WorldWideScience

Sample records for woreda snnpr ethiopia

  1. Towards a regional assessment of self supply potential in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, David M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a mapping approach to assess whether readily available spatial datasets and expert knowledge can be used to assess regional potential for self supply in Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. Self supply can be defined as improvement to water supplies developed largely or wholly through user investment, usually at household level. The study was funded by the RiPPLE Programme (Research-inspired Policy and Practice Learning in Ethiopia and the N...

  2. Bovine Tuberculosis at the Wildlife-Livestock-Human Interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic lives...

  3. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher; Belachew Etana; Daniel Niggusie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regres...

  4. High Fluoride, Modest Fluorosis: Investigation in Drinking Water Supply in Halaba (SNNPR, Ethiopia)

    OpenAIRE

    Frank van Steenbergen; Redda Tekle Haimanot; Aschalew Sidelil

    2011-01-01

    In Halaba district in Southern Ethiopia fluoride levels from boreholes are high (2.6 to 7.0 mg/l), yet the incidence of fluorosis is modest. Drinking water users living in the vicinity of four drinking water systems that have been in operation for more than 35 years were surveyed. Out of 625 persons 5 percent had severe dental fluorosis and 42 percent had mild forms—which is considerably less than results of other areas with comparable fluoride levels. The incidence was highest in the older...

  5. Bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%-2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%-5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research. PMID:20808913

  6. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6-59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreegziabiher, Gebremedhin; Etana, Belachew; Niggusie, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6-59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48?g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6-23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8)], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3)], having MUAC less than 12?cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3)], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3)] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention. PMID:25302116

  7. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreegziabiher, Gebremedhin; Niggusie, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48?g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8)], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3)], having MUAC less than 12?cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3)], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3)] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention. PMID:25302116

  8. High Fluoride, Modest Fluorosis: Investigation in Drinking Water Supply in Halaba (SNNPR, Ethiopia

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    Frank van Steenbergen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Halaba district in Southern Ethiopia fluoride levels from boreholes are high (2.6 to 7.0 mg/l, yet the incidence of fluorosis is modest. Drinking water users living in the vicinity of four drinking water systems that have been in operation for more than 35 years were surveyed. Out of 625 persons 5 percent had severe dental fluorosis and 42 percent had mild forms—which is considerably less than results of other areas with comparable fluoride levels. The incidence was highest in the older age groups. Possible explanations were explored. A likely reason may be the continued large dependence on rain water harvesting ponds for human consumption alongside the use of water from the public borehole systems, but more investigations would be required to confirm this proposition.

  9. GIS Based Soil Loss Estimation Using RUSLE Model: The Case of Jabi Tehinan Woreda, ANRS, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse Amsalu; Abebe Mengaw

    2014-01-01

    Soil degradation in the form of soil erosion is a serious and continuous environmental problem in Jabi Tehinan Woreda. Uncontrolled land use, deforestation, over cultivation, overgrazing and exploitation of biomass for firewood, construction and other household uses due to increasing population ultimately lead to severe soil erosion. The impact of natural hazards like erosion can be minimized and ultimately controlled by disaster preparedness maps. Therefore, the overal...

  10. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

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    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23?months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23?months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23?months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR?=?2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR?=?2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR?=?2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR?=?4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8, whereas area of residence and mother’s socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with full immunization among children. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12–23?months remains low. Maternal health care utilization and knowledge of mothers about the age at which child begins and finishes vaccination are the main factors associated with complete immunization coverage. It is necessary that, local interventions should be strengthened to raising awareness of the community on the importance of immunization, antenatal care and institutional delivery.

  11. Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Mathewos Agize

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 medicinal plants distributed in 64 families were documented in this study. The most frequently used plant part was leaf while the growth form with the highest number (43.82% of representatives among the plants encountered in this study were herbs. About 57.9% medicinal plants were collected from wild while 24.1% were cultivated and 18.5% were both cultivated and collected from wild. A total of 62 human and 27 veterinary diseases were documented in the study. However, only 58% of the traditional healers exercised their indigenous knowledge on treating both human and livestock diseases, while 41.96% practiced treatment of only human diseases. The medicinal plant resources and the associated knowledge of herbal medicine need to be used in a sustainable way and developed for more effective use in the future.

  12. Sub-optimal breastfeeding of infants during the first six months and associated factors in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Tamiru Dessalegn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that sub-optimal breastfeeding is major contributor to infant and young child mortality in Ethiopia. To address this problem, infant and young child feeding guideline was developed in 2004 and interventions have been going on based on the guidelines. There is no study that assessed whether the infant and child feeding practices are according the guideline or not. This study was carried out to assess sub-optimal breastfeeding practices and associated factors among infants from birth to six months in rural communities of Jimma Arjo Woreda in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from December to January 2009. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 382 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 15 index mothers. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of timely initiation of breast feeding and non-exclusive breast feeding among mother-infant pairs. Results More than three fourth of mothers breastfeed their infants sub-optimally. Thirty-seven percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding later than one hour after delivery, which was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94] and painful breastfeeding experiences (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]. The majority (67.02% of mothers had no knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding. Non-exclusive breastfeeding was negatively associated with child’s age of 0-2 months (AOR: 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47 and 3-4 months (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI: 0.25, 0.73 and ownership of radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88], but positively associated with the practice of discarding colostrums (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]. Conclusion The findings showed that the majority of mothers sub-optimally breastfeed their children in the study area. As most of the mothers do not have knowledge on the exclusive breast feeding. Enhancing community based behavior change communications using multiple channels including radio and folk media is recommended to reduce sub-optimal breast feeding practices and associated consequences among children in the study area.

  13. Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Alemayehu, Metadel; Koye, Digsu N; Tariku, Amare; Yimam, Kedir

    2015-01-01

    Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3%) of urban and 85 (18.6%) of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79-27.89), presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94-16.18), and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39-13.89) were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78-12.33), those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24-9.81), and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04-3.62) were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community there is a need of health education programs regarding facial cleanliness, utilization of latrine, and proper solid waste and liquid waste disposal using multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25954753

  14. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

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    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers need special attention as they are distant from various information sources.

  15. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Woldemariam Zemede; Woodmatas Sebsebe; Bekalo Tesfaye

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District); it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the...

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia

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    Woldemariam Zemede

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District; it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3% and 14 (12% species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6% are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90% were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5% for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5% were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8% followed by fire (22.3% and construction (19%. Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34 were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community, which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process of threatening the resources and this signals the need for serious efforts to create public awareness so that measures are taken to conserve the medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments.

  17. Determinants of Delay in Malaria Prompt Diagnosis and Timely Treatment among Under-Five Children in Shashogo Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ermias Abera Turuse; Kassahun Alemu Gelaye; Teresa Kisi Beyen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ensuring prompt diagnosis and timely malaria treatment will prevent most cases of uncomplicated malaria from progressing to severe and fatal illness. To avoid this progression, treatment must begin as soon as possible, generally within 24 hours after symptoms onset. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria prompt diagnosis and timely treatment for under-five is not well studied in the study area as well as in Ethiopia. Objective: To assess determinants of delay in malari...

  18. Pastoral Livelihoods in South Ethiopia - Value Chain Assessment of Gum & Resins in Moyale Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    This research assessed the value chain of gum and resins, which are available in four woreda in the southern lowlands of Ethiopia. They are Moyale Somali, Moyale Oromia, Dhas and Dire woreda. The output of this research is the elaboration of three value chains. The first is a general one for all the woreda, while the other two concern the Moyale and Dubluk markets. The assessed products are the gum arabic from Acacia trees and the resin exuded by the dunkhal tree - Boswellia family. The aim o...

  19. The implications of federalism and decentralisation on socio-economic conditions in Ethiopia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P, Zimmermann-Steinhart; Y, Bekele.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we wil [...] l show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

  20. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  1. Patients’ perceptions of podoconiosis causes, prevention and consequences in East and West Gojam, Northern Ethiopia

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    Molla Yordanos B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a form of non-filarial elephantiasis that affects barefoot individuals in highland tropical areas. The disease presents with bilateral, asymmetric swelling of the legs, usually confined to below the knee. This study aimed to assess podoconiosis patients’ perceptions of prevention, control, causes and familial clustering of the disease, and to document physical, social and economic impairments associated with the disease, with the ultimate aim of enabling development of tailored interventions in this region. Methods This descriptive study is part of the largest cross-sectional community-based household survey yet conducted on podoconiosis. It was completed in November and December, 2011, in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha Woredas of East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia, and consisted of a house-to-house census by community health workers followed by interviews of identified patients using a structured questionnaire. Results In the 17,553 households surveyed, 1,319 patients were identified. More male as compared to female patients were married (84.6% vs. 53.6%, ?2?=?157.1, p?2?=?102.3, p? Conclusion This study shows that podoconiosis has strong psychosocial, physical and economic impacts on patients in East and West Gojam Zones of northern Ethiopia. Concerns related to familial clustering, poor understanding of the causes and prevention of podoconiosis all add to the physical burden imposed by the disease. Strategies that may ease the impact of podoconiosis include delivery of tailored health education on the causes and prevention of disease, involving patients in intervention activities, and development of alternative income-generating activities for treated patients.

  2. Children's Theatre in Ethiopia

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    Ashagrie, Aboneh

    2013-01-01

    When theatre arts emerged in Ethiopia 90 years ago, all characters in the pioneering play were performed solely by children in front of the Crown Prince Täfäri Mäkwänn?n, and members of the aristocracy. The tradition of considering children as a main force of stage production, and the tendency of showing dramatic performance by students to the benefit of adult audience, likewise, continued up until the establishment of the first professional public theatre in 1942. It was late in early 1...

  3. Impact of Land Certification on Sustainable Land Resource Management in Dryland Areas of Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia

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    Abate Tsegaye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of land certification on sustainable land resource management, long-term investments, and farmers’ perception and confidence on land ownership and land use rights in the dryland areas of Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Fifteen kebeles from three woredas and 20 households per kebele were selected using stratified random sampling techniques with whom face-to-face interviews were carried out. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data showed that, 160 households have on average 0.40 ha of farmland on steep slope area; and about 21.0% and 15% of households have fear land redistribution and the government may take their farm plot at any time, respectively. However, respondents believe that land certification reduced landlessness of women, disable and poor of poor where as it increased youths’ landlessness. The participation of households in land management practices (LMP has shown a 15.4% increment after land certification. Nonetheless, the mean comparison of major crop yields per household is insignificant except sorghum which decreased significantly at level of p<0.1 level. Generally, land certification improves tenure security; LMP and land use rights of women and marginal groups of societies but did not crop productivity.

  4. An enterprise map of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, John; Kellow, Nebil

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the history and current capabilities of Ethiopia’s leading industrial companies (agribusiness, manufacturing and construction), focusing on 50 key large and mid-size firms. The motivation for the study is to help with the expansion of economic capabilities in the country by first understanding where the capabilities of the existing successful companies came from. The fifty firms chosen for this study represent almost all the largest firms in their respective sectors. An ...

  5. Industrial mineral occurrence map of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The Industrial Mineral Occurrence Map of Ethiopia was prepared as part of the work carried out by the industrial minerals sub-project of the industrial minerals and artisinal mining study (Ethiopia World Bank Energy Access Project).

  6. Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia

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    Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.

  7. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

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    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

  8. Uranium exploration in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench ge were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)

  9. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  10. Investigations of young (Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Campisano, C. J.; Johnson, R. A.; Deino, A. L.; Warren, M.; Fisseha, S.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sedimentary deposits in Pliocene extensional rift basins in the Afar Depression, Ethiopia chronicle the evolution and paleoenvironmental context of early humans. In the lower Awash Valley, the long-studied Hadar Basin still lacks constraints on basin development during the onset and termination of Hadar Formation (~3.8 - 2.94 Ma) sedimentation. Here we present new mapping and analysis of tephra deposits from a 26 meter-thick section of sediments exposed in the central Ledi-Geraru project area at Gulfaytu, including 20 m of sediments and tephras conformably overlying a 2.94 Ma tephra marker bed (BKT-2U) that previously served as the uppermost dated tephra of the Hadar Formation. Within the overlying 20 meters of primarily lacustrine strata, we identified eight post-BKT-2U tuffs; four were suitable for geochemical characterization, and one yielded an 40Ar/39Ar age of 2.931 ± 0.034 Ma. Based on regional sedimentation rates and the tephra 40Ar/39Ar age, we infer that the newly mapped Hadar Formation at Gulfaytu represents ca. 20 kyr of post-BKT-2 sedimentation. An erosional surface marked by a conglomerate truncates the strata at Gulfaytu, and shows similarities to the well-documented Busidima unconformity surface to the southwest, suggesting that structural changes after 2.93 Ma also affected basin conditions in central Ledi-Geraru. Furthermore, subsurface geophysical investigations support a model whereby deposition rates and the stratigraphic thickness of paleo-Lake Hadar sediments are greatest in the central Ledi-Geraru, ~20 km northeast of the well-exposed lacustrine-dominated sediments of the Hadar Formation. In addition to preserving a record of post-BKT-2 strata, the central Ledi Geraru hosts the thickest subsurface lacustrine sedimentary record within the Hadar Basin hitherto described, making central Ledi-Geraru an ideal location for collecting a continuous core by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP).

  11. Teaching Teachers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Moldwin, M.; Rabella-Soares, M.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Yizengaw, E.

    2008-05-01

    Africa needs to develop a space physics research structure, and a key goal of the United Nations-sponsored International Heliophysical Year (IHY) is to provide support to those efforts. One key focus of IHY is the deployment of networks of small instruments to encourage development of space science research and educational infrastructures in developing nations. In addition to new scientific discoveries and advancing space science research in Africa by establishing scientific collaborations between scientists in developed and developing nations, an IHY objective is to increase the number of space scientists and increase the scientific awareness about the importance of the space science In order to develop space science research infrastructure, space science educational infrastructure also needs to be developed to support the long-term operation and use of the science instrumentation. Developing nations need to develop the necessary training and encouragement of students to enter and excel in scientific fields. In response to these needs, the authors, working under the auspices of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy Education and Public Outreach (SPA EPO) Committee, organized a Geophysics Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop for Ethiopian high school physics educators on 10 November 2007 in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. The workshop, held in conjunction with the IHY-Africa Space Weather Science and Education Workshop, gathered together 62 high school physics teachers from around the country for a one-day professional development program that focused on fundamental physics concepts relevant to space weather. Our presentation will describe the workshop, the challenges of launching such a program, and present results from the assessment surveys taken by teachers at the end of the workshop.

  12. Export Performance and Determinants in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Menji, Sisay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this study analysis of factors affecting export supply of Ethiopia, during the period 1981 – 2004, have been made using co integration analysis. Data trend reveals that Ethiopian export performance was highly volatile during the period, on average merchandise exports have been growing at 7% per annum, while manufacturing exports were growing at 4% per annum. The trend also reveals that Ethiopia’s export sector is mainly dominated by few primary commodities, where manufactu...

  13. Eritrea-Ethiopia Border War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Andrew.

    This week's In the News takes a look at the renewed fighting in the border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The eleven resources discussed provide news, analysis, and commentary. Horn of Africa neighbors Ethiopia and Eritrea were a single nation until May 1993, when Eritrea achieved sovereignty and seceded from Ethiopia after a protracted war of independence that lasted nearly thirty years. Eritrea, a nation of 3.6 million located on the Red Sea, was a former Italian colony (1890-1941) that was put under British administration during World War II, federated as an autonomous unit by Ethiopia in 1952, and then finally absorbed by the Ethiopian empire in 1962. Since Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia in 1993, the two nations have disputed the demarcation of their 620-mile shared boundary, which was ostensibly delimited earlier this century in a series of treaties between the Imperial Government of Ethiopia and the Italian colonial government in Eritrea. Despite recent bilateral attempts to delineate the former colonial divide, a joint border commission has failed to settle the dispute. This on-going border conflict, compounded by severe economic tensions between the two states, erupted into war when Ethiopian and Eritrean forces clashed on May 6, 1998, in the Ethiopian-administered region of Badme. The skirmish resulted in about five weeks of fierce battle that ended last June with an unofficial peace plan brokered by the US and Rwanda. However, on February 6, the tenuous seven month stalemate snapped as heavy fighting re-ignited at several flashpoints along the contested border where both countries had amassed troops. Last weekend amid continued fighting, a delegation from the European Union failed to reach a cease-fire agreement between Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki and Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum Mesfin. The unsuccessful proposal, based on a framework drafted by the Organization of African Unity, called for Eritrea to concede its current positions and return to the territory it held before the border conflict last May. As military involvement between the two countries escalates, the EU, the OAU, and the United Nations Security Council promise to re-initiate the mediation process as soon as possible before the Horn War further destabilizes east Africa.

  14. Household-level risk factors for Newcastle disease seropositivity and incidence of Newcastle disease virus exposure in backyard chicken flocks in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Roger, Francois; Bisschop, Shahn P R; Thompson, Peter N

    2013-05-01

    A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; Ppoultry compared to closed sources (tap or borehole) was associated with increased risk of NDV exposure (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.8; P=0.03). The use of a grain supplement (OR=0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.69; P=0.03) and hatching at home for flock replacement (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P=0.005) were associated with a lower risk of NDV exposure. Newcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens. PMID:23127692

  15. Agriculture and food security in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, N

    1989-03-01

    Food security in Ethiopia is discussed in the context of the repeated famines and the international responses both to them and to the socialist agricultural policies being pursued by Ethiopia. Increasing concern has been expressed by the international donor community regarding the ability of Ethiopia to absorb development funds without a major shift in emphasis in agricultural policy-making. The background to Ethiopia's present vulnerability is shown both in terms of the size of the vulnerable population and in terms of the poor performance of the agricultural sector in the last decade. The author looks at the present agricultural and marketing policy reforms and questions whether they are sufficient to generate the sort of international response needed to create the level of food security that would be required to avert future famines. PMID:20958668

  16. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M. P. M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W. J. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed systems co-exist. The informal system, with low quality seed, is dominant. The formal system is too small to contribute significantly to improve that situation. The informal seed system should prioritize...

  17. An enterprise map of Ethiopia - Chinese version

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, John; Kellow, Nebil

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the history and current capabilities of Ethiopia’s leading industrial companies (agribusiness, manufacturing and construction), focusing on 50 key large and mid-size firms. The motivation for the study is to help with the expansion of economic capabilities in the country by first understanding where the capabilities of the existing successful companies came from. The fifty firms chosen for this study represent almost all the largest firms in their respective sectors. An ...

  18. COLONIAL BOUNDARIES OF AFRICA: THE CASE OF ETHIOPIA’S BOUNDARY WITH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen TESHOME

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the merits and the demerits of colonial boundaries in Africa by using the Ethiopia-Sudan boundary as a case study. The paper tries to examine how the existing boundary between the two countries came into being in the early 20th century. The present-day boundary between Ethiopia and Sudan is principally the result of the 1902 and 1907 Anglo-Ethiopian delimitation treaties which were demarcated in 1903 and 1909 respectively. At present, there is confusion and controversy in Ethiopia, particularly, after the exposure of the alleged “secret” re-demarcation deal between the current governments of Ethiopia and Sudan that resulted, according to various media reports, in the ceding of huge Ethiopian border land to Sudan along their common border. This paper explores the historical background of the boundary conflict and gives an insight to the current boundary problem between Ethiopia and Sudan.

  19. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  20. The spectrum of surgery in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfi, A; Pickering, J L

    1993-02-01

    Ethiopia's need for surgical services is assessed from on-site reviews of operating-room records in various hospitals and compared with data from other countries. Information on surgical manpower and total operations for the country were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia. In Ethiopia the ratio of surgeons to population is very low (0.32 surgeons per 100,000 population) and inadequate numbers of essential operations (e.g., cesarean section and inguinal-hernia repair) are performed. The average age of the surgical patient is young (37 years), and men are operated on twice as frequently as women. Of the 9422 operations performed during 6 months in the central, regional and rural hospitals surveyed, 7037 (75%) could be performed by a general practitioner or a paramedic specially trained for the procedure and would not require a fully trained general surgeon. The implications for surgical manpower training are discussed. PMID:8443727

  1. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia 1. Applicability. This Special...within the territory and airspace of Ethiopia north of 12 degrees north...

  2. Water implications of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Bossio; Teklu Erkossa; Yihun Dile; Matthew McCartney; Franziska Killiches; Holger Hoff

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia is often highlighted as a country in which a lot of foreign land acquisition is occurring. The extent to which these investments also constitute significant acquisitions of water is the subject of this paper. It is apparent that water availability is a strong driver of the recent surge of investments in agricultural land globally, and in general the investments occur in countries with significant 'untapped' water resources. Ethiopia is no exception. We propose that the perception of ...

  3. Borrelia recurrentis in Head Lice, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C.; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined.

  4. Borrelia recurrentis in head lice, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2013-05-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined. PMID:23648147

  5. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  6. Early Childhood in Ethiopia: Initiatives in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit

    2007-01-01

    This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…

  7. Report of the Utah Project in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City.

    Since June of 1962, the University of Utah, in cooperation with the United States Agency for International Development and the Ethiopian Government, has helped to build a faculty of education at the Haile Sellassie I University in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The assignment has included two projects. The first was for preparation of junior-secondary and…

  8. Epidemiology of child psychiatric disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Desta, Menelik

    2008-01-01

    Although mental disorders are common among children all over the world, information on the extent and types of child psychiatric disorders in Ethiopia is extremely limited. A study was conducted in an urban setting of Ethiopia to look at the prevalence of child psychiatric disorders and their correlates. A two-phase survey was performed. In the first phase, parents of 5000 children in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, were interviewed using the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (R...

  9. A new entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernematidae) from Ethiopia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tamiru, T.; Hailu, T.; Waeyenberge, L.; Ehlers, R.-U.; P?ža, Vladimír; Mrá?ek, Zden?k

    Vol. 66. Montfavet Cedex : INRA, 2011, s. 359-362. ISBN 978-92-9067-241-8. [European Meeting of the IOBC/WPRS Working Groups “Insect Pathogens and Insect Parasitic Nematodes” entitled “Biological Control in IPM Systems” /13./. Innsbruck (AT), 19.06.2011-23.06.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Steinernema sp.n. * Ethiopia * new species morphometrics

  10. Recent drought and precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Viste, Ellen Marie; Korecha, Diriba; Sorteberg, Asgeir

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, drought in the Horn of Africa again made news headlines. This study aims to quantify the meteorological component of this and other drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971. A monthly precipitation data set for 14 homogeneous rainfall zones was constructed based on 174 gauge observations. As a measure of drought, the Standardized Precipitation Index was calculated on seasonal, annual and biannual timescales for each zone. The results point to 2009 as a year of exceptionally widespread...

  11. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response to a unimodal rainfall regime. The selection of mesic locations ensured that the trees did not respond to intra-seasonal weather anomalies. Crossdating was achieved by comparison of the wood anatomy...

  12. Decomposing Terms of Trade Fluctuations in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Loening, Josef L.; Higashi, Masato

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique to decompose short-run fluctuations in the terms of trade. Using Ethiopia as an example, we decompose the commodity terms of trade into various components to measure the impact of price and volume shifts as well as export diversification. We use monthly data from the past decade, including periods during the global food and financial crises. Our findings suggest that diversification out of traditional coffee exports to other export commodities successfully miti...

  13. Determinants of Recent Inflation in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Menji, Sisay

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Inflation has been a rising in Ethiopia during recent years, mainly fueled by food inflation. In the study, an analysis of the determinants of inflation was made using quarterly data during 1997/98 – 2007/08. The research employed Co-integration regression after finding that the variables included in the model were cointegrated. The results from the study depicts that inflation was significantly affected by money supply growth (positively) and domestic output (negatively). T...

  14. Handbook for Greenhouse Rose Production Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Maden, E.; Hoogerwerf, F.; Marrewijk, J.; Kerklaan, E.; Posthumus, J.; Boven, A.; Elings, A.; Garcia Victoria, N.; Rikken, M.; Humphries, G.

    2012-01-01

    This practical handbook is prepared by DLV Plant, in collaboration with Wageningen UR, CBI and EHPEA, under assignment of the Ethiopia Netherlands Horticulture Partnership (ENHP). The following persons have contributed to this handbook: DVL Plant: Edwin van der Maden, Francis Hoogerwerf, Jeroen van Marrewijk, Eric Kerklaan, Jelle Posthumus, Arnoud van Boven; Wageningen UR: Anne Elings, Nieves Garcia Victoria; CBI / ProVerde: Milco Rikken EHPEA: Glenn Humphries

  15. Entrepreneurship and income inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  16. Christianity in northern Ethiopia : missiological observations following a visit

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzinger, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    A visit to Ethiopia revealed that enlightenment derived from travel is worth while. This article illustrates this by introducing the reader to the people and ancient Christian tradition of the northern highlands of Ethiopia. There is much in the history of this area, and the monuments of this tradition, but also in the present church life that are thought provoking.

  17. Proposal for Business Support Facility for Ethiopia : A mission report

    OpenAIRE

    Blomne Sopov, M.

    2012-01-01

    This report, requested by the Royal Dutch Embassy in Ethiopia, outlines the modalities of setting up a Business Support Facility in the country with the objectives of: 1. Supporting sector coordination and business partnerships; 2. Brokering business relations between Ethiopia and the Netherlands; 3. Strengthening innovation capacity to ensure technical, business and entrepreneurial know how.

  18. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.

  19. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal of Eastern African Studies devoted to a review of Ethiopia's 20 years of “revolutionary democracy”. The collection brings together 11 articles exploring differing aspects of Ethiopia's political experience since 1991. This introduction begins with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance of economic issues in defining government policies, and the significance of development and relations with donors.

  20. Ethiopia's financial sector and its regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Geda, Alemayehu

    2001-01-01

    Ethiopia is one of a number of SSA economies that adopted state-led development strategies in the 1970s (others include Angola and Mozambique), and suffered from intense conflict (leading to the fall of the Derg regime in 1991). The new government was therefore faced with the twin tasks of reconstructing the economy, and embarking on the transition to a market economy. As part of this process, state banks have been reorganised, the role of the private sector in the financial system has been e...

  1. Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This book takes stock of political reform in Ethiopia and the transformation of Ethiopian society since the adoption of multi-party politics and ethnic federalism in 1991. Decentralization, attempted democratization via ethno-national representation, and partial economic liberalization have reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party has embarked upon a technocratic ‘developmental state’ trajectory ostensibly aimed at ‘depoliticizing’ national policy and delegitimizing alternative courses. The contributors analyze the dynamics of authoritarian state-building, political ethnicity, electoral politics and state-society relations that have marked the Ethiopian polity since the downfall of the socialist Derg regime. Chapters on ethnic federalism, 'revolutionary democracy', opposition parties, the press, the judiciary, state-religion, and state-foreign donor relations provide the most comprehensive and thought-provoking review of contemporary Ethiopian national politics to date.

  2. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw Fekadu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global mental health (GMH advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design: A case study method is used. Results: Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions: GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings.

  3. Mapping Cropland in Ethiopia Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda See

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of cropland is an important input to many applications including food security monitoring and economic land use modeling. Global land cover maps derived from remote sensing are one source of cropland but they are currently not accurate enough in the cropland domain to meet the needs of the user community. Moreover, when compared with one another, these land cover products show large areas of spatial disagreement, which makes the choice very difficult regarding which land cover product to use. This paper takes an entirely different approach to mapping cropland, using crowdsourcing of Google Earth imagery via tools in Geo-Wiki. Using sample data generated by a crowdsourcing campaign for the collection of the degree of cultivation and settlement in Ethiopia, a cropland map was created using simple inverse distance weighted interpolation. The map was validated using data from the GOFC-GOLD validation portal and an independent crowdsourced dataset from Geo-Wiki. The results show that the crowdsourced cropland map for Ethiopia has a higher overall accuracy than the individual global land cover products for this country. Such an approach has great potential for mapping cropland in other countries where such data do not currently exist. Not only is the approach inexpensive but the data can be collected over a very short period of time using an existing network of volunteers.

  4. The press and the political restructuring of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stremlau, N.

    2011-01-01

    Divisive debates on what constitutes the Ethiopian nation, how the state should be structured and how power should be devolved, have dominated Ethiopia's private press since the ruling party, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), came to power. The press has served as both a mirror reflecting these issues and a space for literate elites to engage in political debates. This article analyses the role of the media, and the press in particular, in Ethiopia's political deba...

  5. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele Dawit G; Zewotir Temesgen T; Mwambi Henry G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP) regions ...

  7. A zoonotic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Gadisa Endalamaw; Erenso Girume; Lemma Wossenseged; Hailu Asrat

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in the highlands of Ethiopia, and almost always caused by Leishmania aethiopica. Hitherto, Addis Ababa (the capital city of Ethiopia) was not considered endemic for CL, mainly due to absence of epidemiological and field ecological studies. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiological investigation that proved the existence of active transmission in southeastern Addis Ababa. Results Active case finding surveys were conducted...

  8. Forest coffee certification in Ethiopia: Economic boon or ecological bane?

    OpenAIRE

    Stellmacher, Till; Grote, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the worldwide origin of the Coffea arabica gene-pool. However, the forests witness high rates of depletion and deforestation leading to an irreversible loss of the forest ecosystem and biodiversity. Certification of forest coffee started in Ethiopia in 2002 with the aim to conserve the coffee forests and provide the peasants with a better livelihood. This paper evaluates the forest coffee production and the related human encroachment in the forests ecos...

  9. The community-based Health Extension Program significantly improved contraceptive utilization in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yitayal M; Berhane Y; Worku A; Kebede Y

    2014-01-01

    Mezgebu Yitayal,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,3 Yigzaw Kebede11University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Ethiopia has implemented a nationwide primary health program at grassroots level (known as the Health Extension Program) since 2003 to increase public access to basic health services. This study was conducted to assess whether households that fully implemented ...

  10. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  11. An outbreak of Marek's disease in chickens in central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobago, F; Woldemeskel, M

    2004-05-01

    A study was conducted on an outbreak of Marek's disease in a commercial poultry farm containing 8500 chickens in central Ethiopia. On repeated visits, farm and flock history was collected, sick birds were examined and clinical signs and daily mortality were recorded. A total of 80 (27 sick and 53 dead) birds 12-22 weeks old, were collected, autopsied and examined. The mortality rate was 46% for the first 14 weeks of the outbreak. Acute and chronic (classical) forms of the disease, the respective occurrence of which varied significantly (poverstocking and lack of vaccination might have favoured the outbreak. Marek's disease causes considerable economic loss and is a major threat to poultry production in Ethiopia. This report emphasizes that Marek's disease should be considered as a disease of economic significance in chicken production in Ethiopia and warrants due attention. PMID:15241973

  12. Establishing space research capability in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.

    It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere is addressed. WASPL is expected to join worldwide activities in monitoring local and global atmosphereic and ionospheric parameters. There is also a plan to install a neutron monitor to measure galactic and solar cosmic rays. WASPL will be situated at the magnetic equator and at 2500m above seal level, which make it a unique place to carry out space physics experiments. In this paper, we describe WASPL in some more details. Interested scientists may participate with us and/or start similar initiatives.

  13. Ethiopia's health extension program: improving health through community involvement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hailom, Banteyerga.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Health Extension Program is one of the most innovative community-based health programs in Ethiopia. It is based on the assumption that access to and quality of primary health care in rural communities can be improved through transfer of health knowledge and skills to households. Since it became [...] operational in 2004-2005, the Program has had a tangible effect on the thinking and practices of rural people regarding disease prevention, family health, hygiene and environmental sanitation. It has enabled Ethiopia to increase primary health care coverage from 76.9% in 2005 to 90% in 2010.

  14. Death Rates from Malaria Epidemics, Burundi and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Bonnet, Maryline; Ahoua, Laurence; Dantoine, François; Balkan, Suna; van Herp, Michel; Tamrat, Abiy; Legros, Dominique; Brown, Vincent; Checchi, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Death rates exceeded emergency thresholds at 4 sites during epidemics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burundi (2000–2001) and in Ethiopia (2003–2004). Deaths likely from malaria ranged from 1,000 to 8,900, depending on site, and accounted for 52% to 78% of total deaths. Earlier detection of malaria and better case management are needed.

  15. Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

  16. Researching Diverse Learners from Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso

    This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…

  17. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  18. Early Childhood Teacher Education in Ethiopia: Progress and Emerging Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, James; Szente, Judit; Tadesse, Selamawit

    2006-01-01

    This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world--Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of…

  19. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  20. Ethiopia ’s nationhood reconsidered / A nação etíope reconsiderada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Donald N., Levine.

    Full Text Available As teorias convencionais associam o nacionalismo à Europa ocidental moderna, em geral a um período subsequente à Revolução Francesa. No entanto, no caso etíope, os indicadores de nacionalismo usados pela maior parte dos investigadores encontram-se atestados desde o século vi da nossa era. Este facto [...] põe em causa as perspectivas convencionais sobre a ideia de nação, e questiona os que encaram o sentimento nacional etíope como uma invenção recente. Para mais, a experiência da recente diáspora etíope permite-nos repensar a própria ideia de nação. Os laços permanentes entre etíopes expatriados e a sua pátria, e a comunicação através de meios electrónicos, manifestam uma nova configuração da ideia de nação etíope, que se compõe agora de três partes confluentes: bet-agar (pátria); wutch-agar (diáspora); e sayber-agar (ciberespaço). Abstract in english Conventional theories trace nationalism to modern Western Europe, usually following the French Revolution. However, markers of nationalism used by most scholars are attested by evidence of Ethiopia’s nationhood as early as sixth century C.E. This requires revisions in both conventional notions of na [...] tionhood and views of those who find Ethiopianness a recent invention. Moreover, the experience of Ethiopians in their recent Diaspora warrants rethinking the very notions of nationhood. Continuing ties of Ethiopian expatriates with their homeland and communication through electronic media manifest a new configuration of Ethiopia’s nationhood, consisting now of three confluent parts: bet-agar (homeland); wutch-agar (diaspora); and sayber-agar (cyberspace).

  1. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  2. Two new Uropodina species from Ethiopia (Acari: Mesostigmata).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 54, ?. 1 (2013), s. 49-56. ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * Afrotropical * Ethiopia * new species * new synonymy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2013

  3. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  4. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    2001-01-01

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999.

  5. Gully Development in North Ethiopia's Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Meire, Ellen; de Dapper, Morgan; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    Understanding trends in gully erosion, and the relation with changes in its triggers, is important to make sustainable development possible in semi-arid regions suffering from low food security and threatened by climatic deterioration. The reconstruction of long-term (1868-2009) patterns in gully erosion in North Ethiopia and environmental control, i.e. LUC changes and rainfall pattern changes, requires an extensive database of ground-based photographs (1868-1975), aerial photographs (1964-1992), satellite images (1972-2009), meteorological station data (1950s-2009) and field measurements. Quantifying gully erosion networks and volumes is done from an integrated analysis of historical ground-based photographs, aerial photographs and IKONOS imagery. Therefore, new methodologies are being developed based on fieldwork, digital photogrammetry and Geographic Information Science techniques. LUC mapping and change analysis for periods prior to satellite imagery and aerial photography is done by developing a new methodology that georeferences LUC boundaries identified on historical photographs to the horizontal plane of the map. For the LANDSAT LUC analysis (1972-2000), images dated 1974-5 were calibrated using photographs of the same period. Therefore, a methodology was developed that involves the development of spectral signatures based on LUC observed on the photographs, and the recording of the location of those LUC units by GPS. Rainfall pattern changes will be analyzed from Rainfall Estimates(2001-2009) and meteorological station data. Early results show that gully erosion was already extensive in the late 19th century, caused by a largely degraded environment and that critical gully expansion occurred after the mid 20th century. Little care was given to land management in 1868 resulting in very low vegetation cover which depleted to a minimum in dry spells like in the 1980s. In recent decades land management practices result in an environmental recovery and decreasing gully erosion.

  6. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  7. Water implications of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bossio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is often highlighted as a country in which a lot of foreign land acquisition is occurring. The extent to which these investments also constitute significant acquisitions of water is the subject of this paper. It is apparent that water availability is a strong driver of the recent surge of investments in agricultural land globally, and in general the investments occur in countries with significant 'untapped' water resources. Ethiopia is no exception. We propose that the perception of unused and abundant water resources, as captured in dominant narratives, that drives and justifies both foreign and domestic investments, fails to reflect the more complex reality on the ground. Based on new collections of lease information and crop modelling, we estimate the potential additional water use associated with foreign investments at various scales. As a consequence of data limitations our analyses provide only crude estimates of consumptive water use and indicate a wide range of possible water consumption depending on exactly how foreign direct investment (FDI development scenarios unfold. However, they do suggest that if all planned FDI schemes are implemented and expanded in the near future, additional water consumption is likely to be comparable with existing water use in non-FDI irrigation schemes, and a non-trivial proportion of the country’s water resources will be effectively utilised by foreign entities. Hence, additional water use as well as local water scarcity ought to be strong considerations in regulating or pricing land leases. If new investments are to increase local food and water security without compromising local and downstream water availability they should be designed to improve often very low agricultural water productivity, and to safeguard access of local populations to water.

  8. Market Linked Innovation Systems : Opportunities for Strengthening Agricultural Development in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhill, A.J.; Heemskerk, W.; Emana, B.; Elias, E; Ludemann, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study on Strengthening Market Linked Innovation Systems was produced at the request of the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Ethiopia. It offers a perspective on how innovation processes and capacities could be further developed in support of Ethiopia’s Economic Growth and Transformation Plan (EGTP) and the Agricultural Growth Programme (AGP). More specifically it provides recommendations to the Netherlands Embassy on strategic priorities in supporting development of agricultural sector in ...

  9. Alcohol drinking patterns among high school students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Reda Ayalu A; Moges Asmamaw; Wondmagegn Berhanu Y; Biadgilign Sibhatu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol use is an important risk factor for morbidity, mortality and social harm among adolescents. There is paucity of data on alcohol use among high school students in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with alcohol use among high school students in Ethiopia Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and its predictors among high school students in eastern Ethiopia in April 2010. A samp...

  10. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiop to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of the total collection comprised of An. gambiae. Different cytogenetic studies have shown that An. arabiensis is more predominant species than An. quadriannulatus. Malaria Control: The major vector control measure that is being used in the country is in-door residual insecticide (DDT) spraying. As a result An. arabiensis has developed resistance to DDT in some areas. In such cases malathion is used as an alternative. Other vector control measures such as source reduction, chemical larviciding and very recently use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are also used in selected areas.

  11. ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUG RESISTANCE IN ETHIOPIA: A MATA- ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lemlem gebremedhin gebremichael

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most dangers of health in the world. Ethiopia ranked seventh from the 22 high burden counties in the world. The main problem is development of resistance to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs actually increasing in Ethiopia. The aim was to review studies done on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Ethiopia. Literatures were searched for published articles on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance using the combination of terms; resistance, anti-tuberculosis and Ethiopia. Fifteen studies done in different parts of Ethiopia from 1978-2005 G.C were retrieved without restriction of place & design of study. The primary resistance of the fifteen studies done in various parts of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa, Harar, Bahir Dar, Sidamo, Arsi, and Hosanna from1978-2005 G.C showed: Isoniazid (H 1.9%-21.4%, Streptomycin (S 1.9%-26%, Rifampicin (R 0%-1.9%, Ethambutol (E 0%-6.3%, Thiacetazone (T 2.2%-6.3%, H+S 1.9%-26%, H+T 0%-4.4%, S+T 0%-1.8%, H+R 0%-1.1%, S+R 0%-0.7%, R+T 0%-0.4%, H+E 0%-0.9%, S+E 0%-0.6% ,H+S+T 0%-2.4%, H+S+R 0%-1.1%, H+T+R 0%-0.4%, H+S+E 0%-1.7%, R+H+T+S 0%-0.6% and Multi Drug Resistance 0%-1.3%.Acquired drug resistance: H 5.3%-66.7%, S 1.2%-46%, R 0%-12%, E 0%-5.6%, T0%-29%, H+T 0%-20%, H+S 4.8%- 28%, R+H 0%-8%, R+S 0%-3.5%, S+T 0%-2.3%, H+E 0%-3.6%, R+E 0%-5.6%, S+E 0%- 11.2%, H+S+T 0%-16%, R+S+T 0%-2.3% , R+S+H 0%-4%, H+S+E 0%-3.6%, H+R+E 0%- 3.6%, H+R+S+E 0%-14.3% and Multi Drug Resistance 0%-26.3%. It can be concluded that resistance to the anti-tuberculosis drugs is increasing. National level drug resistance survey is recommended to design policies and strategies to prevent increase of drug resistance.

  12. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  13. Constraints Faced by Development Agents in North-Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zerihun Nigussie Gebresilasie

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, agricultural extension and advisory services are expected to play crucial role in improving the agricultural sector in general and the livelihood of small-scale farmers in particular. However, it faced various constraints. The objective of this study was to examine constraints faced by development agents. Data collected from 250 development agents working in Amhara region was the empirical basis of this study. The study result showed that development agents in all zones have the ...

  14. Epidemiological features of severe paediatric malaria in north western Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Seboxa, T; Snow, RW

    1997-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, yet our knowledge of the epidemiology of malaria in terms of patterns of mortality and morbidity is limited. To examine the clinical and epidemiological presentation of severe life-threatening malaria in Humera, north western Ethiopia studies were conducted among the childhood population in the community, those presenting to out-patient facilities and those admitted to the district hospital. The overall P. falciparum paras...

  15. Resettlement and local livelihoods in Nechsar National Park, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Biressu, Abiyot Negera

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with resettlement and local livelihoods in Nechsar National Park, in Southern Ethiopia. It asks three main questions: Why is resettlement of the Guji out of Nechsar National Park emphasized? What are the arguments? What is the relation between the park and its natural resources and the Guji livelihoods? What is the place and right of local communities in natural resource management in the national political context? To answer these questions, data was collected through field...

  16. Clean fuel-saving technology adoption in urban Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Beyene, Abebe Damte; Koch, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    The heavy dependence and inefficient utilization of biomass resources have contributed to the depletion of forest resources in Ethiopia, while the use of traditional cooking technology has also been linked to indoor air pollution and poor health. In response, the government and other institutions have pushed for the adoption of new cooking technologies, with limited success. This research examines the reasons underpinning the lack of widespread adoption, via duration analysis, cor...

  17. Land rights, power and trees in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    DERCON, STEFAN; Ayalew, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides evidence from one of the poorest countries of the world that the institutions of property rights, in particular related to land, are of crucial importance for investment and growth. In Ethiopia, with all land state-owned, the threat of land redistribution never appears far off the agenda. A constitutional reform in 1996 has promised long-term user rights, and land rental and leasing have been made legal, but land rights remain restricted and the perception of continuing...

  18. FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN DANGILA MUNICIPALITY, ETHIOPIA. PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gondo, Tendayi; Mbedzi, Edson

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal decentralization is one component of decentralization that gives authority to local governments to collectrevenue through taxes and responsibility over spending decisions. Even though fiscal decentralization has givenrevenue raising and spending decision powers to lower levels of government, the implementation process hasoften been a daunting task for many local authorities in the developing world. In the case of Ethiopia,decentralization has been implemented since 1991. However, reven...

  19. Acacia fumosa sp. nov. (Fabaceae) from eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Thulin,Mats

    2008-01-01

    The new species Acacia fumosa is described and illustrated. It is confined to the Somali National Regional State (Ogaden) in eastern Ethiopia, where it is dominant and widespread on limestone hills in an area of at least 8 000 km2. Acacia fumosa is closely related to A. ochracea in south-western Somalia, but differs, for example, in its ash grey, smooth and non-flaking bark, densely pubescent leaves, and pink flowers.

  20. Ethiopia: Human Rights Watch Report, 2/5/98

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The African Studies Center site at the University of Pennsylvania has posted this 1997 report on the political and social condition of Ethiopia. It is an announcement released by Human Rights Watch (HRW)/Africa in December 1997, which criticizes "the failure of the Ethiopian government to live up to its professed commitment to human rights, and calling on the US in particular to put pressure for the government to live up to its human rights obligations."

  1. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture,...

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Berg, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20965132

  3. Gender, social capital and empowerment in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nega, Fredu; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Josef; Tollens, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactions between gender, social capital and empowerment in the rural areas of northern Ethiopia. We define empowerment narrowly as the power of households to make important decisions that change their course of life. Depending on the degree of control over decisions, the response of households is classified into passive, active and full control. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze empowerment levels of the rural households, first for the full sample of...

  4. Farmer's health and agricultural productivity in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kussa, Meseret Urgecha

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This thesis assesses the impact of farm household’s health on agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. Two years panel data (2004 and 2009) from Ethiopian longitudinal rural household survey (ERHS) are used. First, Cobb Douglas (CD) stochastic frontier analysis is applied to explain the relationship between farm output and inputs. The results indicate most of the major inputs considered such as labour, land soil and fertility influence agriculture production significantly and positiv...

  5. Review of the Norwegian Development Fund Portfolio in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Waters-bayer, Ann; Tostensen, Arne; Gebremichael, Yohannes

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews the Ethiopian portfolio of the Development Fund (DF), a Norwegian NGO, which has evolved from supporting relief work by one Tigrayan organisation in the 1980s to supporting ten projects with several organisations in Tigray and Afar Regions and networking with other organisations in Ethiopia and beyond. The portfolio focuses on socio-economic development to alleviate poverty and increase food security, primarily through agriculture, and on natural resource management in dry...

  6. Biofuels and Food Security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Negash, Martha; Swinnen, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides microeconomic evidence on food security impacts of privately organized biofuel outgrower schemes in Ethiopia. We conducted a household and community level survey and evaluated the impact of castor bean firming. We use endogenous switching regressions to analyze the impact on food security. Food security (as measured by a ?food gap?) and food caloric intake is significantly better in households producing castor beans. ?Fuel? and ?food? are complements rather than substitute...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele Dawit G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT. Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.

  8. Ethiopia and Eritrea :the quest for peace and normalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gedamu, Kalewongel Minale

    2008-01-01

    The border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea was concluded in 2000 with the signing of the Algiers agreement. Under the Algiers agreement, the two parties established a border commission to delimit and demarcate the borderline In April 2002; the commission delivered its delimitation decision. However, 6 years after the commission’s decision was delivered, the conflict between the two countries is not yet settled. Tensions between the two countries are still high and the possibility for anoth...

  9. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  10. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 ?g m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 ?g m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 ?g m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 ?g m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P  0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  11. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A. J. W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect ho...

  12. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hiwotu, Tilahun M.; Gonfa Ayana; Achamyeleh Mulugeta; Kassa, Getachew B.; Yenew Kebede; Fonjungo, Peter F.; Gudeta Tibesso; Adino Desale; Adisu Kebede; Wondwossen Kassa; Tesfaye Mekonnen; Katy Yao; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Amha Kebede; Linde, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories. Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges. Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into t...

  13. Determinant and impacts of dynamic inflation in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Biresaw, Temesgen Tezera

    2014-01-01

    This thesis uses quarterly data for the period 1998-2010 to investigate the determinant and impacts of dynamic inflation in Ethiopia. By using Granger causality model approach four testable hypotheses are investigated: (1) does the money supply growth Granger-cause inflation? (2) Does currency devaluation Granger cause inflation? (3) Does inflation affect economic growth? And (4) Does oil price Granger cause of inflation? The empirical results suggest that there existed a bi-directional c...

  14. Farmers, seeds and varieties : supporting informal seed supply in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Thijssen, M.H.; Bishaw, Z.; Beshir, A.; Boef, W.S., de

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia is characterized by an enormous diversity in agro-ecosystems, crops and varieties, with the informal seed systems dominant in seed supply for almost all crops. The book addresses strategies and approaches through which professionals can support informal seed supply, and links these with the conservation and use of the huge genetic resource base of crops and local varieties. The book looks at informal seed supply from a number of different angles, introduces key concepts and strategie...

  15. The political economy of food price: The case of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Admassie, Assefa

    2013-01-01

    Food prices increased significantly in 2007 - 08 in Ethiopia due to several supply- and demand-side factors. The Ethiopian government released emergency food grain reserves, imported and distributed wheat at subsidized price, banned the export of staple cereals, and removed value added and turnover taxes on food items. It also increased the reserve requirement of commercial banks and reduced domestic borrowing by public enterprises. These measures were mostly initiated by the government and t...

  16. Causes of unintended pregnancy among adolescents in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nalenga, Georges Z.

    2012-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in many countries, especially in developing countries. Numerous prevention strategies have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, the adolescent unwanted pregnancy still increasing in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia. It is why the researcher would like to assess the risk factors influencing the raise of this issue. The aim of the study was to identify th...

  17. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  18. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...

  19. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia

  20. Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…

  1. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  2. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  3. The Jesuit Mission in Ethiopia (16th–17th Centuries): an Analytical Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Shabot, Leonardo University Of Haifa; Marti?nez D Alo?s-moner, Andreu European University Institute

    2012-01-01

    The Jesuit mission in Ethiopia was an episode of great importance in the history of Ethiopia and the Portuguese expansion. However, despite the number of studies dedicated to it a bibliography was still missing. This paper tries to fill the gap; it discusses the historiography of the mission, outlines the main themes treated and provides a comprehensive list of secondary literature.

  4. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    In Ethiopia, information on the transmission of human zoonotic pathogens through ixodid ticks remains scarce. To address the occurrence and molecular identity of spotted fever group rickettsiae using molecular tools, a total of 767 ixodid ticks belonging to thirteen different species were collected from domestic animals from September 2011 to March 2014. Rickettsia africae DNA was detected in 30.2% (16/53) Amblyommma variegatum, 28.6% (12/42) Am. gemma, 0.8% (1/119) Am. cohaerens, 18.2% (4/22) Amblyomma larvae, 6.7% (2/60) Amblyomma nymphs, 0.7% (1/139) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and 25% (1/4) nymphs of Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus. A markedly low prevalence of R. africae was recorded in both Am. cohaerens and Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus (pgemma. The prevalence of R. africae was markedly low in the western districts (Gachi and Abdela) (pgemma were predominantly associated with R. africae, respectively. R. aeschlimannii DNA was detected in 45.4% (5/11) Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and 2.2% (1/46) Hy. truncatum. Moreover, the first report of R. massiliae DNA in 1.9% (1/52) Rhipicephalus praetextatus ticks in Ethiopia is presented herein. Altogether, these results suggest that the transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae through ixodid ticks is a potential risk for human health in different parts of Ethiopia. Clinicians in this country should consider these pathogens as a potential cause of febrile illness in patients. PMID:25262832

  5. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year?1 and downward trends in rainfall of ? 0.4 mm month?1 year?1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  6. Talking Peace in the Ogaden : The search for an end to conflict in the Somali Regional State in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, war in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia has claimed thousands of lives. The conflict between the Government of Ethiopia and the insurgent Ogaden National Liberation Front has impoverished the communities of Ethiopia’s Somali Regional State, swollen the refugee population in Kenya, and added to insecurity in the Somali territories of the Horn of Africa. Talking Peace in the Ogaden is the outcome of extensive research in Ethiopia, East Africa and the global Ogaadeeni diaspora. It analyses the evolution of the conflict, the changing balance of forces, and the current prospects for peace.

  7. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. PMID:25843811

  8. Predictors of unintended pregnancy in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassa Nega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. Methodology This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended or not. Data were collected by lay interviewers using uniform questionnaire. Odds Ratio, with 95% confidence interval using multiple and multinomial logistic regression were calculated to detect level of significance. Results Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.9% (578/2072 of the study subjects. Out of which, 440 were mistimed and 138 were not wanted. Unintended pregnancy was associated with family wealth status (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14, 1.90, high parity (7 + (OR 5.18; 95% CI 3.31, 8.12, and a longer estimated time to walk to the nearest health care facility (OR 2.24; 95% CI: 1.49, 3.39. In the multinomial regression, women from poor family reported that their pregnancy was mistimed (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.25. The longer estimated time (80 + minutes to walk to the nearest health care facility influenced the occurrence of mistimed pregnancy (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 4.02. High parity (7+ showed a strong association to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12 and (OR 14.34; 95% CI 5.72, 35.98, respectively. Conclusions The economy of the family, parity, and walking distance to the nearest health care institution are strong predictors of unintended pregnancy. In order to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy Efforts to reach rural women with family planning services should be strengthened.

  9. Conservation and Livelihood Impacts of Decentralized Forest Governance in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation focuses on a specific form of forest decentralization, participatory forest management (PFM). The underlying premise of PFM is that sustainable forest management is most likely to occur when local communities manage local forests, and when they get access to direct benefits from participating in forest management. However, the outcomes of PFM have so far been reported as “mixed” and where success is reported, it usually relates to the forest condition rather than to improving local livelihoods. The key research questions in this PhD study are what have been the impacts of PFM on livelihood, forest governance and forest conditions in Ethiopia? The study approaches these questions by disentangling outcomes that can be attributed to PFM rather than other factors through quasi-experimental designs. The significance of the study lays in its holistic assessment of the theoretically expected outcomes of PFM. In the four articles that form the thesis, the study argues that the PFM programme in Ethiopia contributes to forest conservation compared to other types of management regimes. However, conservation is also challenged mainly by lack of support from the authorities to forest user groups. Though various pilot projects have contributed valuable experiences on the performance of PFM in Ethiopia, the programme is currently being scaled up to the national level without taking these into account. Indeed, the PFM up-scaling programme remains based on the discretion of the individual donors and NGOs, with a model where only subsistence level incentives are made available to forest user group members. The study confirms the theoretical claim that rules imposed from above are not followed, and uniquely shows that commercialization of timber and forest conservation can go side by side in decentralized forest management.

  10. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Asfaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe grown in two places in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa and Butajira was also analyzed for comparison. Morphological study on the leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan and A. absinthium (from Europe was also conducted. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Forty three compounds representing 76 to 94% of the oils were identified. The composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: yogomi alcohol (13.5-37.6%, artemisyl acetate (12.7-35.5%, and artemisia ketone (2.3-13.2%. The composition of the oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan however, differs from the other three species in having camphor (21.2-28.3% and davanone (21.3-26.5% as major components. The composition of A. absinthum (Europe was found to have ?-thujone (42.3-66.4% and chamazulene (11.3-24.2% as major components. The study indicated that the composition of the essential oil of A. absinthium (previously A. rehan is not only different from the other three species but also from A. absinthium from Europe and does not belong to any of the chemotypes described for the species in the literature. The morphological study on the leaves also showed that it differs from that of A. absinthium from Europe. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.11

  11. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Robberstad Bjarne; Jerene Degu; Bikilla Asfaw; Lindtjørn Bernt

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We e...

  12. Micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopia and their inter-relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolde-gebriel, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide study on the prevalence of xerophthalmia was carried out in 6,636 children aged 6 months to 6 years in all the Regions of Ethiopia except Eritrea and Tigrai which were excluded for security reasons. Bitot's spots were observed in 1.0% of all children with higher prevalence in the pastoral (1.6%) and cropping (1.1%) agro-ecological zones than in the cash- crop (0.4%) and ensete ('false banana', Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) (0.0%) zones. Conjunctival xerosis and Bitot's spo...

  13. The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, e questi informazioni sono utilizzati qui: dopo una revisione di tutto il materiale di Etiopia e Eritrea, e un comparazione con materiale di Africa tropicale orientale, si è concluso che P. truncata è conspecifi ca con P. dawei, nota per l’Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania e Madagascar, e che un’altra specie conosciuta per l’Africa tropicale orientale (Kenya e Tanzania), P. montis-elgonis, é stata raccolta anche in due stazioni nel sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. In Etiopia, le due specie rare, P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis, sono limitate alle aree originariamente coperti da foresta umida: P. dawei si trova nella foresta pluviale di transizione (Transitional Rain Forest) e anche nella foresta fluviale (Riverine Forest), ma P. montis-elgonis si trova nella zona più bassa della foresta afromontana umida sempreverde (Moist Afromontane Evergreen Forest), secondo i tipi di vegetazione defi niti da Friis, Sebsebe Demissew e van Breugel. La distribuzione ed ecologia di P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis in Africa orientale e il Madagascar viene riesaminata, utilizzando i dati quantitativi disponibili. La distribuzione è stata ottenuta da dati d’erbario, mentre sono state valutate anche la distribuzione potenziale e lo stato di conservazione generale delle due specie. Malgrado loro rarità, almeno in Etiopia, le due specie siano da attribuire alla categoria IUCN Least Concern (LC) se si basi la stima sulla dimensione del EOO o sulla dimensione del AOO con grande cellule. Inoltre viene riproposto un nuovo trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species. In the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Vol. 5, published in 2006, only two indigenous species were accounted for: the widespread and common P. zeylanica and a new species, P. truncata, restricted to south-western Ethiopia. The name P. truncata was not formally validated. Since then more collections and field observations of Plumbago have been made in Ethiopia: after revision of the entire material it is concluded that P. truncata is conspecific with P. dawei, known from Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar, and that another tropical East African species, P. montis-elgonis, known from Kenya and Tanzania, also occurs in south-western Ethiopia. In Ethiopia the two species are restricted to areas originally covered by moist forest: P. dawei to Transitional Rain Forest and Riverine Forest, while P. montis-elgonis to the lowermost zone of the Moist Afromontane Forest, as these vegetation types have been defi ned by Friis, Sebsebe Demissew and van Breugel. The distribution and ecology of P. dawei and P. montis-elgonis in eastern Africa and Madagascar is also reviewed, using quantitative data available: the distribution as documented by herbarium material is shown, the potential distribution of the species is modelled, and the conservation status of the species is estimated. In spite of their rarity, the two species are attributed to the IUCN category Least Concern (LC) when the category is estimated using EOO and AOO with moderate or large cell size. A rewritten account of the genus Plumbago is provided in the format of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, taking account of the new findings.

  14. Modeling the Determinats of Domestic Private Investments in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Ambaye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of domestic private investment in Ethiopia using a time series data over the period 1992-2010. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model and applied the bounds test approach in modeling the long run determinants of domestic private investment. The study found exchange rate, domestic saving and domestic credit as key factors having negative and significant impact on domestic private investment. External debt and government expenditure are found to have significant and positive effect on domestic private investment. The results imply that government expenditure stimulates domestic private investment while domestic credit and domestic saving have a constrained effect on the sector.

  15. Investigation on Infectious Bursal Disease Outbreak in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Aschalew Zeleke; Esayas Gelaye; Teshale Sori; Gelagay Ayelet; Asegedech Sirak; Bereket Zekarias

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of infectious bursal disease affecting 20-45 days old broiler and layer chickens was investigated for the first time in Ethiopia in the months of March and April 2002. Death of chickens started at the 30th day of age and continues to the 55th day. The mortality rate of the disease in different poultry houses ranges from 45-50 %. The over all mortality rate was 49.89%. Broiler mortality was 56.09% while 25.08% for layer chickens. The major clinical symptoms were sudden drop ...

  16. Predictors of institutional delivery in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Feleke Hailemichael; Mirkuzie Woldie; Fikru Tafese

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women are more liable to die during or following delivery than during pregnancy but use of both delivery services and post-partum care is low.Objective: To find out the prevalence and predictors of institutional delivery in Wolaita Sodo(Sodo) town, southern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was used to look at 844 women who had given birth in the previous five years in Sodo town. The study employed a multistage-sampling scheme. Codes were given for all identified women in ...

  17. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Fekadu; Bjune Gunnar; Gele Abdi A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under cont...

  18. Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ararsa Duguma Benti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the major reproductive health problems and its associated risk factors in indigenous Borena breed cows in Borena zone in Southern Ethiopia between September 2013 and February 2014. Out of the total 409 cows examined, 195 (47.7% were having at least one of the reproductive problems identified by either questionnaire interview (n=329 or regular follow up (n=80 of individual cows. The major reproductive health problems identified in the present study were mastitis (21.3%; n=87/409, abortion (12.2%; n=50/409, repeat breeder (10.3%; n=42/409, anestrus (10.3%; n=42/409 and retained fetal membrane (RFM; 7.6%; n=31/409. The rate of abortion increased significantly (p=0.001 with the increase in the stage of gestation. Laboratory findings indicated that brucellosis and mastitis had great roles in reproductive health problems of dairy cows in the study area with prevalence rates of 2.91% and 68.41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study revealed that several reproductive health problems such as mastitis, abortion, repeat breeder, anestrus and RFM are mostly prevalent in dairy cows in Borena zone in southern Ethiopia.

  19. Incidence and Severity of Sorghum Anthracnose in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Tronsmo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year survey was conducted to determine incidence and severity of sorghum anthracnose in different sorghum growing regions in Ethiopia. A total of 487 fields in 49 districts were surveyed in each of the 2005 and 2007 production season. Incidence of sorghum anthracnose was assessed as the percentage of plants with visible symptoms in a field and anthracnose severity was evaluated as the percentage of leaf area with symptoms. Also, the relationship of the incidence and severity of the disease to the altitude of the fields and weather conditions were determined. Results from the 2 years survey revealed that sorghum anthracnose is present in most (84% of the survey districts. However, both incidence and severity of the disease varied significantly (p<0.0001 among the survey areas. Anthracnose incidence ranged from 0 to 77% and severity of the disease varied between 0 and 59% on average for the two years. The two year average anthracnose severity classes ranged from trace (<5% to severe (up to 59% and the disease was generally more severe in the Southwest and South regions. However, some districts in the East and North Ethiopia also had fields with severe anthracnose infection. It was also found out that the prevailing weather conditions especially rainfall has a significant impact on both anthracnose incidence and severity.

  20. New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Gibert, Luis; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Alene, Mulugeta; Deino, Alan; Levin, Naomi E; Scott, Gary; Saylor, Beverly Z

    2015-05-28

    Middle Pliocene hominin species diversity has been a subject of debate over the past two decades, particularly after the naming of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Kenyanthropus platyops in addition to the well-known species Australopithecus afarensis. Further analyses continue to support the proposal that several hominin species co-existed during this time period. Here we recognize a new hominin species (Australopithecus deyiremeda sp. nov.) from 3.3-3.5-million-year-old deposits in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. The new species from Woranso-Mille shows that there were at least two contemporaneous hominin species living in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 3.3 and 3.5 million years ago, and further confirms early hominin taxonomic diversity in eastern Africa during the Middle Pliocene epoch. The morphology of Au. deyiremeda also reinforces concerns related to dentognathic (that is, jaws and teeth) homoplasy in Plio-Pleistocene hominins, and shows that some dentognathic features traditionally associated with Paranthropus and Homo appeared in the fossil record earlier than previously thought. PMID:26017448

  1. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia : learning from pilot projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  2. Biofuels and food security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households’ food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers’ food security. • We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. • Impact is heterogeneous across groups. • Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. • Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel

  3. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia : reality or myth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    2013-01-01

    Rising oil prices, concerns about climate change, and future energy supplies have contributed to growing interest in the use of liquid biofuels in the transport sector which, in turn, has driven large-scale land acquisitions in developing countries for biofuel feedstock production, mainly jatropha. The increasing trend of land acquisition for biofuels has led to the widespread debate about food versus biofuel because of the perceived competition for land and water. To avoid the food versus fuel debate, the use of “marginal” land for biofuel feedstock production (jatropha) has emerged as a dominant narrative. But both the availability and suitability of “marginal” land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study indicates that moisture stress is the key factor in the failure of many large-scale jatropha plantations in Ethiopia.

  4. Regionalization and Prediction of Seasonal Precipitation in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P.

    2014-12-01

    Rainfed agriculture continues to be an important part of Ethiopia's livelihoods and economy. Highly variable inter-annual precipitation, however, presents a serious challenge to sustainable production and subsistence survival. An improved understanding of what drives hydroclimatic extremes and an effective prediction system may help to buffer resulting impacts through improved decision-making. Precipitation data from the National Meteorological Agency at 0.1 x 0.1 grids for 1983 - 2011 during the June-September rainy season over western Ethiopia is evaluated through a cluster analysis to investigate homogeneous regions with similar rainfall patterns for subsequent prediction of seasonal precipitation for each region. A k-means clustering method is applied with the optimal number of clusters (K) selected by the within cluster sum of square errors (WSS) metric. Homogenous regions are defined with relatively clear and smooth boundaries, low inter-cluster correlations, and high intra-cluster correlations. The precipitation prediction models are statistically based, with a seasonal total prediction for each cluster; grid-based predictions are subsequently conditioned on the cluster level prediction through regression. Prospective model predictors include large-scale ocean-land-atmospheric climate variables and local variables and conditions. These predictions will be used in economic and water management models.

  5. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Lemenih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.

  6. Training general practitioners in surgical and obstetrical emergencies in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfi, A; McLean, A P; Pickering, J

    1995-01-01

    A 6-month course for training general practitioners (GPs) in surgical emergencies was developed and piloted in Ethiopia. The course was designed after an assessment of the surgical manpower needs in Ethiopia. Seven GPs were selected by the Ministry of Health (MOH) from rural hospitals that had no surgical specialists but had operating facilities. The course consisted of 1 week of lectures followed by 11 weeks each in obstetrics/gynaecology and general surgery. The GPs trained in district hospitals under the supervision of surgical specialists. Emphasis was placed on practical experience in managing a limited number of previously identified surgical emergencies. Follow up 9 months after completion of the course showed that five of the seven GPs had completed significant numbers of life saving procedures. Complications occurred largely in advanced disease. Difficulties remain with the recognition of the GPs' training and their supervision. We conclude that GPs can be trained to provide life saving surgery in a short training programme at a modest cost, but mechanisms for ensuring ongoing support need to be established. PMID:7879265

  7. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En analyse af fordelingen af artsrigdom og endemisme på de floristiske regioner, der har været anvendt ved udarbejdelsen af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; artiklen er baseret på en tidligere udgivet analyse af floraen på hele Afrikas Horn.

  8. Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia: successes and system-wide effects

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa, Y.; Jerene, D.; Lulseged, S.; Ooms, G.; Damme, W.

    2009-01-01

    Yibeltal Assefa and colleagues describe the successes and challenges of the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment across Ethiopia, including its impact on other health programs and the country's human resources for health.

  9. The Effect of Targeting Credit to Married Women on Intra-household Expenditure Roles in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, H. B.; Bock, B. B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is attempted to explore the potential effects of microfinance targeted at married women on intra-household expenditure roles and women’s economic power taking the cases of two microfinance institutions in Ethiopia

  10. Aid Donor Meets Strategic Partner? The European Union’s and China’s Relations with Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Hackenesch

    2013-01-01

    The motives, instruments and effects of China’s Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the “competitive pressure” that China’s growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one ...

  11. The predicaments of child victims of crime seeking justice in Ethiopia: a double victimization by the justice process

    OpenAIRE

    Woldemariam, Getachew Assefa

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an account of a legal system that has fundamentally failed Ethiopia´s young and vulnerable citizens. The Ethiopian justice process has permitted the subjection of child victims to cycles of traumatisation during investigation, prosecution and trial phases of cases in which they are involved. Ethiopia does not have laws that require the special treatment of children who are victims or witnesses of crime. It has neither rules of criminal procedure nor evidence that dire...

  12. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deribew, A.; Abebe, G.; Apers, L.; Abdisa, A.; Deribe, F.; Woldemichael, K.; Jira, C.; Tesfaye, M.; Shiffa, J.; Assefa, A.; Bezabih, M.; Abeje, T.; Colebunders, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A...

  13. Community Conversation (CC) as a catalyst for stigma reduction and behaviour change : lessons learned from a CARE project in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Getaneh, H.; Mekonen, Y.; Pose, B.

    2008-01-01

    Community Conversation was initiated in Ethiopia in 2002 by the National HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office (NHAPCO). The original set-up encompasses eighteen discussion sessions of 50-70 people living in one Peasant Association (PA), who commit to follow the cycle, which is completed over one year. CARE International in Ethiopia’s HIWOT (Health Improvement and Women Owned Transformation) programme adopted the approach. It initiated 105 CC groups in fourteen districts in four zones on iss...

  14. Hepatitis B virus infection among medical aste handlers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiferaw Yitayal; Abebe Tamrat; Mihret Adane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare wastes contain a wide range of microorganisms among which hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the most significant pathogens. No data about the prevalence of HBV among medical waste handlers is available in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore; this study was conducted to describe the prevalence of HBV infection among medical waste handlers in Government hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings A cross sectional study was conducted among 252 medical and non-medical wast...

  15. Local forest governance in Ethiopia: Between legal pluralism and livelihood realities

    OpenAIRE

    Stellmacher, Till

    2013-01-01

    Ethiopia's montane rainforests have witnessed high rates of depletion and deforestation in the last decades. The main reasons are expansion and intensification of smallholder agriculture and forestry. Forest governance in Ethiopia is characterized by the complex interaction of factors such as nationalization of land, weak state structures, the persistence of traditional local institutions, and socio-cultural heterogeneity promoted by state-enforced resettlement. This paper aims to contribute ...

  16. Foreign Direct Investment Development between European Union and Least Developed Countries : Business Opportunities in Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Biruhe; Gebre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a category of international investment that indicates an intention to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy. This study assesses the development of FDI between EU and Least Developed Countries and also examines investment opportunities in Ethiopia. The primary goal was to examine economical and social contribution of FDI inflow. In addition, this study assesses Ethiopia's business opportunity, FDI policies, incentives ...

  17. The Role of Government in East Asian Development : Lessons for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhane, Esayas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the lessons Ethiopia can learn from East Asia’s growth to sustain its recent economic growth. By an in-depth analysis of the role of government in East Asian’s development it provides recommendations for Ethiopia. The study is based on the experiences of South Korea, Taiwan and Japan in the context of three issues: selective intervention policies, coordination problem and export orientation. Results of the study show that governments in East Asia have used pha...

  18. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun Mesfin; Mengistie Bezatu; Egata Gudina; Reda Ayalu A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010....

  19. Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Birhanu Zewdie; Abdissa Alemseged; Belachew Tefera; Deribew Amare; Segni Hailemariam; Tsu Vivien; Mulholland Kim; Russell Fiona M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the loca...

  20. Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gezahegn Tesfaye; Mitiku Teshome Hambisa; Agumasie Semahegn

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit ...

  1. The International Community’s Intervention on Ethiopia and Eretria’s Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi O. Shuriye

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Border issues are political problems in Africa. The border conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea was one of the contentious wars faced by the international community. To manage this conflict, the same community established border commission to draw up the boundaries and demarcate the borderline. Ethiopia was however insolent and in effect discarded this demarcation. It also continued to dwell in the territory of Eritrea. This research urges the international community to make border issues in Africa a priority. In fact, one of the reasons why Kenya and Ethiopia are reluctant to participate in the efforts to form tangible Somali government has its origin in border issue.  Historically Ethiopia will not forget the damage inflicted upon them by Somali freedom fighters including Imam Ahmad, Sayed Muhammad Abdulle Hassan, and the Somali military. In 1531, Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (1507-1543 launched a campaign against Ethiopia and defeated several Ethiopian emperors, inflicting much dent on the kingdom. This conflict brought three-quarters of Ethiopia under Muslim Somali Sultanate of Adal in the intense Ethiopian Adal War from 1529-43. Similarly, Sayed Muhammad Abdulle Hassan, ONLF, UWSLF and the former Somali National Military have meted out damages on Ethiopia. Similarly Somalia was on the offensive in 1964 to reclaim the Kenyan Northeastern region. The point at hand is that, the history of most conflicts in the region revolves on border related issues. In the case of Ethiopia and Eritrea the military move by the international community had significantly ended a long held conflict and struggle through peaceful engagement and drafted binding arbitration.

  2. Abundance and dynamics of anopheline larvae in a highland malarious area of south-central Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Animut Abebe; Gebre-Michael Teshome; Balkew Meshesha; Lindtjørn Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The sites included Hobe (1817?m.a.s.l), Diram...

  3. Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megabiaw Berihun; Zegeye Desalegn; Mulu Abay

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Population studies on normal and dysfunctional characteristics of menstrual cycles are scarce in Ethiopia. In addition variability in menarcheal age and menstrual characteristics are common. Knowledge on this variability is necessary for patient education and to guide clinical evaluation. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampling method was used to select 6...

  4. Wind Resource Data Analysis : The case of MYDERHU project site, Tigray regional state, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yissa Dawde, Oumer

    2013-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country and its major primary energy consumption is largely covered by biomass and imported fossil fuels. Reliability of electricity supply varies widely across Ethiopia. Currently 65% of the population does not have access to electricity; 30 % of those without electricity live in village centers and 70% live in remote rural areas. However, the country is endowed with different renewable energy resources such as, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal and bioenergy. Wind ener...

  5. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts ofEthiopia, the responses of irrigators to such interventions have never been studied. The main concern of this study therefore is to document how irrigation intervention interfaces with the life-worlds of small-scale irr...

  6. Blood meal origins and insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles arabiensis from Chano in South-West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ulesido, Fekadu Massebo; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anopheles arabiensis, the main malaria vector in Ethiopia, shows both anthropophilic and zoophilic behaviours. Insecticide resistance is increasing, and alternative methods of vector control are needed. The objectives of this study were to determine the blood meal origins and the susceptibility to insecticides of An. arabiensis from Chano village near Arba Minch in South-West Ethiopia.

    Methods: Blood meal sources of anopheline mosquitoes collected using Center...

  7. First Evidence of High Knockdown Resistance Frequency in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yewhalaw, D.; Van Bortel, W.; Denis, L.; Coosemans, M.; L. Duchateau; Speybroeck, N.

    2010-01-01

    The status of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation was investigated in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia. Among 240 mosquito samples from 15 villages of southwestern Ethiopia that were screened by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for kdr mutations, the West African kdr mutation (L1014F) was detected in almost all specimens (98.5%), whereas the East African kdr mutation (L1014S) was absent. Moreover, the mortality of An. gambiae s.l...

  8. Performance of small-scale photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutenbaeumer, Ulrich; Negash, Tesfaye; Abdi, Amensisa [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    1999-09-01

    The performance of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic systems is tested under the climatic conditions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. With climatic data obtained at a station in the Rift Valley, the photovoltaic systems performance is estimated for those climatic conditions. The economics of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic system applications under Ethiopian conditions are analysed. The potential of photovoltaics for the rural electrification of Ethiopia is discussed. (Author)

  9. Consistent condom use among sexually active hiV-positive women in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Alene KA

    2014-01-01

    Kefyalew Addis Alene Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Consistent condom use has been described as the most effective way to prevent both sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission among people living with HIV. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence and factors associated with condom use among sexually active HIV-positive women in Amhara region referral hospitals, Ethiopia. Methods: An inst...

  10. ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION IN ADDIS ABABA,ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hurissa, Rahel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents achievements and challenges of Microfinance Institutions in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. When traditional financial institutions have failed to provide the service to help the poor, MFIs were developed to fill this gap. The research address there institutions working in Addis Ababa. The author’s interest in this topic was enhanced through her personal experiences of living in Ethiopia were examples of acute poverty were abundant. As a poor and developing country, there are...

  11. Domestic violence in a developing context: The perspectives of women in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Mary; Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization's multicountry study of the prevalence rates of intimate partner violence found extremely high rates of violence against women in Ethiopia. This article seeks to develop an understanding of this violence further. By drawing on focus group research conducted with women in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, it explores the types of domestic violence experienced by these women, the impact of this violence, the reasons for it, and the multiple resistanc...

  12. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Gemeda; Deribew Amare; Apers Ludwig; Abdissa Alemseged; Deribie Fetene; Woldemichael Kifle; Shiffa Jaffer; Tesfaye Markos; Jira Chali; Bezabih Mesele; Aseffa Abraham; Bekele Alemayehu; Colebunders Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2009 in the Gilgel Gibe field research area. A total of 30,040 individuals 15?years or older in 10,882 households were scr...

  13. Seroepidemiological study of caprine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zewdu, E.; Agonafir, A.; Tessema, T. S.; Tilahun, G.; Medhin, G; M Vitale; Di Marco, V.; Cox, E.; Vercruysse, J.; Dorny, P

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a global zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular apicomplexan parasite. The objectives of this study were to estimate the animal and flock level seroprevalence and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis in goats of Central Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, goats are economically important animals used for meat and milk production. The study was cross-sectional and 927 blood samples from 187 goat flocks were collected to examine T. gondii specific IgG antibodies by enz...

  14. Review and quantitative assessment of ex situ household rainwater harvesting systems in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Moges, G.; Hengsdijk, H.; Jansen, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Ex situ household rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems have been introduced at a large scale in Ethiopia to increase the water availability for smallholders through supplementary irrigation. The first objective of this paper is to review the performance of these systems in Ethiopia based on various assessment studies. The second objective is to provide quantitative biophysical and socio-economic analyses of ex situ household RWH systems contributing to the better understanding of their performa...

  15. Public interest litigation as practised by South African human rights NGOs : any lessons for Ethiopia?

    OpenAIRE

    Badwaza, Yoseph Mulugeta

    2005-01-01

    "It is against this backdrop of unsatisfacotry enforcement of fundamental human rights enshrined in the Constitution that the role of human rights NGOs in Ethiopia should come to the fore. Thus, apart from monitoring violations and conducting legal awareness programs, there is a need for human rights NGOs in Ethiopia to engage in public interest litigation with a view to facilitating the judical enforcement of fundamental rights representing those who, for various reasons, can not access cour...

  16. Multivariate Analysis of Nutritional Diversity in Sorghum Landrace Accessions from Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Angeline van Biljon; Nemera Geleta Shargie; Labuschagne, Maryke T.; Abe Shegro

    2013-01-01

    In Ethiopia, sorghum is grown for food and cash income by subsistence farmers. The study was conducted at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Council, Grain Crops Institute at Potchefstroom, South Africa. A total of 31 sorghum landrace accessions were used for chemical analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of genetic diversity in nutritional composition of sorghum landraces from western Ethiopia. Sorghum whole grains were analyzed for crude protein, ...

  17. Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kloos Helmut; Gebre-Selassie Solomon; van Bortel Wim; Legesse Worku; Yewhalaw Delenasaw; Duchateau Luc; Speybroeck Niko

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and cha...

  18. The "hidden hunger" : understanding the burden and determinants of anaemia among women in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Amenu, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Anaemia is a global public health problem associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. The highest prevalence of anaemia exists in developing world where its causes are multi-factorial. In Ethiopia large size data was collected by DHS in 2005 but the data wasn’t further analyzed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude and determinants of anaemia among women of child bearing age in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: The magnitude and individual/household based determinants of anaemia ...

  19. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, A.J.G., van

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the functioning of the wheat seed system in four major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. A total of 304 wheat growers were interviewed in Arsi, West Shoa, North Shoa, and East Gojam zones. Most wheat growers w...

  20. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa Dereje; Shibre Teshome; Asher Laura; Fekadu Abebaw

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...

  1. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access

    OpenAIRE

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia’s national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian live...

  2. Econometric analyses of horticultural production and marketing in Central and Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaleta Debello, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: vegetables, food and cash crops, land and labour allocations, crop and market outlet choice, price information, farm households, Ethiopia.The central item of this research is to examine the development of less-favoured areas through commercializing small-scale agriculture that produces crops with export potential, particularly in horticulture.First the role of horticulture, along with other non-traditional agricultural commodities, in stabilizing the export income of Ethiopia is ana...

  3. Health inequalities in Ethiopia:modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups

    OpenAIRE

    Tranva?g, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima Abdella; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011.

    Methods: We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logi...

  4. The illusive refugee: An assessment of the political, legal and social spaces of Ethiopia's civil society

    OpenAIRE

    Engberg-Pedersen, Rebecca Ejigayehu; Dobel, Ea Maj; Felding, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Our hypothesis investigates the political, legal and social spaces for Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) working with refugees in Ethiopia. The thesis assesses the implications for a highly controlled and restricted civil society. The nation’s legislation, use of control and surveillance are among the conditions that form and challenge the work of the CSOs in Ethiopia. We also focus on the construction and discourses that surrounds ‘people on the move’. A theoretical framework...

  5. The Emergence of a Dual-System of Primary Schooling in Ethiopia and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Asayehgn Desta

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, in quantitative terms, Ethiopia has expanded and universalized the enrolment of school aged children in primary schools in line the International Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural rights in order to minimize the irregularities that have existed over the years. However, when the existing primary schooling is visualized in terms of quality and equity, it is sad to observe that privately run-ultra-modern primary schools seem to be mushrooming in Ethiopia in o...

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem®) against Plasmodium falciparum in Kersa, South West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Animut Abebe; Mohamed Hussen; Tadese Gemechu; Kassa Moges; Assefa Ashenafi; Mengesha Tesfayae

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Artemether/Lumefantrine (Coartem®) has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection since 2004 in Ethiopia. In the present study the therapeutic efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection at Kersa, Jima zone, South-west Ethiopia, has been assessed. Methods A 28 day therapeutic efficacy study was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008, in accordance with the 2003 WHO guid...

  7. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797

  8. Ethiopian-Netherlands horticulture partnership : Prospects and challenges for refrigerated container transport of fruits and vegetables from Ethiopia to the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Snels, J.C.M.A.; Admiraal, L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia has a big potential to grow more fruits and vegetables. Ethiopia’s current fruit and vegetable export is very limited. Scope for expanding and diversifying its export markets is large. Demand for fruits and vegetables is growing in nearby international markets, like the Middle East. Although Ethiopia is land locked, it is geographically close to the Middle East. To reach the Middle East, and other international markets, produce has to be transported to Djibouti where it can be ship...

  9. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Fekadu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay, and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2% were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8% were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists. Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91 and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98 were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54. Extra-pulmonary TB was the only observed predictor for health care providers' delay (aOR. 3.39, CI 1.68–6.83. Conclusion Patient delay observed among pastoralist TB patients in SRS is one of the highest reported so far from developing countries, exceeding two years in some patients. This long patient delay appears to be associated with patient's inadequate knowledge of the disease and distance to health care facility with nomadic pastoralists being the most affected. Regional TB control programmes need to consider the exceptional circumstances of pastoralists, to maximise their access to TB services.

  10. The tale of the hearts: deciding on abortion in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution. PMID:22250576

  11. A review of uranium minerals exploration in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in und in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa, Illubabor and Wollega administrative regions. Much of the country has been examined by geologists, but it would be premature to say that there are no further deposits of useful minerals awaiting discovery. Only a comparatively small part of the country has been geologically mapped so far on a systematic basis. Geologic maps at scales of 1:100,000 to 1:25,000 should be prepared for areas where mineral deposits are to be prospected for and where known deposits are to be developed or exploited. At present the best available geological map is one at a scale of 1:250, 000. This and other programs of mineral exploration basically call, among others, for: - Equipment and funds from bilateral, multilateral and local sources; - A national program geared towards uranium mineral exploration; - Heavy investment in infrastructure to get to many of the deposits, which are located in remote parts of the country; - International and regional cooperation in uranium mineral resources research. Finally, participation in international conferences such as this organized by the IAEA will give us, researchers in developing countries, good impetus to get moving and do useful research in uranium exploration and its uses. Research collaboration with scientists in the developed world is very essential to accelerate forward the creeping research in developing countries. (author)

  12. Social networks and factor markets : panel data evidence from Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labor and credit transactions between 7 and 11 percentage points. Furthermore, our findings also indicate that iddir networks crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as Arata Abedari), a relatively expensive credit source, virtually without affecting borrowing from formal credit sources. These results point out the roles non-market arrangements, such as social networks, can play in mitigating market inefficiencies in poor rural markets.

  13. Buthus awashensis sp. n. from Ethiopia (Scorpiones: Buthidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kova?ík, F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Buthus awashensis sp. n. from the Awash region of Ethiopia, is described and compared with B. berberensis Pocock, 1900 from Somaliland. The new species is characterized chiefly by the total length of 50–65 mm. B. berberensis reaches only 45–55 mm and differs in coloration, with adults having the chela of pedipalp and chelicerae entirely yellow without dark reticulations, and by mophometric characters, mainly the shape of the chela of pedipalp. Pectinal marginal tips extend the to proximal end of the fourth sternite in males of B. awashensis sp. n. and to proximal end of the fifth sternite in males of B. berberensis. Included are color photos of both sexes of dead and alive B. awashensis sp. n. and B. berberensis and of their localities.

  14. DIVERSITY AND ENDEMICITY OF CHILIMO FOREST, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome Soromessa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species followed by pteridophyta (16 species; the least represented being the gymnosperms (represented by 2 exotic and 2 indigenous species. To provide a better management and monitoring as well as to maintain the biodiversity, cultural and economic values of the forest unsustainable utility of the forest would be controlled with the various conservation activities in place.

  15. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  16. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey played a leading role in conducting a National Workshop that designed the programme's basic features. (author)

  17. A zoonotic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebre-Michael Teshome

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is endemic in the highlands of Ethiopia, and almost always caused by Leishmania aethiopica. Hitherto, Addis Ababa (the capital city of Ethiopia was not considered endemic for CL, mainly due to absence of epidemiological and field ecological studies. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiological investigation that proved the existence of active transmission in southeastern Addis Ababa. Results Active case finding surveys were conducted in 3 localities, Saris, Kality, and Akaki, which are found in and around Bulbula-Akaki river gorges. During the surveys conducted in January 2005 - May 2006, a total of 35 cases with 9 active and 26 healed skin lesions were identified. Eighteen of the cases (51.4% were found in Saris; while 10 (28.6% and 7 (20% cases were from Kality and Akaki respectively. Ten colonies of rock hyraxes (Heterohyrax brucei were identified in the vicinities of the 3 localities. Three of the 48 hyraxes (6.3% trapped from the surroundings harbored natural infections of Leishmania aethiopica. Confirmation of the Leishmania species of the 3 isolates was achieved by PCR amplification and RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences. Based on sandfly species composition and proximity of resting sites to human settlements, Phlebotomus longipes is circumstantially proven to be the vector of CL in south east Addis Ababa. Conclusion The study proves the existence of isolated zoonotic foci of CL in south eastern Addis Ababa, with P. longipes as the likely vector and H. brucei as the natural reservoir host.

  18. Women’s Education and Modern Contraceptive Use in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Gordon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Women’s education and modern contraceptive use are two central issues highlighted in the Ethiopian government’s current development strategy. While the link between education and contraceptive use has been widely established in the background literature, there are few quantitative studies that explore how and why education affects the use of contraception. This study investigates the relationship between education and modern contraceptive use among a sample of 1,200 sexually active women from across Ethiopia. It uses secondary analysis of a survey conducted by Marie Stopes International Ethiopia in 2008. Through structural equation modelling it demonstrates that educational effects are fully mediated by attitudes, knowledge and access to health services. Of these, knowledge and access emerge as having the most considerable explanatory power.

  19. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215

  20. Child survival during the 2002-2003 drought in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waal, A; Taffesse, A Seyoum; Carruth, L

    2006-01-01

    Droughts in Ethiopia have commonly been associated with increased child mortality. Early indications were that the 2002/03 drought, which affected 13.2 million people, was no exception, despite a large relief operation. Humanitarian agencies reported sharp increases in child deaths and pockets of acute distress in some hard-hit localities. In response, the 2004 Ethiopia Child Survival Survey (ECSS) was designed to investigate the impact of the drought on child survival in the general population. The survey covered 4816 households in both drought-affected and non-drought affected, as well as rural and urban localities. Data from the ECSS indicate that child mortality was indeed higher in drought-affected areas. However, a closer analysis reveals that this differential is attributable to chronic conditions in those localities, rather than the immediate impact of the 2002/03 drought. Multivariate analysis was used to construct a model for the determinants of child survival in the sample population. Household-level demographic factors, household-level food and livelihood security, community-level economic production, and access to potable water, were predictive of child survival. Additionally, household receipt of food aid had a small but significant positive association with child survival, even though the ECSS cannot determine either the underlying causal mechanisms of this association or the role of confounding factors. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that the most extensive drought in the country's modern history passed without a measurable increase in child mortality among the general population. Yet Ethiopian children still suffer unacceptably high rates of chronic malnutrition and poor life chances, and large populations continue to live at the brink of destitution and calamity. PMID:19153901

  1. Desertification? Northern Ethiopia re-photographed after 140 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Haile, Mitiku; Naudts, Jozef; Munro, Neil; Poesen, Jean; Moeyersons, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Pankhurst, Richard

    2009-04-01

    A collection of sepia photographs, taken during Great Britain's military expedition to Abyssinia in 1868, are the oldest landscape photographs from northern Ethiopia, and have been used to compare the status of vegetation and land management 140 years ago with that of contemporary times. Thirteen repeat landscape photographs, taken during the dry seasons of 1868 and 2008, were analyzed for various environmental indicators and show a significant improvement of vegetation cover. New eucalypt woodlands, introduced since the 1950s are visible and have provided a valuable alternative for house construction and fuel-wood, but more importantly there has also been locally important natural regeneration of indigenous trees and shrubs. The situation in respect to soil and water conservation measures in farmlands has also improved. According to both historical information and measured climatic data, rainfall conditions around 1868 and in the late 19th century were similar to those of the late 20th/early 21st century. Furthermore, despite a ten-fold increase in population density, land rehabilitation has been accomplished over extensive areas by large-scale implementation of reforestation and terracing activities, especially in the last two decades. In some cases repeat photography shows however that riparian vegetation has been washed away. This is related to river widening in recent degradation periods, particularly in the 1970s-1980s. More recently, riverbeds have become stabilized, and indicate a decreased runoff response. Environmental recovery programmes could not heal all scars, but this study shows that overall there has been a remarkable recovery of vegetation and also improved soil protection over the last 140 years, thereby invalidating hypotheses of the irreversibility of land degradation in semi-arid areas. In a highly degraded environment with high pressure on the land, rural communities were left with no alternative but to improve land husbandry: in northern Ethiopia such interventions have been demonstrably successful. PMID:19155052

  2. Causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mengistu Asnake Kibret

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObstetric fistula (OF is one of the major potential complications of childbirth mostly young women in developing countries including Ethiopia. Though few scientific studies have been conducted related to its causes and consequences, it is challenging to find a comprehensive figure about obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper sought that to review the causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. A number of relevant obstetrics and gynaecology websites and journals were reviewed. Google, Pubmed, and Hinari searching engines were used to find out relevant references. Year of publication, location, language and its type of publication were the inclusion criteria used for reviewing literatures. It is observed that obstetric fistula has been a major burdened mainly for women in the rural Ethiopian and its causes and consequences are very deep and diverse. The great majority of obstetric fistula causes in Ethiopia is due to Obstetric labour. Distance to the health care facility, transportation access, economic factors (poverty, poor knowledge related to the problem, poor health seeking behaviour of the affected women and age at first marriage are the other triggering factors. Stigma and discrimination of obstetric fistula patients by their husbands and families, economic dependency and psychological disorder are often mentioned as consequences for OF patients in Ethiopia.

  3. The immune status of young adult females in Ethiopia to rubella virus infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreselassie, Lakew; Abebe, Almaz

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study on the prevalence of rubella-specific antibody among young adult females aged 14-25 years old in four cities and one district town in Ethiopia are presented. The highest prevalence of rubella antibody (97%) was found among young females in Addis Ababa in the central region of the country, followed by those in Dessie, in the north of Ethiopia, and in Awassa in the south, both of which exhibited 94% prevalence. The next highest prevalences were observed in Dire Dawa (88%), a large town in the Hararge region, and in Gambella (85%), a town in the remote western part of the country. The overall prevalence of the antibody was found to be 94%. The remaining 6% of the young adult female population are potentially susceptible to rubella virus infection. It follows that the incidence of congenital rubella infection is probably low in Ethiopia because the vast majority of the female population is immune. PMID:3879204

  4. Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia

  5. Establishing a Cosmic Ray Station and Other Space Research Facilities in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damtie, B.; Bosinger, T.; Usoskin, I.

    This paper describes the potential of Ethiopia in establishing space research facilities and conducting collaborative research and training. It also describes the goals and objectives of a proposed cosmic ray station in Ethiopia which would greatly improve the abilities of the existing worldwide network for heliospheric and cosmic ray research. The station will be located at the geomagentic equator, which is a very unique place for geomagnetic and heliospheric studies. Moreover, the paper presents an overview of the research and training activities in space physics and the successful collaborative project between Ethiopia and Finland, which facilitated the installation of a pulsation magnetometer and a photometer at Entoto Mountain in a suburb of the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.

  6. 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaw, S; Renne, P; Harris, J W; Feibel, C S; Bernor, R L; Fesseha, N; Mowbray, K

    1997-01-23

    The Oldowan Stone tool industry was named for 1.8-million-year-old (Myr) artefacts found near the bottom of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Subsequent archaeological research in the Omo (Ethiopia) and Turkana (Kenya) also yielded stone tools dated to 2.3 Myr. Palaeoanthropological investigations in the Hadar region of the Awash Valley of Ethiopia, revealed Oldowan assemblages in the adjacent Gona River drainage. We conducted field work in the Gona study area of Ethiopia between 1992 and 1994 which resulted in additional archaeological discoveries as well as radioisotopic age control and a magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Gona sequence. These occurrences are now securely dated between 2.6-2.5 Myr. The stone tools are thus the oldest known artefacts from anywhere in the world. The artefacts show surprisingly sophisticated control of stone fracture mechanics, equivalent to much younger Oldowan assemblages of Early Pleistocene age. This indicates an unexpectedly long period of technological stasis in the Oldowan. PMID:9002516

  7. FISCAL MANAGEMENT IN DANGILA MUNICIPALITY, ETHIOPIA. PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendayi GONDO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal decentralization is one component of decentralization that gives authority to local governments to collectrevenue through taxes and responsibility over spending decisions. Even though fiscal decentralization has givenrevenue raising and spending decision powers to lower levels of government, the implementation process hasoften been a daunting task for many local authorities in the developing world. In the case of Ethiopia,decentralization has been implemented since 1991. However, revenue raising and expenditure management arenot efficiently and effectively exercised, especially in lower level government units of Ethiopia. Insufficient revenuecollection and reprehensible expenditure management leads to financial incapability such that public infrastructureand services could not be financed amply. Dangila municipality faces the problem of financial capacity to deliverinfrastructure and services to its citizens. While a number of studies have documented the financial incapacities ofEthiopian municipalities, they have been very shy to articulate the discrepancies and deficiencies that linkfinancing to service delivery. It is interesting to know what the driving factors are in this case. Therefore, the mainfocus of this paper is to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of revenue collection and expendituremanagement of Dangila Municipality. To obtain edifying data the paper used a positivist survey study. Municipalityfinancial documentation and questionnaires were the main sources of secondary and primary data respectively.Parametric descriptive statistical methods were applied in the analysis of data to arrive at measures of efficiencyand effectiveness in revenue collection and expenditure management of the municipality. The study revealed thatthe municipality is not efficient and effective in its revenue collection and expenditure management. The mainexplanation for such inefficiency comprise; derisory assessment of taxable sources, poor organizational structure,inadequate accounting system, absence of clear operational guidelines, poor planning and data basemanagement, lack of awareness by taxpayers and lack of skilled manpower. To resolve such challenges, werecommend the following actionable measures; widening the revenue base of local sources of revenue, improvingplanning and implementing capacity, establishing adequate data base systems, continuous awareness creation fortaxpayers, establishing appropriate guidelines and methods of revenue collection, revision of the tariff structureregularly, installing accounting system that produces timely and reliable information, encouraging communityparticipation in planning and resource allocation and municipal restructuring that take into account needs andwelfare of employees.

  8. Sedimentology and Lithostratigraphy of Paleozoic Sedimentary Successions of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Nageshwar; Bheemalingeswara, Konka; Nyssen, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Paleozoic sedimentary successions of Ethiopia form a very important chapter in Ethiopian Geology. Present study is a re-examination of such successions in northern Ethiopia, deposited in continental environments, in the light of modern concepts of depositional environments and litho-facies. Although they have very poor preservation potential, as they are dominated by erosional activities, deposits of continental environments are noticed in the study area. They are mappable, although occurring in patches, unconformably overlying the Proterozoic metamorphic basement rocks. The Paleozoic sedimentary lithostratigraphic units ESF (Enticho Sandstone Formation) and ATF (Adaga Arbi Tillite Formation) are totally different in their lithological characters. ESF is dominated by medium to coarse, cross-bedded, moderately sorted, white sandstones with occasional occurrence of muddy lenses rich in iron oxide and oligomectic conglomerates. The large size of cross-bedding as well as textural inversion of well-rounded and sub-angular grains suggest aeolian influence during deposition of this unit in a braided and meandering fluvial setting, the outwash of reworked glacial materials. ATF is characterized by the dominance of ferruginous, mud-matrix rich, un-stratified, unsorted tillites with large size, angular boulders derived from Precambrian source and deposited by glaciers. ESF is regarded as older and ATF younger by many workers on the basis of field occurrences. The former is overlain by the latter but often the reverse field relationship is also observed. However, there is no doubt about their glacial origin. At certain localities, in ATF, a muddy lithology with thin layers (varves) has also been observed with interrupted layers of mud by large and angular embedded dropstones. This unit, although rare in occurrence, clearly indicates their deposition in a pro-glacial lacustrine environment. Therefore, a glacio-lacustrine-fluvial depositional model is suggested on the basis of lithological characters of the Paleozoic sedimentary successions of the study area. Successive episodes of three parallel depositional environments are responsible for the development of three different litho-facies associations during Paleozoic Era. This is the reason why sometimes ESF is overlain by ATF and vice versa. An interfingering relationship of these two lithostratigraphic units seems to be more logical than independent entities. This model explains the simultaneous occurrence of three environmements (Glacial - Lake - River) producing three different litho-facies (Till - Varve with dropstones - Sand). During the Paleozoic Era, many such episodes were responsible for the production of thick successions on the peneplaned basements towards the terminal part of glacier sheets melting and producing lake/fluvial systems.

  9. Chat (Catha edulis): a socio economic crop in Harar Region, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kandari, Laxman S.; Yadav, Hiranmai R.; Thakur, Ashok K.; Kandari, Tripti

    2014-01-01

    Chat (Catha edulis) is an important perennial crop and its leaves are chewed for a stimulating effect. It is widely cultivated in the Ethiopian highlands of Oromia region and is figured as Ethiopia’s second largest foreign exchange earner. Its cultivation accounts for about 70% of farmer’s income in the study area. The common effect of its consumption leads to insomnia, a condition that the users sometimes try to overcome with sedatives or alcohol. The present study is an attempt to surve...

  10. The immune status of young adult females in Ethiopia to rubella virus infection*

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreselassie, Lakew; Abebe, Almaz

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study on the prevalence of rubella-specific antibody among young adult females aged 14-25 years old in four cities and one district town in Ethiopia are presented. The highest prevalence of rubella antibody (97%) was found among young females in Addis Ababa in the central region of the country, followed by those in Dessie, in the north of Ethiopia, and in Awassa in the south, both of which exhibited 94% prevalence. The next highest prevalences were observed in Dire Dawa (88%)...

  11. Setting up Micro-enterprises to Promote Soybean Utilization at Household Level in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Blomne Sopov, M.; Sertse, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This project built on the previous work of the Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR in the soy sector development in Ethiopia. As processors were linked more and more to producers in the soy sector, the need arose to explore options to enhance household nutrition security of producers in soy growing areas. One of such option was setting up a pilot microenterprise based on the VitaGoat system at the most successful soy growing cooperative in Ethiopia. The VitaGoat system has been a...

  12. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face intervie...

  13. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely populated Gedeo country (500 persons per km 2) covers highlands (range 1200 to 3000m asl) between 5 oand 7 oNorth and 38 oand 40 oEast, in the escarpment of the Rift Valley facing Lake Abaya. Based on perennial cropping, emphasis on tre...

  14. Thermal imaging of Erta 'Ale active lava lake (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, L.; Oppenheimer, C.; Calvari, S.; Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.

    2009-04-01

    Active lava lakes represent the uppermost portion of a volume of convective magma exposed to the atmosphere, and provide open windows on magma dynamics within shallow reservoirs. Erta ‘Ale volcano located within the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia, hosts one of the few permanent convecting lava lakes, active at least since the last century. We report here the main features of Erta ‘Ale lake surface investigated using a hand-held infrared thermal camera between 11 and 12 November 2006. In both days, the lake surface was mainly characterized by efficient magma circulation reflecting in the formation of well-marked incandescent cracks and wide crust plates. These crossed the lake from the upwelling to the downwelling margin with mean speeds ranging between 0.01 and 0.15 m s-1. Hot spots opened eventually in the middle of crust plates and/or along cracks. These produced explosive activity lasting commonly between ~10 and 200 sec. Apparent temperatures at cracks ranged between ~700 and 1070?C, and between ~300 and 500?C at crust plates. Radiant power output of the lake varied between ~45 and 76 MW according to the superficial activity and continuous resurfacing of the lake. Time series analysis of the radiant power output data reveals cyclicity with a period of ~10 min. The combination of visual and thermal observations with apparent mean temperatures and convection rates allows us to interpret these signals as the periodic release of hot overpressured gas bubbles at the lake surface.

  15. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  16. Household Contact Screening Adherence among Tuberculosis Patients in Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Alemu, Wondmu Gebeyehu

    2015-01-01

    Background Household contacts of active tuberculosis cases are at high risk of getting tuberculosis disease. Tuberculosis detection rate among contacts of household members is high. Hence, this study investigated household contact screening adherence and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 10 - June 30, 2013 in five urban districts of Amhara region, where 418 patients receiving treatment at tuberculosis clinic were interviewed. All patients were interviewed using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bringing at least one household contact to TB clinic was regarded as adherent to household contacts screening. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate association. Results The overall adherence to household contact screening in Amhara region was 33.7%. Adherence was higher among Muslims than Christians. Adherence was high if patient took health education from Health Care Worker [AOR: 3.22, 95% CI: 1.88 to 5.51] and 2.17 times higher if patient had sufficient knowledge on tuberculosis [AOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.67] during interview. Relationship with contact was a significant [AOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9] social related factor. Conclusion One third of tuberculosis patients adhered to household contact screening in health facilities during their treatment course. Promoting knowledge of tuberculosis in the community and continuous health education to tuberculosis patients are recommended. PMID:25955517

  17. Diagnosing potential discrepancies in satellite rainfall estimates over Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Matthew; Williams, Charles; Chiu, Christine; Maidment, Ross; Chen, Shu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Reliable satellite precipitation estimates are vital over many regions of Africa because of the importance of rainfall monitoring for rain-fed agriculture and water resources. In particular, regions with mountainous terrain pose a major challenge for satellite-based rainfall algorithms because retrievals based upon thermal infrared and microwave observations tend to miss orographic precipitation, often associated with warm temperatures and a weak scattering signal. To investigate the skill of satellite rainfall retrievals over mountainous terrain, we evaluate several satellite-based rainfall algorithms against rain gauge measurements over the mountainous Oromia region in Ethiopia. In particular, we assess the skill of rainfall retrieved from algorithms that only use thermal infrared observations and algorithms that combine both thermal infrared and microwave observations. We also investigate the dependency of retrievals on topography by classifying the relationship between the retrieval errors and elevation. Furthermore, we conduct high resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) during days with significant retrieval errors to determine how the errors relate to the characteristics of precipitation. A qualitative assessment of the vertical atmospheric structure and microphysical content of simulations reveals the potential sources of underestimation and overestimation in the rainfall algorithms. This study will highlight the importance of understanding regional precipitation systems causing uncertainties in satellite rainfall estimates, with a view toward using this knowledge to improve rainfall algorithms.

  18. Wind energy potential assessment at four typical locations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekele, Getachew; Palm, Bjoern [Department of Energy Technology, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    The wind energy potential at four different sites in Ethiopia - Addis Ababa (09:02N, 38:42E), Mekele (13:33N, 39:30E), Nazret (08:32N, 39:22E), and Debrezeit (8:44N, 39:02E) - has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve (DC) for all four selected sites. In brief, for measurements taken at a height of 10 m, the results show that for three of the four locations the wind energy potential is reasonable, with average wind speeds of approximately 4 m/s. For the fourth site, the mean wind speed is less than 3 m/s. This study is the first stage in a longer project and will be followed by an analysis of solar energy potential and finally the design of a hybrid standalone electric energy supply system that includes a wind turbine, PV, diesel generator and battery. (author)

  19. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting to expose the issue and not knowing where to go.

  20. Isotope Hydrology Projects in Ethiopia Provide Valuable Information and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.

  1. The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Ludwin; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Frankl, Amaury

    2013-04-01

    The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (15 077 km², Nile basin, Ethiopia) was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed in a GIS system. It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and -metry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes. The scale is 1:500 000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and ultimately sculpted by (mainly water) erosion. Lake Tana emerged by the combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. Since the time that the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive floodplains were created, river valleys have been filled with sediment and higher laying topography has been eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased lake extent (3041 km² now) as compared to the ancient maximum (6602 km²). Dominant processes today are merely fluvial and denudative. Recent (1886-2010) changes in lake coast are small with exception of the delta of the major feeding river, Gilgel Abay, which increased disproportionally the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.

  2. Prevalence of ovine and caprine oestrosis in Ambo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to estimate the prevalence, larval burden and risk factors of ovine and caprine oestrosis from December 2007 to May 2008 on 554 heads of randomly selected sheep and goat slaughtered at Ambo town, Western Shoa, Ethiopia. The results show an overall prevalence of 59.9% with infection rate of 69.8% and 47.3% in sheep and goats respectively. No statistically significant difference in the prevalence was noted with regard to the assumed risk factors like sex, nose color, face color, horned versus polled, origin, and months (p?>?0.05). Sheep were nearly twice more likely to be infected as compared to goats (p?=?0.0001, odds ratio (OR)?=?1.975). Age of the animals was found to be protective (OR?=?0.579; 95% confidence interval?=?0.393, 0.853; p?=?0.006). As compared to very fat animals, poor (p?=?0.040, OR?=?4.834), medium (p?=?0.049, OR?=?4.198), and fat (p?=?0.022, OR?=?5.795) body condition animals are more likely to be infected by Oestrus ovis larvae. Nasal and sinus cavity pathology is positively correlated with the total larval count (r?=?0.56, p?goats, in adult than young, and in animals with poor body condition. PMID:20725855

  3. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miliard Derbew

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Philpott J, Derbew M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2010;2(1, Art. #155,3 pages, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.155

     

  4. Spirituality, social capital and service: factors promoting resilience among Expert Patients living with HIV in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Sophia Ahmed; Tsegaye, Mulugeta; Argaw, Meron Gurji; Andes, Karen; Gilliard, Danielle; del Rio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ethiopia and other developing nations face numerous challenges to their health and well-being, including poverty, limited healthcare infrastructure and high levels of societal stigma. Despite these challenges, resilient trajectories have been observed even within such resource-limited settings. In Ethiopia, such resilience is exemplified by the 'Expert Patients (EPTs)', HIV-positive lay health workers who function as adherence counsellors, health educators, outreach workers and community advocates. We conducted a multi-method qualitative study with 20 EPTs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in order to understand pathways to resilience in this selected population. Participants described three key mechanisms of resilient coping: (1) the use of spirituality and faith-based practices to manage psychological difficulties associated with living with HIV; (2) utilisation of social capital from family and community networks as a buffer against the psychological and economic consequences of societal stigma; and (3) serving others as a mechanism for finding optimism and purpose in life. Interventions designed to facilitate and/or augment these social processes in the wider community may be promising strategies for improving health among PLHIV in Ethiopia and other resource-limited settings. PMID:24520996

  5. Asymptomatic Malaria and Other Infections in Children Adopted from Ethiopia, United States, 2006–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebo, Senait M.; Eckerle, Judith K.; Andrews, Mary E.; Howard, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    We screened 52 children adopted from Ethiopia for malaria because they had previously lived in a disease-endemic region or had past or current hepatomegaly or splenomegaly. Seven (13.5%) children had asymptomatic malaria parasitemia by microscopy (n = 2) or PCR (n = 5). Our findings suggest that adoptees at risk for asymptomatic malaria should be screened, preferably by PCR. PMID:26079644

  6. Asymptomatic Malaria and Other Infections in Children Adopted from Ethiopia, United States, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebo, Senait M; Eckerle, Judith K; Andrews, Mary E; Howard, Cynthia R; John, Chandy C

    2015-07-01

    We screened 52 children adopted from Ethiopia for malaria because they had previously lived in a disease-endemic region or had past or current hepatomegaly or splenomegaly. Seven (13.5%) children had asymptomatic malaria parasitemia by microscopy (n = 2) or PCR (n = 5). Our findings suggest that adoptees at risk for asymptomatic malaria should be screened, preferably by PCR. PMID:26079644

  7. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  8. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  9. Maternal mental health in Amhara region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Parcesepe, Angela; Mekuria, Yared Getachew; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu; Gebeyehu, Wondimu; Okello, Francis; Shattuck, Dominick

    2014-01-01

    Poor mental health, including suicidal thoughts, affects a substantial proportion of surveyed women who are up to 2 years postpartum in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Opportunities for integrating basic psychosocial mental health services into maternal and child health services should be explored.

  10. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  11. Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

  12. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  13. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  14. Challenges and Opportunities in Mainstreaming Environmental Education into the Curricula of Teachers' Colleges in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waktola, Daniel Kassahun

    2009-01-01

    Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…

  15. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  16. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  17. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

  18. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  19. Impediments to Educative Practicum: The Case of Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

    2011-01-01

    The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…

  20. Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation: Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia's South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…

  1. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  2. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  3. Research report: the Middle Stone Age of the Blue Nile Gorge, Ethiopia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Ji?í; Said, H.; Novák, Martin; Desse, A.; Sázelová, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 51, ?. 3 (2013), s. 431-436. ISSN 0323-1119 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0181 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : settlement archaeology * Middle Stone Age * Blue Nile * Oromia * Ethiopia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

  5. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  6. Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Informationer baseret på alle tilgængelige kilder om fulde navn, nationalitet, profession, område og periode i hvilke vedkommende har indsamlet planter inden for floraens område, men hvem de vides at have foretaget fælles indsamlinger, herbarier i hvilke dubletter af indsamlingerne er deponeret, o.s.v., for alle indsamlere af planter nævnt i bindene 1-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

  7. The community-based Health Extension Program significantly improved contraceptive utilization in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mezgebu Yitayal,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,3 Yigzaw Kebede11University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Ethiopia has implemented a nationwide primary health program at grassroots level (known as the Health Extension Program since 2003 to increase public access to basic health services. This study was conducted to assess whether households that fully implemented the Health Extension Program have improved current contraceptive use.Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted to collect data from 1,320 mothers using a structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of current contraceptive utilization. A propensity score analysis was used to determine the contribution of the Health Extension Program “model households” on current contraceptive utilization.Result: Mothers from households which fully benefited from the Health Extension Program (“model households” were 3.97 (adjusted odds ratio, 3.97; 95% confidence interval, 3.01–5.23 times more likely to use contraceptives compared with mothers from non-model households. Model household status contributed to 29.3% (t=7.08 of the increase in current contraceptive utilization.Conclusion: The Health Extension Program when implemented fully could help to increase the utilization of contraceptives in the rural community and improve family planning.Keywords: Health Extension Program, current contraceptive utilization

  8. Appendix : Additions to Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea volumes 2 - 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

    2009-01-01

    En taxonomisk og floristisk redegørelse for alle de nyfundne eller nybeskrevne arter fra Etiopien og/eller Eritrea, der er blevet opdaget efter deadline for bindene 2-7 af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, men medens floraværket var under udgivelse.

  9. Raising a Child with Intellectual Disabilities in Ethiopia: What Do Parents Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi

    2007-01-01

    Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…

  10. On-the-Spot Course: Early Childhood Education in Ethiopia (August 2-30, 1993). Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at the Ministry of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for 35 Ethiopian early childhood educators and administrators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 3-week course addressed philosophies of early childhood…

  11. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  12. Contrasting climate variability and meteorological drought with perceived drought and climate change in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Meze-hausken, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    The rationale of this paper is to investigate peoples’ perception of climate variability, climate change and drought frequency and compare it with measurements of rainfall variability and anomalies in northern Ethiopia. Statistical analysis of rainfall chronologies was performed and contrasted with qualitative data collected through a survey and questionnaires. Fieldwork studies showed that local authorities, farmers and pastoralists perceived regional climate to have changed ...

  13. Global ENT Outreach: Taking Ear, Nose, and Throat Treatment and Surgery Techniques to Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…

  14. Toolbox for the Development of Cadastral and Registration Proclamation for Second Level Certification Program in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land together with its fixtures is the single most important asset in almost all societies. In Ethiopia land is also playing a pivotal role for sustainable development. Large scale cadastral projects supporting sustainable development and increased investments are planned all over the country as part of the country’s five years growth and transformation plan. But cadastral and registration proclamation is not enacted to facilitate and guide the implementation of cadastral projects. There is a consensus on the importance of cadastral and registration proclamation in Ethiopia, but there is no clear methodology for its development. The purpose of the study was to extend the land administration toolbox RRR edition to guide the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for the implementation of second level certification (mapping of parcels in Ethiopia. Field surveys, focused group discussions, expert panels, and desk work with special emphasis to the review of legal documents and state of the art experiences from other countries, were the major inputs for the study. The toolbox will be used for the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for rural land administration in Ethiopia and may guide the law development in other developing countries with a similar situation.

  15. The distribution of cancer specimens from two pathology centres in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfi, A; Pickering, J L

    1992-01-01

    A relative frequency study of cancers in Ethiopia was conducted using pathology data from two major Ethiopian pathology centres. The cancer distribution is similar to that described in other East African countries. Carcinomas of the cervix and breast are the most common biopsied cancers in women. Lymphatic cancer and soft tissue sarcomas are the commonest biopsied cancers in men. PMID:1563358

  16. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper M. Lutala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Lutala P.M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1, Art. #226, 2 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm. v3i1.226

  17. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper M. Lutala

    2011-01-01

    How to cite this article: Lutala P.M. Use of a CME workshop to introduce and promote the specialty of Family Medicine in Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1), Art. #226, 2 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm. v3i1.226

  18. Low-land Gully Formation in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation and related processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are global phenomena. Their economic consequences however are more severe in developing countries, which lack resources for prevention and mitigation. In Ethiopia, therefore, gully erosion as a form of land degradation is a prime issue. Over the past decade, gullies have formed in the foothills of the Minizr sub-catchment in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia. Local extension workers have reported increased gully growth rates in the past five years in the downslope foothill areas. This study answers the following questions: has the gully growth rate indeed increased over the past five years compared to historical rates? What is the mechanism behind gully formation in the study area? In addition, this study looked at three possible root causes for increased erosion rates: changing land use, an increase in the ground water level, and the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the watershed of the study area. The merit of this study is twofold. First, it shows the applicability of a fast, accessible and accurate way to digitally represent gullies through the use of video footage and photogrammetry. Secondly, it shows the dominant processes in gully formation in the area, allowing for a justified selection of measures to halt further gully growth and rehabilitate existing gullies. Two medium and one large gully were selected for detailed analysis. All gullies were located in gently-sloped areas (0-5%), with Vertisol-dominated soils. Gully shape and volume were derived using terrestrial photogrammetry in AgiSoft PhotoScan Professional. Still frames exported from video footage served as input. Approximately 30 points per gully were sampled weekly for soil moisture content over the course of September, November, and December 2014. In addition, the sites were checked for signs of subsurface flow at the end of the rainy season and again 3 months into the dry season. We expect that erosion rates have increased compared to historical rates. Gully formation in the study area is primarily driven by subsurface flow, leading to dispersion and bank collapse. Extensive signs of subsurface flows are visible in and around all research gullies. Land use has not changed significantly over the past decade, so will not have played a role in the increased erosion rates. The influence of the change in groundwater level since reservoir construction (2011) is pending analysis of current groundwater levels. With the implementation of stone bunds and fanja yuu on all fields on every hillslope surrounding the study area, infiltration will have increased significantly. Although this has decreased overland runoff, it will have increased ground water flows toward the study area and therefore made the area more susceptible to erosion through subsurface flow mechanisms.

  19. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.

  20. Review: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (eds.): Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution (2007) Buchbesprechung: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (Hrsg.): Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution (2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Braukämper

    2009-01-01

    Review of the edited volume: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (eds.): Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution, Vienna, Zurich, Berlin, Münster: LIT Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-03735-937-2 (Switzerland); 978-3-8258-9795-6 (Germany), 290 pages. Besprechung des Sammelbandes: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (Hrsg.): Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution, Wien, Zürich, Berlin, Münster: LIT Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-03735-937-2 (Schweiz); ...

  1. Traditional Zootherapeutic Studies in Degu'a Tembien, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegazeabe H. Haileselasie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that human beings are familiar with use of animals and plants for food, cloth, medicine, etc. since the distant past. In Ethiopia, many ethnic communities which are dispersed all over the country has been totally dependent on local traditional medicinal system for their health care. Thus, the aim of this study was to take an ethno zoological field survey among Tigray people (main tribal group of Degu'a Tembien. In order to document the ethno zoological information about animal and their products prevalent among the people in Degu'a Tembien district, a study was carried out from September, 2010 to January, 2011. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire and open interview with 25 purposively selected respondents. Then the name of animal and other ethno zoological information were documented. Based on the ethno zoological survey, a total of 23 animal species were used in 45 different medicinal purposes including cold, weakness, burn, cough, paralysis and blister and for other religious/and ritual purposes. Based on the ethno zoological survey, 9 mammals, 7 birds, 1 reptile, 5 arthropods are used in traditional zootherauptics in the study area. Furthermore, the meat of cow used to relieved fever and cough has the highest FL (96% and House fly has the lowest FL (20% used to treat. Some endemic and rare species such as Abyssinian black winged love bird (Agapornis taranta and Ethiopian Highland Hare (Lepus starcki are also mentioned as important medicinal resources in trado-zootherauptic practices. The results showed that ethno zoological practices have been an important alternative medicinal practice for the people residing in the study area. So, there is an urgent need to properly document to keep a record of the ethno zoological knowledge of the area. It is hoped that this information will be useful for further research in the field of ethno zoology, ethno pharmacology and conservation point of view.

  2. Rinderpest disease and sero-survey in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabsied out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun M. Hiwotu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories. Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges. Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hours for cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star rating levels. Results: Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01; and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01, respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% of the first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified. Conclusion: Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities.

  4. Runoff and Sediment Modeling Using SWAT in Gumera Catchment, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleab Habte Michael Mamo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine the applicability of the SWAT model in Gumera river basin upstream of Lake Tana, Ethiopia for simulating stream runoff and sediment load. The area of river basin was discretized into 24 sub-catchments using ArcSWAT interface of the model. The semi automated Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI2 and fully automated Parameter Solution (ParaSol calibration process built in SWAT calibration and uncertainty program (SWAT-CUP were used to calibrate the model parameters using time series of flow and sediment load data of 1994 to 2002 and validated with the observed data from years 2003 to 2006. The performance of the model was evaluated using statistical and graphical methods to assess the capability of the model in simulating the runoff and sediment yield for the study area. The coefficient of determination (R2 and NSE values for the daily runoff by using [ParaSol] optimization technique was obtained as 0.72 and 0.71 respectively for the calibration period and 0.79 and 0.78 respectively for the validation period, R2 and NSE values of monthly flow calibration using SUFI2 are 0.83 and 0.78 respectively for validation it was 0.93 and 0.93. For monthly sediment yield by using SUFI2 calibration technique the model evaluation coefficients R2 and NS for calibration was computed as 0.61 and 0.60 respectively, for validation it was 0.84 and 0.83 respectively. The sensitivity analysis on 13 runoff producing parameters was also carried out and discussed.

  5. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gebrehiwot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2, in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a special focus on low flows. Moreover, this study aimed to identify variables that may be susceptible to management policies for developing and securing water resources in dry periods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Square (PLS were used to analyze the relationship between five hydrologic response variables (total flow, high flow, low flow, runoff coefficient, low flow index and 30 potential explanatory watershed variables. The explanatory watershed variables were classified into three groups: land use, climate and topography as well as geology and soil type. Each of the three groups had almost equal influence on the variation in hydrologic variables (R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.4. Specific variables from within each of the three groups of explanatory variables were better in explaining the variation. Low flow and low flow index were positively correlated to land use types woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland, whereas grazing land and bush land were negatively correlated. We concluded that extra care for preserving low flow should be taken on tuffs/basalts which comprise 52% of the Blue Nile Basin. Land use management plans should recognize that woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland can promote higher low flows, while grazing land diminishes low flows.

  6. Seismic performance analysis of Tendaho earth fill dam, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, T.; Wu, W.

    2009-04-01

    The Tendaho dam is found in the Afar regional state, North Eastern part of Ethiopia. It is located within an area known as the ‘Tendaho Graben' ,which forms the center of Afar triangle, a low lying area of land where East African, Red sea and the Gulf of Eden Rift systems converge. The dam is an earthfill dam with a volume of about 4 Million cubic meters and with mixed clay core. The geological setting associated with the site of the dam, the geotechnical properties of the dam materials and seismicity of the region are reviewed. Based on this review, the foundation materials and dam body include some liquefiable granular soils. Moreover, the active East African Rift Valley fault, which can generate an earthquake of magnitude greater than 6, passes through the dam body. This valley is the primary seismic source contributing to the hazard at the Tendaho dam site. The availability of liquefiable materials beneath and within the dam body and the presence of the active fault crossing the dam site demand a thorough seismic analysis of the dam. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is selected as a measure of ground motion severity. The PGA was selected according to the guidelines of the International Commission on Large Dams, ICOLD. Based on the criteria set by the ICOLD, the dam is analyzed for two different earthquake magnitudes, the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) and the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE). Numerical codes are useful tools to investigate the safety of dams in seismic prone areas. In this paper, FLAC3D numerical tool is used to investigate the performance of the dam under dynamic loading. Based on the numerical analysis, the seismic performance of the dam is investigated.

  7. Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Fantahun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest prevalence was observed from animals greater than 3 years of age, 48 (18.32 % while the lowest, 9 (0.96 % in those one to three years. 18.25% and 11.1% was recorded in female and male animals respectively. The spatial distribution of demodex on shoulder was 8.08 % and 1.04 % on ears and eyes respectively. Production system of semiintensive and extensive managements was found almost affecting similarly with 13.66% and 13.43% respectively. In lime-sulphide treated hides large nodules were prominent with dark contents; small nonprotruding nodules, enlarged openings and ragged depressions near the grain surface were dipcted. In conclusion the highest overall prevalence (15.63% of D. bovis infestation was recorded. This indicates that despite many efforts tried to study infectious diseases prevalence in the study area, demodicosis has been given lesser attention to be treated as a separate health problem. Therefore, Prevention and control measures should be taken rather than treating demodicosis.

  8. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En redegørelse for den videnskabelige udforskning af floraen i Etiopien og Eritrea, i væsentlig grad baseret på iagttagelser gjort under arbejdet med udgivelsen af Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og med inddragelse af den nyeste litteratur.

  9. Traditional leaders and the dynamics of pastoralist-state interaction:The Afar of Ethiopia in the Lower Awash Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Tessema, Anniley Engidawork

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the pastoralist Afar in lower Awash valley, northeastern Ethiopia. The Afar is one of east African Cushitic speaking pastoralist group. The coming of European colonizer and the expansion of the Ethiopian state structure influences the Afar to be compartmentalized and administered under the three horn countries, namely, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea. Consequently, in the last few decades, due to expansion of the state control, delineation of interactional boundaries an...

  10. Knowledge and Perception on Long Acting and Permanent Contraceptive Methods in Adigrat Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alem Gebremariam; Adamu Addissie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancies but the contraceptive choice and utilization in Ethiopia are highly dominated by short term contraceptives. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptives of married women and men in Northern Ethiopia. Method. A qualitative method was conducted in Adigrat on January, 2012. Four focus group discussions with married women and men and six ...

  11. Home and community based care program assessment for people living with HIV/AIDS in Arba Minch, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zerfu Taddese; Yaya Yaliso; Dagne Selamawit; Deribe Kebede; Ruiseñor-Escudero Horacio; Biadgilign Sibhatu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) require significant care and support; however, most care needs are still unmet. To our knowledge, no studies have described the activities and challenges of care services in Ethiopia. Our objective was to assess the status, shortcomings and prospects of care and support services provided to PLWHA in the town of Arba Minch, Ethiopia, and surrounding areas. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study combined with qualitative methods was ...

  12. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Belayneh Anteneh; Asfaw Zemede; Demissew Sebsebe; Bussa Negussie F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around ...

  13. Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mw, Gebremichael; Na, Kassa; Ws, Yirga; Ar, Aro

    2012-01-01

    Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia...

  14. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Debere Mesfin Kote; Gelaye Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa Zemedu Mehamed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using s...

  15. The Effect of Land Degradation on Farm Size Dynamics and Crop-Livestock Farming System in Ethiopia: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Assemu Tesfa; Shigdaf Mekuriaw

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the poorest countries in which poverty, land and resource degradation appear to feed off each other. The irony is that Ethiopia is a country with high biodiversity and distinctive ecosystems and the natural resource base is critical to the economy and the livelihood of a high percentage of the population. Being the owner of varying agro ecology, the country’s agricultural production system had practiced for decades with a maximum potential. However, ...

  16. Reproductive Performance and Mortality Rate in Local and Dorper × Local Crossbred Sheep Following Controlled Breeding in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin Lakew; Mussie Haile-Melekot; Getinet Mekuriaw; Solomon Abreha; Haimanot Setotaw

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n = 187) of the Local and crosses of Dorper × Local ewes following natural controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analysed. Data were collected during 2009-2011 at Sirinka breeding, evaluation and distribution site, eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. Breed, lamb sex, birth season, birth year, birth type and ewes’ parity were considered as fixed effects. Data analyses were performed using general linear model procedures. Breed was a significant source...

  17. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Factors among Infants Born to HIV Positive Women in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zelalem Berhan; Fantu Abebe; Molla Gedefaw; Mulugeta Tesfa

    2014-01-01

    Background: An estimated 1.2 percent of pregnant women are living with HIV in Ethiopia and sadly, one of every 3 children born to these women is infected with HIV. Elimination of these mother-to-child transmissions (MTCT) of HIV is possible through HIV testing during pregnancy and taking antiretroviral medications. However, only 24 percent of pregnant women living with HIV have yet received the medication needed to prevent MTCT of HIV in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Hence, ...

  18. Assessment of Patients' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Eastern Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Esmael, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Agonafir, Mulualem; Desale, Adinew; Yaregal, Zelalem; Desta, Kassu

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Ethiopia and the Amhara region. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and health-seeking practice in this region is essential to plan, implement, and evaluate advocacy, communication, and social mobilization work. This may improve the case detection rate. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients toward TB in the Eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among suspect...

  19. Food Insecurity, Food Based Coping Strategies and Suboptimal Dietary Practices of Adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified r...

  20. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hyparrhenia diplandr var. mutica. Recent field work by Sebsebe Demissew and Pierre Dubeau resulted in one new generic record for the Flora area: Syyngonanthus wahlbergii. Field work by Ib friis and Sebsebe Demissew documented the cultivation of Elaeis guineensis in southwestern Ethiopia.

  1. Negotiating gender and sexuality in the HIV/AIDS discourse in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Contradictions and paradoxes.

    OpenAIRE

    Zenebe, Mulumebet

    2006-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has been recognized as the most pressing national health problem in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Zenebe argues that HIV/AIDS prevention programs in Ethiopia are not producing expected results because they are not based on understanding the distinctive characteristics of the people’s sexual cultures shaped by relations of power, by history, and by differentiated traditions within the particular society. The focus of the thesis is on how dominant medical discourses about preventio...

  2. Design and implementation of a training programme for general practitioners in emergency surgery and obstetrics in precarious situations in Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sohier, N.; Fre?jacques, L.; Gagnayre, R.

    1999-01-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been implementing medical assistance programs in Ethiopia since 1994, including the rehabilitation of health structures and the supply of drugs and medical equipment. In 1995, the serious shortage of surgeons in Ethiopia prompted MSF to add a programme to train general practitioners to perform surgery in the Woldya region. The results of the relevant feasibility study were encouraging. The programme's design is based on recent educational data and MSF's ex...

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Deressa Wakgari; Mitike Getnet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Results Although the in...

  4. Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and inffor early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was accounted for by variable direct costs for RIA consumables. The average loss of milk due to extra days open was 827 litres per cow per lactation, equivalent to $207. Thus, the use of progesterone RIA to reduce the calving interval and overcome this loss would be highly cost-effective. (author)

  5. Spatial structure and potential predictability of summer precipitation in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, S.; Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    Variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales substantially influence interannual variability of precipitation in Ethiopia and the surrounding countries. Previous studies have revealed links between ENSO and summer rainfall in East Africa. As this region has been frequently affected by severe droughts during the last few decades, most recently in 2011, improving understanding of these influences is crucial for developing prediction methods for seasonal precipitation variability. More than half of the Ethiopian precipitation occurs during the Kiremt season (JJAS), which is therefore closely related to drought events. In the northwestern part the Kiremt rains are most prominent whereas the Belg precipitation (FMAM) is important for the southeastern part. We here objectively define homogenous rainfall regions in East Africa and analyse links between the rainfall in these regions with global SST. PCA of the gridded GPCP dataset (1979-2010), which includes station records and satellite data, reveals a dipole structure with two precipitation regimes divided geographically by the Ethiopian Rift Valley. We will show the response of precipitation in these regions to changes in Pacific SST, using the HadSST2 dataset. First results of concurrent relationships between Ethiopian precipitation (for the total over the whole country and for the northwestern part) and SST are consistent with an ENSO signal with positive correlation in the north- and southwestern Pacific, as well as negative correlation in the central eastern Pacific. Further investigations will also include lagged correlations. These findings corroborate the results of previous studies but extend them by using cross-validated principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) models to estimate NW-, SE- and total Ethiopian rainfall from Pacific SST. It has already been shown by Eden et al. (see Poster in Session CL3.3/NP5.4, EGU2012-10302) that spring variability of an individual precipitation record from Addis Ababa can be partly estimated from Pacific SST. Considering our findings in seasonal prediction models may improve drought forecasting across East Africa.

  6. Stratigraphy and tephra of the Kibish Formation, southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Francis H; Fuller, Chad R

    2008-09-01

    The Kibish Formation in southwestern Ethiopia, with an aggregate thickness of approximately 105 m, consists of lacustrine, marginal lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. It is divided into four members numbered I to IV on the basis of erosion surfaces (disconformities) between the strata of each member. It overlies the Mursi and Nkalabong formations, the latter of which is here shown to correlate with the Shungura Formation. Tephra layers in each member allow for secure correlation between geographically separated sections on the basis of the composition of their volcanic glass. Members I, III, and IV of the Kibish Formation appear to have been deposited at the same times as sapropels S7 (197 ka), S4 (104 ka), and S1 (8 ka) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, respectively. We correlate the KHS Tuff of the Kibish Formation with a >154-kyr-old unnamed tuff in the Konso Formation. Tephra in Member IV may derive from Mount Wenchi, a volcano situated on the divide between the Omo and Blue Nile drainage basins. Thin-bedded sedimentary layers probably represent annual deposition reflecting rapid sedimentation (approximately 30 m/kyr) of parts of the formation. This conclusion is supported by variation in paleomagnetic inclination through a sequence of these layers at KHS. Two fossils of early Homo sapiens (Omo I and Omo II) derive from Member I. Their stratigraphic placement is confirmed by analysis of the KHS Tuff in the lower part of Member II at both fossil sites. The KHS Tuff lies above a disconformity, which itself lies above the fossils at both sites. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates provide an estimated age of approximately 195 kyr for these fossils. Omo III, a third fossil H. sapiens, probably also derives from Member I of the Kibish Formation and is of similar age. Hominin fossils from AHS, a new site, also derive from Member I. Hominin fossils from CHS can only be placed between 104 ka and 10 ka, the H. sapiens specimen from JHS is most likely 9-13 kyr in age, and a partial skeleton of H. sapiens from Pelvic Corner is most likely approximately 6.6 kyr in age. PMID:18692219

  7. Paleoanthropology. Late Pliocene fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo from Afar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, Erin N; Campisano, Christopher J; Rowan, John; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Deino, Alan L; Bibi, Faysal; Lewis, Margaret E; Souron, Antoine; Garello, Dominique; Werdelin, Lars; Reed, Kaye E; Arrowsmith, J Ramón

    2015-03-20

    Sedimentary basins in eastern Africa preserve a record of continental rifting and contain important fossil assemblages for interpreting hominin evolution. However, the record of hominin evolution between 3 and 2.5 million years ago (Ma) is poorly documented in surface outcrops, particularly in Afar, Ethiopia. Here we present the discovery of a 2.84- to 2.58-million-year-old fossil and hominin-bearing sediments in the Ledi-Geraru research area of Afar, Ethiopia, that have produced the earliest record of the genus Homo. Vertebrate fossils record a faunal turnover indicative of more open and probably arid habitats than those reconstructed earlier in this region, which is in broad agreement with hypotheses addressing the role of environmental forcing in hominin evolution at this time. Geological analyses constrain depositional and structural models of Afar and date the LD 350-1 Homo mandible to 2.80 to 2.75 Ma. PMID:25739409

  8. A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

  9. Dimensions and Determinants of Growth in Micro and Small Enterprises: Empirical Evidence from Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    H. T. Woldeyohanes

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensions and determinants of growth in Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) based on a survey covering 178 randomly selected MSEs in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia through the test of four main hypotheses and arguments of Gibrat’s law and the learning theory hypothesis. Semi-structured questionnaire and interview were used to collect data, and the binary choice model was used to identify factors that significantly affect the growth of MSEs. Employment siz...

  10. High parental monitoring prevents adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices in Harar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yadeta Dessie; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a c...

  11. The indigenous & the foreign - The Jesuit Presence in 17th Century Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Boavida, Isabel; Pennec, Herve?; Ramos, Manuel Joa?o

    2005-01-01

    In the rural plateaux of northern Ethiopia, one can still find scattered ruins of monumental buildings alien to the country's ancient architectural tradition. This little-known and rarely studied architectural heritage bears silent witness to a fascinating if equivocal cultural encounter that took place in the 16th-17th centuries between Orthodox Ethiopians and Catholic Europeans. The Indigenous and the Foreign explores the enduring impact of the encounter on the religious, politi...

  12. The use of herbal preparations for tick control in western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    A. Regassa

    2012-01-01

    Information on the traditional tick control methods used in Keffa, Illubabor and Wellega Provinces in western Ethiopia was obtained from 86 veterinary clinics and 865 peasant farmers through a questionnaire survey. Latexes of Euphorbia obovalifolia and Ficus brachypoda, juice of crushed leaves of Phytolaca dodecandra and Vernonia amygdalina, fruit juice of Solanum incanum, crushed seeds of...

  13. An African perspective on the ILO conventions on minimum age: the case of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubenson, Birgitta; Dahlén, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The ILO Minimum Age Conventions, adopted from 1919 - 1973, got their form in the post World War I context of industrialization, urbanization, social instability and a growing trade union movement, and were modelled on the late 19th century European labour legislation. It was a time of heavy unemployment, and the workers perceived child labourers as competitors on the labour market. Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries of the world with a population of 90 million and a me...

  14. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Graaff, N. A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic distribution, origin, resistance to CBD, chemical control and control through resistance.Experimental part. Coffee trees (mother trees) were selected that showed a low level of CBD in areas with s...

  15. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H. M. J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, A.J., van der

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional stratified random survey of 180 households, and farm recording of 131 households. Rural poultry significantly contributed to the livelihoods of poor households: economically as starter capital, as ...

  16. Oral and anal sex practices among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Cherie Amsale; Berhane Yemane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A mul...

  17. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated factors in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadis Brhane; Berihun Assefa; Nigusie Birhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Street youth are predisposed to sexual and reproductive health challenges. Most of the street children live in severe deprivation, which make them liable to various forms of health risks. Street youth have risky sexual behaviours that increase the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health consequences. Aim: This study was conducted to assess reproductive health behaviour and needs of street youth in Gondar city, North West Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitat...

  18. Risky Sexual Behaviour among Big Construction Enterprise Workers; Bahir Dar City, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekibib Kassa; Eleni Tesfaye; Zelalem Alamrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Risky sexual behaviors are the major factors in rising sexually transmitted infections among adolescents and young adults. In Ethiopia construction industry is on increasing and deriving young people from rural area to the cities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour and factors associated with among construction workers. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in March 2012 among construction workers in Bahir Dar city. ...

  19. Attitudes of undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University towards medical practice and migration, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deressa Wakgari; Azazh Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their trainin...

  20. Tuberculosis recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Datiko Daniel G; Lindtjørn Bernt

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Decentralization of DOTS has increased the number of cured smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, the rate of recurrence has increased mainly due to HIV infection. Recurrence rate could be taken as an important measure of long-term success of TB treatment. We aimed to find out the rate of recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study on cured smear-positive TB patients who were treated ...

  1. Malaria Epidemics and Interventions, Kenya, Burundi, Southern Sudan, and Ethiopia, 1999–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, F; Cox, J.; Balkan, S; Tamrat, A; Priotto, G.; Alberti, KP; Guthmann, JP

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative data on the onset and evolution of malaria epidemics are scarce. We review case studies from recent African Plasmodium falciparum epidemics (Kisii and Gucha Districts, Kenya, 1999; Kayanza Province, Burundi, 2000-2001; Aweil East, southern Sudan, 2003; Gutten and Damot Gale, Ethiopia, 2003-2004). We highlight possible epidemic risk factors and review delays in epidemic detection and response (up to 20 weeks), essentially due to poor case reporting and analysis or low use of publi...

  2. Feasibility Study of Pumped Storage System for Application in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun, Mastewal Alemu

    2012-01-01

    In these days environmental issues are critical. Environmental concerns mainly rise from energy productions. Fortunately Ethiopia is trying to use renewable energy sources as a means for electrical power production and it is a great start for a long, tiresome green energy journey. The basic job to be done in green energy sectors is to maximize the capacity of renewable technologies to fulfil the best efficiency.  Intermittent nature of the energy production and their inefficiency to meet pea...

  3. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Giday Mirutse; Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2007-01-01

    Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fideli...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robberstad Bjarne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.

  5. Literacy and development : A study of Yemissrach Dimts literacy campaign in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sjo?stro?m, Margareta; Sjo?stro?m, Rolf

    1982-01-01

    The problem of illiteracy has been the object of many studies during recent decades. In Ethiopia, a country which reports one of the lowest literacy rates in Africa, the Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign (YDLC) was started in 1962. Its activities were concentrated to rural areas and directed primarily towards adults. The present study is an evaluation of the Campaign. The investigation was conducted between 1974-1976 with the purpose of describing and analysing Campaign activities, focussing...

  6. Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhane Yemane; Gelaye Bizu; Terasaki Dale J; Williams Michelle A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. Th...

  7. Determinants of tillage frequency among smallholder farmers in two semi-arid areas in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Temesgen, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Alemu, D.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can alleviate land degradation problems. However, before introducing reduced tillage systems, it was found necessary to study why farmers undertake repeated plowing. The study was undertaken in two semi...

  8. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Feyissa Garumma T; Abebe Lakew; Girma Eshetu; Woldie Mirkuzie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and ...

  9. Reduction and Return of Infectious Trachoma in Severely Affected Communities in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Lakew, Takele; House, Jenafir; Hong, Kevin C.; Yi, Elizabeth; Alemayehu, Wondu; Melese, Muluken; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Ray, Kathryn; Chin, Stephanie; Romero, Emmanuel; Keenan, Jeremy; Whitcher, John P; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Lietman, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    Trachoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developing world. The World Health Organization has a multi-pronged approach to controlling the ocular chlamydial infection that causes the disease, including distributing antibiotics to entire communities. Even a single community treatment dramatically reduces the prevalence of the infection. Unfortunately, infection returns back into communities after treatment, at least in severely affected areas such as rural Ethiopia. Here, we ass...

  10. Detoxification and Consumption of Cassava Based Foods in South West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Birhanu Wodajo; Adamu Belay; Asrat Wondimu; Beka Teshome; Aweke Kebede; Aynalem Lakew

    2012-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was introduced in Ethiopia around 1960‘s. But the consumption was not practiced until 1984. Currently the plant is being distributed throughout the country as a tool to tackle food insecurity. However, the distribution is not supported by proved food preparation techniques for optimal processing to increase nutrient density and eliminate the toxin. Hence, development of suitable detoxification methods and optimal food processing without affecting consumers accept...

  11. Performance of health workers after training in integrated management of childhood illness in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Simoes, E A; Desta, T.; Tessema, T.; Gerbresellassie, T.; Dagnew, M.; Gove, S

    1997-01-01

    The performance of six primary health workers was evaluated after following a 9-day training course on integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI). The participants were selected from three primary health centres in the Gondar District, Ethiopia, and the course was focused on assessment, classification, and treatment of sick children (aged 2 months to 5 years) and on counselling of their mothers. Immediately following this training, a 3-week study was conducted in the primary health cen...

  12. Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tayelgn Azmeraw; Zegeye Desalegn T; Kebede Yigzaw

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A woman's satisfaction with the delivery service may have immediate and long-term effects on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Providing satisfying delivery care increases service utilization. The objective of this study is to assess the satisfaction of mothers with referral hospitals' delivery service and identify some possible factors affecting satisfaction in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional survey that involved an...

  13. Social Interaction Effects and Connection to Electricity: Experimental Evidence from Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Tanguy; Torero, Maximo

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of social interactions in determining an individual’s choice to connect to an electrical grid, using an original dataset on a new rural electrification program in Ethiopia. Combining GPS information with random allocation of discount vouchers for connection to the grid, we show that neighbors’ connection behaviors have large effects on a household’s connection decision. This effect is also shown to decrease by distance: no peer effect is found for neig...

  14. Factors associated with home delivery in Bahirdar, Ethiopia: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Fantu; Berhane Yemane; Girma Belaineh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In Ethiopia although pregnant mothers increasingly attend antenatal clinics, utilization of skilled delivery service remains very low. The individual or health system factors that affect women’s preferences for delivery places are not well known. Method A case control study was conducted in July 2010 to assess factors associated with utilization of institutional delivery service. A total of 324 mothers who recently delivered and visited either postnatal care or sought im...

  15. Urban fuel demand in Ethiopia: an almost?ideal demand system approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Oskam, A.J.; Demeke, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities for reducing the pressure of urban centers on rural forest areas, using a dataset of 350 urban households in Tigrai in northern Ethiopia. We applied an almost?ideal demand system to fuels. The results suggest that reducing the pressure of urban centers on local forests cannot be seen in isolation from broader development policies aimed at raising the level of education and income of the population. Higher income also stimulates the demand for fuel.

  16. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-01-01

    Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman), are examples of...

  17. Stomatal Characteristics in Arabica Coffee Germplasm Accessions under Contrasting Environments at Jimma, Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgen Burkhardt; Taye Kufa

    2011-01-01

    The montane rainforests of Ethiopia are the only known centres of origin and genetic diversity for Coffea arabica. However, the remnant coffee forest environments with the spontaneously grown wild coffee populations are under continuous threat of genetic erosion, largely due to anthropogenic activities. The study was conducted with the objective to investigate stomatal characteristics in Arabica coffee accessions under contrasting shade regimes at Jimma (7°46? N and 36°0? E,...

  18. SHIFTING TO ALTERNATIVE FOOD SOURCE: POTENTIAL TO OVERCOME ETHIOPIAS' MALNUTRITION AND POVERTY PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gelmesa, Dandena

    2010-01-01

    The currently population of more than 70 million people in Ethiopia is expected to double within the next 30 years. Almost 80% of the populations are living in the countryside while the rest situated in urban area. An estimated five million people are suffering from lack of vitamins and essential minerals, of which 80% are children for the next generation. Every year, on the average, about five million people have problems securing enough food for them and need assistance. Preliminary surveys...

  19. Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Alemu Abebe; Muluye Dagnachew; Mihret Mikrie; Adugna Meaza; Gebeyaw Melkamu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear exam...

  20. Multilingual Education: An Emerging Threat to Quality English Education in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar Jha

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, Ethiopian constitutions underwent an amendment in which each regional state was given a right to choose, use, and diffuse its language from both cultural and educational perspectives. This amendment marked the welcoming sign of multilingual education in Ethiopia, but the current pattern of multilingual education has caused more harm than good to the end users (students) in terms of learning and mastering English language to an optimal level. The paper hypothesizes that multilingual e...

  1. Awareness and utilization of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megabiaw Berihun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Contraception is a major component of reproductive health. Assessing the levels of contraceptive awareness and use helps to identify potential areas of intervention. Hence, this study was conducted to assess awareness, practice and associated factors of modern contraceptives among street women in North-West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 204 street women from Gondar and Bahir Dar cities. Participants were recruited from “cluster” sites such ...

  2. Leadership in strategic information (LSI) building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitike Getnet; Deyessa Negussie; Negash Ashenafi; Enquselassie Fikre; Firew Aynalem; Jones Donna; Scharff Jennifer; Zaidi Irum; Rolle Italia V; Sunderland Nadine; Nsubuga Peter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI) course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examin...

  3. Post evaluation of a capacity building project in the Southern synods of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Kåre

    2010-01-01

    The Capacity Building Project was implemented 2005/2007. The overall aim of the project was to improve the quality of the project cycle management by building the capacity of the church's Development And Social Service (DASSC) structure in Southern Ethiopia and provide professional and technical backing to facilitate the implementation of the NLM supported projects/programmes as required by the back donors and the Ethiopian government.The ideas behind the project have been mainly carried out ...

  4. Risk factors for intestinal parasitosis, anaemia, and malnutrition among school children in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6–15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 pri...

  5. Entrepreneurship and the Business Environment in Africa: An Application to Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Brixiova, Zuzana; Ncube, Mthuli

    2013-01-01

    Since mid-2000s, Ethiopia has been one of the fastest growing countries in the world. However, productive entrepreneurship in high-value added activities has made limited contributions to this growth, in part because of a weak business environment. Moreover, the low-productive firms in the informal sector still account for a large share of employment. Reflecting these facts, this paper presents a model of costly entrepreneurial start-ups in an economy with a large informal sector and rigid bu...

  6. Successes in expanding microfinance opportunities in rural Ethiopia: can the entrepreneurship challenge be overcome?

    OpenAIRE

    GOBEZIE, GETANEH

    2008-01-01

    Microfinance opportunities have been successfully expanding in Ethiopia during the past fifteen years, including in remote villages, where the majority of people are engaged in smallscale agriculture, which is little supported by modern technology. Some of the key strategies for the success include: innovative adaptation of the group guarantee lending model, successfully customized to local Ethiopian realities; decentralization of operation, including a focus on using indigenou...

  7. Vulnerability to episodes of extreme weather : Butajira, Ethiopia, 1998-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Emmelin, Anders; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane; Wall, Stig; Byass, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During 1999-2000, great parts of Ethiopia experienced a period of famine which was recognised internationally. The aim of this paper is to characterise the epidemiology of mortality of the period, making use of individual, longitudinal population-based data from the Butajira demographic surveillance site and rainfall data from a local site. METHODS: Vital statistics and household data were routinely collected in a cluster sample of 10 sub-communities in the Butajira district in ce...

  8. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

  9. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  10. Physico-chemical pollution pattern along Akaki River basin, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tegegn, Ferezer

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on the analysis of physico-chemical parameters: electrical conductivity, nitrate and phosphate in the Akaki River basin of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. These secondary water quality parameters were obtained from two different sources: the surface water quality data both for Little and Great Akaki were retrieved from Addis Ababa Environmental Protection Agency (AAEPA). Whereas, the groundwater quality data for four water wells were obtained from Addis Ababa Water and Sewera...

  11. Trade Liberalization and Poverty: A Macro-Micro Analysis in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kebede, Sindu; Fekadu, Belay; Aredo, Dejene

    2011-01-01

    Using a CGE model, this study analyses the impact of trade liberalization on poverty at the household level taking Ethiopia as a case. Two scenarios (complete tariff cut and uniform tariff scheme) suggest that further liberalization of trade has little short-run effect on the overall economy. However, the agriculture-based manufacturing sector (in particular, textile and leather) is likely to be strongly affected by further tariff reduction. Reductions in import prices of textiles and leather...

  12. Comparing the monitoring and evaluation systems of watershed management related development projects in Amhara, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kainulainen, Aino

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource degradation is both a cause and a result of poverty in Ethiopia. Therefore it is important to include watershed management into efforts to reduce poverty and food insecurity in the country. In order to see if different interventions are effective in restoring the degraded environment, it is important to have a functioning monitoring and evaluation system that includes natural resource degradation and other environmental factors. This study compares the monitoring and eval...

  13. Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by People in Libo-Kemkem District, South Gondar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yalew Addisie; Debebe Yared; Ashok Kumar, P.; Zewdneh Tomas; Assefa Awol

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted between June 2010 and September 2010, to document medicinal plant species traditionally used by peoples in Libo-kemekem district, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, focused group discussion and field observations. A total of 52 medically important plants belonging to 45 families and 47 genera were identified in the district. Majorities (47.37%) were collected from wild. Most of the plants (94.23%) were r...

  14. Determinants of Capital Structure: Empirical Evidence from Large Taxpayer Share Companies in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Usman Muhammed Umer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of capital structure of large taxpayer share companies in Ethiopia. In this paper, econometric analysis were performed for a panel of 37 listed companies in Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority (ERCA) large taxpayers’ branch office in Addis Ababa for the study period of 2006–2010. Nine conventional explanatory variables were adopted in this study, including profitability, size, age, tangibility, liquidity, non-debt tax shield, growt...

  15. Cost implications of delays to tuberculosis diagnosis among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kifle Yohannes T; Tareke Israel G; Mirzoev Tolib N; Madeley Richard J; Newell James N.; Mesfin Mengiste M; Gessessew Amanuel; Walley John D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Delays seeking care worsen the burden of tuberculosis and cost of care for patients, families and the public health system. This study investigates costs of tuberculosis diagnosis incurred by patients, escorts and the public health system in 10 districts of Ethiopia. Methods New pulmonary tuberculosis patients ? 15 years old were interviewed regarding their health care seeking behaviour at the time of diagnosis. Using a structured questionnaire patients were interviewed ...

  16. Livelihood Impacts of Environmental Conservation Programmes in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Kweku Assan; Fikirte Regassa Beyene

    2013-01-01

    In an era where climate change and environmental variability is having an overwhelming impact on the livelihoods and well-being of poor rural households, ecological conservation and development interventions that ensure sustainable livelihood security of such households have been posited as the most effective approach in addressing both environmental degradations and household well-being in the rural communities of Ethiopia. This study investigated the impact of the ‘Tree Gudifecha’ ecolo...

  17. Literacy and ICT: Social Constructions in the Lives of Low-literate Youth in Ethiopia & Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Geldof, Marije

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores how literacy and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are socially constructed in the lives of low-literate youth in the context of Ethiopia and Malawi. Literacy and ICTs are becoming more and more interdependent and both are seen as possible solutions for development. However, few studies have qualitatively explored the interaction between the two in contexts where literacy skills are not widespread, such as in Africa. Particularly the pers...

  18. Consequences of Human Land Use for an Afro-alpine Ecological Community in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenafi, ZT; Leader-Williams, N.; T. COULSON

    2012-01-01

    The Guassa area of Menz in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia is an Afro-alpine ecological community with an indigenous resource management system. The local community harvest different resources including collecting grass and firewood from the Guassa area. Cattle and other livestock are also grazed in the Guassa area, especially during the dry season. Several sympatric species of endemic rodents dominate the small mammal ecological communities in the Guassa area, and form most of the diet of ...

  19. Evaluation of Performances of Intermodal Import-Export Freight Transport System in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Kenea Amentae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport system that minimizes costs, increase conveniences, and environmentally safe has become the agenda worldwide since long before. This study was made with the main objective of assessing intermodal termed as “multimodal” freight transport service in Ethiopia. Data was collected by using structured questionnaire from randomly selected customers and multimodal freight transport section employees of Ethiopian Shipping and Logistics Service Enterprise. The study was made in two stages using customers: first, they were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with the multimodal freight transport system; second, to evaluate their comparative satisfaction with the segmented/“uni-modal” freight transport system against five major freight transport performance indicators. Customers were also asked to identify and rank top ten problems of freight transport logistics in Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using SPSS and excel sheets with descriptive statistics and the results were depicted using charts and tables. The study indicated that majority of customers were either dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with many of the performance indicators. The employees evaluated their organization as well performing relatively on more performance indicators. Both customers and employees evaluated the documentation performances as satisfying but cost and convenience as dissatisfying performances. Customers identified repetitive custom checking and waste of time in custom inspections process as the most severe problem in freight transport logistics in Ethiopia. The implementation of intermodal freight transport system to bring better change in import-export freight transport logistics of Ethiopia was in bitter challenge for customers due to a number of problems, except documentation performance that showed betterment.

  20. The synergy between TB and HIV co-infection on perceived stigma in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Desalegn Dejene; Tesfaye Markos; HaileMichael Yohannes; Deribew Amare; Wogi Ajeme; Daba Shallo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The synergy between tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on perceived stigma is not well studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of TB/HIV co-infection on perceived stigma in selected hospitals of Oromiya region, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2009 in Adama, Nekemet and Jimma Specialized hospitals. Data were collected by trained HIV counselors. A structured questionnaire which c...

  1. Dictyocaulus Filaria and Muellerius capillaris are Important Lungworm Parasites of Sheep in Wogera District, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nibret Moges; Basaznew Bogale; Mersha Chanie

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011 to determine lungworm species and their prevalence in sheep and evaluate the effect of risk factors in Wogera district, northern Ethiopia. Faecal samples were randomly taken from 390 heads of sheep for examination of first stage larvae (L1) of lungworms using a modified Baerman technique. The overall prevalence of lungworm infection was in sheep 67.69% (264 of 390). The lungworm species found were Dictyocaulus filaria (D. fil...

  2. Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Charlene Watson; Susana Mourato; Milner-gulland, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exem...

  3. Prevalence Study of Poultry Coccidosis in Small and Large Scale Farms in Adis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Alemayehu; A. TekeleSellasie; S.A. Kassa

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study from October 2009 to March 2010 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with the objective of identifying prevalence of poultry coccidiosis in small and large scale production systems. A total of 384 fecal samples from female Rod Island Red chickens were taken and a flotation technique was employed to harvest coccidian oocysts. The result revealed that 89 (23.1%) are positive for coccidia oocysts. Unlike Yeka and Akaki kality sub cities, Kolfe sub city showed significant...

  4. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods We conducted interviews with 28 adult family members of women who died from maternal causes, as well as 13 stakeholders (government officials, civil society, and a UN agency); and held 10 focus group discussions with 87 community members. Data were analyzed using NVivo10 software for qualitative analysis. Results We found that newborns and children whose mothers died from maternal causes face nutrition deficits, and are less likely to access needed health care than children with living mothers. Older children drop out of school to care for younger siblings and contribute to household and farm labor which may be beyond their capacity and age, and often choose migration in search of better opportunities. Family fragmentation is common following maternal death, leading to tenuous relationships within a household with the births and prioritization of additional children further stretching limited financial resources. Currently, there is no formal standardized support system for families caring for vulnerable children in Ethiopia. Conclusions Impacts of maternal mortality on children are far-reaching and have the potential to last into adulthood. Coordinated, multi-sectorial efforts towards mitigating the impacts on children and families following a maternal death are lacking. In order to prevent impacts on children and families, efforts targeting maternal mortality must address inequalities in access to care at the community, facility, and policy levels. PMID:26001276

  5. Antenatal Care Strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia: A Mixed-Method Needs Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Fredsted Villadsen; Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl; Dereje Negussie; Abebe GebreMariam; Abebech Tilahun; Henrik Friis; Vibeke Rasch

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national...

  6. Goals and Strategies of Peasants in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam, Yohannes; Galaty, John; Coffin, Garth

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary research methods such as observatory, participatory and multivariate regression analysis were employed to examine goals and strategies of two peasant communities in the Central highlands of Ethiopia. Continuing the family tradition of participating in social networks is found to be a universal normative goal of most study farmers. Securing subsistence food requirements and goals that may be used to characterise higher level of standard of living were ranked next to the norm...

  7. Village poultry in Ethiopia : socio-technical analysis and learning with farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Asgedom, A.H.

    2007-01-01

     In developing countries village poultry keeping is regarded an important livelihood opportunity for the poor. To improve poultry systems, it is necessary to keep in mind a large number of local complexities. This study aimed to integrate participatory-, survey- and model-based approaches to socio-technical analysis and mutual farmer-researcher learning about constraints to and opportunities for village poultry development in Ethiopia. The study applied a combined technography and systems app...

  8. INTERNATIONAL TOURISM MARKETING : PROMOTING BRC BUDGET CAR RENTAL AND TOUR, ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jauhojärvi, Tutu

    2011-01-01

    This practice based thesis project was launched by the author who has studied the background about Ethiopian tourism, where the commissioner company is based in. The goal of the project was to establish international partnership with tour operators and travel agents in different destinations in order to internationalize BRC Budget Car Rental and Tour to develop international marketing practices with the aim of maximizing its effort to attract international tourists to Ethiopia. Qualitat...

  9. Biology and management of fish stocks in Bahir Dar Gulf, Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wudneh, T.

    1998-01-01

    The biology of the fish stocks of the major species in the Bahir Dar Gulf of Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia, has been studied based on data collected during August 1990 to September 1993. The distribution, reproduction patterns, growth and mortality dynamics and gillnet selectivity of these stocks are described.The major fish categories, Barbus spp., Clarias gariepinus, and Oreochromis niloticus contribute equally to the catches. O. niloticus is most abundant in the shallow littoral ...

  10. Improving Potato Production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Kaguongo, W.; Ortiz, O.; Tesfaye, A.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W.W.; Kakuhenzire, R.; Kinyae, P.; Nyongesa, M.; Struik, P. C.; Leeuwis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Increased productivity of potatoes can improve the livelihood of smallholder potato farmers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia and is required to meet the growing demand. This paper investigates the opportunities for potato system improvement that could result in improved productivity. Through a diagnosis of the potato systems in the three countries on the basis of surveys and stakeholder workshops, seed potato quality management, bacterial wilt control, late blight control and soil fertility mana...

  11. Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest Ethiopia using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen, Halima; Neser, F.W.C.; Kock, A.; Van Marle-Koster, Este

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indigenous chicken populations representing seven different areas of northwest Ethiopia were studied using microsatellite markers to determine genetic diversity and variation. Three local lines of South African chicken and two commercial chicken strains were included for comparison. The Ethiopian chicken population Gassay/Farta had the highest number of alleles per locus (10) for microsatellite marker MCW 158. MCW 154 was the most polymorphic marker across all populations with ...

  12. Valuation of traits of indigenous sheep using hedonic pricing in Central Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Terfa, Zelalem G; Haile, Aynalem; Baker, Derek; Girma T. Kassie

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the implicit prices of indigenous sheep traits based on revealed preferences. A hedonic pricing model is fitted to examine the determinants of observed sheep prices. Transaction data were generated from rural markets of Horro-Guduru Wollega Zone of Ethiopia. Both OLS and heteroscedasticity consistent estimations were made. The empirical results consistently indicate that phenotypic traits of traded indigenous sheep (age, color, body size, and tail condition) are major det...

  13. Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Umeta, M.; West, C. E.; Fufa, H.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in zinc and iron, many also contained high levels of phytic acid and tannins, which impair bioavailability of zinc and iron. The phytate:zinc molar ratios were >20 for non-fermented cereal foods, >15...

  14. Comparing avifauna communities and bird functional diversity of forest and farmland in southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Engelen, Dries

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide degradation and conversion of tropical forests affects many species and their provided ecosystem services. Among them are birds, responsible for pollination, seed dispersal, pest control and scavenging. This study, conducted in southwest Ethiopia, compares species composition and bird functional diversity between forest and homegardens close to and far from forest, both in terms of species numbers and bird abundances. Point counts and mist netting were used to obtain data. While the...

  15. Fiscal dynamics in Ethiopia: The cointegrated VAR model with quarterly data

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Pedro M. G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the cointegrated vector autoregressive (CVAR) model to assess the dynamic relationship between foreign aid inflows, public expenditure, revenue and domestic borrowing in Ethiopia. It departs from the existing literature by using a unique quarterly fiscal dataset (1993-2008) and providing new insights into the formulation of testable fiscal hypotheses. The paper also derives and interprets structural shocks and places a strong focus on model specification. The results suggest t...

  16. Costs of Nutrient Losses in Priceless Soils Eroded From the Highlands of Northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yihenew G.Selassie; Yihenew Belay

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate soil and nutrient losses caused by water erosion and predict nutrient replacement costs on different land use types and slope classes at Harfetay watershed, Northwestern Ethiopia. The revised soil loss equation (RUSLE) was used to estimate the soil loss from the different land uses and slope classes in watershed. Moreover, nutrient loss from similar units was calculated by multiplying the in situ nutrient concentration of soil samples by the estimated...

  17. Farm management in mixed crop-livestock systems in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abegaz Yimer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key Words: nutrient dynamics, fertility management, feed availability and quality and livestock production, Northern Highlands of EthiopiaIn the Northern Highlands of Ethiopiaone of the least-favored areas inEast Africa,farming systems are characterized by the integrated management of crop and livestock components, in which resources, such as nutrients and energy are cycled within the system.The overall objective of this study was to increase insight in the functioning of these farming system...

  18. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mcguire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social relationships influence access to off-farm seed for a major crop. Seed shortfalls are common, and farmer¿farmer exchange is important for providing locally-adapted seed to fill this gap, but access varies...

  19. A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele-Tesemma, A.

    1997-01-01

    The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number of reasons for the failure. Methodical and technological problems are evident. Exclusion of farmers and the...

  20. Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study

    OpenAIRE

    Bewket, W.

    2003-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibilities of implementing integrated watershed management (IWM) approach. A typical highland watershed (the Chemoga watershed) was selected for the research, and multifaceted investigations were condu...

  1. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lemma Seblewngel; Gelaye Bizu; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu; Williams Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universitie...

  2. Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, P. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The book is the third in a series of publications on useful plants of Ethiopia. It describes 12 spices and condiments and 13 medicinal plants, both from a taxonomic and an agricultural viewpoint.The extensive botanical description of each taxon is accompanied by a full-page drawing, relevant photographs, lists of synonyms, literature and names, and details on taxonomic problems, geographic distribution, ecology, husbandry, uses and chemical composition.Numerous other spices, condiments and me...

  3. Land-use dynamics in enset-based agroforestry homegardens in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe, T.; Bongers, F.

    2012-01-01

    In many tropical countries homegardens sustain large numbers of people. Households depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own gardens. Such homegardens combine production with the maintenance of biodiversity. Long-term sustainability of the system is crucial for the long-term wellbeing of the population, including food security. The enset-coffee system of Southern Ethiopia is an example of such agroforestry ho...

  4. Gender disparities in Africa's labour markets : An analysis of survey data from Ethiopia and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez Robles, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to our better understanding of the main factors behind large and persistent gender disparities in Africa's labour markets. This work looks at three key dimensions of labour market gender inequality in Africa: (i) the gender wage gap, (ii) gender inequalities in allocating time to market and household work, and (iii) the gender-differentiated income effect of informality. Chapter 2 shows that, in Ethiopia, progress towards gender equity in edu...

  5. Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited.

  6. Magnitude of indoor NO{sub 2} from biomass fuels in rural settings of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumie, A.; Ali, A.; Mekonnen, E. (Addis Ababa Univ., Medical Faculty (Ethiopia)); Emmelin, A.; Wahlberg, S.; Brandstrom, D. (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa Int. School of Public Health (Sweden)); Berhane, Y. (Addis Continental Inst. of Public Health, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia))

    2009-02-15

    Half of the world's population and about 80% of households in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on biomass fuels. Indoor air pollution due to biomass fuel combustion may constitute a major public health threat affecting children and women. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of indoor NO{sub 2} concentration in homes with under-five children in rural Ethiopia. The study was undertaken in the Butajira area in Ethiopia from March 2000 to April 2002. 24-h samples were taken regularly at about three month intervals in approximately 3300 homes. Indoor air sampling was done using a modified Willems badge. For each sample taken, an interview with the mother of the child was performed. A Saltzman colorimetric method using a spectrometer calibrated at 540 nm was employed to analyze the mass of NO{sub 2} in field samples. Wood, crop residues and animal dung were the main household fuels. The mean (s.d.) 24-h concentration of NO{sub 2} was 97 mug/m3 (91.4). This is more than double the currently proposed annual mean of WHO air quality guideline. Highland households had significantly higher indoor NO{sub 2} concentration. This study demonstrates high levels of indoor NO{sub 2} in rural homes of Ethiopia. (au)

  7. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR?=?5.67; 95% CI?=?2.30, 13.00; p? Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  8. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regression technique from a total of 400 sample respondents using Eastern zone of Tigrai regional national state, northern Ethiopia, as case study site. The researcher was initially identified about sixteen predicting factors of which just ten of them were found to be statistically significant, and all exhibited the expected signs. Regression results revealed thatan introduction to integrated agricultural package make use of, male-headed household, age squared of the household head, educational status of the household head, saving culture, male adults, non-government organizations follow-up, access to credit, access to petty trading and irrigation have led productive safety net program beneficiary households to have more probability of graduation. Finally, it is recommended that assisting farming rural households to diversify and expand their sources of income in order to be able to meet their minimum food requirement and graduate soon through the provision of integrated agricultural packages. Besides, program participants should be followed up by non-government organizations and highly engaged in petty trading to graduate sooner, boost their income and food secure.

  9. "We prefer greeting rather than eating:" life in an elder care center in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Alemnesh; Adamek, Margaret E

    2014-12-01

    In Ethiopia where family care is a centuries-long tradition, living in an elder care institution invariably brings social devaluation. Accordingly, this study explored the psychosocial needs of older adults in a residential elder care center in Ethiopia from the perspective of both staff and residents. Three focus group discussions of 24 residents and interviews with 5 staff persons revealed that elders were living a subsistence lifestyle, eating the same meal every day, mostly cutoff from the surrounding community, and lacking basic amenities. Despite the absence of basic amenities, residents yearned even more so for meaningful social interaction. Psychosocial support was both undervalued and underutilized by staff members, and thus, residents' psychosocial well-being appeared to be at risk. The addition of social workers in institutional care in Ethiopia may help to promote improved living standards. Advocacy is needed on behalf of residents to establish and implement guidelines on care and support of residents in old age homes. As elders in developing countries are living longer--a growing number with disabilities--at the same time that informal supports are waning, the need for developing long term care policies is becoming critical. PMID:25287990

  10. An Assessment of Reservoir Filling Policies under a Changing Climate for Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Block, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change cause unsteady hydrologic response, commonly experienced through varying river flows. These variations affect the performance and reliability of water resources dependent systems, including domestic, agriculture, energy, and the environment, with economic implications. Long-term design and operation of these systems is therefore inherently uncertain, producing copious risks at time-scales of months to decades. Yet evaluation of system performance under non-stationary climate conditions is typically ignored. Here we demonstrate the potential performance of Ethiopia's forthcoming Grand Renaissance hydropower dam on the Blue Nile River, subject to coincident climate change and reservoir filling policies. Presently, no agreed-upon reservoir retention policy exists between Ethiopia and downstream countries, even though construction has already begun. We will present a tool designed to allow users to select expected future climate conditions and reservoir filling rates, from a stochastic perspective. Additionally, the maximum reservoir volume may also be varied. Major outputs include hydropower generation and downstream flow for use by policy-makers. Ethiopia's desire to rapidly expand hydropower dams on the Nile constitutes an enormous financial investment and latent risk, with further implications on streamflow reduction to Sudan and Egypt, and a need for multi-national energy contracts, necessitating proper advanced planning.

  11. Persistent Soil Seed Banks for Natural Rehabilitation of Dry Tropical Forests in Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrehiwot, K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute to natural forest regeneration in the dry forest of Ethiopia. Therefore, the composition of the seed bank in relation to vegetation and abiotic environment was analysed in four forest relics and four exclosures, i.e. demarcated land areas under strict conservation management, in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Results show strong relationships between natural vegetation, seed bank composition, soil chemical characteristics and environmental degradation, as evidenced through characteristics such as land use impact and soil depth. Most striking is the presence of only very few woody species in the seed bank of degraded areas. This suggests that seed banks only play a minimal role in natural forest recovery in the study area. If this is true, natural recovery will primarily depend on presence of seed trees in the vicinity and successful seed dispersal mechanisms. This result underlines the importance of sustainable management of the few remaining forest relics and trees outside these relics.

  12. Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed

  13. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained econ on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  14. The justiciability of human rights in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sisay Alemahu, Yeshanew.

    Full Text Available Making human rights domestically justiciable by clearly defining their content and subjecting them to judicial and quasi-judicial mechanisms of enforcement is important for their effective protection. Although a legal framework for the justiciability of human rights exists in Ethiopia, the judicial [...] practice reveals some problems. Lawyers and courts tend to avoid invoking and applying human rights provisions in the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and ratified international human rights treaties which form part of the law of the land. There is confusion regarding the mandate of the House of Federation to 'interpret' the Constitution. Procedurally, the basic laws of the country limit 'standing' in human rights litigation to those with a vested interest, failing to make public interest litigation possible and hence limiting the justiciability of rights. The article examines the justiciability of human rights in Ethiopia from a substantive, jurisdictional and procedural perspective. It juxtaposes law and practice in an attempt to show the extent to which rights are justiciable in the Ethiopian legal system.

  15. Conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV among people living with HIV in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mette; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The WHOQOL instruments are intended for cross-cultural studies of quality of life (QoL) but African countries have been poorly represented in its development. This study aimed to explore the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: The fieldwork included home visits, interviews, and focus group discussions with HIV patients and caregivers. RESULTS: We found that although WHOQOL-HIV includes many relevant facets, its applicability has several limitations in the Ethiopian setting. The most salient shortcomings of the instrument relate to the Social, Environmental and Religion/Spirituality/Personal Beliefs domains of the instrument. Themes not captured by the instrument include family responsibilities, disease disclosure, exclusion from common resources, basic needs, adequate food, and job opportunities. In addition, several of the tool's facets such as dependence on medicine seem less relevant. Also, the role of religion is more complex than captured in WHOQOL-HIV. We found that the tool is based on an individualist focus, which tends to overlook the social context of the patient. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the conceptual equivalence of WHOQOL-HIV is only partially attained for use in Ethiopia. The findings from this qualitative study are used in the further process of developing and validating a QoL instrument for use in Ethiopia.

  16. Determinants of Capital Structure: Empirical Evidence from Large Taxpayer Share Companies in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Muhammed Umer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of capital structure of large taxpayer share companies in Ethiopia. In this paper, econometric analysis were performed for a panel of 37 listed companies in Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority (ERCA large taxpayers’ branch office in Addis Ababa for the study period of 2006–2010. Nine conventional explanatory variables were adopted in this study, including profitability, size, age, tangibility, liquidity, non-debt tax shield, growth, dividend payout ratio and earnings volatility. As a result of the improvement in the existing estimation methods that enables to employ cross-sectional and time-series data concurrently, random-effect panel data regression was applied to study the effect of selected independent variables on capital structure. The result shows that size, age, tangibility, liquidity position and non-debt tax shield of a company are positively correlated with leverage, whereas profitability, earnings volatility and dividend payout ratio are negatively associated with leverage. Growth variable was found to be statistically insignificant in affecting leverage of large taxpayer share companies in Ethiopia. The sign of these relations suggest that, Agency cost theory provide more convincing evidence than other capital structure theories in elucidating the capital structure of large taxpayer share companies in Ethiopia.

  17. Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2014-12-01

    This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia. PMID:25236935

  18. The Emergence of a Dual-System of Primary Schooling in Ethiopia and Its Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asayehgn Desta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, in quantitative terms, Ethiopia has expanded and universalized the enrolment of school aged children in primary schools in line the International Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural rights in order to minimize the irregularities that have existed over the years. However, when the existing primary schooling is visualized in terms of quality and equity, it is sad to observe that privately run-ultra-modern primary schools seem to be mushrooming in Ethiopia in order to serve the sons and daughters of a newly emerging privileged class. On the other hand, the sons and daughters of the poor and disadvantaged are confined to over crowded classes manned by semi-qualified teachers and equipped with inadequate teaching materials. Stated differently, it is unbelievable to observe that primary schools in Ethiopia are sliding into a class-based education. Thus, if the government believes in equity and fairness, it needs to completely redesign and better equip the public primary school.

  19. Aid Donor Meets Strategic Partner? The European Union’s and China’s Relations with Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hackenesch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motives, instruments and effects of China’s Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the “competitive pressure” that China’s growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one of the most important countries in Chinese as well as European cooperation with Africa. Yet, Chinese and European policies toward Ethiopia differ greatly. The EU mainly engages Ethiopia as an aid recipient, whereas China has developed a comprehensive political and economic partnership with the East African state. China has thereby become an alternative partner to the Ethiopian government, a development that both sheds light on the gap between European rhetoric and policy practice and puts pressure on the EU to make more efforts to reform its development policy system.

  20. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea are outlined, as well as the big enterprises after the Second World War, e.g. the Kenya-Ethiopia Boundary Commission, the Desert Locust Service, and the achievement of an increasing number of individuals, both Ethiopian and foreign, is reviewed. The Ethiopian Flora Project purchased over the years a number of sturdy wehicles that allowed collecting activity in remote parts of the Flora areas, especially in western,southern and Eastern Ethiopia.

  1. The tectonostratigraphy, granitoid geochronology and geological evolution of the Precambrian of southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yibas, B.; Reimold, W. U.; Armstrong, R.; Koeberl, C.; Anhaeusser, C. R.; Phillips, D.

    2002-02-01

    Two distinct tectonostratigraphic terranes, separated by repeatedly reactivated deformation zones, are recognised in the Precambrian of southern Ethiopia: (1) granite-gneiss terrane, which is classified into sub-terranes and complexes, and (2) ophiolitic fold and thrust belts. The granite-gneiss terrane consists of para- and orthoquartzofeldspathic gneisses and granitoids, intercalated with amphibolites and sillimanite-kyanite-bearing schists. The paragneisses resemble gneisses from northern Kenya that were derived from sediments that filled the Kenyan sector of the "Mozambique Belt basin" between 1200 and 820 Ma. The volume of sediments formed during this period is comparatively small in southern Ethiopia, implying that the "Mozambique Belt basin" became progressively narrower northwards. The granitoid rocks in the study area vary from granitic gneisses to undeformed granites and range compositionally from diorites to granites. The granitoid gneisses form an integral part of the granite-gneiss terrane, but are rare in the ophiolitic fold and thrust belts. The ophiolitic fold and thrust belts are composed of mafic, ultramafic and metasedimentary rocks in various proportions. Undeformed granitoids are also developed in these belts. Eight granitoids from southern Ethiopia have been dated by U-Pb single zircon SHRIMP and laser probe 40Ar- 39Ar dating. The SHRIMP ages range from ˜880 to 526 Ma, and are interpreted as close approximations of the respective magmatic emplacement ages. The 40Ar- 39Ar data range from 550 to 500 Ma. The available geochronological data and field studies allowed classification of the granitoids of the Precambrian of southern Ethiopia into seven generations: Gt1 (>880 Ma); Gt2 (800-770 Ma); Gt3 (770-720 Ma); Gt4 (720-700 Ma); Gt5 (700-600 Ma); Gt6 (580-550 Ma); and Gt7 (550-500 Ma). The period 550-500 Ma (Gt7) is marked by emplacement of late- to post-tectonic and post-orogenic granitoids and presumably represents the latest tectonothermal event marking the end of the East African Orogen. Five tectonothermal events belonging to the East African Orogen are recognised in the Precambrian of southern Ethiopia: (1) Adola (1157±2 to 1030±40 Ma); (2) Bulbul-Awata (˜876±5 Ma); (3) Megado (800-750 Ma); (4) Moyale (700-550 Ma); and (5) Berguda (550-500 Ma).

  2. A westward extension of the tropical Pacific warm pool leads to March through June drying in Kenya and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Funk, Chris

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.

  3. Review: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (eds.: Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution (2007 Buchbesprechung: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (Hrsg.: Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Braukämper

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (eds.: Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution, Vienna, Zurich, Berlin, Münster: LIT Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-03735-937-2 (Switzerland; 978-3-8258-9795-6 (Germany, 290 pages. Besprechung des Sammelbandes: Wolbert G. C. Smidt, Kinfe Abraham (Hrsg.: Discussing Conflict in Ethiopia. Conflict Management and Resolution, Wien, Zürich, Berlin, Münster: LIT Verlag 2007, ISBN 978-3-03735-937-2 (Schweiz; 978-3-8258-9795-6 (Deutschland, 290 Seiten.

  4. Design and implementation of a training programme for general practitioners in emergency surgery and obstetrics in precarious situations in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohier, N; Fréjacques, L; Gagnayre, R

    1999-11-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been implementing medical assistance programs in Ethiopia since 1994, including the rehabilitation of health structures and the supply of drugs and medical equipment. In 1995, the serious shortage of surgeons in Ethiopia prompted MSF to add a programme to train general practitioners to perform surgery in the Woldya region. The results of the relevant feasibility study were encouraging. The programme's design is based on recent educational data and MSF's experience with introducing transcultural training in countries where unstable conditions prevail. The training programme is currently being studied by the Ethiopian Health Ministry for use as a model for training general practitioners in surgery throughout the country. PMID:10655888

  5. Risk of DDT residue in maize consumed by infants as complementary diet in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue. PMID:25569581

  6. Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megabiaw Berihun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population studies on normal and dysfunctional characteristics of menstrual cycles are scarce in Ethiopia. In addition variability in menarcheal age and menstrual characteristics are common. Knowledge on this variability is necessary for patient education and to guide clinical evaluation. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampling method was used to select 622 school girls from two secondary schools. A pretested questionnaire prepared in Amharic was used to gather data. Selected girls cooperated in answering the questionnaire in their classrooms under the supervision of the research team. Only 612 of the adolescent females were included in the final analysis, of which 305 were from Koladiba High School and 307 from Dabat. Results The age of the study subjects ranges between 14 and 19 with a mean (standard deviation of 16.9 ± 1 years. About 92.2% had attained menarche by the time the survey was conducted. The probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median (CI age at menarche of 14.8 (13.9-15.3 years. The average age at menarche by recall method was 15.8 ± 1 years. The mean age at menarche was 0.3 years younger for urban females compared with rural ones (p Conclusion In this study age of menarche was found to be delayed which is even higher than the findings indicated similar studies conducted in Ethiopia and other African countries. A significant number of students complain of abnormal menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhoea and premenstrual symptoms which call for appropriate counselling and management.

  7. Climatic variables and malaria transmission dynamics in Jimma town, South West Ethiopia

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    Abebe Gemeda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background:- In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics. It usually occurs at altitudes 2,000 m above sea level. For transmission of malaria parasite, climatic factors are important determinants as well as non-climatic factors that can negate climatic influences. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the correlation between climatic variability and malaria transmission risk in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between meteorological variables and malaria cases. Methods: - Time-series analysis was conducted using data on monthly meteorological variables and monthly total malaria in Jimma town, south west Ethiopia, for the period 2000-2009. All the data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 database program. Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis were used to asses association between the variables. Results: - During last ten years (2000-2009, a fluctuating trend of malaria transmission was observed with P.vivax becoming predominant species. Spearman correlation analysis showed that monthly minimum temperature, total rainfall and two measures of relative humidity were positively related with malaria but monthly maximum temperature negatively related. Also regression analysis suggested that monthly minimum (p = 0.008, monthly maximum temperature (p = 0.013 and monthly total rainfall (p = 0.040, at one month lagged effect, were significant meteorological factors for transmission of malaria in the study area. Conclusion: - Malaria incidences in the last decade seem to have a significant association with meteorological variables. In future, prospective and multidisciplinary cooperative research involving researchers from the fields of parasitology, epidemiology, botany, agriculture and climatology is necessary to identify the real effect of meteorological factors on vector- borne diseases like malaria.

  8. Consistent condom use among sexually active hiV-positive women in Amhara region, Ethiopia

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    Alene KA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kefyalew Addis Alene Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Consistent condom use has been described as the most effective way to prevent both sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission among people living with HIV. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence and factors associated with condom use among sexually active HIV-positive women in Amhara region referral hospitals, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to June, 2013 in Amhara region referral hospitals. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data were entered into EPI INFO version 3.5.1 statistical software and analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify the associated factors. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the strength of association. Results: A total of 351 sexually active HIV-positive women were interviewed. Consistent condom use among sexually active HIV-positive women was found to be 56.7% (51.7%–61.9%. Being in the age groups 30–34 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.82, 95% CI 1.31, 6.08 and 35–39 years (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI 1.15, 6.08, having a relatively large family (three to five family members (AOR: 2.54 95% CI 1.57, 4.12 and more than five family members (AOR: 1.69 95% CI 0.79, 3.63, and being Muslim or Protestant (AOR: 0.52 95% CI 0.33, 0.84 were variables associated with consistent condom use. Conclusion: Consistent condom use among sexually active HIV-positive women in Amhara region referral hospital was low, suggesting an urgent need for intervention through the involvement of a religious leader. Keywords: condom use, HIV-positive women, Amhara region, Ethiopia

  9. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing interventions' effectiveness, but also emphasizes the relevance of tailoring interventions to the target population. PMID:25461867

  10. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  11. Livelihood Impacts of Environmental Conservation Programmes in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia

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    Joseph Kweku Assan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In an era where climate change and environmental variability is having an overwhelming impact on the livelihoods and well-being of poor rural households, ecological conservation and development interventions that ensure sustainable livelihood security of such households have been posited as the most effective approach in addressing both environmental degradations and household well-being in the rural communities of Ethiopia. This study investigated the impact of the ‘Tree Gudifecha’ ecological conservation project on the livelihoods and well-being of rural households located in two villages in the Amhara regional states of Ethiopia. The data collection and analysis was done using mixed approaches involving household surveys, interviews and focus groups meetings over a period of twelve weeks. The findings show an increase in both household income and savings after the implementation of the ‘Tree Gudifecha’ ecological conservation project with disparities between households and communities. A moderate association was observed between livelihood diversifications and household income after the ‘Tree Gudifecha’ ecological conservation project has been implemented. The study also revealed that the extent and amount of the share that each diversification activity brings to the household income is equally important for participation in conservation programmes. The research revealed that skill enhancement interventions in livelihood activities by itself does not necessarily make a contribution to increasing community participation or household income unless a comprehensive livelihood package and adequate credit scheme is made available for potential diversification activities. The results suggest the need to incorporate indigenous livelihood security programmes at both development practice and policy levels aimed at addressing environmental/ecological degradation in rural Ethiopia. Such programmes should involve a composite framework that includes the profitability of diversification activities, identification of new livelihood activities and capacity enhancement.

  12. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59?years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ?44?years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  13. SURVIVAL AND PREDICTORS OF MORTALITY AMONG PATIENTS UNDER MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS TREATMENT IN ETHIOPIA: ST. PETER'S SPECIALIZED TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodros Getachew, Alemayehu Bayray and Berhe Weldearegay

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB is an increasing global problem. The extent and burden of MDR-TB varies significantly from country to country. Survival of MDR-TB treatment is not described in Ethiopia. Therefore, examining a cohort who received second-line therapy for MDR-TB to determine overall survival has a great importance.Objectives: To assess survival and predictors of mortality among patients under MDR-TB treatment in Ethiopia: St Peter’s specialized TB Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective analysis of records was conducted from Oct, 2011 - May, 2012 among cohorts of MDR-TB patients in St. Peter’s specialized TB hospital that starts treatment from February 2009. Data were collected using checklist from 188 patients’ record that is determined and analyzed using the STATA Statistical package, Version 11.0. Risk was estimated for the entire follow-up time corresponding to each event occurrence using Kaplan-Meier method and the covariates are fitted to Cox proportional hazard regression model.Result: The 188 patients were followed for a total of 79,600 person-days. Median follow up time was 466.5 days or 1.28 years. Among the total subjects, 87 (46.28% are male and the rest 101 (53.72% are female with a median age of 27 years. There were 29 (15.43 % known deaths (incidence rate: 3.6 per 10,000 person-days. Survival rate at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment were 88.53 %, 85.83 %, 82.71 % and 78.95 % respectively. The mean survival time for patients under MDR-TB was 9.7 years. Comparison of the groups showed that there is a significant difference in the probability of surviving between HIV status, smoking status, therapeutic delay, No. of first line resistant drugs at initiation, co-morbidities, region and clinical complication. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression, factors independently associated with mortality of patients were smoking (HR: 4.01, 95% CI 1.42 - 11.37, P = 0.009, therapeutic delay > 1 month (HR: 3.61, 95% CI 1.41 - 9.20, P = 0.007, HIV seropositive (HR: 5.94, 95% CI 2.40 - 14.72, P < 0.0001 and clinical complication (HR: 1.90, 95% CI 1.52 - 2.39, P < 0.001.Conclusion and recommendation: Survival of patients was higher and higher hazard of death was noted in patients who started treatment after a month, smoker, HIV positive and patients who develop a clinical complication. Although survival is good, reinforcing the existing treatment program will further improve patients’ survival in Ethiopia.

  14. Child labour in Addis Ketema, Ethiopia : a study in mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Fekadu Wolde-giorgis, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background: Child labour is a very common global problem. There are an estimated over 250 million in the world, and about 7.5 million child labourers in Ethiopia. Most of the studies available to date focus on the social, political, and economical issues, but very little on mental health or psychosocial problems of child labourers. There is no study describing the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among this group of children. Aims: 1. to assess the level of awareness and attitude of an u...

  15. Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia

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    Gebremichael MW

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women's health.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years, in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5% of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1% reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9% respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]. Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1% respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003, illiteracy (P = 0.01, and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012. The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3% were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM.Conclusion: In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it. Local healers were the main performers of FGM. Some of the women knew about the negative reproductive health effects of FGM and some had also experienced these themselves. However, only a few had tried to stop the practice and the majority had taken no steps to do so. This may be attributable to the fear of becoming alienated from the cultural system and fear of isolation.Keywords: female genital mutilation, reasons, health consequences, Ethiopia

  16. PLASTIC BAGS – THREAT TO ENVIRONMENT AND CATTLE HEALTH: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM GONDAR CITY OF ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Velappagoundar Ramaswamy and Hardeep Rai Sharma

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in Gondar city of Ethiopia for six years (2004/05 to 2009/10) to observe the impact of plastic bags usage on environment and cattle health. Paper packaging is vanishing slowly in the city and limited to small shops only. Open dumping of plastic bags containing wastes is observed commonly near road side, open plots, river side, in drains and public places however, it is prohibited under Ethiopian law. Winds carry bags to distant areas sometimes found entangl...

  17. Ethiopia: Diversifying the Rural Economy. An Assessment of the Investment Climate for Small and Informal Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Loening, Josef; Mikael Imru, Laketch

    2009-01-01

    The Rural Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is one of the first studies of small and informal firms in rural and semi-urban areas in Ethiopia. Little was known about the nature and size distribution of small, rural firms, the constraints they face when trying to expand or even to survive, the significance of their impact on the broader rural economy, and the policies, reforms and public investments that could spur investment by rural non-farm enterprises. One quarter of all households in ru...

  18. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bersissa Kumsa; Kebede Beyecha; Mesula Geloye

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sar...

  19. The status of safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1993, the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) has been empowered by the 'Radiation Protection Proclamation no. 79/1993' to authorize and inspect regulated activities, issue guidelines and standards and enforce the legislation and regulations. The report describes the status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia and the progress made towards building a sound and effective national regulatory infrastructure. Also, the report highlights the challenges and difficulties encountered and concludes by indicating the way forward towards the strategic goals. (author)

  20. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia : wage premiums and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium, self-selection into the informal sector and sectorally-distinct wage determination mechanisms.

  1. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon and Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the candidature of ten foreign companies for the introduction of natural gas in 1996 and the first enhanced recovery contract will relate to Rhourde El Baguel natural gas field (Algeria). New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Gabon, Ethiopia and Libya. Iraq has restarted its petroleum exports and Iranian production has diminished

  2. A tale of two federations: Comparing language rights in South Africa and Ethiopia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yonatan Tesfaye, Fessha.

    Full Text Available The success of a federal arrangement in accommodating ethnic diversity cannot be measured solely on the basis of its language rights regime. However, it is generally agreed that a well-designed language rights regime goes a long way in contributing either to the effective reconciliation, unity and d [...] iversity or to the eventual polarisation of cultural communities. This article focuses on the challenges of adopting an inclusive language policy in multi-lingual states. Using two case studies, South Africa and Ethiopia, it examines the different policy alternatives for accommodating linguistic communities.

  3. Over one century of rainfall and temperature observations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan; Mould, Colin; Bewket, Woldeamlak

    2004-01-01

    A detailed historical reconstruction and analysis is presented of the longest record of climate observations for Ethiopia, from 1898 to 2002 in Addis Ababa. Prior to 1951 the record comprises rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures recorded in different locations by different observers. The rainfall series is complete except for 1899 and 1900, but the temperature series are very incomplete. Using documentary evidence, we attempt as far as is possible to establish the origins of all the pre-1951 observations. Rainfall observations originate from at least six different sites. After establishment of an Ethiopian meteorological department in 1951 the records are complete and, to our understanding, originate from the same location, the Addis Ababa Observatory (AAO). A revised rainfall series for 1898-1950 is derived using observations from sites with the longest records.The minimum and maximum temperature records show evidence of statistically significant inhomogeneities. Homogeneity tests on the full rainfall record (the revised series plus AAO) show it is reliable, with evidence of minor but not statistically significant breaks in the record before establishment of the AAO. Some, but not all, breaks can be accounted for using the historical information. Analysis of the records shows increasing trends in annual minimum and maximum temperatures from 1951 to 2002 (0.4 °C/decade and 0.2 °C/decade, respectively). There is little trend in rainfall from 1901-50, 1951-2002 and 1901-2002, dry years do not correspond with known drought years elsewhere in Ethiopia, and interannual variability is poorly correlated with another long rainfall series in Ethiopia (Gore), Blue Nile river flows and the southern oscillation index. This suggests strongly that the record for Addis Ababa should not be used as a proxy for conditions in Ethiopia, particularly the more drought-prone areas to the north and east. We conclude that the temperature series are suspect but that the full rainfall record is useful for analysis of long-term rainfall conditions in Addis Ababa.

  4. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer Dirk U; Libeau Geneviève; Yigezu Laikemariam; Chavernac David; Roger François; Waret-Szkuta Agnès; Guitián Javier

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Me...

  5. Comparison of the defluoridation capacity of zeolites from Ethiopia and Mexico

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    M. Adem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis, either dental or skeleton, is often due to the high fluoride content of well waters. In this work, using solutions which contain different amounts of fluoride, natural zeolites from Ethiopia and Mexico were tested. It is shown that, although zeolites are known to be cationic exchangers, their extra-framework aluminum and their high calcium contents determine their performance. A mechanism involving adsorption and ion exchange is proposed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.5

  6. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

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    Graves Patricia M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN, 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and expanding malaria intervention coverage, efforts will have to be made to increase intervention access and use. With ongoing efforts to sustain and expand malaria intervention coverage, to increase intervention access and use, and with strong involvement of the community, Ethiopia expects to achieve its targets in terms of coverage and uptake of interventions in the coming years and move towards eliminating malaria.

  7. Quality and safety of camel milk along the value chain in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugojjam Adugna; Eyassu Seifu; Ameha Kebeded; Reiner Doluschitz

    2013-01-01

    The safety of camel milk was assessed along the value chain in Erer, eastern Ethiopia. A total of 24 camel milk samples were aseptically collected from producers in Erer (n=12), and wholesalers and retailers (n=12) along the chain. Milk quality parameters were analyzed following standard procedures. The mean (±SD) total bacteria (TBC), Enterobacteriaceae (EC), coliform (CC), spore-forming bacteria (SFBC) and yeast and mould (YMC) counts of the milk samples analyzed were 5.2 ± 1.90, 3.2 ± 2.30...

  8. Supply chain analysis of peri-urban dairy chain around Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Valk, O.M.C., van der

    2009-01-01

    Despite this large number of animals in Ethiopia, the consumption of milk per capita is amongst the lowest in the continent. There is an unmet and growing demand for fresh milk in urban centres whilst processing plants still operate at under-capacity. To ease this problem, donors and NGO’s undertake various support efforts aimed at strengthening production an improving access to markets; however there is hardly any rise in production and volume of marketed milk. While in the urban retail mark...

  9. ESSAY - Strategies Implemented to Stop FGM/C: A Case Study of Kenya and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Esther W. Waweru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the western influence and implications for the discourses and practices of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and this is presented with the two case studies: Kenya and Ethiopia. The article seeks to understand why FGM/C has taken such a long time to be eliminated considering it has been presented to be harmful to the lives of women. The main focus lies on the arguments of universal human rights, which is heavily depicted by those who oppos...

  10. Efficiency of the health extension programme in Tigray, Ethiopia: a data envelopment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lemma Hailemariam; Sebastian Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 2004, the government of Ethiopia has made a bold decision to strengthen and expand its primary health care system by launching the Health Extension Program (HEP). While the scaling up of the HEP is necessary to achieve the aim of universal access to primary health care, close attention should be paid to the performance of the program. Using a data envelopment analysis this study aimed at (i) to estimate the technical efficiency of a sample of health posts in rural Ti...

  11. Tenure Insecurity, Climate Variability and Renting out Decisions among Female Small-Holder Farmers in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom Akpalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land tenure arrangements in Africa are generally skewed in favour of males. Compared to males, female plot owners face complex sets of constraints and systemic high tenure insecurity which culminate in low yields. In order to obtain better returns, some females rent their plots to males, but risk losing the plots to their tenants. A model has been constructed to explain renting-out decisions of female small landholders, an issue largely ignored in the agricultural economics literature. The results, based on a survey of female landholders in Ethiopia, highlight the factors that explain renting-out decisions.

  12. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen A. Timko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

  13. Effect of host genotypes and weather variables on the severity and temporal dynamics of sorghum anthracnose in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity and temporal dynamics of anthracnose on susceptible (BTx623 and AL70) and resistant lines (2001PWColl#022 and 2001HararghieColl#12) were studied in field plots during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in southern Ethiopia. The initial, final, and mean anthracnose severities and area un...

  14. Co-Creating a Psychiatric Resident Program with Ethiopians, for Ethiopians, in Ethiopia: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent hundreds of…

  15. Standardization Techniques for Grade-Inflation Problems at Higher Educational Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a measure that is used to display the achievement of college students in Ethiopia. It also serves as a key yardstick in career and scholarship assessment. In recent time there has been a rapid massification of higher educational institutions (HEIs). Many academics believe that the expansion has increased a…

  16. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  17. Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Esayas; Belay, Alebachew; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Yami, Martha; Loitsch, Angelika; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Grabherr, Reingard; Diallo, Adama; Lamien, Charles Euloge

    2015-07-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia. Retrospective outbreak data were compiled and isolates collected from thirteen outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle at various geographical locations and years were analyzed and compared to the vaccine strain. Isolates of GTPV and LSDV genotypes were responsible for the capripox outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle, respectively, while SPPV was absent. Pathogenic isolates collected from vaccinated cattle were identical to those from the non-vaccinated ones. The vaccine strain, genetically distinct from the outbreak isolates, was not responsible for these outbreaks. This study shows capripox to be highly significant in Ethiopia due to low performance of the local vaccine and insufficient vaccination coverage. The development of new, more efficient vaccine strains, a GTPV strain for small ruminants and a LSDV for cattle, is needed to promote the acceptance by farmers, thus contribute to better control of CaPVs in Ethiopia. PMID:25907637

  18. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

  19. Technical Vocational Education and Training for Micro-Enterprise Development in Ethiopia: A Solution or Part of the Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Tendayi; Dafuleya, Gift

    2010-01-01

    Technical vocational education and training (TVET) programmes have recently received increased attention as an area of priority for stimulating growth in developed and developing countries. This paper considers the situation in Ethiopia where the promotion of micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs) has been central to the development and…

  20. A novel species within the Fusarium graminearum complex from Ethiopia detected by a multilocus genotyping assay and molecular phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex; O’Donnell et al., Fungal Genet. Biol. 41:600-623, 2004) were isolated from ground wheat samples collected in two different geographic areas in Ethiopia. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay (Ward ...

  1. "A Girl Never Finishes Her Journey": Mixing Methods to Understand Female Experiences of Education in Contemporary Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Much research has suggested that focusing on the determinants of female enrolment and dropout tells us little about girls' experiences of schooling in developing countries and cannot explain variation in their educational trajectories. This paper draws on quantitative (n = 1177) and qualitative data (n = 15) collected by "Young Lives" in Ethiopia

  2. Schools Serving as Centres for Dissemination of Alternative Energy Know-How and Technologies: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2008-01-01

    The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive…

  3. Towards New Ventures in Education. Workshop on Nonformal Education (Yared Music School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, February 18, 1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neqniq, Ato Million

    The major responsibility of this workshop on nonformal education is to establish some prototypes of community training activities which will coordinate with the agricultural and health components of Ethiopia's Fourth Five Year Plan for rural development and which can later be reproduced in the countryside. Linking education to overall development…

  4. Contribution of Awraja Pedagogical Centres in the Improvement of Education in Ethiopia. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtegaber, Haile

    Teachers and teacher center personnel were used to gather evaluative information on Awraja Pedagogical Centers (APCs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Teachers discussed their access to center facilities and services, and ratings of center materials and personnel. APC staff discussed their work, hours of center operation, procedures followed in the…

  5. English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

  6. Design of Sustainable Relief Housing in Ethiopia: An Implementation of Cradle to Cradle Design in Earthbag Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Barnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Urbanization in Ethiopia resulted in urban poverty and homelessness. In this study, a sustainable relief housing prototype that aided in sheltering homeless citizens was designed. To avoid repeating errors in urban development such as unsustainable resource consumption, it was necessary to look beyond traditional construction materials and methods. Approach: This design applied cradle to cradle design model to the earthbag construction technique and developed a prototype for sustainable relief housing in Ethiopia. Results: Based on environmental and human health, all materials selected for construction were naturally occurring and could safely return to nature after use. Structural design maximized natural energy use and housing and interior design considered the local culture in Ethiopia. Conclusion: With locally available materials, inexpensive construction, maintenance and use, this design provided affordable shelter for the Ethiopian people. Material selection ensured the most effective use of material resources, no synthetic material and toxin deposition and the best indoor air quality for human health. Using earthbags rather than wood for the structure, this housing design helped prevent deforestation and the resulting desertification in Ethiopia.

  7. Determinants of fertility intention among women living with hiv in western Ethiopia: implications for service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufa, Alemu; Wordofa, Muluemebet Abera; Wossen, Bitiya Admassu

    2014-12-01

    Despite increased emphasis on antiretroviral therapy for HIV infected individuals, issues of fertility and childbearing have received relatively little attention in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess socio-demographic, reproductive and HIV related characteristics of fertility intention among women living with HIV in Western Ethiopia. Cross sectional study was conducted from May I to May 26, 2012 using structured questionnaire on a sample of 456 women living with HIV who are on follow up care in anti-retroviral therapy clinics. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify significant predictors of fertility desire at 95 CL. Out of 456 respondents 42.1% expressed intention to have children in the future. Educational attainment [AOR (95% CI) = 0.041(0.008-0.220)], partner fertility desire [AOR (95% CI) = 0.012 (0.004-0.034)], number of live children [AOR (95% CI) = 0.344 (0.125-0.950)] and partner sero-status [AOR (95% CI) = 6.578 (4.072-10.881)] were significantly associated with fertility intention. A large proportion of HIV-positive women in the study desired more children in future. Interventions to address this problem include integrated access to contraception methods, and counselling on reproductive health decision-making. PMID:25854093

  8. Leadership in strategic information (LSI building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitike Getnet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examined the impact of the training on trainees' skills and the strengths and weaknesses of the course. The evaluation consisted of surveys and focus groups. Findings Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E. Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia. Conclusion The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings.

  9. Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079

  10. Renewable energy for rural development in Ethiopia: the case for new energy policies and institutional reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2002-09-01

    This article argues the case for introducing new energy policies in Ethiopia that will ensure energy initiatives for rural development meet the desired expectations. A review of the rural energy sector in Ethiopia is presented. Rural communities have for centuries relied solely on traditional biomass energy sources, human and animal power. In addition, sample findings show that the basic stock of traditional biomass energy resources is dwindling fast for two reasons: one, due to rapid population growth; and two, due to the absence of energy substitutes for traditional energy sources. Renewable energy technologies and other modern energy technologies are almost non-existent. In terms of budgetary allocation, rural energy development has not received a fair share of public investment in comparison to education, rural road construction and health. A key policy recommendation made in this article is the need for commitment from concerned authorities to the use of renewables for spurring rural development. This could be done through increasing the budget allocation to rural energy, which is currently negligible. Other policy recommendations include the modification of existing institutional frameworks for rural energy delivery, and the design and implementation of appropriate rural energy initiatives suitable for productive activities and sustainable development. (Author)

  11. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p?>?0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p?reproductive disorders compared to Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. PMID:24781154

  12. Developing a lifelong learning system in Ethiopia: Contextual considerations and propositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

    2014-10-01

    Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national policy documents and an analysis of the Ethiopian educational, economic and social context. Focused group and one-to-one interviews were conducted with policy researchers, experts from the Ministry of Education, adult educators and coordinators at different levels. It emerged that some of the existing policy provisions and contexts reflecting the highly formalised and structured educational opportunities available to Ethiopian youth and adults require re-conceptualisation. Despite the enormous progress made in increasing children's access to primary school, more than two million children remain out of school and adult literacy rates are still far from reaching the targets set both by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by national educational programmes. Moreover, as many youth drop out after completing primary education, and as the quality of learning appears to have suffered due to efforts of expansion, it is necessary to revisit the responsiveness of Ethiopia's formal educational provisions in the face of these challenges. Based on the opportunities and challenges identified, the authors explore some major considerations believed to be fundamental in creating a platform for the conceptualisation of Lifelong Learning in the Ethiopian context and conclude with some suggestions for the way forward.

  13. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Darrington, C; Tiao, N; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A

    2013-02-01

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia, were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined with the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25); 33 cats were seropositive. Hearts of all 36 cats were homogenized, digested in pepsin, and bioassayed in mice. Feces were examined for T. gondii oocysts by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from heart of 26 by bioassay in mice and from 25 seropositive and 1 seronegative cats. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from feces (oocysts) by bioassay in mice. In total, viable T. gondii was isolated from 27 of the 36 cats, and these isolates were designated TgCatEt1 to TgCatEt27. The high prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in feces of 8 (19.4%) of 36 cats is of high epidemiologic significance. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. PMID:22924928

  14. First archaeomagnetic field intensity data from Ethiopia, Africa (1615 ± 12 AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osete, María Luisa; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Chauvin, Annick; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Roperch, Pierrick; Fernández, Víctor M.

    2015-05-01

    First archaeointensity determinations have been obtained from Ethiopia. Seven bricks (34 specimens) from the Däbsan archaeological remains were subjected to archaeointensity determination by means of classical Thellier-Thellier experiment including tests for magnetic anisotropy and magnetic cooling rate dependency. The age of the Däbsan Palace is well controlled by historical information: between 1603, when land grants were conceded to the Jesuits and the Catholicism was established as the official religion in Ethiopia, and the age of the Palace foundation in 1626-27. Successful archaeointensity determinations were obtained in 27 specimens from five individual bricks revealing an average field value of 33.5 ± 1.1 ?T, which is 11-26% lower than expected values from global geomagnetic models based on historical and archaeomagnetic data. Global models for 1615 AD predict a low in central-southern Africa related to past location of the present Southern Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Our results suggest that the field intensity in central Africa may have been slightly lower than global model predictions. This would indicate that the low could be probably more extended towards central-eastern Africa (or more intense) than previously considered. Further data from this region are especially welcome to delineate the evolution of the SAA.

  15. Towards more liberal standing rules to enforce constitutional rights in Ethiopia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adem K, Abebe.

    Full Text Available This article analyses the legal regime governing standing to enforce constitutional rights in Ethiopia. It reiterates the direct link between standing rules and the right of access to justice. It observes that, although the laws of several states still require a personal interest in the action one w [...] ants to litigate, there is a developing trend towards the liberalisation of standing rules, particularly regarding human rights issues. It considers the activism of the Indian judiciary and the innovative changes introduced by the South African Constitution, recognising public interest litigation. With regard to Ethiopia, the article considers the rules governing standing in ordinary courts, the House of Federation and the Council of Constitutional Inquiry, the Human Rights Commission and the institution of the Ombudsman. It concludes that the current standing law regime is too restrictive as it requires the actual violation of personal rights and interests in a particular claim. The issue of standing is still governed by archaic rules which do not take into account the interest at stake and the individual circumstances of the victims. It recommends the liberalisation of standing rules to ensure that the constitutional guarantees can be enforced via, amongst others, public interest litigants.

  16. Monitoring land use/land cover dynamics in northwestern Ethiopia using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Worku; Csaplovics, E.

    2014-10-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) change assessment explores a terrestrial ecosystem in relation to the impact of natural processes and anthropogenic activities towards temporal and spatial change. This study explores spatial and quantitative dynamics of land use change in the semi-arid regions of northwestern Ethiopia using Landsat-5 (1984) and Landsat-8 (2014) which provided recent and historical LULC conditions of the region. Supervised classification algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was used to map and monitor land use transformations. A post-classification change detection assessment was applied to individual image classification outputs of the best performing SVM model in order to identify respective two-date change trajectories. The change detection analysis with an extended transition matrix showed a net quantity change of 44.0% and total change of 53.7% of the study area, with the latter change is due to swap changes. Post-classification comparisons of the classified imagery identified a major woodland transformation to cropland which is attributed to population size and economic activity. The area of cropland has increased significantly (52.8%) in 2014 contributing to the reduction in native vegetation cover. In the study period, 55.6% of woodland lost signifying a significant change in ecosystems. This significant land use transformation is due to accelerated human impact and subsequent agricultural land expansion. The loss in vegetation cover has exposed the surface and it is common to see a haze of cloud in a most semiarid region of NW Ethiopia.

  17. Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

  18. Mapping Distribution and Forecasting Invasion of Prosopis juliflora in Ethiopia's Afar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.

  19. Antenatal care strengthening in jimma, ethiopia : a mixed-method needs assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; TersbØl, Britt Pinkowski

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health education, and lack of training of health professionals. Conclusions. Health system trials are needed to study the feasibility of ANC strengthening in the study area. Nationally and internationally, the leadership needs to be strengthened with supportive supervision geared towards building trust and mutual respect to protect maternal and infant health.

  20. National implementation and regional cooperation from the perspective of Ethiopia: points for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)

  1. Acute kidney injury risk factor recognition in three teaching hospitals in Ethiopia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Phillips; N, Allen; B, Phillips; A, Abera; E, Diro; S, Riley; Y, Tadesse; J, Williams; A, Phillips.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key objective of the Nephrology Sister Centre Programme between the renal units in Cardiff and Addis Ababa, sponsored by the International Society of Nephrology, is to facilitate development of the local clinical service in Ethiopia specifically focused on the management of acute kidne [...] y injury (AKI). OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between AKI risk factor recognition and monitoring of renal function in three hospitals in Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were gathered regarding renal function monitoring, recording the presence of AKI risk-associated comorbidities and prescription of nephrotoxic medications across the disciplines of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology. RESULTS: Patients were more likely to have their renal function checked at the hospital with specialist services. Across all centres, the highest proportion of patients who had renal function measurements were those admitted to a medical ward. There was a positive relationship between documented comorbidities and the measurement of renal function but not between the prescription of nephrotoxic drugs and measurement of renal function. CONCLUSION: There was great variability in the extent to which doctors recognised the presence of risk factors for the development of AKI. Failure to identify these risk factors represents a lost opportunity to identify patients at high risk of developing renal injury who would benefit from renal function monitoring.

  2. Soil Quality Indices for Evaluating Smallholder Agricultural Land Uses in Northern Ethiopia

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    Aweke M. Gelaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and increasing resource demands in Ethiopia are stressing and degrading agricultural landscapes. Most Ethiopian soils are already exhausted by several decades of over exploitation and mismanagement. Since many agricultural sustainability issues are related to soil quality, its assessment is very important. We determined integrated soil quality indices (SQI within the surface 0–15 cm depth increment for three agricultural land uses: rain fed cultivation (RF; agroforestry (AF and irrigated crop production (IR. Each land use was replicated five times within a semi-arid watershed in eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Using the framework suggested by Karlen and Stott (1994; four soil functions regarding soil’s ability to: (1 accommodate water entry (WE; (2 facilitate water movement and availability (WMA; (3 resist degradation (RD; and (4 supply nutrients for plant growth (PNS were estimated for each land use. The result revealed that AF affected all soil quality functions positively more than the other land uses. Furthermore, the four soil quality functions were integrated into an overall SQI; and the values for the three land uses were in the order: 0.58 (AF > 0.51 (IR > 0.47 (RF. The dominant soil properties influencing the integrated SQI values were soil organic carbon (26.4%; water stable aggregation (20.0%; total porosity (16.0%; total nitrogen (11.2%; microbial biomass carbon (6.4%; and cation exchange capacity (6.4%. Collectively, those six indicators accounted for more than 80% of the overall SQI values.

  3. Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia

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    André Lindner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key actors along the value chain. Results revealed distinctive differences in proportion of cash income, value chain structure, and management engagement among the districts. Percentages of cash income were 60.15, 42.60, and 9.48 at Awi, Sidam, and Sheka, respectively. Differences were statistically significant between Sheka and both other districts (p = 0.05, but not between Awi and Sidama. The value chain structure showed that compared with Sheka, Awi and Sidama have a relatively large number of actors involved. The major factors explaining commercialization differences among regions were distance to market and presence of alternative forest products. Within Sheka, households with larger family size, higher education attainment, and access to training reportedly engaged more in commercial extraction. Therefore, we conclude that development of infrastructure for linking resource and consumer centers and expansion of extension education among producers may enhance the commercial engagement of producers and improve the accessibility of bamboo resources for commercial production.

  4. Multivariate Analysis of Nutritional Diversity in Sorghum Landrace Accessions from Western Ethiopia

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    Angeline van Biljon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, sorghum is grown for food and cash income by subsistence farmers. The study was conducted at the experimental farm of the Agricultural Research Council, Grain Crops Institute at Potchefstroom, South Africa. A total of 31 sorghum landrace accessions were used for chemical analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of genetic diversity in nutritional composition of sorghum landraces from western Ethiopia. Sorghum whole grains were analyzed for crude protein, total starch and its component and mineral profile (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, zinc and sodium. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed that the first four principal components contributed 71.77% of the variability among sorghum landrace accessions. Mineral elements such as zinc, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus and protein contributed more divergence to the first Principal Component (PC1, while iron, sodium and calcium contributed to the second Principal Component (PC2. Cluster analysis of mineral elements, protein, total starch and sugar contents resulted in five distinct groups of accessions with genetic distances ranging from 0.78-1.52. Therefore, the chemical compositions provide a useful measure of genetic divergence among sorghum landrace accessions to identify potential donors or parental lines for future sorghum quality improvement effort.

  5. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey

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    Pfeiffer Dirk U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Methods We explored the spatial distribution of PPR in Ethiopia and we investigated risk factors for positive serological status. Intracluster correlation coefficients (?, were calculated for 43 wereda (administrative units. Results Seroprevalence was very heterogeneous across regions and even more across wereda, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 52.5%. Two groups of weredas could be distinguished on the basis of the estimated ?: a group with very low ? (? 0.37. Conclusion The results indicate that PPRV circulation has been very heterogeneous, the values for the ? may reflect the endemic or epidemic presence of the virus or the various degrees of mixing of animals in the different areas and production systems. Age appears as a risk factor for seropositive status, the linear effect seeming to confirm in the field that PPRV is highly immunogenic. Our estimates of intracluster correlation may prove useful in the design of serosurveys in other countries where PPR is of importance.

  6. Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Solomon A; Hailu, Elena; Derese, Yohannes; Bjune, Gunnar A; Holm-Hansen, Carol

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. Sputum samples were collected from new pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Region. Genotyping of mycobacterial DNA was performed by spoligotyping and isolates were assigned to families using the SpolDB4 and the model-based program 'Spotclust'. A high level of diversity was found among the 237 isolates. Sixty-five different spoligopatterns were obtained. The T (30.8%), Central Asian (CAS; 21.1%) and U (17.7%) families were the predominant isolates comprising 69.6% of the total strains. Eighty-five per cent of the U lineage belonged to Spoligo-International-Type (SIT) 910 and SIT 1729. Only a few of these strains are included in SpolDB4 to date. Of the total strains, 41 (17.3%) were unique and have not been described in SpolDB4 to date. This study indicated that the TB epidemic in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, is characterized by the circulation of numerous M. tuberculosis strain families. The high proportion of SIT 910 and SIT 1729 strains may indicate an increase in the importance of these lineages in the transmission of TB in the study region. PMID:23336257

  7. Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Tora Abebayehu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.

  8. Strain diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Afar pastoral region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Mulugeta; Ameni, Gobena; Bjune, Gunnar; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Abebe, Fekadu

    2014-01-01

    Data on genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is important to understand its epidemiology, human adaptation, clinical phenotypes, and drug resistance. This study aimed to characterize MTBC clinical isolates circulating in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia, a country where tuberculosis is the second leading cause of mortality. Culture of sputum samples collected from a total of 325 pulmonary TB suspects was done to isolate MTBC. Spoligotyping was used to characterize 105 isolates from culture positive slopes and the result was compared with an international database. Forty-four spoligotype patterns were observed to correspond to 35 shared-types (SITs) containing 96 isolates and 9 orphan patterns; 27 SITs containing 83 isolates matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 8 SITs (n = 13 isolates) were newly created. A total of 19 SITs containing 80 isolates were clustered within this study (overall clustering of 76.19%). Three dominant lineages (T, CAS, and Manu) accounted for 76.19% of the isolates. SIT149/T3-ETH was one of the two most dominant sublineages. Unlike previous reports, we show that Manu lineage strains not only constitute a dominant lineage, but are also associated with HIV infection in Afar region of Ethiopia. The high level of clustering suggests the presence of recent transmission that should be further studied using additional genotyping markers. PMID:24734230

  9. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  10. Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

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    Tayelgn Azmeraw

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A woman's satisfaction with the delivery service may have immediate and long-term effects on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Providing satisfying delivery care increases service utilization. The objective of this study is to assess the satisfaction of mothers with referral hospitals' delivery service and identify some possible factors affecting satisfaction in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional survey that involved an exit interview was conducted from September to November 2009 in three referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A total of 417 delivering mothers were enrolled in the study. Client satisfaction was measured using a survey instrument adopted from the Donabedian quality assessment framework. We collect data systematically from every other postnatal woman who delivered in the referral hospitals. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was applied to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome (satisfaction. Results The proportion of mothers who were satisfied with delivery care in this study was 61.9%. Women's satisfaction with delivery care was associated with wanted status of the pregnancy, immediate maternal condition after delivery, waiting time to see the health worker, availability of waiting area, care providers' measure taken to assure privacy during examinations, and amount of cost paid for service. Conclusions The overall satisfaction of hospital delivery services in this study is found to be suboptimal. The study strongly suggests that more could be done to assure that services provided are more patient centered.

  11. GGE-Biplot Analysis of Grain Yield of Faba Bean Genotypes in Southern Ethiopia

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    Fekadu Gurmu, Ersulo Lire, Asrat Asfaw, Fitsum Alemayehu, Yeyis Rezene, Daniel Ambachew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Genotype x Environment (GxE interaction study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 using 16 faba bean genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s. A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1. Genotypic difference was found to be significant (P < 0.05 and (P < 0.001 for each environment and across environments, respectively. Location main effect was also highly significant (P < 0.001, but year main effect was not significant. Genotype x Locations (GL and Location x Years (LY were significant. Genotypes G3 and G8 were specifically adapted to Hossana and Waka while G11 was specifically adapted to Angacha and Bule. G5 was the most stable genotype with wider adaptation to all the test environments and can be recommended for wider production in similar high land environments of the Southern Region of Ethiopia.

  12. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  13. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

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    Harry Smit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  14. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae) from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peši?, Vladimir; Smit, Harry

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia) is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed. PMID:21594090

  15. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae) from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Smit; Vladimir Peši?

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia) is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  16. Farmers’ Perceptions of Maize Production Systems and Breeding Priorities, and Their Implications for the Adoption of New Varieties in Selected Areas of the Highland Agro-Ecology of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Demissew Abakemal; Shimelis Hussein; John Derera; Mark Laing

    2013-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) plays a critical role in smallholder food security in Ethiopia. Its production is rapidly increasing to the Highlands of Ethiopia where it has been a minor crop in the past. This study aimed to assess the magnitude and production systems of Highland maize, farmers’ production constraints, and their implications for the adoption of new maize cultivars in two zones of the Oromia Regional State representing the Highland sub-humid agro-ecology of Ethiopia. A participatory ru...

  17. Making strides in women’s mental health care delivery in rural Ethiopia: demographics of a female outpatient psychiatric cohort at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (2006–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Chemali ZN; Borba CPC; Henderson TE; Tesfaye M

    2013-01-01

    Zeina N Chemali,1,2 Christina PC Borba,1,2 Tanya E Henderson,3 Markos Tesfaye41Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3International and Human Rights Law Consultants, Cambridge, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaAbstract: This paper presents the delivery of mental health care to a sample of women living in Jimma, rural Ethiopia, a...

  18. Cost and cost-effectiveness of treating smear-positive tuberculosis by health extension workers in Ethiopia:an ancillary cost-effectiveness analysis of community randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evidence for policy- and decision-making related to the cost of delivering tuberculosis (TB) control is lacking in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the cost and cost-effectiveness of involving health extension workers (HEWs) in TB treatment under a community-based initiative in Ethiopia. This paper presents an ancillary cost-effectiveness analysis of data from a RCT, from which the main outcomes have already been published. Methodology/Principal Findings: Options of treating TB pa...

  19. Cost and cost-effectiveness of treating smear-positive tuberculosis by health extension workers in Ethiopia: an ancillary cost-effectiveness analysis of community randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evidence for policy- and decision-making related to the cost of delivering tuberculosis (TB) control is lacking in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the cost and cost-effectiveness of involving health extension workers (HEWs) in TB treatment under a community-based initiative in Ethiopia. This paper presents an ancillary cost-effectiveness analysis of data from a RCT, from which the main outcomes have already been published. Methodology/Principal Findings: Options of treat...

  20. Industrial Minerals and Artisanal Mining Study (Ethiopia World Bank Energy Access Project) : summary of activities, findings and recommendations of industrial minerals sub-project

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the industrial minerals sub-project of the Industrial Minerals and Artisanal Mining Study, one of three projects carried out by the British Geological Survey for the Ethiopia Energy Access Project – Mineral Component, under funding from the World Bank. The current status of the industrial minerals sub-sector in Ethiopia has been assessed through a survey of producers and users, data on domestic production and imports, and reference to conventional p...

  1. Postconflict internally displaced persons in Ethiopia : mental distress and quality of life in relation to traumatic life events, coping strategy, social support, and living conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Araya, Mesfin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are about 23.7 million internally displaced persons worldwide today, still living in the low-income countries. Ethiopia has for the past four decades been ravaged by war and famine. A lengthy civil war resulted in Eritrea, formerly a part of Ethiopia, becoming an independent state in 1991. This war led to displacement of one million people, and currently there are about 55000 internally displaced Ethiopians in Addis Ababa, most of them living in temporary shelters. A minorit...

  2. The perspective of private practitioners regarding tuberculosis case detection and treatment delay in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Yimer Solomon A; Hansen Carol-Holm; Bjune Gunnar A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Engaging all health care providers in tuberculosis (TB) control has been incorporated as an essential component of World Health Organization's Stop TB Strategy and the Stop TB Partnership's global plan 2006-2015. Ethiopia has a growing private health sector. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of private practitioners (PPs) in TB case detection and assess their perspectives on TB treatment delay in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Results A cross-section...

  3. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deribew Amare; Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Abdissa Alemseged; Deribe Fetene; Woldemichael Kifle; Jira Chali; Tesfaye Markos; Shiffa Jafar; Aseffa Abraham; Bezabih Mesele; Abeje Tadiye; Colebunders Robert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethi...

  4. HIV/AIDS internal mainstreaming in Ethiopia : some lessons learned of a first effort : article produced as part of the KIC project

    OpenAIRE

    Aantjes, C.; Tsega, L.

    2005-01-01

    Four Dutch development organizations (Novib, Cordaid, ICCO and Plan Netherlands), united in Stop AIDS Now! (SAN!), have initiated a joint venture aimed at supporting local NGOs in Ethiopia to mainstream HIV/AIDS internally. SAN chose Ethiopia because of the rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic and seized the opportunity of using mainstreaming as an instrument to get an expanded multi-sectoral response to the problem. The first phase of the project was implemented from May 2004 until October 2005.

  5. The Impact of Cooperative Social Organization on Reducing the Prevalence of Malaria and Intestinal Parasite Infections in Awramba, a Rural Community in South Gondar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebeyehu Yihenew; Haileeyesus Adamu; Beyene Petros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Parasitic diseases are the major causes of human health problem in Ethiopia. The high prevalence of parasitic infections is closely correlated with poverty, poor environmental hygiene, and impoverished health services. Objective. The study was conducted to assess the impact of health-conscious Awramba cooperative community and its neighboring communities on the prevalence of parasitic infections in South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods. Single stool specimens were collected from 392 i...

  6. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Löscher Thomas; Alano Abraham; Roewer Susanne; Osman Maha E; Miranda Isabel; Kumma Wondimagegn P; Schunk Mirjam; Bienzle Ulrich; Mockenhaupt Frank P

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were ...

  7. Increasing demand for health facility birth. A qualitative study exploring barriers and facilitators for skilled care utilization in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelshaug, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore women’s and health workers experiences and perceptions on barriers and facilitators for health facility delivery in Northern Ethiopia. Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world and few women give birth in a health facility. The World Health Organization states that the most efficient strategy to reduce maternal mortality is to secure skilled attendance at birth, which involves the assistance of skilled health workers in an e...

  8. Coffee Wilt Disease (Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas) in Forest Coffee Systems of Southwest and Southeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fikre Lemessa; Girma Adugna; Sihen Getachew; Hindorf, H.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee diseases are presumed to be less important in the forest coffee as compared to the garden and plantation systems of coffee production in Ethiopia. In this article, the results of a study conducted on the occurrence and incidence of Coffee Wilt Disease (CWD) and the major factors influencing the disease in four major forests coffee sites in southwest and southeast Ethiopia are discussed. In each forest coffee site, coffee wilt syndrome was assessed in three systematically selected sampl...

  9. Matching genotype with the environment using an indigenous cattle breed: Introduction of Borana cattle from southern Ethiopia into the lowlands of north-western Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastoral, agro-pastoralism and transhumanance cattle production systems are important determinants of livelihoods in the semi-arid areas of north-western, southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia. The highlands are important for mixed crop-livestock enterprise, while the arid to semi-arid lowlands, that occupy 61% of the land area, are dominated by livestock production. The livestock species and breeds in these production systems have been traditionally selected, over millennia, to adapt to the challenges of the agro-ecologies. This initiative was undertaken in the arid to semi-arid lowlands of Metema district, which shares a 60 Km border with the Sudan, in North Gondar Zone of Amhara Region. The total area of the district is 440,000 ha, and 72% is covered with forest and rangeland, while 23.6% is cultivated. The cattle population is estimated at 136,910. Sesame-livestock followed by cotton-livestock production are the dominant farming systems. Although the Gumuz people are native in the district, most of the land is occupied by settlers from the highlands of Amhara and Tigray Regions. As a result, the dominant cattle population is the highland Zebu (mainly Fogera cattle breed crossed with other highland Zebu) brought by the highlanders. Rutana and Felata cattle breeds constitute a smaller proportion of the total cattle population. As a result, there is a mismatch between the cattle genotype and the environment. The major problems associated with cattle production are dms associated with cattle production are diseases and biting flies, water shortage, heat stress, long distance to watering points and grazing areas. Cattle production is therefore, characterized by high pre-weaning calf mortality (35-40%), slow growth rates, low fertility and calving rates, low milk yield and carcass weight. Breeding is entirely based on natural mating, and farmers' selection is based on milk yield, body conformation and colour; with considerations to disease resistance, heat tolerance and draft power potential. Table I presents the productive and reproductive performances of highland Zebu cows in the lowland agro-ecology. There is an evolving market-oriented cattle-fattening system in the district due to the increased domestic demand for meat and also the expanding export opportunity of live animals to the Sudan and other neighbouring countries. As a result, farmers are demanding for more adapted and productive animals. In response to this challenge, the Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) project of ILRI examined the performance of a number of indigenous lowland breeds and decided to introduce and test the most promising indigenous Borana cattle breed in Metema. The Borana cattle breed is found in the semi-arid lowland areas of Borana in Ethiopia and the adjoining areas of Kenya. The production system is a pastoral and semi-pastoral that makes use of marginal resources in the area. The Borana cattle is known for its heat and drought tolerance, good walking capacity, faster growth rate, higher fertility and superior meat production potential. With an overall aim of enhancing a market-oriented cattle production system under a tropical environment, the IPMS project introduced pure Borana bulls for natural mating with highland Zebu cows. In addition, over 400 highland Zebu cows were hormonally oestrus synchronized and artificially inseminated with Borana semen. This paper explains the new approach, the processes involved and the results achieved so far in an attempt to match genotype with the environment through introduction of the indigenous Borana cattle into the lowlands of north western Ethiopia. (author)

  10. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319

  11. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.

    2014-11-01

    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.

  12. Depositional environments during the Late Palaeozoic ice age (LPIA) in northern Ethiopia, NE Africa

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    Bussert, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The Late Palaeozoic sediments in northern Ethiopia record a series of depositional environments during and after the Late Paleozoic ice age (LPIA). These sediments are up to 200 m thick and exceptionally heterogeneous in lithofacies composition. A differentiation of numerous types of lithofacies associations forms the basis for the interpretation of a large range of depositional processes. Major glacigenic lithofacies associations include: (1) sheets of diamictite, either overlying glacially eroded basement surfaces or intercalated into the sediment successions, and representing subglacial tillites, (2) thick massive to weakly stratified muddy clast-poor diamictites to lonestone-bearing laminated mudstones originating from a combination of suspension settling of fines and iceberg rainout, (3) lensoidal or thin-bedded diamictites deposited from debris flows, (4) wedges of traction and gravity transported coarse-grained sediments deposited in outwash fans, (5) irregular wedges or sheets of mudstones deformed primarily by extension and incorporating deformed beds or rafts of other lithofacies formed by slumping, and (6) irregular bodies of sandstone, conglomerate and diamictite deformed by glacial pushing. The dominance of laminated or massive clast-bearing mudstones in most successions indicates ice-contact water bodies as the major depositional environment. Into this environment, coarse-grained sediments were transported by various gravity driven transport processes, including dropstone activity of ice-bergs, slumping, cohesive debris flow, hyperconcentrated to concentrated flow, hyperpycnal flow, and by turbidity flow. Close to glacier termini, wedge-shaped bodies of conglomerate, sandstone, diamictite and mudstone were deposited primarily in subaqueous outwash-fans. Soft-sediment deformation of these sediments either records ice push during glacier advance or re-sedimentation by slumping. Apart from an initial glacier advance when thick ice of temperate or polythermal glaciers covered the whole basin, many sections document at least a second major phase of ice advance and retreat, and some sections additional minor advance-retreat cycles. Whether most of the LPIA sediments in northern Ethiopia were deposited in lakes or in fjords is not yet clear. Although univocal evidence of marine conditions is missing, the presence of carbonate-rich beds and the trace fossil assemblage are compatible with a restricted marine environment such as broad palaeofjords affected by strong freshwater discharge during deglaciation. A restricted marine environment for most of the sediments in northern Ethiopia could challenge models of the LPIA sediments in Arabia as primarily glaciolacustrine and glaciofluviatile deposits.

  13. Restoring local spiritual and cultural values in science education: The case of Ethiopia

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    Faris, Solomon Belay

    It has been repeatedly observed that home and local context matter in the education of children. A smooth transition between home and classroom prepares children for enjoyable and meaningful life-long learning. Knowledge building in children is influenced by previous experience, values, beliefs and sociocultural factors associated with community. Against this theoretical background, the thesis examined the integration of local spiritual and cultural values to improve science education in Ethiopia. This autoethnographic research used in-depth interviews, supplementary observations and focus group discussion and my biography to identify the perception and practice of common and unique spiritual and cultural values. The study examined whether these values were included and/or excluded in the school curriculum and explored the possibilities for incorporating values in science education and the anticipated tensions resulting from their inclusion. Students, science teachers, parents, employers, curriculum experts, policymakers, elders, and religious leaders participated in the research, conducted in a randomly selected secondary school in Addis Ababa. The sampling followed a kind of snowball method, with a total of twenty key informants participating in interviews, fifteen classroom observations, and one focus group discussion. The data collection aimed at generating stories, which underlie the auto-ethnography methodology. Findings indicated that belief in and fear of God animated and sustained the Ethiopian way of life. Although spiritual teachings derived from sacred writings were the initial foundation for Ethiopian cultural norms, the two merged together later, creating a mosaic pervading every aspect of life in Ethiopia. Education was sustained on this merger of spiritual and cultural norms and values. It was also shown that the now century-old system of formal education did not incorporate those local spiritual and cultural values. Current science education also has little relationship to Ethiopian spiritual and cultural norms and is, therefore, in need of restoration. Findings showed that efforts to recapture local spiritual and cultural values in the curriculum may encounter obstacles and tensions. Clearly, the future of a more prosperous Ethiopia depends on the extent to which curriculum stakeholders can overcome these obstacles and put in place a relevant, contextual, and holistic education.

  14. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

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    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized opportunities created through rural electrification. Though necessary for development, rural electrification alone is insufficient, and requires strong government commitment and political will to invest in public services and infrastructure, and encourage private sector participation. Keywords: rural electrification, modern energy services, Sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia, energy transition, Poverty Reduction, Rural Development.

  15. Barriers to tuberculosis care: a qualitative study among Somali pastoralists in Ethiopia

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    Abebe Fekadu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the dawn of the third millennium, while the control of the second biggest infectious killer in the world (tuberculosis [TB] is an international priority, millions of pastoralist communities in the Horn of Africa are struggling to access TB care. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of pastoralist TB patients remain to be a challenge in TB control programs in many countries in this region, where pastoralism is a common means of livelihood. Better understanding of community perceptions of TB and its management could help identify reasons for the delay in diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities. The aim of this study is to explore barriers delaying diagnosis among pastoralist TB patients in the Somali Regional State (SRS of Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study, including 19 respondents was conducted in the SRS of Ethiopia. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA and informal interview techniques were employed to explore pastoralists' migration patterns, their perceptions of TB and their access to TB services. The influence of these factors on the delay of TB patients in receiving biomedical diagnosis was then assessed. Results We found that lack of access to formal health services as well as traditional beliefs leading to self treatment were barriers to prompt bio-medical diagnosis of TB among pastoralist TB patients in the SRS of Ethiopia. This study highlights that limited access to TB control programs is the most important barrier in early seeking of biomedical diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities with nomadic pastoralist being the most affected. Conclusions Diagnostic and treatment facilities should be established in strategic villages that pastoralist can reach in both dry and wet seasons. Such facilities may alleviate the observed long distance to health facilities and thus long delay in diagnosis of TB. This strategy should be compounded with a community based TB control approach, whereby basic medical training on TB management such as provision of health education, drug distribution and observations is provided to local traditional healers and religious leaders. This approach may improve pastoralists' perceptions of TB, hence eliminating the observed traditional believes associated with TB in pastoralists' context of the SRS.

  16. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

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    Deribew Amare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Results Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7% and non-literates (83.6%. Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7% belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS. Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4 were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5% of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. Conclusion The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate in Ethiopia. A large scale study on the genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia is crucial to understand transmission dynamics, identification of drug resistant strains and design preventive strategies.

  17. Education in focus :impacts of school feeding program on school participation

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    Dheressa, Desalegn Keba

    2011-01-01

    It has been claimed that School Feeding Programs increase school participation among poor and food insecure group of people. This study investigates if the program has significant positive impact on school enrollment, class attendance, and student drop-out patterns among primary school children in Dara Woreda of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 102 households as well as 17 selected individual stakeholders. Household Questionnaire, Key Informant Interviews and Observati...

  18. Media and multi-party elections in Africa: The case of Ethiopia

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    Wondwosen Teshome

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In any democratic country the media serves as a watch dog of events and decisions and assists citizens to be informed about what is going on in the country. Free media also plays a very important role to conduct democratic elections. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of the media in the African democratization process particularly in the multi-party elections that widely emerged in the continent in the 1990s. The paper investigates the contributions of the media in the emerging African democracies by using the performance of the media in the 2005 multi-party parliamentary election in Ethiopia as a case study. The paper also attempts to assess the Ethiopian press laws of 1992 and 2008, which are the only press laws in the history of the country.

  19. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Durbete Town, Northwestern Ethiopia

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    Alelign, Tilahun; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2015-01-01

    Identifying determinants of soil transmitted helminth infection is vital to design control strategy for the disease. This study assessed the prevalence of STH infections and associated factors among schoolchildren in Durbete town, northwestern Ethiopia. Data about the sociodemographic and socioeconomic status of the children were collected using a questionnaire and stool samples were diagnosed using thick Kato-Katz smear. STH infection was more common among school-age children in Durbete town. Hookworm was the most frequent helminth species detected. The prevalence of STH infection was more in children who did not practice wearing shoes and washing hands before eating and in those who were older in age. Deworming of school-age children in the study area would be important. In addition, provision of health education about helminths and the importance of wearing shoes and washing hands before eating would be important to reduce the burden of STH infection in the study area. PMID:26161265

  20. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia : to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines the impact of the PSNP by using Propensity Score Matching to estimate the effect on income diversification. The results show receiving transfers from the PSNP, on average, increases natural resource extraction (one component of off-farm income). While these results should be treated with caution, they suggest the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on smallholders’ adaptation strategies.

  1. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receiving transfers from the PSNP, on average, did not increase farm or non-farm income but significantly increases natural-resource extraction (one component of off-farm income). While these results should be treated with caution, they suggest that the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies.

  2. The Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of Aid and Disaggregated Aid in Ethiopia

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    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the long-run macroeconomic effects of aid and disaggregated aid flows in Ethiopia, currently the world's largest recipient of official development assistance, for the period 1960-2009. The results show that aid affects gross domestic product (GDP), investment and imports positively, whereas it is negatively associated with government consumption. Our results concerning the impacts of disaggregated aid stand in stark contrast to earlier work. Bilateral aid increases investment and GDP and is negatively associated with government consumption, whereas multilateral aid is only positively associated with imports. Grants contribute to GDP, investment and imports, whereas loans affect none of the variables. Finally, there is evidence to suggest that multilateral aid and loans have been disbursed in a procyclical fashion

  3. Population ecology of rodents of maize fields and grassland in central Ethiopia

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    Bekel'e, Afework; Leirs, Herwig

    1997-01-01

    We report on the presence of rodents in grassland and maize fields in central Ethiopia, during the course of a 21-month study by means of removal and capture-recapture trapping. In both habitats, the small mammal fauna consisted of the same species but in different relative proportions: Arvicanthis dembeensis, Mastomys erythroleucus, Tatera robusta, Rattus rattus, Mus mahomet and Crocidura olivieri. A. dembeensis and M. erythroleucus were the dominant species. Densities were generally low throughout the study period, but at the end of the breeding season in the second year of the study, the numbers of A.dembeensis reached high values in the grassland. Breeding was seasonal and related to rainfall periods: extended rainy seasons resulting in longer periods with breeding females and higher litter sizes and, consequently, population size increases. These observations suggest that rodent population dynamics in the study area are linked to rainfall patterns and this information can be used to develop forecasting models.

  4. Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia

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    Kloos Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam. The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Results Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5% children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3% for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2% for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5% for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32 and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 0.84, 6.88. A classification tree revealed insights in the importance of the dam as a risk factor for malaria. Assuming that the relationship between the dam and malaria is causal, 43% of the malaria occurring in children was due to living in close proximity to the dam. Conclusion This study indicates that children living in close proximity to a man-made reservoir in Ethiopia are at higher risk of malaria compared to those living farther away. It is recommended that sound prevention and control programme be designed and implemented around the reservoir to reduce the prevalence of malaria. In this respect, in localities near large dams, health impact assessment through periodic survey of potential vectors and periodic medical screening is warranted. Moreover, strategies to mitigate predicted negative health outcomes should be integral parts in the preparation, construction and operational phases of future water resource development and management projects.

  5. Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia.

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    Siraj, A S; Santos-Vega, M; Bouma, M J; Yadeta, D; Ruiz Carrascal, D; Pascual, M

    2014-03-01

    The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence for an increase in the altitude of malaria distribution in warmer years, which implies that climate change will, without mitigation, result in an increase of the malaria burden in the densely populated highlands of Africa and South America. PMID:24604201

  6. Evaluation of quality of beef produced and sold in parts of Tigray Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Kebede, Etsay; Kassaye, Enquebaher

    2010-03-01

    Microbiological and physical quality of 83 samples of beef produced and marketed in some parts of Tigray region of Ethiopia were evaluated. The color, marbling, pH, bleeding status and aerobic plate count (APC) were within permissible limits in 35(42.16%), 47(56.63%), 51 (61.44%), 13(15.66%) and 20(24.09%) samples, respectively. Based on these parameters, a high percentage of samples (varying from 38.56%-84.34%) were of unsatisfactory quality. Such a widespread imperfect bleeding (84.34%) and high APC (75.91%) emphasize the need to improve the techniques of bleeding and hygienic conditions at the time of production of meat at abattoir and its marketing. PMID:19728134

  7. Tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in three districts of Western Gojam, Ethiopia.

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    Fetene, T; Kebede, N; Alem, G

    2011-02-01

    Tuberculosis concurrent infection in cattle and their respective owners in North-western Ethiopia had been investigated. Two hundred and ten cattle owners and 1220 heads of their cattle were included in the study to determine degree of tuberculosis infection in cattle owned by tuberculosis patients and tuberculosis patients. Comparative intradermal tuberculin test, bacteria culturing, acid fast staining and biochemical tests were used to conduct the study. The prevalence of tuberculosis was significantly (P raw milk were at higher risk (P milk. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (15.4%), Mycobacterium bovis (44.1%) and atypical mycobacteria (38.5%) were identified from milk collected from tuberculin-positive cows using biochemical tests. Similarly M. tuberculosis (74.5%), M. bovis (14.9%) and atypical mycobacteria (8.5%) were identified from sputum and fine needle aspiration specimens of tuberculosis patient cattle owners. Mutual transmission of mycobacterium from animals to humans and vice versa has been signified. PMID:19912606

  8. ASSESSMENT OF GMP COMPLIANCE IN WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES IN ETHIOPIA

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    Gebremedhin Beedemariam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is widely used as a raw material, ingredient, and solvent in the processing, formulation, and manufacture of pharmaceutical products, and assessing its quality is of paramount importance. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there hasn’t been any baseline assessment made with regard to the implementation status of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP principles in water treatment systems of pharmaceutical industries in Ethiopia. Hence, to assess the level of compliance to GMP in water treatment systems of pharmaceutical industries in Ethiopia, a national survey was conducted in all pharmaceutical industries of the country. Data were collected by employing quantitative and qualitative methods. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to nine pharmaceutical industries and the response rate was 8 (88.5%. According to the results, none of the industries had an influent and effluent total organic carbon monitoring system. Among the available storage tanks for purified water and water for injection, 7 (87.5% of them were of a sanitary material. However, in 4 (50% industries pipes were not made of sanitary material, purified water was not kept circulating at 70-80 oC and there were dead legs in the water lines. The validation results were investigated and corrective action was taken only in 1 (12.5% of the industries. The compliance of the water treatment systems of most of the industries to WHO GMP principles was found to be below the standard in many aspects. Therefore, it is recommended that the industries should exert maximum efforts to comply with GMP principles.

  9. Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on water erosion in northern Ethiopia

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    Rieder, Jakob; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Soil degradation in northern Ethiopia results from intensive land-use, massive deforestation in the past and missing conservation measures. Every year huge amounts of fertile soil are flushed away irreversibly into the rivers. In order to prevent soil erosion, conservation methods are necessary, because otherwise erosion may cause severe problems in the future, especially in the cases of nutrition supply and agricultural land-use. In this study, the effectiveness of stone bonds as a soil conservation method was evaluated. The assessments took part during the raining season from June to September 2013 in the Gumara - Maksegnit watershed in the Amhara region in northern Ethiopia. On farmland two erosion plots were constructed at a representative hillslope. The plots were 20m long, 3m wide and bordered with metal sheets. In order to compare the effectiveness of stone bunds on soil erosion, one plot was constructed with a stone bund on his toe slope the other plot was constructed without a stone bund. The investigated slope was selected that all characteristics like slope, crop cover, stone cover, soil aggregate size, etc... could be considered as similar. To evaluate the impact of stone bunds on soil erosion, the lateral and the longitudinal runoff from the plot with the stone bund were collected separately. Surface runoff and eroded sediment were collected at the downward end of the plot using a trough leading to a divider sampling 10% of the total runoff. The sample was then collected in a pond (1,8m long, 1m wide and 0,5m deep). During the investigated period soil loss from the untreated plot amounted to 23.0 t.ha-1, whereas only 13.5 t.ha-1 were measured spilling over the stone bunds. This corresponds to a decrease by 41%. Beside the erosion monitoring, stone and crop cover were analyzed regularly as well as surface roughness and soil texture.

  10. CONSEQUENCES OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN MEKELLE TOWN OF ETHIOPIA

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    MOHAMMAD SHAMIM

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one the fundamental elements in determining population growth and structure. People migrate to urban centers for many reasons among which economic factors are most important. However underlying these is also the desire for social and cultural change in a new environment. These days Migration of people from rural to urban center has become a common feature in developing countries. Ethiopia is one of the less developed and an agrarian countries where agriculture is the backbone of its economy. The development of agriculture is not sufficient and the productivity is deteriorating which fails to meet the basic needs of the society that is why the society is forced to migrate to urban areas. Mekelle the study area is also facing problems resulting from rural-urban migration. It is the capital of Tigray National Regional state in Ethiopia. It is located in the Northern part of the country at a distance of 870km from the capital Addis Ababa.Mekelle city has a total population of 215,546 of which 104,758 are male and 110,788 female. The total area of the city is 24.44 square km (CSA 2007.. The main objective of this paper is to find the existing problem facing Mekelle town due to large influx of migrants from rural areas. For this purpose both primary and secondary sources of data have been used. Findings of this study show that Most of the migrants were between the age of18-29, which accounts for nearly 60% of the total migrants in the city that there is high rate of unemployment, which is caused by scarcity of agricultural land and job in the rural areas. On the other hand in Mekelle town there is little economic and employment opportunity as compared with the number of influx of the migrants in the city. Employment opportunities are largely available in informal sector because majority of the migrants are unskilled.

  11. Spatial analysis of malaria incidence at the village level in areas with unstable transmission in Ethiopia

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    Hailemariam Afework T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia, accounting for over five million cases and thousands of deaths annually. The risks of morbidity and mortality associated with malaria are characterized by spatial and temporal variation across the country. This study examines the spatial and temporal patterns of malaria transmission at the local level and implements a risk mapping tool to aid in monitoring and disease control activities. Methods In this study, we examine the global and local patterns of malaria distribution in 543 villages in East Shoa, central Ethiopia using individual-level morbidity data collected from six laboratory and treatment centers between September 2002 and August 2006. Results Statistical analysis of malaria incidence by sex, age, and village through time reveal the presence of significant spatio-temporal variations. Poisson regression analysis shows a decrease in malaria incidence with increasing age. A significant difference in the malaria incidence density ratio (IDRs is detected in males but not in females. A significant decrease in the malaria IDRs with increasing age is captured by a quadratic model. Local spatial statistics reveals clustering or hot spots within a 5 and 10 km distance of most villages in the study area. In addition, there are temporal variations in malaria incidence. Conclusion Malaria incidence varies according to gender and age, with males age 5 and above showing a statistically higher incidence. Significant local clustering of malaria incidence occurs between pairs of villages within 1–10 km distance lags. Malaria incidence was higher in 2002–2003 than in other periods of observation. Malaria hot spots are displayed as risk maps that are useful for monitoring and spatial targeting of prevention and control measures against the disease.

  12. Prevalence of malaria infection in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia

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    Woyessa Adugna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, the Ethiopian government launched a massive expansion of the malaria prevention and control programme. The programme was aimed mainly at the reduction of malaria in populations living below 2,000 m above sea level. Global warming has been implicated in the increase in the prevalence of malaria in the highlands. However, there is still a paucity of information on the occurrence of malaria at higher altitudes. The objective of this study was to estimate malaria prevalence in highland areas of south-central Ethiopia, designated as the Butajira area. Methods Using a multi-stage sampling technique, 750 households were selected. All consenting family members were examined for malaria parasites in thick and thin blood smears. The assessment was repeated six times for two years (October 2008 to June 2010. Results In total, 19,207 persons were examined in the six surveys. From those tested, 178 slides were positive for malaria, of which 154 (86.5% were positive for Plasmodium vivax and 22 (12.4% for Plasmodium falciparum; the remaining two (1.1% showed mixed infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The incidence of malaria was higher after the main rainy season, both in lower lying and in highland areas. The incidence in the highlands was low and similar for all age groups, whereas in the lowlands, malaria occurred mostly in those of one to nine years of age. Conclusion This study documented a low prevalence of malaria that varied with season and altitudinal zone in a highland-fringe area of Ethiopia. Most of the malaria infections were attributable to Plasmodium vivax.

  13. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema elongatum and X. pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia

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    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872 Xiphinema elongatum and KP407873 Xiphinema pachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinema pachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinema elongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms. PMID:25878528

  14. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Lemma Seblewngel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score?>?5 was 55.8% (1,424. Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57, second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02 and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12 had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health.

  15. Deforestation and forest management in southern Ethiopia: investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas.

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    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management. PMID:24292396

  16. The new middle level health workers training in the Amhara regional state of Ethiopia: students' perspective

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    Yirga Hanna

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following health sector reform, Ethiopia started training new categories of health workers. This study addresses students' perspectives regarding their training and career plans. Methods A cross sectional questionnaire was administered to 145 students in the three schools of the Amhara regional state of Ethiopia. Results The majority of students were male (62% and originally from urban areas (76%. Job search was the most common reason for enrolling in the training for almost half (48% of the respondents, followed by a desire to help the sick (46%. Once trained, the majority (98% of graduates preferred to serve in the government sector and in rural health institutions (84%. Females were more willing to work in rural settings [?2 (df 1= 7.37; P = 0.007]. The majority (98% of students felt the training period should be extended. 12% of graduates lacked confidence in their competencies after completing the training. A substantial proportion of the respondents (29% did not feel the social science courses (Anthropology, Ecology and Psychology were useful. Conclusions This study demonstrates that mid-level health professional students are highly motivated, wish to address the health needs of rural communities, and are interested in professional development. However, students do not feel the training programs are fully addressing their needs. The students found that the duration of the training, the time for theory and practice, the availability of teaching materials, the course contents and their teachers were inadequate. This study suggests that the current training programs have serious inadequacies that need to be addressed.

  17. Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Alemu Abebe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examinations from the Kola Diba Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases reported between 2002–2011 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Additionally, any malaria intervention activities that had been taken to control malaria were collected using a well-prepared checklist from the study area. Results Within the last decade (2002–2011 a total of 59, 208 blood films were requested for malaria diagnosis in Kola Diba health center and 23,473 (39.6% microscopically confirmed malaria cases were reported in the town with a fluctuating trend. Regarding the identified plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75% and 25% of malaria morbidity, respectively. Malaria was reported in all age groups and both sexes, but the 15–44?year age group and males were more affected. Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trends in the area, the highest peak of malaria cases was reported during spring seasons. Conclusion Comparatively, after the introduction of the current malaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality by malaria is decreasing but malaria is still a major health problem and the deadly species P. falciparium is predominant. Therefore, control activities should be continued in a strengthened manner in the study area considering both P. falciparium and P. vivax.

  18. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinemaelongatum and X.pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia.

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    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872Xiphinemaelongatum and KP407873Xiphinemapachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinemapachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinemaelongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms. PMID:25878528

  19. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

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    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the integrated and complex nature of the systems.

  20. Peer counselors' role in supporting patients' adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda.

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    Gusdal, Annelie K; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlstrom, Rolf; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to explore peer counselors' work and their role in supporting patients' adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors, and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from the analysis. The first main category, peer counselors as facilitators of adherence, describes how peer counselors played an important role by acting as role models, raising awareness, and being visible in the community. They were also recognized for being close to the patients while acting as a bridge to the health system. They provided patients with an opportunity to individually talk to someone who was also living with HIV, who had a positive and life-affirming attitude about their situation, and were willing to share personal stories of hope when educating and counseling their patients. The second main category, benefits and challenges of peer counseling, deals with how peer counselors found reward in helping others while at the same time acknowledging their limitations and need of support and remuneration. Their role and function were not clearly defined within the health system and they received negligible financial and organizational support. While peer counseling is acknowledged as an essential vehicle for treatment success in ART support in sub-Saharan Africa, a formal recognition and regulation of their role should be defined. The issue of strategies for disclosure to support adherence, while avoiding or reducing stigma, also requires specific attention. We argue that the development and implementation of support to peer counselors are crucial in existing and future ART programs, but more research is needed to further explore factors that are important to sustain and strengthen the work of peer counselors. PMID:21347887