana, Gandham N V; Chekagn, Chala Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    As a low-income country, Ethiopia has made impressive progress in improving health outcomes. This report examines how Ethiopia’s Health Extension Program (HEP) has contributed to the country’s move toward Univeral Health Coverage (UHC), and to shed light on how other countries may learn from Ethiopia’s experiences of HEP when designing their own path to UHC. HEP is one of the government’s UHC strategies introduced in a context of limited resources and low coverage of essential health ser...

  19. LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND FEEDING SYSTEM IN ENSET (Ensete ventricosum DOMINATED MIXED FARMING SYSTEM OF SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Samuel MENBERE AFELE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the livestock feeds resources, feeding systems, feed related problems and the determinant factors under smallholder farmers’ livestock production system in the Sidama zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR of Ethiopia. A total of 135 sample household heads which represents about 10 percent of the household heads in the two study districts (Shebedino and Dale were included in the study. According to the order of importance, natural grazing/scavenging, crop residue and purchased feeds from market/other farmers were the major (X2=1078.103, p<0.001, n=553 feed resources used to fed different livestock species/classes in the area. Due to the economic importance difference among species/classes, the provision priorities of each particular feed resource were also significantly different. Especially the provision disparity was more (X2=302.96, p<0.001 pronounced for crop residue for which male cattle (oxen and young bulls get top priority than natural pasture (X2=157.48, p<0.001 on which other species/classes are highly dependent and purchased feed (X2=62.29, p<0.001 by which the scavenging poultry production is subsidized. In feed production, conservation and treatment aspects, growing of improved forages is not common practice in the area and majority about 57.0% (n=77 of farmers have not grown improved forages (X2=4.28, p<0.001, considerable 63.7% (n=86 and limited 25.9% (n=35 of farmers have also practiced feed conservation (mainly maize Stover and elephant grass (X2=15.96, p<0.001 and crop residue treatment (mostly add and mix salt (X2=33.34, p<0.001, respectively. Grazing land is a scares resource in the livestock production sub-system of the area and only about 34.1% (n=46 of the farmers in the study area posses private grazing land with an average holding of 0.073±0.014 ha. Land shortage, feed shortage and population pressure were identified as major (X2=132.09, p<0.001 problems

  20. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera from Ethiopia

    Józef Razowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hübner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Whiting, Susan J; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers' occupation of being employed and their households' high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality. PMID:27043619

  2. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  3. Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia

    Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.

  4. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

  5. Uranium exploration in Ethiopia

    Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)

  6. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is...... essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in...

  7. Ethiopia - Capturing the Demographic Bonus in Ethiopia : Gender, Development, and Demographic Actions

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This is a sector report on demographics in Ethiopia. The first part of this study puts the population issue in Ethiopia in perspective. Chapter 1 updates Ethiopia's demographic profile, looking in particular at the size of its population, its age structure, the speed at which it grows and its distribution across space. Chapter 2 explores the relationships between population growth, economi...

  8. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  9. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines the...

  10. Ethiopia - Two Microfinance Delivery Programs

    Muntemba, Shimwaayi

    1999-01-01

    Formal financial institutions in Ethiopia have traditionally focused on the accessible urban towns leaving rural areas, where the majority of the population resides, without access to financial services. Recognizing this problem, a number of development agencies such as Redd Barna and World Vision started to provide access to financial services to the poor in rural areas in the 1980s. They...

  11. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Ethiopia

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Ethiopia in 2013, and provides an overview of strengths...

  12. Evaluation of progress with using community conversation as a strategy to encourage district level abandonment of female genital mutilation and/or cutting in 10 districts in Ethiopia

    Ellen Alem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female genital mutilation and/or cutting (FGM/C, whilst widespread, is declining in Ethiopia; 81% of 45–49-year-old women were circumcised in a 2005 survey, and 62%of 15–19-year-olds.Objectives: This evaluation examined progress in abandoning FGM/C in ten woredas(districts where strategy based on the social convention theory had led to official declarations of abandonment and assessed if the strategy could accelerate the declining trend of the FGM/C practice in Ethiopia.Method: Quantitative and qualitative instruments collected data from a document review, a household survey (1275 households, in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions.Results: Overall, there were encouraging results in terms of awareness creation and behavioural change to some extent. Sixty-nine percent of women and 41% of girls interviewed perceived a decline in the practice (range 40% – 90% after the declaration. Seventy-six percent of women said they would not circumcise girls in the future. The involvement of influential people such as religious leaders, elders, health extension workers, and law enforcement officials in the teaching contributed immensely to the awareness creation. However, some districts reports indicated the practice had gone underground. The costs of facilitating the strategy varied from USD 3 to 7 per person, with better results where costs were higher. The abandonment events tended to costaround 25% of total costs, an area where cost efficiency can be improved.Conclusion: The evaluation has informed the dialogue around the development of the country’s first national budgeted strategy that aims to accelerate the abandonment of all harmful traditionalpractices.

  13. Country report ETHIOPIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS

    Lensink, R.; Asenso-Okyere, K.; Bahiigwa, G.; Cao, De E.; Eriksen, S.; Jemaneh, S.; Gutu, T.; Hansen, N.; Lutz, C.; Tadesse, G.; Tefera, W.; Yirga, C.; Zerfu, E.; Berg, van der M.; Klaver, D.C.; Jacobs, J.; Hofstede, M.; Ingen, van T.; Getew, H.; Tigabu, A.; Babu, S.; Buizer, N.N.; Desalos, C.B.; Kefyalew, D.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Bulte, E.; Pradhan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Ethiopia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (coveri

  14. Ethiopia : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The judicial and legal sector of Ethiopia presents a variety of significant challenges. The legal system as it exists today combines elements of both civil and common law1 with traditional practices, resulting in multiple layers intermingling and superimposing distinct types of modern, traditional, and religious laws and processes. This report provides an overview of Ethiopia's current leg...

  15. Can Water Undermine Growth? Evidence from Ethiopia

    Sadoff, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    In Ethiopia the centrality of water is clear. With little water resources infrastructure, relatively weak management institutions and capacity, extreme hydrological variability and seasonality, and a highly vulnerable economy, Ethiopia faces an enormous challenge in building the minimum platform of water infrastructure and management capacity needed to achieve water security. But until wat...

  16. Ethiopia : water security and drought

    MacDonald, A M; Calow, R.C.; Nicol, A.L.; Hope, B.; Robins, N.S.

    2001-01-01

    A map showing groundwater availability during drought for Ethiopia presented at a scale of 1:3,500,000. The map was constructed by combining three factors: (1) rock permeability (derived from the hydrogeology map) (2) the ability of the rock to store water (from the hydrogeology map) (3) recharge to the groundwater (estimated from rainfall data). Areas of high permeability, high storage and high recharge have most groundwater available during drought

  17. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agricult...

  18. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    Seleshe, Semeneh; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy as...

  19. Land Rights and Expropriation in Ethiopia

    Ambaye, Daniel Weldegebriel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines and analyses the expropriation laws and practices in Ethiopia. The objective of the thesis is to analyze and describe the land rights and expropriation laws in Ethiopia and to compare them with the practice in order to determine the fairness of compensation. The study is made against the Ethiopian Constitution and other subsidiary legislations which provide the basic land rights and the nature and details of expropriation. The basic argument made in this thesis is that eve...

  20. Nutrition in Ethiopia: An emerging success story?:

    Headey, Derek D.

    2015-01-01

    Research does not always provide the results that we expect. At the recent conference on improving nutrition in Ethiopia, Together for Nutrition 2015, we learnt about the rapid progress in Ethiopia in child nutritional outcomes that are linked to improved birth size and, hence, improved maternal health. However, most of the improvement in maternal health seems related to better sanitation, rather than to diet, care, or health factors.

  1. Marek's disease in local chicken strains of Ethiopia reared under confined management regime in central Ethiopia

    Duguma, R.; Yami, A.; Dana, N.; Hassen, H.H.; Esatu, W.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence, clinical and pathological manifestations and extent of mortality due to Marek’s disease (MD) was investigated from November 2003 to January 2004 among indigenous chickens of Ethiopia reared under confined management at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, central Ethiopia. Cl

  2. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  3. Authority and leadership in Surma society (Ethiopia)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines recent developments of local authority and 'leadership' among the Surma of southern Ethiopia, where the author carried out field research over the years 1990-1995. The intention is to analyse the nature of 'authority' in a non-State social formation, in which 'chiefs' in the proper sense of the word are absent. The author gives an overview of the three different political systems which have succeeded each other in Ethiopia since the late 19th century: Haile Selassie's fe...

  4. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types...... recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between the...

  5. Antenatal care strengthening in jimma, ethiopia

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje;

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students...

  6. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  7. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  8. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia.

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975

  9. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  10. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  11. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently

  12. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti

  13. A bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia

    Abbink, J.

    2003-01-01

    This bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia covers material published from the early 1960s onwards. It focuses on the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, including the Eritrean Orthodox Church, which became autonomous in 1993, but references on modern missionary and evangelical Christianity, as well as Cat

  14. Education in Ethiopia : developing or collapsing? : a study of discourses of education in Ethiopia and its implications

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has been a key partner and actor in political and economic affairs of Africa in general and the Horn of Africa in particular. Despite its record of independence, Ethiopia have been struggling up heal battle against persistent human development challenges and troubled internal political history. In recent decades, however, renewed geopolitical factors made Ethiopia attract more and concerted efforts. Ethiopian stakeholders a...

  15. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  16. Proposal for Business Support Facility for Ethiopia : A mission report

    Blomne Sopov, M.

    2012-01-01

    This report, requested by the Royal Dutch Embassy in Ethiopia, outlines the modalities of setting up a Business Support Facility in the country with the objectives of: 1. Supporting sector coordination and business partnerships; 2. Brokering business relations between Ethiopia and the Netherlands; 3. Strengthening innovation capacity to ensure technical, business and entrepreneurial know how.

  17. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia : Options for Strengthening Land Administration

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Over the coming decades, land policy and administration, for urban as well as rural areas, will be critical for Ethiopia's development. The vast majority of people making up the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia's (FDRE) predominantly agricultural economy live in rural areas. Finally, land policies and administration can contribute significantly to the objectives of promoting gender ...

  18. Coffee Innovation Systems in Ethiopia and Rwanda

    Mequaninte, Teferi; Müller, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to investigate the networking and knowledge management in the coffee value chain in Ethiopian and Rwanda and its applicability to the agricultural innovation system (AIS). The AIS aims at putting farmers at the center of the knowledge management and innovation system. Results of the SNA show that farmers from both Ethiopia and Rwanda are not at the center of the innovation system. In the Ethiopian coffee value chain, cooperatives are at the center of the k...

  19. Transhumance in the Tigray Highlands (Ethiopia)

    Nyssen, Jan; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zenebe, Amanuel; Poesen, Jean; Deckers, Jozef A.; Haile, Mitiku

    2009-01-01

    Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds occurring between two points and following precise routes repeated each year, is practiced on a broad scale in the open field areas of Tigray (North Ethiopia). This article presents a characterization of the practice, factors that explain its magnitude, and recent changes. Eleven villages were selected randomly, semistructured interviews were conducted, and data on the sites were collected both in the field and from secondary sources. The transhuma...

  20. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constitution's explicit reinstatement of ethnicity in law coincides with a politico-economic situation which has made ethnoregional groups more interdependent than ever before, and where the central State ha...

  1. Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Tadele Eticha; Kalkidan Mesfin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertake...

  2. Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia

    Woldegiorgiss, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using improved indigenous chicken. The approaches were structured survey questionnaire, village poultry simulation model (VIPOSIM), Heckman two-step model (econometric model), and experiments involving laboratory and field. Fi...

  3. Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Eticha, Tadele; Mesfin, Kalkidan

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken ...

  4. A Canadian Medical Team in Ethiopia

    Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald

    1985-01-01

    In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...

  5. Cereal production and technology adoption in Ethiopia:

    Yu, Bingxin; Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Funes, José; Gemessa, Sinafikeh Asrat

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government has been promoting a package-driven extension that combines credit, fertilizers, improved seeds, and better management practices. This approach has reached almost all farming communities, representing about 2 percent of agricultural gross domestic product in recent years. This paper is the first to look at the extent and determinants of the adoption of the fertilizer-seed technology package promoted in Ethiopia using nationally representative data from the Central Sta...

  6. Entrepreneurship and Income Inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  7. Assets at marriage in rural Ethiopia

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Quisumbing, Agnes

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of assets at marriage in rural Ethiopia. We find ample evidence of assertive matching at marriage. Assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. Sorting operates at a variety of levels - wealth, schooling, and work experience - that cannot be summarized into a single additive index. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents’ wealth, indicating that a bequest motive affects assets at marriag...

  8. Marriage and Assortative Matching in Rural Ethiopia

    Marcel Fafchamps; Agnes Quisumbing

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of human and physical capital at marriage. Using detailed data from rural Ethiopia, we find ample evidence of assortative matching at marriage. Assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. Sorting operates at a variety of levels – wealth, schooling, and work experience – that cannot be summarized into a single additive index. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents’ wealth, indicating th...

  9. The Pineapple Value Chain in Ethiopia

    Drost, Sarah; Wijk, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the pineapple value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve market access for farmers and small- and mediumsized pineapple companies. To examine the MSP, both its internal, organisational dynamics and its external dynamics, i.e. the changes brought about in key areas...

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA

    E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

  11. The transitional semi-evergreen bushland in Ethiopia

    van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Sebsebe, Demissew

    2016-01-01

    Question: Evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia have been inadequately studied and mapped. We address the question whether there is a transitional semi-ever-green bushland on the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian Highlands, with unique floristic characteristics that distinguish it from the evergreen...... bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia and eastern Africa. Methods: Based on a review of the recent descriptions of evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia, we hypothesize that there is a distinct zone of natural semi-ever-green bushland, which is restricted to the eastern and southeastern escarpment of the Ethiopian...... Highlands. In contrast, evergreen bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia are considered to be of a secondary nature. To test this hypothesis, we carried out qualitative vegetation surveys in 354 locations across Ethiopia and classified the vegetation in these locations based on the occurrences of indicator...

  12. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  13. Electronic-Banking in Ethiopia- Practices, Opportunities and Challenges

    Gardachew Worku

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the practices, opportunities and challenges of E-banking services in Ethiopia. Ethiopian banking system is one of the most underdeveloped compared to the rest of the world. In Ethiopia cash is still the most dominant medium of exchange and electronic-banking is not well known, let alone used for transacting banking business. All banks in Ethiopia except Dashen Bank are too late to move with technological advancement and they should clearly chart out the time schedule for their integration and technological advancement.

  14. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins...... with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance of...

  15. The effects of zero grazing in Ethiopia

    Cao, Van; Berg, van den, M.M.; Tizale, C.Y.; Wondwosen, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the high lands of Ethiopia, almost every plot of farmland is allotted for crop husbandry, leaving no or only road sides and marginal lands for grazing. However, land is scarce in these areas and this limits the role of crop production in poverty alleviation and it also limits the availability of local off-farm employment. Moreover, with the years, livestock feed has become scarce and crop residues are the major feed source for the animals. This feed problem also potentially affects crop pr...

  16. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    . This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage...

  17. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that...... grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of...... Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....

  18. Finance and Poverty in Ethiopia: A Household Level Analysis

    Geda, Alemayehu; Shimeles, Abebe; Zerfu, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, using the rich household panel data of urban and rural Ethiopia that covers the period from 1994 to 2000, we attempted to establish the link between finance and poverty in Ethiopia. Our results show that access to finance is an important factor in consumption smoothing and hence poverty reduction. We also found evidence for a poverty trap due to liquidity constraints that limits the ability of the rural households from consumption smoothing. The empirical findings from this stu...

  19. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Kaba M; Bulto T; Tafesse Z; Lingerh W; Ali I

    2016-01-01

    Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Obj...

  20. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Tarekegn, Getachew; Ewonetu, Kebede; Negassi, Ameha; Aemro, Terefe Terefe

    2015-01-01

    This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta). A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of ch...

  1. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  2. Forest coffee certification in Ethiopia: Economic boon or ecological bane?

    Stellmacher, Till; Grote, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the worldwide origin of the Coffea arabica gene-pool. However, the forests witness high rates of depletion and deforestation leading to an irreversible loss of the forest ecosystem and biodiversity. Certification of forest coffee started in Ethiopia in 2002 with the aim to conserve the coffee forests and provide the peasants with a better livelihood. This paper evaluates the forest coffee production and the related human encroachment in the forests ecos...

  3. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in Ethiopia. The low uptake may be related to the high costs of recommended production methods for these varieties. The objective of this study was to formulate least-cost seed potato production methods for ...

  4. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    Mulugeta Lemenih; Habtemariam Kassa

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha) of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specific...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia

    Ayele Dawit G; Zewotir Temesgen T; Mwambi Henry G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP) regions ...

  6. Madamato and Colonial Concubinage in Ethiopia: A Comparative Perspective

    Trento, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Colonial concubinage in Ethiopia during the Italian occupation (1936–1941) has not been deeply studied yet. This article explores the peculiarities of the so-called madamato – that was banned under Fascism in 1937 but developed despite the racist legislation – by firstly comparing its practices in Ethiopia with that which took place from the late Nineteenth century in Eritrea. Indeed, on the Eritrean case a small body of significant literature already exists. In addition, by relying on both w...

  7. Food Scarcity in Africa - Case Study of Ethiopia

    Brtníková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is to critically look at various indicators that play a key role in food scarcity in Africa. These indicators are applied on a case of Ethiopia, a selected country in Africa. Consequently, a multidimensional Index of Sustenance of Ethiopia is created using all relevant indicators. Comparison of researched indicators that contribute to food scarcity is based on data from official sources. In the created Index both economic and non-economic indicators are merged while, based ...

  8. Urbanization and spatial connectivity in Ethiopia: Urban growth analysis using GIS

    Schmidt, Emily; Kedir, Mekamu

    2009-01-01

    In comparison to other African countries, Ethiopia has a low urbanization rate. According to the World Bank World Development Report (WDR) 2009, Sub-Sahara Africa is 30% urbanized, whereas Ethiopia is only 10.9% urbanized. Urbanization rates differ according to methodologies and data base utilized: the United Nations classifies Ethiopia as 14.9% urban, while the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia reports a 16% urbanization rate. In an effort to standardize and measure Ethiopian urbanizati...

  9. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  10. The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea

    Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.;

    2012-01-01

    Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la...... largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and...... trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species...

  11. Conservation and Livelihood Impacts of Decentralized Forest Governance in Ethiopia

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha

    livelihood, forest governance and forest conditions in Ethiopia? The study approaches these questions by disentangling outcomes that can be attributed to PFM rather than other factors through quasi-experimental designs. The significance of the study lays in its holistic assessment of the theoretically...... expected outcomes of PFM. In the four articles that form the thesis, the study argues that the PFM programme in Ethiopia contributes to forest conservation compared to other types of management regimes. However, conservation is also challenged mainly by lack of support from the authorities to forest user...... groups. Though various pilot projects have contributed valuable experiences on the performance of PFM in Ethiopia, the programme is currently being scaled up to the national level without taking these into account. Indeed, the PFM up-scaling programme remains based on the discretion of the individual...

  12. Foreign exchange rationing, wheat markets and food security in Ethiopia:

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Ahmed, Hashim

    2009-01-01

    In spite of remarkable growth in Ethiopia’s agricultural production and overall real incomes (GDP/capita) from 2004/05 to 2008/09, prices of major cereals (teff, maize, wheat and sorghum) have fluctuated sharply in both nominal and real terms. International prices of cereals also fluctuated widely, particularly between 2006 and 2008. However, the links between Ethiopia’s domestic cereal markets and the international market are by no means straightforward. Among the major staples, only whe...

  13. Partners against tuberculosis: Ethiopia's "TB clubs".

    Getahun, H

    1998-11-01

    TB (tuberculosis) clubs were first introduced in the Estie district of South Gonder administrative zone, Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia in January 1997, in an attempt to improve TB control in rural areas. Before the clubs were introduced, patients who were family members or close neighbors were given different treatment follow-up dates. Walking long distances alone to secure treatment, patients often grew discouraged from continuing treatment once their health began to improve. However, upon the introduction of the TB clubs, neighboring patients, or those in the same family, had their follow-up appointment dates rearranged in the same clinics. Local neighborhoods were also used to group nearby patients in the same follow-up clinic. The patients then formed their own groups (TB clubs) and elected leaders. 3-10 members usually comprise each club, with the club leaders monitoring drug intake and new developments, such as drug side effects and toxic skin reactions. The social ostracism and stigma otherwise experienced by patients have been largely overcome as a result of the TB information disseminated within the communities by the clubs, while patient attendance for treatment has increased from 68% to 98%, according to one study's findings. This intervention has taken place using the long-course treatment protocol (2STH/EH and 10TH/EH). TB clubs are improving patient adherence to treatment, passive case detection, defaulter tracing, TB reporting and recording, and community involvement in health care. PMID:12294916

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

  15. Revisiting resistance in Italian-occupied Ethiopia : the Patriots' Movement (1936-1941) and the redefinition of post-war Ethiopia

    Berhe, A.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    During the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1936-1941) a significant indigenous resistance movement, the Patriots' Movement, emerged. The nature and impact of this resistance is reconsidered by highlighting aspects of its role in 'redefining Ethiopia', its internal policy and its position in the glob

  16. Two new Uropodina species from Ethiopia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2013), s. 49-56. ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Afrotropical * Ethiopia * new species * new synonymy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2013

  17. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  18. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  19. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  20. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  1. Endline report – Ethiopia, NVEA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, NVEA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  2. Endline report – Ethiopia, TTCA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, TTCA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  3. Endline report – Ethiopia, Amref MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Buizer, N.N.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, Amref. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  4. Endline report – Ethiopia, FSCE MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  5. Endline report – Ethiopia, ECFA MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  6. Endline report – Ethiopia, HUNDEE MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  7. Learning by Doing : Working at Scale in Ethiopia

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, an estimated 15.2 million people or 80 percent of the total population of the Amhara Region in Ethiopia lived in rural areas where sanitation-related indicators were low. Open defecation was common; hand washing, particularly after defecation, was practiced infrequently; and general housing environments were unsanitary, with cohabitation with animals a common occurrence. There was...

  8. Scaling of Health Information Systems in Nigeria and Ethiopia

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Shaw, Vincent; Braa, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    Systems Programme in Nigeria and Ethiopia, the interdependencies between three spheres are identified as being important in scaling health information systems. The three spheres that are explored are the volume of data collected, human resource factors and access to technology. We draw on concepts from...

  9. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in Ethiopi

  10. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes o

  11. Incomplete Markets and Fertilizer Use : Evidence from Ethiopia

    Zerfu, Daniel; Donald F. Larson

    2010-01-01

    While the economic returns to using chemical fertilizer in Africa can be large, application rates are low. This study explores whether this is due to missing and imperfect markets. Results based on a panel survey of Ethiopian farmers suggest that while fertilizer markets are not altogether missing in rural Ethiopia, high transport costs, unfavorable climate, price risk, and illiteracy pres...

  12. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  13. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potentials for the Cement Industry in Ethiopia

    Tesema, G.; Worrell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The cement sector is one of the fast growing economic sectors in Ethiopia. In 2010, it consumed 7 PJ of primary energy. We evaluate the potential for energy savings and CO2 emission reductions. We start by benchmarking the energy performance of 8 operating plants in 2010, and 12 plants under constru

  15. Consumption, Vulnerability, and Shocks in Rural Ethiopia, 1999-2004

    Dercon, S.; Hodinnott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2006-01-01

    Improving our understanding of risk and vulnerability is an issue of increasing importance for Ethiopia as it is for much of Africa. A small, but growing, body of evidence, points to the role that risk, shocks and vulnerability in perpetuating poverty. Specifically, uninsured shocks ¿ adverse events

  16. The Edible Oil and Oilseeds Value Chain in Ethiopia

    F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to imp

  17. Gender Issues in Ethiopia : Implementing the National Policy on Women

    World Bank

    1998-01-01

    The National Policy on Women (Women's Policy) formulated in 1993, aimed to create appropriate structures within government offices and institutions to establish equitable and gender-sensitive public policies. The Government of Ethiopia in 1995, under its new constitution, renewed its commitment towards this policy. The government initiated an ambitious and extensive process of regionalizat...

  18. Decomposition of Gender Differentials in Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia

    Aguilar, Arturo; Carranza, Eliana; Goldstein, Markus; Kilic,Talip; Oseni, Gbemisola

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs decomposition methods to analyze differences in agricultural productivity between male and female land managers in Ethiopia. It employs data from the 2011-2012 Ethiopian Rural Socioeconomic Survey. An overall 23.4 percent gender differential in agricultural productivity is estimated at the mean in favor of male land managers, of which 10.1 percentage points are explained by ...

  19. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  20. Ethiopic maternal care data mining: discovering the factors that affect postnatal care visit in Ethiopia

    Sahle, Geletaw

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate are key concerns. One of the eight millennium development goals adopted at the millennium summit, was to improve maternal health in Ethiopia. This leads towards discovering the factors that hinder postnatal care visit in Ethiopia. Methods In this research, knowledge discovery from data (KDD) was applied to identify the factors that hinder postnatal care visits in Ethiopia. Decision tree (using J48 algorithm) and rule in...

  1. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    Shiferaw, Melashu

    2016-01-01

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw,1 Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs,2 Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw,3 Yohannes Amede Yesuf,4 1Laboratory Capacity Building Core Process, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Laboratory, Africa Service...

  2. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    Molla, Mitike; Mitiku, Israel; Worku, Alemayehu; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods: We conducted interviews with 28 adult fa...

  3. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Z. M. Easton; D. R. Fuka; White, E.D.; A. S. Collick; B. Biruk Asharge; M. McCartney; S. B. Awulachew; Ahmed, A A; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopia...

  4. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

    Astatkie, Ayalew

    2015-01-01

    Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsul...

  5. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  6. Examining the incentive effects of food aid on household behaviour in rural Ethiopia

    Hoddinott, John

    2004-01-01

    "In Ethiopia, while superficial examination suggests strong disincentive effects of food aid on labor supply and agricultural activities, these largely vanish under more careful statistical analysis." from Text

  7. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Ethiopia

    Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of

  8. The Short Life of the Bank of Ethiopia

    Arnaldo Mauri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bank of Abyssinia, established in 1905, was given a 50-years concession by theEmperor Menelek II. This institution was engaged in issuing notes as well as in any kind ofcommercial banking business. Haile Sellassie, after acceding to the throne in 1930, could not acceptthat the country’s issuing bank was a foreign-owned share company and decided for nationalization.The change was implemented, however, in a soft way, providing an adequate compensation toshareholders, and in agreement with the main foreign shareholder, the National Bank of Egypt. TheBank of Abyssinia went, therefore, into liquidation and a new institution, the Bank of Ethiopia, wasestablished in 1931. The new bank, although under full Government control, retained management,staff, premises and clients of the ceased financial institution. Italian occupation of the country, in1936, brought the liquidation of the Bank of Ethiopia.

  9. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  10. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  11. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  12. Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact

    Akalu Teshome Firew,; Firew, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is

  13. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    Temesgen Wayuma Balcha, Zemichael

    2016-01-01

    Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between...

  14. Wages in the food chain in Ethiopia: WageIndicator survey 2013

    K. Tijdens; J. Besamusca; N. Asteraye

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Ethiopia, conducted between the 2rd of March and the 20th of May 2013 in all provinces of Ethiopia. In total 2,126 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 48% were under 30 years of age. The

  15. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely

  16. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  17. Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth : A World Bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Ethiopia

    Sadoff, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) report: it concerns managing water resources to maximize sustainable growth and focuses on World Bank water resources assistance strategy for Ethiopia (March 2006). Specifically, the note describes the scope and scale of the impacts of hydrological variability on Ethiopia'...

  18. Gender and Governance in Agricultural Extension Services : Insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia

    Madhvani, Sonia; Pehu, Eija

    2010-01-01

    The gender and governance in rural services insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia report aims to generate policy-relevant knowledge on strategies for improving agricultural service delivery, with a focus on providing more equitable access to these services, especially for women. The project has been implemented in India, Ghana, and Ethiopia. These countries were chosen to capture variat...

  19. Risk mapping for northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia

    Coppock, David Layne

    2001-01-01

    We used results from 120 group interviews collected in 1998 to quantify how inhabitants across northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia perceive and rank various risks to their livelihoods. We also mapped risk patterns using Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. Respondents recognized 15 sources of risk overall, with the most common being reliable access to food and water. Other risks were not mentioned by a majority of respondents and reflected diversity in local situations. Country of re...

  20. Pastoralism Under Pressure: Tracking System Change in Southern Ethiopia

    Coppock, David Layne; Desta, Solomon

    2003-01-01

    While economic development has proven elusive in African pastoral systems, change is pervasive. The Kajiado Maasai, for example, have endured declines in terms of per capita livestock holdings and other aspects of human welfare over the past 50 years. Activity diversification has occurred in Maasailand as the population copes with pressure from human population growth. We surveyed up to 317 Borana households during the late 1990s to see if similar patterns occurred in southern Ethiopia. Once ...

  1. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  2. Livestock and livelihood security in the Harar highlands of Ethiopia

    Kassa Belay, Habtemariam

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to examine the role of livestock in smallholder mixed farming systems, and to determine variations in livestock inventory in relation to changes in socio-economic status and rural population density in the Harar Highlands of Ethiopia. Livestock feed balance, household food adequacy level, and soil humus balance of annually cropped plots were identified as proxy indicators of sustainability. The long-term dynamics of the crop-livestock sub-system within the evolving liv...

  3. How do health extension workers in Ethiopia allocate their time?

    Mangham-Jefferies, L; Mathewos, B; Russell, J.; Bekele, A

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments are increasingly reliant on community health workers to undertake health promotion and provide essential curative care. In 2003, the Government of Ethiopia launched the Health Extension Programme and introduced a new cadre, health extension workers (HEWs), to improve access to care in rural communities. In 2013, to inform the government’s plans for HEWs to take on an enhanced role in community-based newborn care, a time and motion study was conducted to understand the r...

  4. Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics

    Abera, Birhanu Hadush

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT) is a complex of parasitic diseases of various domestic and wild animal species caused by different species of trypanosomes. Trypanosoma (T.) brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax are transmitted by tsetse flies. Trypanosoma evansi, but also T. vivax, is mechanically transmitted by other biting flies and T. equiperdum is sexually transmitted in Equidae. All these ...

  5. Modelling Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Processes in Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    Setegn, Shimelis Gebriye

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tana Basin is of significant importance to Ethiopia concerning water resources aspects and the ecological balance of the area. The growing high demands in utilizing the high potentials of water resource of the Lake to its maximal limit, pictures a disturbing future for the Lake. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of topography, soil, land use and climatic varia-bility on the hydrological and hydrodynamic processes of the Lake Tana Basin. The physically based SWAT mod...

  6. The Road to Maternal Death In Rural Southwest Ethiopia

    Deribe, Kebede; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Belachew, Tefera; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2010-01-01

    The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not understanding the severity of the problem, and lack of transport were the major themes identified as contributing factors. The result highlighted the need to improving primary h...

  7. Ethiopia's Tourism Sector : Strategic Paths to Competitiveness and Job Creation

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes strategic intervention options that can inform the implementation process of Ethiopia s national tourism development policy in an effort to make the sector globally competitive. It also outlines the analytical foundations for technical assistance that will be provided to Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MoCT) by the World Bank-funded Ethiopian Sustainable Tourism Development Program (ESTDP). This study uses the world economic forum tourism and travel competitiveness index ...

  8. Land cover dynamics in Savanna Ecosystem of Borena Ethiopia

    Beza, Teshome Abate

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine land use and land cover change dynamic and spatial pattern of landscape structure in arid and semi-arid rangeland of Borena, Ethiopia. Three multi-temporal satellite (TM, and ETM+) images of 1987, 1995 and 2003 were used. Supervised maximum likelihood classification at pixel level and post-classification comparison of images was used. The landscape structures were calculated using Fragstats3.3 soft ware. Over the past 16 years, the arid and s...

  9. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic charact...

  10. Investment analysis of smallholder Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Matthies, Brent

    2013-01-01

    In this study the financial returns related to smallholders’ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Val...

  11. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  12. Smallholder Farmers' Adaptation to Climate Change in Zenzelima, Ethiopia

    Skambraks, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Zenzelima is a small kebele located in the North-western part of Ethiopia, where future climate change is predicted to challenge the farmers’ agricultural systems beyond their coping range. Farmers in Zenzelima will therefore need to adapt to climate change in order to maintain their livelihoods in the future. Adaptation to climate change requires the recognition of the need to adapt and the ability to adapt. This study therefore analyses the farmers’ perception of climate change and their...

  13. Economic implications of foreign exchange rationing in Ethiopia:

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Robinson, Sherman; Ahmed, Hashim

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia enjoyed remarkable economic growth from 2004/05 to 2008/09, in large part due to increases in foreign transfers and capital inflows combined with expanded domestic credit to fund major increases in private and public investments in infrastructure and housing. However, this rapid growth was accompanied by a major appreciation of the real exchange rate (by 34 percent between July 2004 and July 2008) that reduced incentives for domestic production of exportables and non-protected import...

  14. Links between Tenure Security and Food Security: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein

    2013-01-01

    The study uses five rounds of household panel data from Tigray, Ethiopia, collected in the period 1998–2010 to assess the impacts of a land registration and certification program that aimed to strengthen tenure security and how it has contributed to increased food availability and thus food security in this food-deficit region. Our first survey took place just a year before the intervention (the land certification program). Our panel data in combination with the “years of certificate ownershi...

  15. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia: ’Forced’ to remain poor?

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Arne Henningsen; Peter Gibbon

    2015-01-01

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of ...

  16. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  17. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia...

  18. Study on street children in four selected towns of Ethiopia

    Veale, Angela; Adefrisew, Azeb; Lalor, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    The child is the most precious asset and the focal point of development for any country. However, unless children are brought up in a stimulating and conducive environment getting the best possible care and protection, their physical, mental, emotional and social development is susceptible to permanent damage. Ethiopia, being one of the least developed countries of the world due to interrelated and complex socio-economic factors including man-made and natural calamities, a large portion of ou...

  19. Study on Street Children in Four Selected Towns in Ethiopia

    Lalor, Kevin; Veale, Angela; Adefrisew, Azeb; UNICEF; University College Cork

    1992-01-01

    The child is the most precious asset and the focal point of development for any country. However, unless children are brought up in a stimulating and conducive environment getting the best possible care and protection, their physical, mental, emotional and social development is susceptible to permanent damage. Ethiopia, being one of the least developed countries of the world due to interrelated and complex socio-economic factors including man-made and natural calamities, a large portion of ou...

  20. Internal migration and household living conditions in Ethiopia

    Blessing Uchenna Mberu

    2006-01-01

    Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled...

  1. Marriage, Bequest, and Assortative Matching in Rural Ethiopia

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Agnes R. Quisumbing

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of human and physical capital at marriage. Using detailed data from rural Ethiopia, we find that assets brought to marriage are distributed in a highly unequal manner. For first unions, assets brought to marriage are positively associated with parents' wealth, indicating that a bequest motive affects assets at marriage. Parental wealth affects the inheritance of neither groom nor bride. Sibling competition from brothers affects grooms' inheritance, but s...

  2. Gender, social capital and empowerment in northern Ethiopia

    Nega, Fredu; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Josef; Tollens, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactions between gender, social capital and empowerment in the rural areas of northern Ethiopia. We define empowerment narrowly as the power of households to make important decisions that change their course of life. Depending on the degree of control over decisions, the response of households is classified into passive, active and full control. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze empowerment levels of the rural households, first for the full sample of...

  3. Productivity and Efficiency of Small Scale Agriculture in Ethiopia

    Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Dorfman, Jeffrey H.; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg

    2013-01-01

    We estimate a distance function of grains production using generalized method of moments that enables us to accommodate multiple outputs of farmers as well as address the endogeneity issues that are related with the use of distance functions for multi-output production. Using a panel data set of Ethiopian subsistence farmers, we find that the most important factors determining farmers' efficiency in Ethiopia are having access to the public extension system, participation in off-farm activitie...

  4. Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia:

    Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim

    2014-01-01

    In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have direct dietary impacts on nutrition in addition to any indirect effects via income. We test this hypothesis for the dairy sector in rural Ethiopia, a context in which markets are very thin, own-consumption shares are very high, and milk is an important...

  5. Pacific SST influence on spring precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC

  6. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    Mutlu Ozdogan; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Belay Simane

    2013-01-01

    Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 ...

  7. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  8. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (Pspecies of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

  9. Adaptation and validation of the short version WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia

    Tesfaye Woldeyohannes, Markos; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Medhin, Girmay;

    2016-01-01

    -cultural equivalence of the WHOQOL-HIV when used among people with HIV in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at adapting the WHOQOL-HIV bref for the Ethiopian setting. METHODS: A step-wise adaptation of the WHOQOL-HIV bref for use in Ethiopia was conducted to produce an Ethiopian version.......82, TLI = 0.77 and RMSEA = 0.064). CONCLUSION: The WHOQOL-HIV-BREF-Eth has been shown to be a valid measure of quality of life for use in clinical settings among people with HIV in Ethiopia....

  10. Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010

    Kassa Nega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended or not. Data were collected by lay interviewers using uniform questionnaire. Odds Ratio, with 95% confidence interval using multiple and multinomial logistic regression were calculated to detect level of significance. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.9% (578/2072 of the study subjects. Out of which, 440 were mistimed and 138 were not wanted. Unintended pregnancy was associated with family wealth status (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14, 1.90, high parity (7 + (OR 5.18; 95% CI 3.31, 8.12, and a longer estimated time to walk to the nearest health care facility (OR 2.24; 95% CI: 1.49, 3.39. In the multinomial regression, women from poor family reported that their pregnancy was mistimed (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.25. The longer estimated time (80 + minutes to walk to the nearest health care facility influenced the occurrence of mistimed pregnancy (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 4.02. High parity (7+ showed a strong association to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12 and (OR 14.34; 95% CI 5.72, 35.98, respectively. Conclusions The economy of the family, parity, and walking distance to the nearest health care institution are strong predictors of unintended pregnancy. In order to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy Efforts to reach rural women with family planning services should be strengthened.

  11. Problems of Feminist Leadership among Educated Women in Ethiopia

    Indrawatie Biseswar

    2008-01-01

    Feminist leadership is a matter of grave concern in Ethiopia where educated women appear to be obliged to fight individual battles to sustain their own agendas on the emancipation of women. Being manipulated by the government-led ‘woman question’ rhetoric, many fail to come to terms with charting such an independent discourse. What is holding them back? Could it be their ideological make-up that is influenced by state and religious indoctrination? Or perhaps their own shortcomings where m...

  12. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    S. G. Gebrehiwot; Ilstedt, U.; Gärdenas, A. I.; Bishop, K.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2), in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a...

  13. Modeling the Determinats of Domestic Private Investments in Ethiopia

    G. G. Ambaye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of domestic private investment in Ethiopia using a time series data over the period 1992-2010. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model and applied the bounds test approach in modeling the long run determinants of domestic private investment. The study found exchange rate, domestic saving and domestic credit as key factors having negative and significant impact on domestic private investment. External debt and government expenditure are found to have significant and positive effect on domestic private investment. The results imply that government expenditure stimulates domestic private investment while domestic credit and domestic saving have a constrained effect on the sector.

  14. Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia

    Berhane Tesfay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Key words Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia. Lack of access to credit is a

  15. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwin

  16. Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production

    Kassie, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley. Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their livelihoods.Anticipated

  17. Municipal Infrastructure Delivery in Ethiopia: A bottomless pit or an option to reach the Millennium Development Goals?

    Jan Werner; David Nguyen-Thanh

    2007-01-01

    The following paper examines the different options to finance local public infrastructure in Ethiopia based on the assumption that the federal government of Ethiopia will not provide any guarantees for local borrowing. Besides a detailed description of the local public finance system and the capital market in Ethiopia, the paper also sets out some international successful practices in municipal infrastructure financing. Based on the observation of the Ethiopian case and the consideration of t...

  18. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Tarekegn, Getachew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta. A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of chicken and eggs, Marketing, diseases and constraints of village chicken production system were collected. Scavenging chicken production system is observed in all households of the districts. Average flock size of chickens in the study area was 9.4 birds and varied between 4 and 17 birds. In the present study, 82% of the households provide overnight housing within the family house for their chicken. Scavenging is the only feeding system encountered in all study districts with little grain supplementation. Most of the chicken are owned and managed by women (36.75%. Selling of unprocessed eggs and live chickens is mainly practiced. External parasites (mites, Coccidiosis and Newcastle disease were the most important and prevailing diseases in the study area with 39%, 38% and 34% incidence rates, respectively. The magnitude of occurrence of the parasites and diseases were higher in the wet season. Poor genetic quality, lack of extension service, inadequate veterinary service and poor management were the main constraints of village poultry production in the study area.

  19. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  20. Biofuels and food security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia

    There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households’ food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers’ food security. • We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. • Impact is heterogeneous across groups. • Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. • Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel

  1. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.

  2. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  3. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

  4. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    Mulugeta Lemenih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.

  5. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657

  6. Understanding Political Will in Groundwater Management: Comparing Yemen and Ethiopia

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of politics in water management, in particular, comparing groundwater management in Yemen and Ethiopia. It tries to understand the precise meaning of the often-quoted term 'political will' in these different contexts and compares the autocratic and oligarchic system in Yemen with the dominant party 'developmental state' in Ethiopia. The links between these political systems and the institutional domain are described as well as the actual management of groundwater on the ground. Whereas the Ethiopian state is characterised by the use of hard power and soft ideational power, the system in Yemen relies at most on soft negotiating power. There is a strong link between the political system, the positioning of different parties and access to power, the role of central and local governments, the propensity to plan and vision, the effectiveness of government organisations, the extent of corruption, the influence of informal governance mechanisms, the scope for private initiative and the political interest in groundwater management and development in general. More important than political will per se is political capacity – the ability to implement and regulate.

  7. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  8. Contraceptive use in women with hypertension and diabetes: cross-sectional study in northwest Ethiopia

    Mekonnen TT; Woldeyohannes SM; Yigzaw T

    2015-01-01

    Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hyperten...

  9. Tourists-perceived service quality and satisfaction of sustainable tourism in Ethiopia

    Woldesenbet, Addis

    2015-01-01

    For the economic development tourism plays a great role for countries like Ethiopia. As international tourism continues to grow from time to time, it is necessary to maintain the tourism sector for generations. As a result, sustainable tourism becomes the best tool to achieve the goal. The purpose of this study is to measure the sustainable tourism management with regard to tourists’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the service they get while they staying in Ethiopia. The study has used the...

  10. Characterization and disaggregation of daily rainfall in the Upper Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia

    Engida, A. N.; Esteves, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia, available rainfall records are mainly limited to daily time steps. Though rainfall data at shorter time steps are important for various purposes like modeling of erosion processes and flood hydro-graphs, they are hardly available in Ethiopia. The objectives of this study were (i) to study the temporal characteristics of daily rains at two stations in the region of the Upper Blue Nile Basin (UBNB) and (ii) to calibrate and evaluate a daily rainfall disaggregation model. The analys...

  11. Abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central Ethiopia

    Animut Abebe; Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Lindtjørn Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The sites included Hobe (1817 m.a.s.l), Diram...

  12. Second Ethiopia Economic Update : Laying the Foundation for Achieving Middle Income Status

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, Ethiopia has achieved high economic growth, averaging 10.7 percent per year. In 2012, Ethiopia was the 12th fastest growing economy in the World. If the country can continue its historically impressive growth performance, it could potentially reach middle income status by 2025. This, in turn, may require an adjustment in economic policy to phase in the private sector ...

  13. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

    Weldegebriel Z; Ejigu Y; Weldegebreal F; Woldie M

    2016-01-01

    Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between hea...

  14. The Right to Primary Education in Ethiopia: Progress, Prospects and Challenges

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on Ethiopia, a country despite facing daunting development challenges, is said to have sustained a notable push towards realizing universal primary education. The study was, therefore, made with an objective of critically assessing and evaluating the right to primary education in the present Ethiopia. Using both qualitative and quantitative method, this study not only attempted to describe the political, economic and legal/policy reforms the Ethiopian Government...

  15. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    Haji Kedir; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/o...

  16. Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Antimalarials in the Community of Silte Zone, South Ethiopia

    Nasir Tajure Wabe; Dargicho Ahmed; Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials occurs among the population in Ethiopian. We studied to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in Ethiopia and evaluate factors associated with self-medications. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 households, selected from Silte Zone in South Ethiopia, using a random sampling technique by employing a pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. ...

  17. Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Birhanu Zewdie; Abdissa Alemseged; Belachew Tefera; Deribew Amare; Segni Hailemariam; Tsu Vivien; Mulholland Kim; Russell Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the loca...

  18. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    Kidane, Berhane; Van Andel, Tinde; van der Maesen, Laurentius Josephus Gerardus; Asfaw, Zemede

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussion...

  19. Foreign Direct Investment Development between European Union and Least Developed Countries : Business Opportunities in Ethiopia.

    Eshete, Biruhe; Gebre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a category of international investment that indicates an intention to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy. This study assesses the development of FDI between EU and Least Developed Countries and also examines investment opportunities in Ethiopia. The primary goal was to examine economical and social contribution of FDI inflow. In addition, this study assesses Ethiopia's business opportunity, FDI policies, incentives ...

  20. Peer counselors' role in supporting patients' adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda

    Gusdal, Annelie Karin; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlström, Rolf; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to explore peer counselors? work and their role in supporting patients? adherence to ART in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from the analysis. The first main category, Peer counselors as facilitators of adherence, des...

  1. Borderless world vs borders as walls: insights from a borderland group in northern Ethiopia

    Dias, Alexandra Magnólia

    2013-01-01

    The border between Eritrea and Ethiopia changed status frequently from the 19th century up to Eritrea’s independence (Triulzi, 2006: 7). With the creation of Eritrea as an Italian colony and prior to the incorporation of Ethiopia into the Italian East African Empire the border was defined according to colonial treaties. However, the border waxed and waned over the decades of their political coexistence. Indeed, the border's status shifted from a mere internal-administrative marker to a coloni...

  2. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia

    Gello, Behailu

    2011-01-01

    Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV inf...

  3. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia

    Merdekios B; Adedimeji AA

    2011-01-01

    Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infe...

  4. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Serbo town, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia

    Birhanu Tarekegn; Bacha Ketema; Ketema Tsige; Petros Beyene

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethiopia has the highest proportion of vivax malaria, approximately 40% of all malaria infections, in contrast to African countries. Chloroquine (CQ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in the country, although CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv) has started to challenge the efficacy of the drug. The present study was conducted to assess the current status of CRPv at Serbo, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. Methods A 28-day in vivo therapeutic eff...

  5. Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Northeast Ethiopia

    Assefa Mulu; Berhanu Geresu; Yeshiwork Beyene; Muluneh Ademe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of resistance to antimalarials is insidious and unless efficacy studies are conducted, resistance may go unrecognized. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine, for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Kemisie Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods: Artemether/lumefantrine efficacy study was conducted in Kemisie Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia from September, 2012 to May, 2013. The study participa...

  6. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia

    S Hawaze; Deti, H.; Suleman, S.

    2012-01-01

    The leaves extracts of two indigenous plants of Ethiopia: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentra...

  7. The Role of Government in East Asian Development : Lessons for Ethiopia

    Berhane, Esayas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the lessons Ethiopia can learn from East Asia’s growth to sustain its recent economic growth. By an in-depth analysis of the role of government in East Asian’s development it provides recommendations for Ethiopia. The study is based on the experiences of South Korea, Taiwan and Japan in the context of three issues: selective intervention policies, coordination problem and export orientation. Results of the study show that governments in East Asia have used phased ...

  8. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Z. M. Easton; D. R. Fuka; White, E.D.; A. S. Collick; B. Biruk Ashagre; M. McCartney; S. B. Awulachew; Ahmed, A A; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue ...

  9. Implications of accelerated agricultural growth on household incomes and poverty in Ethiopia: A general equilibrium analysis

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Thurlow, James

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia’s national development strategy, A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty for 2005/06 to 2009/10 (PASDEP) places a major emphasis on achieving high rates of agricultural and overall economic growth. Consistent with the PASDEP, Ethiopia is also in the process of implementing the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) together with other African governments. As part of CAADP, the country has committed itself to meeting targets of devotin...

  10. How Do Women Entrepreneurs Define Success? A Qualitative Study of Differences Among Women Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia

    Atsede Tesfaye Hailemariam; Brigitte Kroon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia define success in their own terms. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 women entrepreneurs from various sectors in Addis Ababa. The interview formats allowed the women to tell their life history and define success in their own terms. A common stereotype is that women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia operate businesses out of necessity and therefore women measure success in terms of financial rewards than personal rewards...

  11. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  12. Small-scale irrigation dams, agricultural production, and health - theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    Ersado, Lire

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the feasibility and potential of instituting small-scale irrigation dams to reduce Ethiopia s dependence on rainfed agriculture and the associated food insecurity. He develops a theoretical framework to assess the welfare implications of irrigation development programs and provides empirical evidence from microdam construction and reforestation projects in northern Ethiopia. The author pays particular attention to health-related costs of establishing small-scale irrigation...

  13. Incidence of Rabies in Humans and Domestic Animals and People's Awareness in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

    Wudu Temesgen Jemberu; Wassie Molla; Gizat Almaw; Sefinew Alemu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar z...

  14. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-01-01

    Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia) are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regress...

  15. Domestic violence in a developing context: The perspectives of women in Northern Ethiopia

    Allen, Mary; Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization's multicountry study of the prevalence rates of intimate partner violence found extremely high rates of violence against women in Ethiopia. This article seeks to develop an understanding of this violence further. By drawing on focus group research conducted with women in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, it explores the types of domestic violence experienced by these women, the impact of this violence, the reasons for it, and the multiple resistanc...

  16. Most common causes of natural and injury-related deaths in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T. Dianne

    2009-01-01

    In Ethopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include sparse pathological diagnoses. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia in 2006, 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathologica...

  17. Tenure Insecurity, Gender, Low-Cost Land Certification and Land Rental Market Participation in Ethiopia

    Holden, Stein T.; Deininger, Klaus; Ghebru, Hosaena

    2011-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in whether land reforms can contribute to market development and poverty reduction in Africa. This paper assesses effects on the allocative efficiency of the land rental market of the low-cost approach to land registration and certification of restricted property rights that was implemented in Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Four rounds of a balanced household panel from 16 villages in northern Ethiopia are analysed, showing that land certification initially enhanced l...

  18. Health inequalities in Ethiopia: modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups

    Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima Abdella; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011.Methods: We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table ...

  19. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  20. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  1. A review of uranium minerals exploration in Ethiopia

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa

  2. Study on coccidiosis of scavenging indigenous chickens in Central Ethiopia.

    Ashenafi, H; Tadesse, S; Medhin, G; Tibbo, M

    2004-10-01

    An investigation was made into coccidiosis of 190 scavenging indigenous chickens between September 2000 and April 2001 in three selected agroclimatic zones, in central Ethiopia. This was done through clinical, postmortem and microscopic examinations. Data were processed by chi-square and Mantel-Haenzel test. The study indicated that 25.8% (49/190) of the chickens were infected with coccidiosis and found to harbour one to four different species of Eimeria. Of these infected chickens, 30 (15.8%) and 19 (10.0%) were positive for clinical and sub-clinical coccidiosis, respectively. There was a significant altitude difference (chi2 = 14.7, p poultry products in developing countries, knowledge of production constraints in traditional management practices could help devise control strategies for constraints on backyard poultry production systems. PMID:15563030

  3. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia

    Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.;

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross......-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were...... husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting...

  4. DIVERSITY AND ENDEMICITY OF CHILIMO FOREST, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

    Teshome Soromessa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species followed by pteridophyta (16 species; the least represented being the gymnosperms (represented by 2 exotic and 2 indigenous species. To provide a better management and monitoring as well as to maintain the biodiversity, cultural and economic values of the forest unsustainable utility of the forest would be controlled with the various conservation activities in place.

  5. Phenotypic variation of native chicken populations in northwest Ethiopia.

    Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A

    2007-10-01

    Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system. PMID:17969713

  6. Agriculture, population, and economic planning in Ethiopia, 1953-1980.

    Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F

    1986-04-01

    This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692

  7. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits

    Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2007-11-22

    The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)

  8. Healthcare situation dismal, says government official. International (Ethiopia).

    1997-05-12

    According to Dr. Kebede Tadesse, Minister of Social and Administrative Affairs, as stated in a speech before the Consultative Group Meeting in Addis Ababa in December 1996, the health status of Ethiopia is one of the worst in the world because of "backward socio-economic development, poor environmental quality, high fertility rate, repeated natural and man-made disasters, and inadequate health services." An article in the April 11, 1997, Addis Tribune supports this claim by describing the horrific conditions found in a public hospital in Addis Ababa. Patients returned home to die because of the shortage of beds. Dr. Kebede gave the following statistics: the average daily per capita food intake is 1750 calories, 80% of that recommended; 5% of children show signs of wasting; 64% of children have stunted growth; 17% of pregnant and lactating women are anemic; the average national fertility rate is 6.1%; the percentage of AIDS cases per 100,000 people is 10.7; 18% of people have access to potable water; 14% of births are attended; 16% of people receive antenatal care; 40% of the population is immunized; 8% of the population receives family planning services; the infant mortality rate is 130/1000 live births; the maternal mortality rate is 500-700/100,000 live births; there is 1 physician per 33,333 Ethiopians; and the life expectancy at birth is 48 years. The article recommended the following "basic principles and guidelines" to improve the situation: 1) the population should be educated about good hygiene; 2) family planning should be popularized by the government; 3) the health budget should be increased to meet overall demand for health services and to target diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis; 4) private investment in health care is needed; 5) a safe drinking water supply must be made available; and 6) domestic conditions should be made favorable so that Ethiopian doctors educated abroad will return to practice in Ethiopia. PMID:12320872

  9. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey

  10. The changing face of obstetric fistula surgery in Ethiopia

    Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505

  11. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  12. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  13. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....

  14. Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and diss

  15. Spatial Runoff Estimation and Mapping of Potential Water Harvesting Sites: A GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective, Northwest Ethiopia

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Melesse, A.M.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for development and sustenance in most parts of Ethiopia. The Debre Mewi watershed, in northwest Ethiopia, is one of such areas where the need for supplemental water supply through rainwater harvesting is essential. Suitable water harvestin

  16. Registration of ‘AMBERICHO’ a Newly Released Field Pea (Pisum sativum L) Variety for the Southern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Yayis Rezene; Fitsum Alemayehu; Fikadu Gurmu; Fisseha Negash; Bahilu Banteyirgu; Yasin Goa

    2015-01-01

    Ambericho (IG-51664) with a large and white seeded field pea variety was selected and developed by Areka Agricultural Research Center, southern Ethiopia. This variety was selected from the regional variety trial tested together 15 other test genotypes including local and standard checks at 8 environments. Finally the variety was officially released for wider production in the southern highlands of Ethiopia.

  17. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190

  18. The Ethiopian Health Extension Program and Variation in Health Systems Performance: What Matters?

    Netsanet Fetene

    Full Text Available Primary health care services are fundamental to improving health and health equity, particularly in the context of low and middle-income settings where resources are scarce. During the past decade, Ethiopia undertook an ambitious investment in primary health care known as the Ethiopian Health Extension Program that recorded impressive gains in several health outcomes. Despite this progress, substantial disparities in health outcomes persist across the country. The objective of this study was to understand how variation in the implementation of the primary health care efforts may explain differences in key health outcomes.We conducted a qualitative study of higher-performing and lower-performing woredas using site visits and in-depth interviews undertaken in 7 woredas. We classified woredas as higher-performing or lower-performing based on data on 5 indicators. We conducted a total of 94 open-ended interviews; 12-15 from each woreda. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Substantial contrasts were apparent between higher-performing and lower-performing woredas in use of data for problem solving and performance improvement; collaboration and respectful relationships among health extension workers, community members, and health center staff; and coordination between the woreda health office and higher-level regulatory and financing bodies at the zonal and regional levels. We found similarities in what was reported to motivate or demotivate health extension workers and other staff. Additionally, higher-performing and lower-performing woredas shared concerns about hospitals being isolated from health centers and health posts. Participants from both woredas also highlighted a mismatch between the urban health extension program design and the urban-dwelling communities' expectations for primary health care.Data-informed problem solving, respectful and supportive relationships with the community, and

  19. Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia

    New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia

  20. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028

  1. State-Society Relations in Ethiopia: A Political-Economy Perspective of the Post-1991 Order

    Yeshtila Wondemeneh Bekele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses state-society relations in Ethiopia with particular emphasis on the post-1991 period. The objective of the study is to identify and analyse the fundamental factors of state-society relations at the national level: property rights, political representation, and the urban-rural elite cleavage. The article views state-society relations at the local level with reference to perception and practice, taking into account symbols, social control, ability to make decisions and control over the means of violence. The study was conducted in eight purposively selected localities in three administrative regions in Ethiopia. The empirical data was collected at national and local levels using key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a household survey. The analysis shows that state-society relations in Ethiopia are driven by three major factors: property rights, political representations and the urban-rural divide.

  2. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia

    Abebe Fekadu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2% were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8% were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists. Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91 and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98 were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54. Extra

  3. The Effect of Shocks: An Empirical Analysis of Ethiopia

    Yilebes Addisu Damtie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides striving for the increase of production and development, it is also necessary to reduce the losses created by the shocks. The people of Ethiopia are exposed to the impact of both natural and man-made shocks. Following this, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental organizations need to identify the important shocks and their effect and use as an input. This study was conducted to identify the food insecurity shocks and to estimate their effect based on the conceptual framework developed in Ethiopia, Amhara National Regional State of Libo Kemkem District. Descriptive statistical analysis, multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-squared and independent sample t-test were used as a data analysis technique. The results showed eight shocks affecting households which were weather variability, weed, plant insect and pest infestation, soil fertility problem, animal disease and epidemics, human disease and epidemics, price fluctuation problem and conflict. Weather variability, plant insect and pest infestation, weed, animal disease and epidemics created a mean loss of 3,821.38, 886.06, 508.04 and 1,418.32 Birr, respectively. In addition, human disease and epidemics, price fluctuation problem and conflict affected 68.11%, 88.11% and 14.59% of households, respectively. Among the sample households 28,1 % were not able to meet their food need throughout the year while 71,9 % could. The result of the multiple regression models revealed that weed existence (β = –0,142, p < 0,05, plant insect and pest infestation (β = –0,279, p < 0,01 and soil fertility problem (β = –0,321, p < 0,01 had significant effect on income. Asset was found significantly affected by plant insect and pest infestation (β = –0,229, p < 0,01, human disease and epidemics (β = 0,145, p < 0,05, and soil fertility problem (β = –0,317, p < 0,01 while food production was affected by soil fertility problem (β = –0,314, p < 0,01. Binary logistic

  4. Setting up Micro-enterprises to Promote Soybean Utilization at Household Level in Ethiopia

    Blomne Sopov, M.; Sertse, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This project built on the previous work of the Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR in the soy sector development in Ethiopia. As processors were linked more and more to producers in the soy sector, the need arose to explore options to enhance household nutrition security of producers in soy growing areas. One of such option was setting up a pilot microenterprise based on the VitaGoat system at the most successful soy growing cooperative in Ethiopia. The VitaGoat system has been a...

  5. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely populated Gedeo country (500 persons per km 2) covers highlands (range 1200 to 3000m asl) between 5 oand 7 oNorth and 38 oand 40 oEast, in the escarpment of the Rift Valley facing Lake Abaya. Based on perennial cropping, emphasis on tre...

  6. Two distinctive new species of Commicarpus (Nyctaginaceae) from gypsum outcrops in eastern Ethiopia

    Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; Weber, Odile;

    2016-01-01

    During field trips in 2013 and 2014, two distinctive plants belonging to the genus Commicarpus were collected in the Lele Hills, Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia, on outcrops of sedimentary rock belonging to the Gorrahei Formation with high contents of gypsum. The plants are here described as two new....... leleensis, only known from the type, should remain Data Deficient (DD). Outcrops of gypsum with restricted-range species are well known from eastern Ethiopia and Somalia, but the locality with the two new species of Commicarpus is the most north-western and one of the highest sites recorded so far for...

  7. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face intervie...

  8. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a cross-sectional study of 305 breastfed infants aged 5-11 mo and their mothers; a double-blind randomised controlled zinc supplementation trial on growth of 200 breastfed infants aged 6-12 mo for 6...

  9. The impact of parental death on schooling and subjective wellbeing: Evidence from Ethiopia using longitudinal data

    Himaz, Rozana

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the death of a parent during middle childhood affects child schooling and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ethiopia. The data comes from two rounds of the Young Lives survey, conducted in 2002 and 2006, of an initial sample of 1000 children across 20 sentinel sites in Ethiopia. The children were 7 to 8 years of age in 2002 and 11 to 12 years of age in 2006, with around 80 losing a parent between rounds. The research finds that the mother dying reduces school enro...

  10. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  11. Instructional Leadership Practices in Seconday schools of Assosa Zone, Ethiopia

    Kemal Abdurahim Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate instructional leadership practices in secondary schools of Assosa zone, Ethiopia. In order to address the objectives of the study, a descriptive survey method was employed. The population of the study were 266 teachers and 12 principals. From this number of population, 141 teachers and 12 principals were used as a sample using simple random and comprehensive sampling techniques respectively. Data collected from these respondents was analyzed and interpreted using Percentage, one sample t-test, weighted mean and mean ranking. The finding revealed that, among instructional leadership functions, instructional leaders’ role in communicating school goals, supervision and evaluation of instruction, monitoring of school progress, protection of instructional time, maintaining high visibility, are promoting professional development seemed at a level near to average. Whereas, coordination of the curriculum, providing incentive for teachers, and incentive for students were significantly low performed. Based on findings it is concluded that, instructional leadership practices in the zone seem to be poor. On top of the findings, recommendations are forwarded to address the challenges the principals’ faced in their instructional leadership activities mainly focusing on empowering both principals and schools to foster instructional leadership practices in the secondary schools of the zone.

  12. Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    Asfaw, Berhane; Gilbert, W Henry; Beyene, Yonas; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Vrba, Elisabeth S; White, Tim D

    2002-03-21

    The genesis, evolution and fate of Homo erectus have been explored palaeontologically since the taxon's recognition in the late nineteenth century. Current debate is focused on whether early representatives from Kenya and Georgia should be classified as a separate ancestral species ('H. ergaster'), and whether H. erectus was an exclusively Asian species lineage that went extinct. Lack of resolution of these issues has obscured the place of H. erectus in human evolution. A hominid calvaria and postcranial remains recently recovered from the Dakanihylo Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, bear directly on these issues. These approximately 1.0-million-year (Myr)-old Pleistocene sediments contain abundant early Acheulean stone tools and a diverse vertebrate fauna that indicates a predominantly savannah environment. Here we report that the 'Daka' calvaria's metric and morphological attributes centre it firmly within H. erectus. Daka's resemblance to Asian counterparts indicates that the early African and Eurasian fossil hominids represent demes of a widespread palaeospecies. Daka's anatomical intermediacy between earlier and later African fossils provides evidence of evolutionary change. Its temporal and geographic position indicates that African H. erectus was the ancestor of Homo sapiens. PMID:11907576

  13. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  14. Isotope Hydrology Projects in Ethiopia Provide Valuable Information and Training

    Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.

  15. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in staple cereals from Ethiopia.

    Ayalew, Amare; Fehrmann, Hartmut; Lepschy, Johann; Beck, Robert; Abate, Dawit

    2006-07-01

    The occurrence of mycotoxins in barley, sorghum, teff (Eragrostis tef) and wheat from Ethiopia has been studied. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and for fumonisins (FUM) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AFB1 and OTA were detected in samples of all the four crops. AFB1 was detected in 8.8% of the 352 samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from trace to 26 microg kg(-1). OTA occurred in 24.3% of 321 samples at a mean concentration of 54.1 microg kg(-1) and a maximum of 2106 microg kg(-1). DON occurred in barley, sorghum and wheat at 40-2340 microg kg(-1) with an overall incidence of 48.8% among the 84 mainly 'suspect' samples analyzed; NIV was co-analyzed with DON and was detected at 40 microg kg(-1) in a wheat sample and at 50, 380, and 490 microg kg(-1) in three sorghum samples. FUM and ZEN occurred only in sorghum samples with low frequencies at concentrations reaching 2117 and 32 microg kg(-1), respectively. The analytical results indicate higher mycotoxin contamination in sorghum, which could be related to the widespread storage of sorghum grain in underground pits leading to elevated seed moisture contents. This is the first report on the occurrence of OTA in teff. PMID:16830193

  16. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia.

    Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N

    2013-06-25

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965

  17. Fertilizer supply chain in Ethiopia: structure, performance and policy analysis

    Johanes U.I. Agbahey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, less than 40% of farmers use fertilizer and those who do, apply rates significantly below those recommended. This low fertilizer use is primarily due to prices being two to three times higher than prices on the world markets. Reducing the price of fertilizer requires a sound understanding of the product´s supply chain. This study investigates whether fertilizer is delivered to farmers in an efficient way and at the lowest possible costs using an institutional economics framework. It was conducted in the Arsi zone and relied on secondary data as well as primary data collected through interviews. The findings point out the presence of several formal and informal institutions regulating the market. A market monopoly at each stage of the supply chain and a striking correspondence between the central organization of the chain and the rise in left-over stocks were observed. This pinpoints the imperfect structure of the chain and a misallocation of resources locked up in fertilizer stockholding. In order to improve the demand estimation procedure, this study suggests that incentives should be instituted to enhance the reliability of the information transferred along the process. Additionally, expert knowledge used in the process should be well documented, stock inventories should not be limited to central warehouses and stockholding needs to be reduced.

  18. Motor Pump Revolution in Ethiopia: Promises at a Crossroads

    Mengistu Dessalegn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, motor pump irrigation is at an earlier stage than in Asia but is growing rapidly in many countries. The focus of both policy and research in Africa to date has been on facilitating supply chains to make pumps available at a reasonable price. In Africa, pump irrigation is mainly based on two sources: shallow groundwater aquifers and small streams and rivers. Both usually have limited and variable yields. We present a case study from Ethiopia where pump irrigation based on small rivers and streams is expanding rapidly, and draw parallels to experiences in Asia and other African countries. We show that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share with policymakers a narrow understanding of pump irrigation as being primarily 'technical'. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the 'social' limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over the limited water resource. We analyse the wider implications for Africa of this blindness to the social dimension of pump irrigation and offer suggestions on future policy and applied research to address the problem before it becomes a widespread crisis.

  19. In Rural Eastern Ethiopia Hearing Loss Is the Most Frequent Disability during Childhood: A Community Based Survey

    Geda, Biftu; Berhane, Yemane; Assefa, Nega; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Background The type and extent of childhood disability in Ethiopia is unknown due to lack of accurate and reliable data. This study tried to assess the magnitude and types of disabilities among children 0–14 years of age in eastern Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study among households that are under demographic and health surveillance in eastern Ethiopia. The study population consisted of all children aged 0–14 year. A structured questionnaire was used to ass...

  20. Small-scale edible oil milling operations: Alternative business models for Ethiopia

    Sertse, Y.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Danse, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government is aiming to achieve self-sufficiency in edible oil by 2015. The aim of this research was to develop sustainable business models for millers, increase their competitiveness, and enhance food safety and security in Ethiopia within the changing policy context.

  1. 'Beyond the rivers of Ethiopia' : Pentecostal Pan-Africanism and Ghanaian identities in the transnational domain

    Dijk, van R.A.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Rev. Mensa Otabil, the founder of the International Central Gospel Church in Accra, is considered an influential representative of a new Pentecostal-inspired Pan-Africanist ideology. His book 'Beyond the Rivers of Ethiopia' lays the foundations of a Pentecostal Liberation Theology that proclaims a C

  2. First experiences with High Resolution Imagery Based Adjudication Approach for Social Tenure Domain Model in Ethiopia

    Lemmen, C.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Lengoiboni, M.; Deininger, K.; Burns, T.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the so called first phase certificates. These certificates do identify the land holding households (with name etc. and photographs), but lim

  3. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  4. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    Kidane, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Andel, van T.; Asfaw, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Livestock production is an integral part of the agricultural system in Ethiopia. Medicinal plants are used and are important for rural communities for the treatment of livestock diseases. We studied and analysed the traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment

  5. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  6. Soil seed banks in church forests of northern Ethiopia: Implications for the conservation of woody plants

    Wassie, A.; Teketay, D.

    2006-01-01

    Church forests are sanctuaries for different organisms, ranging from microbes to large animals, which have almost disappeared in most parts of northern Ethiopia. Despite the actual and potential significance of these forests, studies and documented information on their bio-physical features and soci

  7. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  8. Environmental concern and its implication to household waste separation and disposal: Evidence from Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2009-01-01

    Proper understanding of the relationship among concern for the environment, waste separation and disposal can contribute to good waste management and safer environment. This is particularly vital in cities of developing countries (such as Ethiopia) where waste separation is poor and there is widespr

  9. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

  10. Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic glasses associated with early Homo sapiens in Ethiopia.

    Morgan, L. E.; Renne, P. R.; Woldegabriel, G.; White, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    In past work at hominid sites in Ethiopia, 40Ar/39Ar dating was used to constrain obsidian from the base of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation to 160 ± 2 ka. An overlying vitric tuff was then geochemically correlated to one from the Konso region of Ethiopia, which is constrained to be older than 154 ± 7 ka, thus leaving only 6 ± 7 ky between eruption and deposition of the fossils and artifacts at Herto. To continue these studies, we have collected and are currently analyzing obsidian and associated volcanic ashes from Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological and paleontological sites in the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Distinctive geochemical signatures among most obsidian fragments collected (n=20 per site) suggest that obsidian was being derived from a variety of sources. By comparing our geochemical data with that from known obsidian deposits in Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa, we hope to determine the source localities for the obsidian and thus gauge the extent of trade networks during the MSA. Thus, by characterizing obsidian using both 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and trace element geochemistry, will make it possible to temporally refine the stratigraphy and prehistory at hominid sites, which in turn improves understanding of hominid behavior and evolution.

  11. Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia

    Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

  12. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  13. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  14. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  15. Interrogating the Continuing Professional Development Policy Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2016-01-01

    The continuing professional development (CPD) of teachers has increasingly come to be considered an important component of teacher policy reforms throughout much of the world. As part of its comprehensive school improvement and teacher development programmes, Ethiopia has recently developed a national policy framework on CPD for teachers. Arguing…

  16. Impediments to Educative Practicum: The Case of Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia

    Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

    2011-01-01

    The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…

  17. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  18. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  19. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  20. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  1. Violence and the crisis of conciliation : Suri, Dizi and the State in south-west Ethiopia

    Abbink, J.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the social and political background of escalating violence between ethnic groups in southwestern Ethiopia who until recently had customary and ritually sanctioned ways of resolving conflict. It focuses on the Maji area, a frontier region inhabited by two indigenous groups - the

  2. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  3. Evaluating sediment storage dams: structural off-site sediment trapping measures in northwest Ethiopia

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Keesstra, S.D.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Ritsema, C.J.; Melesse, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir and lake sedimentation is a vital problem in Ethiopia. Constructing small and medium size dams at the outlets of sub-catchments within larger catchment helps to reduce the transport of sediment downstream to reservoirs or lakes. This study assessed the sediment trapping efficacy (STE) of s

  4. Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The book is the third in a series of publications on useful plants of Ethiopia. It describes 12 spices and condiments and 13 medicinal plants, both from a taxonomic and an agricultural viewpoint.The extensive botanical description of each taxon is accompanied by a full-page drawing, relevant photogr

  5. Field evaluation of a fast anti-Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia

    A. Hailu; G.J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H.D.F.H. Schallig

    2006-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitol

  6. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  7. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (PDemodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. PMID:26872931

  8. Endline report – Ethiopia, HOA-REC MFS II country evaluations

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HOA-REC. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  9. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  10. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may pla

  11. Toolbox for the Development of Cadastral and Registration Proclamation for Second Level Certification Program in Ethiopia

    Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land together with its fixtures is the single most important asset in almost all societies. In Ethiopia land is also playing a pivotal role for sustainable development. Large scale cadastral projects supporting sustainable development and increased investments are planned all over the country as part of the country’s five years growth and transformation plan. But cadastral and registration proclamation is not enacted to facilitate and guide the implementation of cadastral projects. There is a consensus on the importance of cadastral and registration proclamation in Ethiopia, but there is no clear methodology for its development. The purpose of the study was to extend the land administration toolbox RRR edition to guide the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for the implementation of second level certification (mapping of parcels in Ethiopia. Field surveys, focused group discussions, expert panels, and desk work with special emphasis to the review of legal documents and state of the art experiences from other countries, were the major inputs for the study. The toolbox will be used for the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for rural land administration in Ethiopia and may guide the law development in other developing countries with a similar situation.

  12. Federalism and Ethnic Minorities in Ethiopia: Ideology, Territoriality, Human Rights, Policy

    Marco Bassi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1994 Ethiopia has adopted a new constitution, considered one of the most advanced in terms of provisions for human rights. The progressive ratification of several international treaties on minority rights had already begun in 1991, immediately after the fall of the Derg regime. This progress has brought Ethiopia into the UN monitoring system, but the review of the official UN documents reveals the mismatch between the mentioned constitutional and international steps and the on-ground situation. This article considers two possible causes of this gap. The first is the particular form of ethnic federalism, first introduced with the Charter of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia and later developed in the new constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE. The second is the contradiction between the constitutional theory based on the fundamental political freedoms, and the political practice of the ruling party, grounded in revolutionary democracy, a post-Marxist ideology based on the Leninist democratic centralism and on some of the principles of the developmental state. In this article the problems identified by a UN independent expert on minority issues have been reconsidered with reference to the Ethiopian pastoral minorities. Special attention is paid to the controversy on the construction of the Gibe 3 dam along the course of the Omo River. This article claims that minority and indigenous rights are compatible with ethnic federalism as defined in the FDRE constitution, but are in conflict with the praxis inspired by the working ideology of the ruling party.

  13. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and standal

  14. Modelling soil nutrient dynamics under alternative farm management practices in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Abegaz Yimer, A.; Keulen, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural production in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia is low, stagnant or unsustainable. The objectives of this study were to explore long-term dynamics of soil organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and the consequences for crop-available N and P to support the design of sustai

  15. Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation: Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia's South

    Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…

  16. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receiving...

  17. The ecology of large carnivores in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig;

    2013-01-01

    ), leopard (Panthera pardus) and jackal (Canis aureus aureus) in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. The annual mean economic loss per household was approximately U.S.$ 20.2, about 7% of the average annual income of households in the area. Households surveyed reported losses of a total of 3122 livestock to...

  18. Bartonella Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Small Mammals from Ethiopia

    Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros;

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp of the...

  19. Physical activity and capacity at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients in Ethiopia

    Olsen, Mette Frahm; Kæstel, Pernille; Tesfaye, M;

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We described levels of habitual physical activity and physical capacity in HIV patients initiating antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia and assessed the role of HIV and nutritional indicators on these outcomes. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and activity levels were measured...

  20. The Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of Aid and Disaggregated Aid in Ethiopia

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the long-run macroeconomic effects of aid and disaggregated aid flows in Ethiopia, currently the world's largest recipient of official development assistance, for the period 1960-2009. The results show that aid affects gross domestic product (GDP), investment and imports...

  1. Application of field methods to assess isometamidium resistance of trypanosomes in cattle in western Ethiopia

    Tewelde, N.; Abebe, G.; Eisler, M.;

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the degree of isometamidium resistance of trypanosomes infecting cattle in the upper Didessa valley of western Ethiopia. An initial prevalence study was conducted to identify sites with a high risk of trypanosmosis in cattle. The trypanosome prevalence varied widely, with two...

  2. Output-Based Aid in Ethiopia : Dealing with the 'Last Mile' Paradox in Rural Electrification

    Maurer, Luiz; Nonay, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Providing electricity to poor households in rural areas in Ethiopia is critical to improving the health and living conditions of the population, reducing poverty, and stimulating growth. A project supported by the Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA) is accelerating the pace of connections in electrified areas and fostering energy efficiency. The scheme provides a performance-bas...

  3. Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study

    Bewket, W.

    2003-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibi

  4. Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia

    Beshah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the co

  5. Economic impact of foot and mouth disease outbreaks onsmallholder farmers in Ethiopia

    Jemberu, W.T.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Woldehanna, T.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks everyyear. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming sys-tems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment ofthe clinical and direct economic

  6. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  7. Impact of multiple certification on smallholder coffee farmers’ livelihoods: evidence from southern Ethiopia

    Woubie, Amsaya Anteneh; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is – next to petroleum – one of the most valuable agricultural commodities traded at international markets (Arslan and Reicher, 2010; Rodriquez, 2012). Today, coffee remains one of the most important sources of export income for East African nations (i.e. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania

  8. Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Information based on all available sources about full name, nationality, profession, area and period of collection, with whom they are known to have made joint collections, herbaria in which the collections have been deposited etc., for all collectors mentioned in vol. 1-7 of the Flora of Ethiopia...

  9. Plant use among the Suri people of southern Ethiopia : a system of knowledge in danger?

    Abbink, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes some findings of research on plant names and plant use of the Suri people (more widely known by outsiders as "Surma"), a relatively isolated group of agro-pastoralists in the border area of Southwest Ethiopia and Sudan. The research was carried out as part of a long-term anth

  10. Coffee marketing cooperatives and rural poverty alleviation: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia

    Woubie, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia are increasing across time in terms of number, type, and membership size due to the supportive policy environment. In addition, there are also encouraging developments in terms of the consolidation of cooperative unions (second-tier level of organization

  11. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  12. Evaluation of sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali against Fusarium thapsinum

    Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...

  13. Smallholder Milk Market Participation and Intra-household Time Allocation in Ethiopia

    Megersa Lenjiso, Birhanu; Smits, Jeroen; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of smallholder market participation on intra-household time allocation in Ethiopia. We followed 156 households for 2 consecutive days and recorded the time allocated to dairying, domestic chores, schooling, wage work and leisure. Propensity score matching was used to determine t

  14. Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia

    Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic p

  15. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopiaMarket Orientation and Market Participation of Smallholders in Ethiopia: Implications for Commercial Transformation

    Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Tegegne, Azage

    2012-01-01

    The literature on commercial transformation of smallholders makes little distinction between market orientation and market participation. This paper analyzes the determinants of market orientation and market participation in Ethiopia separately and examines if market orientation translates into market participation. Results show that subsistence requirements, market access, and production factors affect market orientation, while market access and volume of production affect market participati...

  16. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development Public Expenditure Review 1997/98–2005/06

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  17. Gender and Governance in Rural Services : Insights from India, Ghana, and Ethiopia

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    As the first output from the gender and governance in rural services project, this report presents descriptive findings and qualitative analysis of accountability mechanisms in agricultural extension and rural water supply in India, Ghana, and Ethiopia, paying specific attention to gender responsiveness. The gender and governance in rural services project seeks to generate policy-relevant ...

  18. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development : Public Expenditure Review for 1997-98 and 2005-06

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  19. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  1. Can a community-based maternal care package in rural Ethiopia increase the use of health facilities for childbirth and reduce the stillbirth rate?

    Ballard, Karen; Atnafu,Habtamu; Belete,Zelalem; Kinfu,Hirut; Tadesse,Mebkyou; Amin, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Habtamu Atnafu, Zelalem Belete, Hirut Kinfu, Mebkyou Tadesse, Mohammed Amin, Karen D Ballard Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaObjective: To measure the impact of a maternal health package on health facility delivery and stillbirth rates.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia where a maternal package was integrated into eight health centers across three regions. The package included trained midwives with a mentoring program, transport fo...

  2. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    S. G. Gebrehiwot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2, in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a special focus on low flows. Moreover, this study aimed to identify variables that may be susceptible to management policies for developing and securing water resources in dry periods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Square (PLS were used to analyze the relationship between five hydrologic response variables (total flow, high flow, low flow, runoff coefficient, low flow index and 30 potential explanatory watershed variables. The explanatory watershed variables were classified into three groups: land use, climate and topography as well as geology and soil type. Each of the three groups had almost equal influence on the variation in hydrologic variables (R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.4. Specific variables from within each of the three groups of explanatory variables were better in explaining the variation. Low flow and low flow index were positively correlated to land use types woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland, whereas grazing land and bush land were negatively correlated. We concluded that extra care for preserving low flow should be taken on tuffs/basalts which comprise 52% of the Blue Nile Basin. Land use management plans should recognize that woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland can promote higher low flows, while grazing land diminishes low flows.

  3. Rinderpest disease and sero-survey in Ethiopia

    Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia

    Tewodros Fantahun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest prevalence was observed from animals greater than 3 years of age, 48 (18.32 % while the lowest, 9 (0.96 % in those one to three years. 18.25% and 11.1% was recorded in female and male animals respectively. The spatial distribution of demodex on shoulder was 8.08 % and 1.04 % on ears and eyes respectively. Production system of semiintensive and extensive managements was found almost affecting similarly with 13.66% and 13.43% respectively. In lime-sulphide treated hides large nodules were prominent with dark contents; small nonprotruding nodules, enlarged openings and ragged depressions near the grain surface were dipcted. In conclusion the highest overall prevalence (15.63% of D. bovis infestation was recorded. This indicates that despite many efforts tried to study infectious diseases prevalence in the study area, demodicosis has been given lesser attention to be treated as a separate health problem. Therefore, Prevention and control measures should be taken rather than treating demodicosis.

  5. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area. PMID:12797409

  6. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    Tilahun M. Hiwotu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories.Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges.Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hoursfor cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star ratinglevels.Results: Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01; and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01,respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% ofthe first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified.Conclusion: Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities.

  7. Successful Implementation of Collective Action and Human-Capacity Building Among Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia: Lessons Learned, 2001-2008

    Coppock, David Layne; Tezera, Seyoum; Desta, Solomon; Gebru, Getachew

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000 the PARIMA project has implemented pilot risk-management activities among poverty-stricken, semi-settled pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. The goal has been to improve human welfare via collective action and capacity building. Outcomes include progress in income generation, asset conservation, and livelihood diversification. The approach has been unique to southern Ethiopia in that a bottom-up, participatory perspective has dominated. It has focused on the priorities and felt need...

  8. Aboveground biomass equations for sustainable production of fuelwood in a native dry tropical afro-montane forest of Ethiopia

    Tesfaye, Mehari Alebachew; Bravo Oviedo, Andrés; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe; Ruiz Peinado, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Biomass equations are needed to correctly quantify harvestable stock and biomass for sustainability efforts in forest management, but this kind of information is scarce in Ethiopia. This study sought to develop biomass models for five of the most common native tree species in the Chilimo dry afro-montane mixed forest in the central highlands of Ethiopia: Allophyllus abyssinicus, Olea europaea ssp.cuspidata, Olinia rochetiana, Rhus glutinosa and Scolopia theifolia. Comparison with generaliz...

  9. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    Tesfaye Setegn; Yihunie Lakew; Kebede Deribe

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representati...

  10. Economic valuation and management of common-pool resources : the case of exclosures in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Balana, Bedru Babulo

    2007-01-01

    Environmental degradation and the deterioration of the natural resource base have become serious problems in Ethiopia. The existing biophysical, environmental and socio-economic indicators provide sufficient testimonies for the severity of the problem of natural resources deterioration in Ethiopia. Most forms of the nation’s environmental problems are directly or indirectly attributable to the rapid dwindling of the country’s vegetation cover and the consequent degradation of its land resourc...

  11. Determinants of farmers' tree planting investment decision as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    B. Gessesse; W. Bewket; A. Bräuning

    2015-01-01

    Land degradation due to lack of sustainable land management practices are one of the critical challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia. This study explores the major determinants of farm level tree planting decision as a land management strategy in a typical framing and degraded landscape of the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. The main data were generated from household surveys and analysed using descriptive statistics and bin...

  12. Effects of land use changes on soil quality and native flora degradation and restoration in the highlands of Ethiopia

    Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2004-01-01

    Land degradation is threatening biological resources and agricultural productivity, the mainstay of the economy in Ethiopia. Ensuring sustainable food and biomass supply while maintaining ecological integrity in Ethiopia requires two imperative efforts: (i) the sustainable use of productive land resources, and (ii) effective regeneration of degraded ecosystems. This thesis aims to (i) identify trends in soil quality and native flora degradation due to deforestation and subsequent cultivation ...

  13. Quality of medicines commonly used in the treatment of soil transmitted helminths and giardia in ethiopia: a nationwide survey.

    Sultan Suleman; Gemechu Zeleke; Habtewold Deti; Zeleke Mekonnen; Luc Duchateau; Bruno Levecke; Jozef Vercruysse; Matthias D'Hondt; Evelien Wynendaele; Bart De Spiegeleer

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of poor quality medicines in the market is a global threat on public health, especially in developing countries. Therefore, we assessed the quality of two commonly used anthelminthic drugs [mebendazole (MEB) and albendazole (ALB)] and one antiprotozoal drug [tinidazole (TNZ)] in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal Findings: A multilevel stratified random sampling, with as strata the different levels of supply chain system in Ethiopia, geographic areas and government/priva...

  14. Community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia

    Seyoum, Ayichew

    2016-01-01

    Ayichew Seyoum,1 Kedir Urgessa,1 Tesfaye Gobena2 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Ethiopia constitutes approximately 1% of the world’s population but it contributes to 7% of the world’s HIV/AIDS cases. Malaria is the most important disease of humans in terms of mortality, morbidity, and long-term effects upon quality of life, esp...

  15. Determinants for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia: a multicentre case–control study

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Awoke, Worku; Wilder-Smith, Annalies

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify determinants for tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults in Northwest Ethiopia. Design Case–control study. Setting Three hospitals and 10 health centres in Northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 446 individuals consented to participate in the study (150 cases and 296 controls). Cases were HIV-infected adults diagnosed with active TB, and controls were HIV-infected adults without active TB. Main outcome measure The link between TB ...

  16. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    Lema, Tefera Belachew; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified ran...

  17. Retention in Care of Adult HIV Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    Bucciardini, Raffaella; Fragola, Vincenzo; Abegaz, Teshome; Lucattini, Stefano; Halifom, Atakilt; Tadesse, Eskedar; Berhe, Micheal; Pugliese, Katherina; Binelli, Andrea; De Castro, Paola; Terlizzi, Roberta; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Olivieri, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Ethiopia has been scaling up the antiretroviral therapy (ART) services, low retention in care of patients remains one of the main obstacles to treatment success. We report data on retention in care and its associated determinants in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods We used data from the CASA project, a prospective observational and multi-site study of a cohort of HIV-infected patients who initiated ART for the first time in Tigray. Four participating health facilities (HFs) loc...

  18. Addressing the neglected tropical disease podoconiosis in northern Ethiopia: lessons learned from a new community podoconiosis program

    Tomczyk, Sara; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite its great public health importance, few control initiatives addressing podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis, a geochemical neglected tropical disease) exist. In June 2010, the first podoconiosis program in Northern Ethiopia, consisting of prevention, awareness, and care and support activities, began in Debre Markos, Northern Ethiopia. This study aims to document and disseminate the lessons learned from a new community podoconiosis program in Debre Markos. Method...

  19. Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and dissipation of the resource rent. An alternative to this is assigning a private property institution. In this paper, we examine the consumer welfare effects of a change in the institutional setting on ...

  20. Global and EU governance for sustainable forest management with special reference to capacity building in Ethiopia and Southern Sudan

    Husgafvel, Roope

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce information on and practical recommendations for informed decision-making on and capacity building for sustainable forest management (SFM) and good forest governance. This was done within the overall global framework for sustainable development with special emphasis on the EU and African frameworks and on Southern Sudan and Ethiopia in particular. The case studies on Southern Sudan and Ethiopia focused on local, national and regional issues. Moreover, ...

  1. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    Debere Mesfin Kote; Gelaye Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa Zemedu Mehamed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using s...

  2. Seroprevalence of syphilis among HIV-infected individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Eticha, Begna Tulu; Sisay, Zufan; Alemayehu, Addisu; Shimelis, Techalew

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among people with HIV at a hospital in Ethiopia. Design A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting This study was conducted at one of the largest public hospitals in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia. Participants A consecutive 306 HIV-positive patients were recruited prospectively from January to March 2010. For comparative purposes, 224 HIV-negative consecutive attendees at the voluntary counselling and testing centre in the s...

  3. Voices on adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda: A matter of choice or simply not an option?

    Gusdal, Annelie Karin; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlström, Rolf; Tomson, Göran; Peterson, Stefan; Ekstrom, Anna Mia; Thorson, Anna; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper explores HIV patients? adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited contexts in Uganda and Ethiopia where ART is provided free of charge. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counsellors and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Interviewees voiced their experiences of, and views on ART adherence both from an individual and a system level perspective. Two main...

  4. The governance of service delivery for the poor and women: A study of rural water supply in Ethiopia

    Mogues, Tewodaj; Cohen, Marc J.; Birner, Regina; Lemma, Mamusha; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Tadesse, Fanaye; Paulos, Zelekawork

    2009-01-01

    This study presents empirical findings on drinking water supply in Ethiopia from a set of qualitative and quantitive surveys on rural public services. Access to safe drinking water is very low: 32% of the surveyed households use safe drinking water sources, and the average time to get to safe water sources during dry season ranged from 29 minutes to 82 minutes. The households covered in the Ethiopia survey may still have better access than the national average. Households identify drinking wa...

  5. In-situ Conservation of wild forest coffee-Exploring the potential of participatory forest management in south west Ethiopia

    Tolera, Motuma; Lemenih, Mulugeta; O'Hara, Peter; Wood, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the gene pool of Coffea arabica in the forests of South West Ethiopia, where this plant evolved and has its genetic hearth, is a challenge of global importance. Participatory Forest Management (PFM) and Biosphere Reserves (BR) are among the various initiatives being tested to maintain this forest and its biodiversity that includes major stands of wild Arabica coffee. This paper makes a comparative analysis of PFM and BR approaches to conservation as applied in Ethiopia. While BR l...

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students’ cafeteria, South Ethiopia. Method A cross sectiona...

  7. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    Tefera Belachew; David Lindstrom; Abebe Gebremariam; Dennis Hogan; Carl Lachat; Lieven Huybregts; Patrick Kolsteren

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified ran...

  8. Travel history and malaria infection risk in a low-transmission setting in Ethiopia: a case control study

    Yukich Joshua O; Taylor Cameron; Eisele Thomas P; Reithinger Richard; Nauhassenay Honelgn; Berhane Yemane; Keating Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria remains the leading communicable disease in Ethiopia, with around one million clinical cases of malaria reported annually. The country currently has plans for elimination for specific geographic areas of the country. Human movement may lead to the maintenance of reservoirs of infection, complicating attempts to eliminate malaria. Methods An unmatched case–control study was conducted with 560 adult patients at a Health Centre in central Ethiopia. Patients who receiv...

  9. Addressing the Neglected Tropical Disease Podoconiosis in Northern Ethiopia: Lessons Learned from a New Community Podoconiosis Program

    Sara Tomczyk; Abreham Tamiru; Gail Davey

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite its great public health importance, few control initiatives addressing podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis, a geochemical neglected tropical disease) exist. In June 2010, the first podoconiosis program in Northern Ethiopia, consisting of prevention, awareness, and care and support activities, began in Debre Markos, Northern Ethiopia. This study aims to document and disseminate the lessons learned from a new community podoconiosis program in Debre Markos. Method...

  10. Negotiating gender and sexuality in the HIV/AIDS discourse in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Contradictions and paradoxes.

    Zenebe, Mulumebet

    2006-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has been recognized as the most pressing national health problem in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Zenebe argues that HIV/AIDS prevention programs in Ethiopia are not producing expected results because they are not based on understanding the distinctive characteristics of the people’s sexual cultures shaped by relations of power, by history, and by differentiated traditions within the particular society. The focus of the thesis is on how dominant medical discourses about prevention ...

  11. Improved HIV Awareness and Perceived Empowerment to Negotiate Safe Sex among Married Women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011

    De Coninck, Zaake; Ibrahim A Feyissa; Ekström, Anna Mia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The HIV prevalence rate in Ethiopia for married (or cohabiting) women is 3 times that found amongst women who have never been married. While marriage used to be seen as a protective factor against HIV, evidence suggests that this is no longer necessarily the case. This study analyses the trend and socio-demographic determinants of HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation among married women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011. Methods Data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey...

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of stunting among primary school children in Eastern Ethiopia

    Mesfin F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Firehiwot Mesfin,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Stunting is a serious impediment to child survival and developing a full learning capacity. Despite several decades of efforts, stunting remained a major public health concern in Ethiopia. Thus, periodic assessment of the factors associated with stunting is imperative.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age children in Eastern Ethiopia. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures. A child was identified as stunted if height-for-age z score is <−2 standard deviations of the median of the reference population. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Clustering of stunting within schools was controlled during analysis using cluster option in STATA syntax.Results: The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6–10.3; of which 2% had severe stunting. The risk of stunting was 1.71 times greater for children born to working mothers than those born to housewives (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.71; 95% CI: 1.08–2.72. Those children whose families did not use a bed net in their home were 1.76 times more likely to be stunted as children than those whose families used insecticide-treated nets (AOR =1.76; 95% CI: 1.22–2.52. Moreover, the risk of stunting was 1.59 times greater for children who had suffered from illness within the last 2 weeks than children who were apparently healthy (AOR =1.59; 95% CI: 1.04–2.40. On the other hand, the risk of stunting was 30% lower for children born to an older mother than a younger one.Conclusion: Stunting, which is indicative of chronic

  13. Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia

    Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was

  14. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  15. Why do women prefer home births in Ethiopia?

    Shiferaw Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skilled attendants during labor, delivery, and in the early postpartum period, can prevent up to 75% or more of maternal death. However, in many developing countries, very few mothers make at least one antenatal visit and even less receive delivery care from skilled professionals. The present study reports findings from a region where key challenges related to transportation and availability of obstetric services were addressed by an ongoing project, giving a unique opportunity to understand why women might continue to prefer home delivery even when facility based delivery is available at minimal cost. Methods The study took place in Ethiopia using a mixed study design employing a cross sectional household survey among 15–49 year old women combined with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Seventy one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a health professional (doctor, health officer, nurse, or midwife for their most recent birth in the one year preceding the survey. Overall only 16% of deliveries were assisted by health professionals, while a significant majority (78% was attended by traditional birth attendants. The most important reasons for not seeking institutional delivery were the belief that it is not necessary (42% and not customary (36%, followed by high cost (22% and distance or lack of transportation (8%. The group discussions and interviews identified several reasons for the preference of traditional birth attendants over health facilities. Traditional birth attendants were seen as culturally acceptable and competent health workers. Women reported poor quality of care and previous negative experiences with health facilities. In addition, women’s low awareness on the advantages of skilled attendance at delivery, little role in making decisions (even when they want, and economic constraints during referral contribute to the low level of service utilization. Conclusions The study

  16. Retinal detachment in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based prospective study.

    Tsedeke Asaminew

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5% had retinal detachment (RD and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5. Fourteen patients (17.5% had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9% were blind from RD and 11 (13.8% patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5% and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%. The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%, myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%, posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8% and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%. Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1% were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%. Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9% and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011, and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040. CONCLUSIONS: A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.

  17. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  18. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    Mutlu Ozdogan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 m elevation to the hot and dry Blue Nile gorge that includes areas below 1000 m elevation, and contain a diversity of slope forms and soil types. This physical diversity and accompanying socio-economic contrasts demand diverse strategies for enhanced climate resilience and adaptation to climate change. To support development of locally appropriate climate resilience strategies across the Blue Nile Highlands, we present here an agroecosystem analysis of Choke Mountain, under the premise that the agroecosystem—the intersection of climatic and physiographic conditions with agricultural practices—is the most appropriate unit for defining adaptation strategies in these primarily subsistence agriculture communities. To this end, we present two approaches to agroecosystem analysis that can be applied to climate resilience studies in the Choke Mountain watersheds and, as appropriate, to other agroecologically diverse regions attempting to design climate adaptation strategies. First, a full agroecoystem analysis was implemented in collaboration with local communities. It identified six distinct agroecosystems that differ systematically in constraints and adaptation potential. This analysis was then paired with an objective landscape classification trained to identify agroecosystems based on climate and physiographic setting alone. It was found that the distribution of Choke Mountain watershed agroecosystems can, to first order, be explained as a function of

  19. A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia

    In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

  20. Biofuels for a Greener Economy? Insights from Jatropha Production in Northeastern Ethiopia

    Brigitte Portner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many observers view Jatropha as a miracle plant that grows in harsh environments, halts land degradation and provides seeds for fuel production. This makes it particularly attractive for use in Ethiopia, where poverty levels are high and the degradation of agricultural land is widespread. In this article, we investigate the potentials and limitations of a government-initiated Jatropha project for smallholders in northeastern Ethiopia from a green economy perspective. Data are based on a 2009 household survey and interviews with key informants, as well as on a 2012 follow-up round of interviews with key informants. We conclude that the project has not contributed to a greener economy so far, but has the potential to do so in the future. To maximize Jatropha’s potential, interventions must focus mainly on smallholders and pay more attention to the entire biofuel value chain.

  1. Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia

    Awol, Nesibu; Kiros, Semere; Tsegaye, Yisehak; Ali, Mohammed; Hadush, Birhanu

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p 0.05). The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry. PMID:25568694

  2. Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia

    Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba; Aseffa, Abraham;

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited....

  3. Why use ROSCAs when you can use banks? Theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    Kedir, Abbi M.; Disney, Richard; Dasgupta, Indraneel

    2011-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on the use of informal credit arrangements such as ROSCAs (Rotating and Credit Saving Associations) theorises the use of such institutions as arising from market failures in the development of formal saving and credit mechanisms. As economic development proceeds, formal institutions might therefore be expected to displace ROSCAs. We show, using household data for Ethiopia, that in fact use of formal institutions and ROSCAs can co-exist, even in the same househo...

  4. Why use ROSCAs when you can use the banks? Theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    Kedir, Abbi; Disney, Richard; Dasgupta, Indraneel

    2011-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on the use of informal credit arrangements such as ROSCAs (Rotating and Credit Saving Associations) theorises the use of such institutions as arising from market failures in the development of formal saving and credit mechanisms. As economic development proceeds, formal institutions might therefore be expected to displace ROSCAs. We show, using household data for Ethiopia, that in fact use of formal institutions and ROSCAs can co-exist, even in the same househo...

  5. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Giday Mirutse; Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2007-01-01

    Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fideli...

  6. Developing and optimizing processes for biological nitrogen removal from tannery wastewaters in Ethiopia

    Leta, Seyoum

    2004-01-01

    In Ethiopia industrial effluents containing high contents of organic matter, nitrogen and heavy metals are discharged into inland surface waters with little or no pre-treatment. Significant pollution concerns related to these effluents include dissolved oxygen depletion, toxicity and eutrophication of the receiving waters. This has not only forced the government to formulate regulations and standards for discharge limits but also resulted in an increasing interest and development of methods a...

  7. Costs of Implementing Collective Action and Capacity Building Among Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia

    Coppock, David Layne; Tezera, Seyoum; Desta, Solomon

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, the PARIMA project has implemented risk-management activities among semi-settled pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. The goal has been to improve human welfare via collective action and capacity building. Outcomes include progress in income generation, asset conservation, and livelihood diversification. Fifty-nine collective-action groups were created. Dominated by women, they included over 2,000 founding members and groups have recently merged to form 37 cooperatives, consistent w...

  8. Assessing Sediment-Nutrient Export Rate and Soil Degradation in Mai-Negus Catchment, Northern Ethiopia

    Gebreyesus Brhane Tesfahunegn; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2013-01-01

    Even though soil degradation challenges sustainable development, the use of degradation indicators such as nutrient export (NE) and nutrient replacement cost is not well documented at landform level. This study is aimed to investigate the extent of soil degradation, NE rates, and their replacement cost across landforms in the Mai-Negus catchment, northern Ethiopia. Different erosion-status sites (aggrading, stable, and eroded) in the landforms were identified, and soil samples were randomly c...

  9. Health Sector Initiatives for Disaster Risk Management in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventi...

  10. Survey of Safety Practices Among Hospital Laboratories in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    Sewunet, Tsegaye; Kebede, Wakjira; Wondafrash, Beyene; Workalemau, Bereket; Abebe, Gemeda

    2014-01-01

    Background Unsafe working practices, working environments, disposable waste products, and chemicals in clinical laboratories contribute to infectious and non-infectious hazards. Staffs, the community, and patients are less safe. Furthermore, such practices compromise the quality of laboratory services. We conducted a study to describe safety practices in public hospital laboratories of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Method Randomly selected ten public hospital laboratories in Oromia Regiona...

  11. Land Acquisitions, the Politics of Dispossession, and State-Remaking in Gambella, Western Ethiopia

    Fana Gebresenbet; Institute for Peace and Security Studies, Addis Ababa University

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that development through large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) in Gambella, western Ethiopia, belies a state-remaking project under a dispossessive political economy. This argument is based on fieldwork in Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Minneapolis and is situated within the broader development agenda pursued by Ethiopia’s ruling party. The political economy of LSLAs tells us that the deals are not occurring in a predominantly economic manner; rather, extra-economic state interv...

  12. Uncertain emission reductions from forest conservation: REDD in the Bale mountains, Ethiopia

    Charlene Watson; Susana Mourato; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exem...

  13. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus in Ethiopia.

    Hundie, Gadissa Bedada; Raj, V Stalin; Michael, Daniel Gebre; Pas, Suzan D; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; Smits, Saskia L; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-06-01

    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is hyperendemic in Ethiopia and constitutes a major public health problem, little is known about its genetic diversity, genotypes, and circulation. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of HBV in Ethiopia, using 391 serum samples collected from HBsAg-positive blood donors living in five different geographic regions. The HBV S/pol gene was amplified, sequenced, and HBV genotypes, subgenotypes, serotypes, and major hydrophilic region (MHR) variants were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of 371 samples (95%) revealed the distribution of genotypes A (78%) and D (22%) in Ethiopia. Further phylogenetic analysis identified one subgenotype (A1) within genotype A, and 4 subgenotypes within genotype D (D1; 1.3%, D2; 55%, D4; 2.5%, and D6; 8.8%). Importantly, 24 isolates (30%) of genotype D formed a novel phylogenetic cluster, distinct from any known D subgenotypes, and two A/D recombinants. Analysis of predicted amino-acid sequences within the HBsAg revealed four serotypes: adw2 (79%), ayw1 (3.1%), ayw2 (7.8%), and ayw3 (11.6%). Subsequent examination of sequences showed that 51 HBV isolates (14%) had mutations in the MHR and 8 isolates (2.2%) in the reverse transcriptase known to confer antiviral resistance. This study provides the first description of HBV genetic diversity in Ethiopia with a predominance of subgenotypes A1 and D2, and also identified HBV isolates that could represent a novel subgenotype. Furthermore, a significant prevalence of HBsAg variants in Ethiopian population is revealed. J. Med. Virol. 88:1035-1043, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26629781

  14. Development of a Community-Based Rehabilitation Intervention for People with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia

    Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Hanlon, Charlotte; Mideksa, Gemechu; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; De Silva, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is a multi-sectoral strategy to improve the functioning and quality of life of people with disabilities. The RISE (Rehabilitation Intervention for people with Schizophrenia in Ethiopia) trial will evaluate the effectiveness of CBR for people with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the components of CBR that are both feasible and likely to prove effective in low and middle-income countries such as Ethiopia are unclear. Methods In this study intervention development work was undertaken to design a CBR intervention that is acceptable and feasible in the local context. The development work consisted of five phases. 1: Identify potential components of CBR for schizophrenia, 2: Situational analysis, 3: Determine feasibility of CBR (Theory of Change workshops with experts and local stakeholders), 4: Determine acceptability of CBR (16 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with people with schizophrenia, caregivers, health workers and community leaders) and 5: Synthesise results to finalise intervention. A Theory of Change map was constructed showing the causal pathway for how we expect CBR to achieve its impact. Results People with schizophrenia in rural Ethiopia experience family conflict, difficulty participating in work and community life, and stigma. Stakeholders perceived CBR to be acceptable and useful to address these problems. The focus of CBR will be on the individual developing the skills and confidence to perform their previous or desired roles and activities. To ensure feasibility, non-health professionals will be trained to deliver CBR and provide supervision, rather than mental health specialists. Novel components of CBR for schizophrenia included family intervention and dealing with distressing symptoms. Microfinance was excluded due to concerns about stress and exploitation. Community mobilisation was viewed as essential to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of CBR. Conclusion

  15. The relationship between rural livelihoods and livestock keeping: the case of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Woldeyohannes, Bezalem Sinote

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between rural livelihoods and livestock keeping in Sidama Zones, southern Ethiopia. The livelihood context, assets and strategies of households are the key features of rural livelihoods considered in the study; while households’ livestock ownership, dependence on livestock and livestock management are the main aspects of livestock keeping examined. The study used the sustainable livelihood approach as a framework for data collection and analysis. Describin...

  16. SHIFTING TO ALTERNATIVE FOOD SOURCE: POTENTIAL TO OVERCOME ETHIOPIAS' MALNUTRITION AND POVERTY PROBLEMS

    Gelmesa, Dandena

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5 International audience The currently population of more than 70 million people in Ethiopia is expected to double within the next 30 years. Almost 80% of the populations are living in the countryside while the rest situated in urban area. An estimated five million people are suffering from lack of vitamins and essential minerals, of which 80% are children for the next generation. Every year, on the average, about five million people have problems securing enou...

  17. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, 2004–2014

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariyam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection causing large outbreaks all over the world. Despite the availability of safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remained endemic with persistent periodic outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. The aim of this study is to characterize laboratory confirmed measles cases in Amhara Regional State, which was one of the highly affected regions in Ethiopia. Method A suspected measles case was defined as any person presenting with fever, maculopapu...

  18. The Future in Mind: Aspirations and Forward-Looking Behaviour in Rural Ethiopia

    Stefan Dercon; Tanguy Bernard; Kate Orkin; Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse

    2014-01-01

    Poor people often do not make investments, even when returns are high. One possible explanation is that they have low aspirations and form mental models which ignore some options for investment. This paper reports on findings of an innovative experiment to test this in rural Ethiopia. Firstly, individuals were randomly invited to watch documentaries about people from similar communities who had succeeded in agriculture or small business, without help from government or NGOs. A placebo group w...

  19. Dynamics and Drivers of Consumption and Multidimensional Poverty: Evidence from Rural Ethiopia

    Brück, Tilman; Workneh Kebede, Sindu

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore poverty measures, its dynamics and determinants using Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) and consumption poverty. Our results show that the two measures assign similar poverty status to about 52 percent of households and that both approaches confirm poverty is mainly transient in rural Ethiopia. However, we find that the trend in adjusted head count poverty is different when using these two poverty measures. In terms of determinants of poverty dynamics, we find th...

  20. Assessment of antiretroviral treatment (ART) care service provision in Tigray Region health centers, North Ethiopia

    Tessema, Shewaye Belay; Adane, Mesafint Molla

    2015-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction is a vital component and main concern intertwined with strategic decisions in service provisions. To improve efficiency of services, eliciting the opinion of users about the available services and identifying factors associated with dissatisfaction is very critical. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the perceived levels of clients’ satisfaction with health services at ART clinic level in health centres of Tigray Region in Ethiopia. Methods Cro...

  1. Persistent Soil Seed Banks for Natural Rehabilitation of Dry Tropical Forests in Northern Ethiopia

    Gebrehiwot, K; HEYN, M; Reubens, B; Hermy, M.; Muys, B.

    2007-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute ...

  2. A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia.

    Bekele-Tesemma, A.

    1997-01-01

    The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number of reasons for the failure. Methodical and technological problems are evident. Exclusion of farmers and the...

  3. The lived experience of patients regarding patients' rights practice at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia

    Berhane A; Enquselassie F

    2016-01-01

    Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experi...

  4. Towards an optimal integrated reservoir system management for the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    Müller, Ruben; Gebretsadik, Henok Y.; Schütze, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Kessem–Tendaho project is completed to bring about socioeconomic development and growth in the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. To support reservoir Koka, two new reservoirs where built together with extensive infrastructure for new irrigation projects. For best possible socioeconomic benefits under conflicting management goals, like energy production at three hydropower stations and basin wide water supply at various sites, an integrated reservoir system managemen...

  5. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    KEY ISSUES Context: Ethiopia’s investment-led development strategy has delivered robust growth and progress toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Restrained fiscal and monetary policies have helped maintain macroeconomic stability, although the financing mode of the continuing large-scale investment through public enterprises could risk undermining macroeconomic stability. A cautious policy stance will be critical in preserving the recent gains. Focus of the consultation: The discussi...

  6. Ethiopia: Social dynamics of abandonment of harmful practices. Experiences in four locations

    Haile Gabriel Dagne

    2009-01-01

    Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is still a widespread practice in Ethiopia, although important declines in prevalence rates can be observed in some areas of the country. Attitudes towards the practice have drastically changed, evidenced by the fact that overall support for FGM/C has declined and younger mothers are less likely than older mothers to have their daughters cut. This paper provides an analysis of the social dynamics of...

  7. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

  8. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  9. Environmental Education about, in and for the Environment : The case of two secondary schools in Ethiopia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Ethiopia is one of the most severely affected climate change prone countries and among the most at risk in future consequences of climate change and related disasters, such as land degradation, deforestation, drought, rainfall variability and climate borne disease (Bangay, C. and Blum, N., 2010). Thus, education as one of the tools to combat various environment related problems, to assess what is being done in education particularly as to how climate related problem...

  10. A Rural-Urban Comparison of Manufacturing Enterprise Performance in Ethiopia

    Rijkers, Bob; Soderbom, Mans; Loening, Josef L.

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing enterprises in rural and urban Ethiopia are compared to examine how location and investment climate characteristics affect performance. Urban firms are larger, more capital intensive and have higher labor productivity than rural firms, yet there is no strong evidence of increasing returns to scale. The hypothesis that firms in rural towns have the same average total factor productivity as urban firms is not rejected; however, firms in remote rural areas are less productive. Rura...

  11. Property Rights, Institutions and Source of Fuel Wood in Rural Ethiopia

    Abebe Damte; Steven F. Koc

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between property rights, defined by land tenure security and the strength of local-level institutions, and household demand for fuel wood, as measured by the source from which fuel wood is collected. A multinomial regression model is applied to survey data collected in rural Ethiopia. Results from the discrete choice model indicate that active local-level institutions increase household dependency on open access forests, while land security reduces open ac...

  12. Protein quality of amaranth grains cultivated in Ethiopia as affected by popping and fermentation

    2015-01-01

    The effect of popping and fermentation on protein quality of three different varieties of amaranth grains cultivated in Ethiopia was evaluated. Total lysine content of the grains was higher than that of commonly available cereals but close to that of legumes. Methionine and cysteine contents in the grains were also higher than that found in cereal and legume proteins. Percentage of total indispensable amino acids, excluding tryptophan, was 43% - 49%, which was higher than WHO reference patter...

  13. Mobile Services and ICT4D, To the Network Economy - Bridging the Digital Divide, Ethiopia's Case

    Jebessa, Naod Duga; Alemayehu, Henok Getachew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a development paradigm for Ethiopia, based on appropriate services and innovative use of mobile communications technologies via applications tailored for sectors like business, finance, healthcare, governance, education and infotainment. The experience of other developing countries like India and Kenya is cited so as to adapt those to the Ethiopian context. Notable application areas in the aforementioned sectors have been outlined. The ETC 'next generation network' is take...

  14. Health at the borders: Bayesian multilevel analysis of women’s malnutrition determinants in Ethiopia

    Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Altare, Chiara; Masquelier, Bruno; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women’s malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women’s nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women’s nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health.Objective: To investigate the impact of living close to borders ...

  15. Multi-stakeholder Platforms Strengthening Selection and use of Fodder Options in Ethiopia: Lessons and Challenges

    Ergano, K.; Duncan, A; Adie, A.; Tedla, A.; Woldewahid, G.; Ayele, Z.; Berhanu, G.; Alemayehu, N.

    2010-01-01

    Although existing literature eloquently elaborates the role of an “innovation systems perspective” in rural development and provides theoretical insights into the concepts of the approach, there are few practical lessons emerging from application of the approach in research for development projects in various contexts. This paper analyzes a project designed to strengthen the ability of smallholders to innovate in ways that improved the returns to fodder use in Ethiopia. The paper applies an i...

  16. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  17. Study on Identification of Gaps and Intervention Needs of Smallholder Organic Farmers in Ethiopia

    Ferede, Addisu

    2013-01-01

    A study on identification and analysis of the major gaps of smallholder organic farmers of Ethiopia in terms of technical, technological, institutional and financial is conducted in year 2011 in order to develop strategic programme that fill the gaps of organic producers. In order to make the study both primary and secondary information were collected through questionnaire, desk review, field visit, key informative interviews and group discussion. The study covered 80 respondents from 14 coop...

  18. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia: Wage premiums and segmentation

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Peter Gibbon

    2014-01-01

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous sw...

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in fish from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia : Insights from stable isotope analysis

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    The levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals were studied in muscle and liver of three fish species, with two trophic levels, from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia. DDTs were the predominant organic pollutant in all species with a maximum level of 73.28 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). p,p'-DDE was the predominate congener and showed a significant (p

  20. Antenatal Care Strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia: A Mixed-Method Needs Assessment

    Sarah Fredsted Villadsen; Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl; Dereje Negussie; Abebe GebreMariam; Abebech Tilahun; Henrik Friis; Vibeke Rasch

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

    Robberstad Bjarne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.

  2. Exploring spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis

    Haile, Demewoz; Azage, Muluken; Mola, Tegegn; Rainey, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting reflects a failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period of time. Stunting is associated with adverse functional consequences including poor cognition, low educational performance, low adult wages, and poor reproductive outcomes. The objective of the study was to investigate spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia. Methods This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A t...

  3. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and practice of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia

    Yewhalaw Delenasaw; Yineger Haile; Teketay Demel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge and use by traditional healers in southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Data were collected from 45 randomly selected traditional healers using semi-structured interviews and observations. Sixty-seven ethnomedicinal plant species used by traditional healers to manage 51 different human ailments were identified and documented. Healers' indigenous knowledge was positively cor...

  4. Aspects of the growth and health of the suckling and weanling infant in Ethiopia

    Almedom, Astier M.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis examines inter-relationships between the feeding, health, and growth of infants (aged 0-24 months) in low-income households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Mixed-longitudinal data were collected from a sample of 113 infants and their mothers in Kebele 11, Keftegna 24 from November 1987 to April 1988. Breastfeeding is the culturally esteemed mode of infant feeding. The culture-specific concept of weaning places the emphasis on the termination of breastfeeding, with ...

  5. Factors associated with prelacteal feeding in North Eastern Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study

    Bililign, Nigus; Kumsa, Henok; Mulugeta, Mussie; Sisay, Yetnayet

    2016-01-01

    Background In spite of the negative impact of prelacteal feeding on the growth and development of children, it is widely practiced in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess prelacteal feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of children aged less than 24 months in the North Wello zone. Methods A quantitative community based cross-sectional study was employed during March 2015. Eight hundred and forty four (844) mother-child pairs were selected by multi-stage sampling technique. Da...

  6. Psychological distress and its effect on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Ethiopia

    Habteyes Hailu Tola; Davoud Shojaeizadeh; Gholamreza Garmaroudi; Azar Tol; Mir Saeed Yekaninejad; Luche Tadesse Ejeta; Abebaw Kebede; Mehrdad Karimi; Desta Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological distress is the major comorbidity among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, its magnitude, associated factors, and effect on treatment outcome have not been adequately studied in low-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological distress and its effect on treatment outcome among TB patients on treatment. Design: A follow-up study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from May to December 2014. Patients (N=330) diagnosed ...

  7. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Mulat Yimer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders.

  8. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review.

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-06-01

    Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders. PMID:26119541

  9. Landscape genetics and behavioural ecology of mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) in the Southern highlands of Ethiopia

    2013-01-01

    Many African wildlife species are at risk of extinction as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation associated with human influence. Among these is the endangered antelope, mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), endemic to the highlands of southern Ethiopia. I implemented a multidisciplinary approach, including geographic information system (GIS), satellite image analysis and non-invasive genetics to provide basic knowledge required for the conservation this species. My study reveals new ins...

  10. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-01-01

    Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman), are examples of...

  11. Comparing avifauna communities and bird functional diversity of forest and farmland in southwest Ethiopia

    Engelen, Dries

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide degradation and conversion of tropical forests affects many species and their provided ecosystem services. Among them are birds, responsible for pollination, seed dispersal, pest control and scavenging. This study, conducted in southwest Ethiopia, compares species composition and bird functional diversity between forest and homegardens close to and far from forest, both in terms of species numbers and bird abundances. Point counts and mist netting were used to obtain data. While the...

  12. Biodiversity And Livelihoods In Southwestern Ethiopia: Forest Loss And Prospects For Conservation In Shade Coffee Agroecosystems

    Eshete, Getachew Tadesse

    2013-01-01

    The Ethiopian southwest is a global origin for Arabica coffee which is the second most traded global commodity after petroleum; and the most important agricultural commodity for Ethiopia. The region is also a global center of crop domestication and diversification with ancient and diverse social and agricultural systems, languages, and cultural groups. People have been here possibly longer than anywhere on Earth and have longer history of interactions with their natural environment, so they r...

  13. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    Teklay, Abraha; Abera, Balcha; Giday, Mirutse

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between...

  14. Household Tree Planting in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia: Tree Species, Purposes, and Determinants

    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; Mekonnen, Alemu; Kassie, Menale; Köhlin, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Trees have multiple purposes in rural Ethiopia, providing significant economic and ecological benefits. Planting trees supplies rural households with wood products for their own consumption, as well for sale, and decreases soil degradation. We used cross-sectional household-level data to analyze the determinants of household tree planting and explored the most important tree attributes or purpose(s) that enhance the propensity to plant trees. We set up a sample selection framework that simult...

  15. Impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Mekonnen, Alemu; Ghebru, Hosaena; Holden, Stein; Kassie, Menale

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households in the Amhara and Tigray regions of Ethiopia. Household and plot level panel data from before and after land certification from stratified random samples of households were used for the analysis. The results suggest a positive impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households. Law restrictions on tree planting on land suitable for agricultural production may...

  16. Potential impact of land certification on rural households' land-related investment intentions in Southern Ethiopia

    Taddese, Amare

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of land registration and certification on rural farm households’ intention to engage in tree planting, an indicator used as a proxy to measure land-related investments in the Oromia and Southern nations and nationalities people (SNNP) regions, Ethiopia. I used cross-sectional data from Wollaita and West Arisi zones collected in 2012. Maximum Likelihood probit model was employed for estimation. Results suggest that there is indeed a positive and highly significan...

  17. The Dynamics of Electric Cookstove Adoption: Panel Data Evidence from Ethiopia

    Alem, Yonas; Hassen, Sied; Kohlin, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on improved cookstove adoption in developing countries use cross-sectional data, which makes it difficult to control for unobserved heterogeneity and investigate what happens to adoption over time. We use robust non-linear panel data and hazard models on three rounds of panel data from urban Ethiopia to investigate the determinants and dynamics of electric cookstove adoption. We find the price of electricity and firewood, and access to credit as major determinants of adoption...

  18. Validation of the condom use self-efficacy scale in Ethiopia

    Shaweno, Debebe; Tekletsadik, Emebet

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of condom use self-efficacy requires contextually suitable, valid and reliable instruments due to variability of the scale across nations with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to construct a condom use self-efficacy scale suitable to Ethiopia (CUSES-E), based on the original scale developed by Brafford and Beck. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 492 students at Hawassa University. A self-administered questi...

  19. The adequacy of antenatal care services among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Bayou, Yibeltal T.; Mashalla, Yohana S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background There are recent efforts made to eliminate inequalities in the utilisation of basic health care services. More emphasis is given for improvement of health in developing countries including maternal and child health. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal care adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods This was a quantitative and cross-se...

  20. Establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in sugarcane fields of Ethiopia and origin of founding population.

    Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Conlong, D E; Muirhead, K A

    2008-06-01

    Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is used as a classical biological control agent against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious exotic pest of cereal crops in eastern and southern Africa. This parasitoid has been introduced into several African countries for the control of C. partellus in maize, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), but it has never been released in Ethiopia. It is hypothesized that it spread into Ethiopia from populations released in Kenya and Somalia to become the predominant parasitoid of C. partellus in maize and sorghum fields of the country. In recent surveys conducted in Ethiopia, C. flavipes was recovered from C. partellus in sugarcane, Saccharum L. spp. hybrids, at a site >2,000 km from the nearest known release sites in Kenya and Somalia. These findings question published hypotheses that estimate the dispersal rate of C. flavipes to be 60 km per year in Africa, and they suggest that since its release in Africa this parasitoid has developed strains adapted to searching particular host plants infested by particular stem borers. The anomalies between our results and previous reports evoked the hypothesis that C. flavipes in Ethiopian sugarcane might be a different strain. To test this hypothesis, we compared partial COI gene sequences of C. flavipes collected from sugarcane in Ethiopia and those of specimens from other African countries to determine the origin of the Ethiopian population. In addition, COI sequences were obtained for C. flavipes from other continents. The C. flavipes population established in Ethiopian sugarcane is most closely related to the populations released against C. partellus in maize in other parts of Africa, which were derived from the original population imported from Pakistan. The dispersal rate of the parasitoid was estimated to be >200 km per year. PMID:18613566

  1. Regulatory Legal Regime on the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information in Ethiopia

    2009-01-01

    The right to privacy has been guaranteed in various human rights instruments, including in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights as fundamental right. On the other hand, the right has been increasingly threatened owing to the advancement of information technology. As a state party to the Covenant, Ethiopia has constitutionally given recognition to the right. Nonetheless, the country does not have a specific privacy law to enforce the constitutionally guaranteed right. Howev...

  2. In-depth assessment of the public agricultural extension system of Ethiopia and recommendations for improvement:

    Davis, Kristin; Swanson, Burton; Amudavi, David; Mekonnen, Daniel Ayalew; Flohrs, Aaron; Riese, Jens; Lamb, Chloe; Zerfu, Elias

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-three percent of the population of Ethiopia depends directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, while many others depend on agriculture-related cottage industries such as textiles, leather, and food oil processing. Agriculture contributes about 46.3 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) (World Bank 2008) and up to 90 percent of total export earnings. As part of the current five-year (2006–2011) Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), the government ...

  3. Characterisation of sewage wastewater and assessment of downstream pollution along Huluka River of Ambo, Ethiopia

    Padanilly Chidambaram Prabu

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the downstream pollution profiles of Huluka River due to sewage water contamination, and to provide the data on the physico-chemical properties and nutrient content of Huluka River in Ethiopia. The water quality indices, viz. temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, carbon dioxide content, total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulpha...

  4. Human resource development for a community-based health extension program: a case study from Ethiopia

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. Case description The health system was refor...

  5. Land Degradation in Ethiopia: What Do Stoves Have To Do With It?

    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Soest, Daan P. Van

    2006-01-01

    In Ethiopia deforestation is a major problem and many peasants have switched from fuelwood to dung for cooking and heating purposes, thereby damaging the agricultural productivity of cropland. The Ethiopian government has embarked on a two-pronged policy in an effort to stem deforestation and the degradation of agricultural lands: (i) tree planting or afforestation; (ii) dissemination of more efficient stove technologies. The motivation in here is, therefore, to examine the potential of the s...

  6. Tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients at Butajira Hospital, South-Central Ethiopia

    Seada Mohammed; Tewelde Tesfaye Gebremariam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis and its associated factors among HIV-positive patients at Butajira Hospital, South-Central Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective review of standardized 222 HIV-positive patient records between July 2011 and June 2012 was conducted. A data sheet was used to collect relevant variables. Data...

  7. Contesting Views on a Protected Area Conservation and Development in Ethiopia

    Asebe Regassa Debelo

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the contention between the state and local Guji people on issues of development and conservation of a Protected Area—Nech Sar National Park in southern Ethiopia. The park, which covers over 514 square kilometers, is a contested space between different actors, not only for its economic values, but it is also an arena of contestation over development and conservation perspectives. Since its inception as a national park in 1974, it has been administered with strict prote...

  8. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwined problems of global concern. Land degradation affects some 2 billion hectares of land world-wide. In Africa some 500 million hectares of land have been affected by land or soil degradation, including abo...

  9. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary an...

  10. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Waste Management in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Hagos, Dagnew; Mekonnen, Alemu; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe

    2012-01-01

    Cities in developing countries experiencing rapid urbanization and population growth too often lack the financial resources and institutional capacity to provide needed municipal infrastructure for adequate solid waste management, despite citizens’ demand for it. This paper uses a cross-sectional survey of 226 randomly selected households in Mekelle City, Ethiopia, to assess the current municipal sanitation fees and the willingness to pay (WTP) of residents for improved urban waste management...

  11. Socioeconomic and cultural implications of health interventions: the case of smoking in Ethiopia.

    Kitaw, Y

    1986-01-01

    The growth rate of tobacco production and of cigarette smoking is rapidly increasing in developing countries. This article examines smoking as a health problem in Ethiopia. According to the author, Ethiopia is in a favorable position for action in this area because smoking is not yet extensive (restricted largely to urban areas) and the Government is committed to preventing a smoking epidemic. However, tobacco plays an important and growing role in Ethiopia's economy. Commercial production tobacco, which is a state monopoly, accounted for 5% of the total industrial gross value of production in 1977 and over 1% of the total number of employees in industry. Of total government revenues in 1977, 1.6% was from tobacco. Household expenditure on tobacco was 1.5-2.9% in 1975, compared with 1.8-3% for medical care. The smoking habit is extensively promoted through advertising. Given the general problems of poverty and unemployment in Ethiopia, it seems unreasonable to press for changes that would entail a loss of government revenues and create unemployment. An alternative solution to this problem is to stimulate self-reliance in the environment of the working people. Smoking must be made into a politicl issue at both the national and international level. On the national level, health workers would have to continue spreading knowledge on the harmful effects of smoking, study and disseminate better ways to prevent smoking, and lobby for better legislation on the issue. The international level is particularly significant, not only because tobacco interests are transnational, but because the success of an antismoking campaign is related to the struggle for a New Economic order. Such an approach could provide the economic basic for effective action to reduce tobacco production and consumption. PMID:3734089

  12. Shrinking the Lymphatic Filariasis Map of Ethiopia: Reassessing the Population at Risk through Nationwide Mapping.

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Heven Sime; Ashenafi Assefa; Jorge Cano; Kebede Deribe; Alba Gonzalez-Escalada; Oumer Shafi; Gail Davey; Brooker, Simon J.; Amha Kebede; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary About 1.4 billion people are believed to be living in areas where Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is actively transmitted. However, the distribution of this disfiguring mosquito-borne parasitic disease and the true population at risk that can be targeted for treatment have not been defined for all endemic countries. By 2013, Ethiopia had not delineated the majority of the endemic implementation units that can be targeted for MDA. Here, we present the results of a nationwide mapping e...

  13. Attitudes hearing impaired children face from hearing people : a case study from Wollega, Ethiopia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what kind of attitudes that hearing impaired children face from hearing people, and how these attitudes influence the hearing impaired child’s life. This is a qualitative research project with interview as the instrument of collecting data. The interviews were conducted in Wollega, Ethiopia with four different informant groups: Children with hearing impairment (CWHI), their parents (Parents CWHI), Children with hearing (CWH), and their parents (Parents ...

  14. Impacts of Adoption of Improved Wheat Technologies on Households' Food Consumption in Southeastern Ethiopia

    Mulugeta, Tsegaye; Hundie, Bekele

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at shedding light on the potential impact of agricultural technology adoption on household food consumption status. The analysis is based on the data collected from randomly selected 200 farm households in Southeast Ethiopia. Since the process of technology adoption usually involves non-random placement of adopters, we employed a propensity score matching method to avoid bias arising from possible self-selection. The results show that adoption of improved wheat technologies ha...

  15. Seed-borne fungi of the afromontane tree species Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana in Ethiopia

    Gure, Abdella

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is comprised of four studies regarding seed-borne fungi of the afromontane forest trees, Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb. Mirb.) and Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, in Ethiopia. Based on morphology and molecular data from the rDNA (ITS) region, a diverse group of mainly Ascomycota, some Basidiomycota and a few Zygomycota were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences revealed several clades differentiated according to the host. Some of these fungi were previously repor...

  16. Seeking Health Information In Rural Context: Exploring Sources of Maternal Health Information in Rural Ethiopia

    Tsehay, Ashenafi Berihun

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, the levels of maternal mortality and morbidity is among the highest in the world. However, many of these deaths and injuries could be prevented if they are properly communicated with interventions that are currently available. The motivation for researching in this area comes from an interest in contributing to further understanding of the convenient sources of maternity information that promotes the health needs of the community. This study is relevant in t...

  17. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: A microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef A.; Tollens, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Livestock of different species fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of type of animal to keep and accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households’ livestock holding to identify determinants of choice of type of animal households’ keep and accumulation of the chosen animals using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia. Dyn...

  18. EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF BANKING ENTERPRISES; THE CASE OF CONSTRUCTION AND BUSINESS BANK OF ETHIOPIA

    Dejene Mamo Bekana (MBA); Asres Abitie (MBA)

    2012-01-01

    This study is proposed to evaluated the financial performance of Construction and Business Bank (CBB) of Ethiopia. The study emphasized on financial performance measurement ratios such as asset utilization/efficiency ratios, deposit mobilization, loan performance, liquidity ratio, leverage/financial efficiency ratios, profitability ratios, solvency ratios and coverage ratios to evaluate the bank’s financial performance. For this study, the researchers dominantly relied on secondary data; eigh...

  19. Socioeconomic factors affecting tree species abundance and composition in Gondar, Ethiopia

    Bekele, Maru Shete

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated if there is variation in the frequency of tree species maintained at household level, and the socioeconomic factors that can explain its variation. Data were collected from 156 randomly selected households in 2009 in Ambober village of Gondar district, Ethiopia. Farm visits and recording, observation, group discussion and interview were the methods used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using mean, independent samples test, one way analysis of variance, and multip...

  20. Energy security, uncertainty, and energy resource use option in Ethiopia: A sector modelling approach

    Guta, Dawit Diriba; Börner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia's energy sector faces critical challenges to meeting steadily increasing demand given limited infrastructure, heavy reliance on hydroelectric power, and underdevelopment of alternative energy resources. The main aim of this paper is to investigate an optimal least cost investment decisions for integrated energy source diversification. We seek to contribute to the relevant literature by paying particular attention to the role of public policy for promoting renewable energy investment ...

  1. Anxiety and associated factors among prisoners in North West of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Kisi, Teresa; Yigzaw, Nigussie; Azale, Telake

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental illnesses are more common among the prison population than the general public. However, little attention is given to mental health service in low and middle income countries in general. The problem is more so for prisoners where the overall health care is poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety and the associated factors among prisoners of North West Amhara, Ethiopia. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was employed from F...

  2. Soil quality indices for evaluating smallholder agricultural land uses in northern Ethiopia

    Aweke M. Gelaw; Singh, B R; Lal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Population growth and increasing resource demands in Ethiopia are stressing and degrading agricultural landscapes. Most Ethiopian soils are already exhausted by several decades of over exploitation and mismanagement. Since many agricultural sustainability issues are related to soil quality, its assessment is very important. We determined integrated soil quality indices (SQI) within the surface 0–15 cm depth increment for three agricultural land uses: rain fed cultivation (RF); agroforestry (...

  3. Land Use Effects on Soil Quality Indicators: A Case Study of Abo-Wonsho Southern Ethiopia

    Fantaw Yimer; Melku Dagnachew; Awdenegest Moges

    2013-01-01

    Soil quality assessment is valuable for evaluating agroecosystem sustainability, soil degradation, and identifying sustainable land management practices. This study compared soil quality within culturally protected forest areas and adjacent grassland, grazing land, and farmland in Abo-Wonsho, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 40 soil samples (4 land uses × 5 replications × 2 soil depth layers: 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm) were collected for analysis. Soil textural fractions (i.e., sand, silt, and ...

  4. INSTITUTIONS AND SUSTAINABLE LAND USE: THE CASE OF FOREST AND GRAZING LANDS IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe

    2009-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production for agriculture, horticulture, forestry as well as other land related activities. Institutions that govern its use determine the sustainability and efficient use of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting has resulted in major degradation of Ethiopia’s land resources and dissipation of the resource rent, as available forest and grazing lands are exploited in a suboptimal fashion. An alternative to...

  5. Risk management strategies of smallholder farmers in the eastern highlands of Ethiopia

    Legesse, Belaineh

    2003-01-01

    Many risks with severe consequences affect the rural society in Ethiopia. Hence, risk reduction and mitigation would be of paramount importance to the rural households whose livelihoods are threatened. This thesis investigates the relationship between various types of agricultural risks and socio-economic-cultural characteristics of households, opportunity variables and other pertinent factors. For a fuller understanding of the contextual risks, the study utilises both qualitative and quantit...

  6. Oral and anal sex practices among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Cherie Amsale; Berhane Yemane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A mul...

  7. Organic Farming Technologies and Agricultural Productivity: The case of Semi-Arid Ethiopia

    Kassie, Menale; Zikhali, Precious; Pender, John; Köhlin, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming practices, in as far as they rely on local or farm renewable resources, present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity for resource-constrained farmers in developing countries. In this paper we use plot-level data from semi-arid area of Ethiopia to investigate the impact of organic farming practices on crop productivity, with a particular focus on conservation tillage. Specifically we seek to investigate whether conservation tillage results in more or less p...

  8. Disentangling HIV and AIDS Stigma in Ethiopia,Tanzania and Zambia

    Nyblade, Laura; Pande, Rohini; Mathur, Sanyukta; MacQuarrie, Kerry; Kidd, Ross; Banteyerga, Hailom; Kidanu, Aklilu; Kilonzo, Gad; Mbwambo, Jessie; Bond, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), in partnership with organizations in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia, led a study of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in these three countries. This project, conducted from April 2001 to September 2003, unraveled the complexities around stigma by investigating the causes, manifestations and consequences of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in sub-Saharan Africa. It then uses this analysis to suggest program inter...

  9. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    Berhane Yemane; Gelaye Bizu; Terasaki Dale J; Williams Michelle A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. Th...

  10. Syphilis among people with HIV infection in southern Ethiopia: sero-prevalence and risk factors

    Shimelis, Techalew; Lemma, Kinfe; Ambachew, Henock; Tadesse, Endale

    2015-01-01

    Background Syphilis facilitates both HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission and acquisition, reflecting the complex interplay between the two infections. Scarce information exists regarding syphilis epidemiology in Ethiopian context. Thus, this study determined the sero-prevalence of syphilis and associated risk factors in people with HIV infection. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia from January to May, 2014. A consecutive 9...

  11. Feasibility study of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Misrak Girma; Abebayehu Assefa; Marta Molinas

    2015-01-01

    Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) water pumping system is one of the best technologies that utilize the solar energy to pump water from deep well underground water sources and to provide clean drinking water worldwide. The availability of abundant solar radiation and enough underground water sources in Ethiopia can be combined together to make clean drinking water available to rural communities. The software PVsyst 5.56 was used to study the feasibility of solar photovoltaic water pumping system in th...

  12. Monitoring performance or performing monitoring? The case of rural water access in Ethiopia

    Welle, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Performance monitoring is commonly portrayed as providing a uniquely objective, rational foundation for decisions, based on a single-stranded feedback loop between setting objectives and measuring results. In this thesis, I investigate whether this portrayal is accurate. I analyse whether the linear model underlying performance monitoring provides an adequate basis for understanding decisions about access to rural water supply in Ethiopia. My examination focuses primarily on the politics of k...

  13. Contrasting climate variability and meteorological drought with perceived drought and climate change in northern Ethiopia

    Meze-Hausken, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    The rationale of this paper is to investigate peoples’ perception of climate variability, climate change and drought frequency and compare it with measurements of rainfall variability and anomalies in northern Ethiopia. Statistical analysis of rainfall chronologies was performed and contrasted with qualitative data collected through a survey and questionnaires. Fieldwork studies showed that local authorities, farmers and pastoralists perceived regional climate to have changed d...

  14. Measuring Spatial Price Transmission of Coffee between Bench Maji Zone and Central Market in Ethiopia

    Dessalegn Gachena; Amsalu Mitiku

    2014-01-01

    This study tries to analyze the spatial price transmission of coffee between Bench Maji Zone and Addis Ababa markets. Monthly prices data (September 2006 to August 2011) for producer and central market prices were collected from Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia. The Engle and Granger procedure was employed to test for co-integration between prices. The ADF test for unit root was applied for individual price series. The results of stationarity tests indicate...

  15. Infrastructure and cluster development: A case study of handloom weavers in Ethiopia

    Ayele, Gezahegn; Chamberlin, Jordan; Moorman, Lisa; Wamisho, Kassu; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    Rural non-farm development plays a key role in generating employment in many developing countries. Clustering is an important industrial organization in the rural non-farm sector. Based on primary surveys of both urban and rural handloom weaver clusters in Ethiopia which took place in May/June 2008, one of the most important rural nonfarm sectors, this paper examines the mechanism and performance of clustering. The clustering way of handloom production is observed even in remote rural areas, ...

  16. Synopsis: Agricultural production and children’s diets: Evidence from rural Ethiopia:

    Hirvonen, Kalle; Hoddinott, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pre-school children’s food consumption and household agricultural production. Using a large household survey from rural Ethiopia, we find that increasing household production diversity leads to considerable improvements in children’s diet diversity. However, we also document how this non-separability of consumption and production does not hold for households that have access to food markets. These findings imply that nutrition-sensitive agricultural inter...

  17. Synopsis: An analysis of trends and determinants of child undernutrition in Ethiopia, 2000-2011:

    Headey, Derek D.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) to statistically analyze patterns and trends in undernutrition (child growth) in Ethiopia over the period 2000 to 2011. In 2000, over half of Ethiopian preschool children were stunted and almost a third were severely stunted. However, progress against child undernutrition over the study period was solid, with stunting prevalence reduced by 1.4 percentage points per year, although progress has slowed since to 1.0 poin...

  18. Synopsis: Social networks and factor markets: Panel data evidence from Ethiopia:

    Abay, Kibrom A.; Kahsay, Goytom A.; Berhane, Guush

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the roles of indigenous institutions and social networks as mobilizing factors for agricultural production can be substantial. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to fact...

  19. Household Welfare Effects of Low-cost Land Certification in Ethiopia

    Holden, Stein T.; Ghebru, Hosaena

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the land registration and certification reform in Ethiopia has been implemented at an impressive speed, at a low-cost, and with significant impacts on investment, land productivity, and land rental market activity. This study provides new evidence on land productivity changes for rented land and on the welfare effects of the reform. The study draws on a unique household panel, covering the period up to eight years after the implementation of the reform. We find...

  20. Unbundling Land Administrative Reform: Demand for Second Stage Land Certification in Ethiopia

    Bezu, Sosina; Holden, Stein

    2013-01-01

    Ethiopia has implemented one of the largest, fastest and cheapest land registration and certification reforms in Africa. While there have been evidences of positive impacts of this land reform in terms of increased investment, land productivity and land rental market activities, the government is now piloting another round of land registration and certification that involves GPS measurement and computer registration. This ‘Second Stage land registration’ is expected to replace the registratio...