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Sample records for women textile workers

  1. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Xu, X.; Ding, M; Li, B.; Christiani, D C

    1994-01-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births...

  2. An ergonomic study of women workers in a woolen textile factory for identification of health-related problems

    Metgud D; Khatri Subhash; Mokashi M; Saha P

    2008-01-01

    The observational cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 100 women workers who volunteered, outlines their cardio-respiratory and musculo-skeletal profile before, during and at end of work. In addition, information on their health status in general was collected in advance. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant change in respiratory function. However, the musculo-skeletal problems were found to be abundantly present with pain in 91% of the subjects. Region-wise mapp...

  3. An ergonomic study of women workers in a woolen textile factory for identification of health-related problems

    Metgud D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The observational cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 100 women workers who volunteered, outlines their cardio-respiratory and musculo-skeletal profile before, during and at end of work. In addition, information on their health status in general was collected in advance. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant change in respiratory function. However, the musculo-skeletal problems were found to be abundantly present with pain in 91% of the subjects. Region-wise mapping of pain revealed that postural pain in low back was present in 47% while in neck was 19%. Scapular muscles on the right side were involved in stabilizing shoulder, which never went overhead. On the contrary, left shoulder was raised as high (>90 degrees in spinning action, while pulling thread. This muscle work involved trapezius, deltoid and triceps action concentrically in lifting and while coming to starting position slowly, eccentrically. There was no pause since the wheel continued to spin the thread continuously, unless a worker opted to stop the work. Accordingly, left wrist and hand were in holding contraction while the right wrist and hand holding the handle were also in a fixed position with wrist in flexion with supinated forearm. Though the overall job was light as per peak HR, there was pain due to fatigue and grip strength weakened by around 10%, at the end of the day′s work. In conclusion, pain and fatigue were found to be the main problems for women in the spinning section of the small-scale industry under this study. Women have to take up dual responsibility of a full-time job as well as the domestic work. It was considered that ergonomic factors such as provision of a backrest and frequent rest periods could remediate the musculo-skeletal symptoms.

  4. Health and safety aspects of textile workers from Solapur (India) textile industries

    Rahul B. Hiremath; Ruth Kattumuri; Bimlesh Kumar; Gurudevi R Hiremath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Textile sector in India plays an important role in the country's economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. Objectives: This paper focuses on health and safety aspects of textile workers in Solapur City (one of the key textile cluster) in the state of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A sample of 180 workers from the identified textile industries of Solapur city were assessed for their general physique, muscle tone, lung condition, and eye...

  5. The allergens causing contact sensitization in textile industry workers

    Özlem Su; Dilek Biyik Ozkaya; Serpil Pirmit; Hande Arda Ulusal; Nahide Onsun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Our aim was to determine the frequency of contact sensitization to textile materials and the most common textile allergens in patients who work in the textile industry and have been diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Materials and Methods: Fifty textile industry workers, who attended our outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of ACD, between October 2005-December 2009, were enrolled in this study. While 50 patients were tested with the Thin layer-Rapid-...

  6. Quality of Life Among Thai Workers in Textile Dyeing Factories

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a cross-sectional study was to investigate factors influencing the quality of life among Thai workers in textile dyeing factories. Samples included 205 Thai workers from five textile dyeing factories located in the suburban area of Bangkok in Thailand. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.70–0.91. The results revealed that the overall quality of life among workers was most likely betw...

  7. Another Look at Women Workers.

    Goodson, R.

    1986-01-01

    Women now comprise 30 percent of trade union membership worldwide. The International Labour Organisation's Workers' Education Branch is attempting to improve the status of women workers and increase their participation in union activities and labor education. (SK)

  8. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF RESP I RATORY CONDITION IN NON TEXTILE AND TEXTILE WORKERS

    Avinash P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among cotton - ginning workers. Byssinosis is a respiratory disease caused by inhalation of cotton dust for prolonged period of time. This is most frequently occurs in the cotton mill workers. The Aim of the study is 1. Determining the proportion of workers experiencing difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, chest pain, coughing, wheezing and phlegm. 2. To evaluate the pulmonary function test variation in textile workers with non - textile workers. The present study was conducted on three groups (I, II, III of male subjects of age ranging 30 to 40 yrs, 41 to 50 yrs & 51 to 60 yrs. And each of the group is divided again into textile workers & non - textile workers. A structured questionnaire enquiring about the respiratory health was administered to the employees. And our result shows the Byssinotic symptoms were too high in cotton mill workers than control group. The pulmonary function test shows a significant reduction in lung capacity, and the mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF 50%, were on negative side among cotton mill workers compared to control group and which is statistically significant.

  9. Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania

    Kuzmickiene, Irena; Stukonis, Mecys

    2007-01-01

    Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR) calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19), for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25). The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73). The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was <0.05): the SIR for the low, medium, high and very high level of cumulative exposure were 1.91 (95% CI 0.92–3.51), 1.30 (95% CI 0.52–2.69), 0.77 (95% CI 0.21–1.96), and 0.24 (95% CI 0.03–0.86) respectively. Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers. PMID:18021389

  10. Health and safety aspects of textile workers from Solapur (India textile industries

    Rahul B Hiremath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Textile sector in India plays an important role in the country's economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. Objectives: This paper focuses on health and safety aspects of textile workers in Solapur City (one of the key textile cluster in the state of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A sample of 180 workers from the identified textile industries of Solapur city were assessed for their general physique, muscle tone, lung condition, and eyesight using different techniques. The study aimed at developing a framework for understanding risks to textile workers resulting from lack of health and safety standards in companies. Results: Findings showed that most of the workers have been affected by respiratory problems, increase in muscle tone, eye problems and musculoskeletal problem. It has been also observed that job security or regular work impacts positively to the worker’s long term body health. However, there is an immediate need to adopt and implement measures in accordance with Indian Factories Act (OHSAS 18001/ILO-OSH 2001 which includes directions and procedures in respect of industrial installations, work environment and occupational health and safety guidelines.

  11. Exploitation or Empowerment? The Impact of Textile and Apparel Manufacturing on the Education of Women in Developing Countries.

    Ozsoz, Emre

    2014-01-01

    One of the most cited criticism for US fashion brands is their exploitation of workers in their overseas manufacturing facilities. This paper studies whether such textile and apparel production facilities (also known as “sweatshops”) lead to lower education and thus a lower socio-economic status for women working in them. Results suggest it is not as a clear-cut conclusion. Evidence suggests a higher ratio of women receive primary education as apparel and textile exports increase while at th...

  12. 1969 Handbook on Women Workers.

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This handbook on American women workers, a ready reference source, includes information that has become available since 1965. Part 1 deals with women in the labor force; Part 2 is concerned with the laws governing women's employment and status; Part 3 tells about the Interdepartmental Committee, the Citizens' Advisory Council, and the State…

  13. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  14. Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study

    Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the firs...

  15. The Korean Women's Trade Union: Mobilizing women workers

    Namhee Park

    2009-01-01

    On behalf of the Korean Women's Trade Union (KWTU) Namhee Park describes the achievements of the KWTU in mobilizing women workers. She describes the nine-year experience of KWTU as an important model to organize and empower the temporary women workers. Through the activities and struggles of KWTU, women workers, who were separate, scattered, easily replaced, lacking confidence to change bad working conditions, are now raising their voices, and exercising the collective influence to change the...

  16. Cancer mortality in a cohort of asbestos textile workers.

    Pira, E; Pelucchi, C; Buffoni, L; Palmas, A; Turbiglio, M; Negri, E; Piolatto, P G; La Vecchia, C

    2005-02-14

    A cohort of 889 men and 1077 women employed for at least 1 month between 1946 and 1984 by a former Italian leading asbestos (mainly textile) company, characterised by extremely heavy exposures often for short durations, was followed up to 1996, for a total of 53,024 person-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from factory personnel records, while vital status and causes of death were ascertained through municipality registers and local health units. We observed 222 cancer deaths compared with 116.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio, SMR=191). The highest ratios were found for pleural (SMR=4105), peritoneal (SMR=1817) and lung (SMR=282) cancers. We observed direct relationships with duration of employment for lung and peritoneal cancer, and with time since first employment for lung cancer and mesothelioma. Pleural cancer risk was independent from duration (SMR=3428 for employment or =10 years). Corresponding SMRs for lung cancer were 139, 251, 233 and 531. Nonsignificantly increased ratios were found for ovarian (SMR=261), laryngeal (SMR=238) and oro-pharyngeal (SMR=226) cancers. This study confirms and further quantifies the central role of latency in pleural mesothelioma and of cumulative exposure in lung cancer. PMID:15702125

  17. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin.

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV₁ and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin's economy. PMID:27618081

  18. Textile

    2008-01-01

    @@Established in 1988,the Sub-Council of Textile Industry,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT TEX)is named at the same time "Textile Industry Chamber of Commerce,China Chamber of International Commerce"and "Textile International Trade Promotion Center",which belongs to China National Textile&Apparel Council(CNTAC).

  19. Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    Zewdie Aderaw; Dagnew Engdaw; Takele Tadesse

    2011-01-01

    Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls). Self-reported data from workers...

  20. WOMEN DOMESTIC WORKERS IN URBAN INDIA

    Ramadevi .K; A. G. Khan

    2015-01-01

    Women workers in the informal economy consist of the most vulnerable working segments in society. They came from a marginalized population whose legal, economic and political status limit their ability to demand their rights. These women include domestic workers whose social and economic contributions to society are invisible to the public, the law and policies of the country. They face challenges because their work is not considered rural work so that their rights to minimum standards ...

  1. Social Organization of Textile – Trading Among Yoruba Women Textile Traders: Implication towards Entrepreneurial Development in Informal Economy in Nigeria

    Olabisi Yusuffm

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown how Yoruba women textile traders organize their textile enterprises, despite the vagaries of informal economy. However, in an informal economy, trade in every commodity has its own social organizational structures and politics. Scholars have argued that commodity needs to be separately studied so to detangle the various structures and politics associated with each commodity so that behavioural patterns that lead to entrepreneurial development can be determined. The focus of this...

  2. Investigation of prevalence of ventilatory defects of textile mill workers in the Yazd province

    Salary M; Barkhordary A; Zahedpooranaraky M

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of pulmonary problems, among a group of 1600 selected textile mill workers in the Yazd province. A standard questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was administered and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker. The results obtained were as follow: Obstructive ventilatory defect 15 cases (0.9 percent), restrictive ventilatory defect 16 cases (1 percent), combined obstructiv...

  3. Available Interventions for Prevention of Cotton Dust-Associated Lung Diseases Among Textile Workers.

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2016-08-01

    The authors reviewed literature on interventions for cotton dust-associated lung diseases among textile workers. Internet sources (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google and Google Scholar) were accessed and interventions were categorized into: Engineering or administrative controls, or personal protective equipment (PPE). Ten relevant articles were shortlisted, five related to engineering controls (pre-processing, bactericidal treatment of cotton, improved workplace design, machinery and dust control measures). Administrative controls may involve setting standards, environmental surveillance, periodic medical examinations, and workers training. Although specific guidelines are available regarding the use of PPEs, but there was little literature on their effectiveness. It was concluded that there is a dearth of literature regarding field-based assessment of interventions for control of cotton dust associated respiratory diseases and the available studies primarily focus on pre-processing of cotton. This review highlights the uncertainties that remain; and recommends several areas for future research on respiratory health of textile workers. PMID:27539764

  4. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF WOMEN CONSTRUCTION WORKERS

    Jyoti Kalyanrao; Sindhe Jaganath R

    2015-01-01

    Construction is dynamic industry which is attracted by many unskilled workers including women. In case of construction works, the contractors are exploiting and discriminating women workers. Hence, socio-economic conditions of the women construction workers are analyzed by collecting primary data through interview schedules from total 200 women construction workers in Kalaburagi city. As there is lower income and exploitation of these workers, it is suggested to form Self-Help Groups and g...

  5. Indoor off-body communication based on a textile multi-antenna system integrated in clothing for rescue workers

    Rogier, Hendrik; Hertleer, Carla; Vallozzi, Luigi; Van Torre, Patrick; Declercq, Frederick; Moeneclaey, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a collection of slides that deals with indoor off-body communication based on a textile multi-antenna system integrated in clothing for rescue workers. It discusses the design and performance of circular-polarized and dual-polarized textile antennas.

  6. Migrant and seasonal farm worker women.

    Lambert, M I

    1995-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farm worker women are part of a population whose health care needs are underserved. This article provides some definition of this population and reviews some of the health needs specific to them. The significant need for outreach to and assessment of this population is addressed. The significance of the nurse's role is addressed. The need for health care services being delivered in a culturally sensitive manner is discussed. Resources to assist health care providers in providing more effective interventions and referrals for care of migrant and seasonal farm worker women are identified. PMID:7782960

  7. Textiles.

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to the treatment alternatives for wastewater from the textile industries is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: a brief introduction on the implementation of the Best Available Techniques into textile industry, a review of the more promising treatment technologies distinguished into physico-chemical, biological and combined processes. PMID:27620097

  8. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  9. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

  10. An untold story in labor health: Korean women workers.

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Hyun-joo

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about labor health among Korean women workers, who have been left behind by the occupational safety and health institutions. In this article, we examine, from a gender perspective, the occupational safety and health (OSH) statistics, institutions, and the struggles of women workers, and discuss how to make a society where women workers become and stay healthy. The problems Korean women workers face have both universal and unique aspects. On the one hand, they tend to be exposed to "invisible hazards" and to disproportionately suffer from neo-liberal policies, as do women workers in other countries. On the other hand, Korean women workers are still positioned under the strong patriarchy found in pre-modern societies. The examples of struggle presented here come out of this condition; those struggles by women workers and support from concerned specialists have played an important role in overcoming patriarchy and protecting health rights for women workers. PMID:18184625

  11. Investigation of prevalence of ventilatory defects of textile mill workers in the Yazd province

    Salary M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of pulmonary problems, among a group of 1600 selected textile mill workers in the Yazd province. A standard questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was administered and forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were determined for each worker. The results obtained were as follow: Obstructive ventilatory defect 15 cases (0.9 percent, restrictive ventilatory defect 16 cases (1 percent, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory defect (Mix 53 cases (3.3 percent and normal 1516 cases (94.8 percent.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive respiratory conditions among textile industry workers in Zimbabwe, 2006

    Gerald Shambira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Workers in the cotton processing industries risk developing obstructive respiratory conditions due to prolonged exposure to cotton dust. We noted a tenfold increase in asthma among workers in a Textile Manufacturing Company. We determined the prevalence of respiratory obstructive conditions among workers in various sections. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional analytic study. Workers were randomly sampled and data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Respiratory function was assessed using spirometry and chest auscultation. A walk through survey was conducted and a checklist was used to capture hazards and control measures in the work place. RESULTS: A total of 194 workers participated. The prevalence of severe respiratory obstruction was 27.8%. It was 50.0% among the blowers, 35.3% in waste recovery, 32.5% in carders, 15.0% in spinners and 7.5% among weavers. The mean years of exposure between the affected and the non-affected were significantly different (T =2.20; p less than 0.05. Working in the blowing department was significantly associated with developing respiratory obstruction (OR=3.53; 95% CI= 1.61- 7.79 but working in the weaving department was significantly protective (OR 0.16; CI 0.04-0.59.Working in a department for less than 10 years was protective (OR =0.94; 95% CI= 0.48- 1.85, but not significant. CONCLUSION: Obstructive respiratory conditions are common among textile workers, with those in blowing and waste recovery sections being the most affected. We recommended worker rotation every six months, regular spirometric screening employment of a medical officer.

  13. Health Condition of Migrant Women Workers

    1998-01-01

    WITH the deepening of economic reform, an increasingly large surplus labor force is transforming urban areas. They are flocking to areas such as Guangdong Province, which has attracted the highest number of rural migrant workers in the country. In the first six months of 1996, its registered migrant labor force from other provinces reached 5.4 million; in Zhongshan City alone, it numbers more than 400,000, among whom 240,000 are women.

  14. A probabilistic approach to quantitatively assess the inhalation risk for airborne endotoxin in cotton textile workers

    Endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is a proinflammatory agent that induces local and systemic inflammatory responses in normal subjects which can contribute to the risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive lung diseases. A probabilistic approach linking models of exposure, internal dosimetry, and health effects were carried out to quantitatively assess the potential inhalation risk of airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants. Combining empirical data and modeling results, we show that the half-maximum effects of the endotoxin dose (ED50) were estimated to be 3.3 x 105 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-14.7 x 105) endotoxin units (EU) for the blood C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, 1.1 x 105 (95% CI: 0.6-1.7 x 105) EU for the blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count, and 1.5 x 105 (95% CI: 0.4-2.5 x 105) EU for the sputum PMN count. Our study offers a risk-management framework for discussing future establishment of limits for respiratory exposure to airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants.

  15. A probabilistic approach to quantitatively assess the inhalation risk for airborne endotoxin in cotton textile workers

    Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan, E-mail: vivianliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wei-Chun; Chio, Chia-Pin; Ju, Yun-Ru; Liao, Chung-Min [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is a proinflammatory agent that induces local and systemic inflammatory responses in normal subjects which can contribute to the risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive lung diseases. A probabilistic approach linking models of exposure, internal dosimetry, and health effects were carried out to quantitatively assess the potential inhalation risk of airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants. Combining empirical data and modeling results, we show that the half-maximum effects of the endotoxin dose (ED50) were estimated to be 3.3 x 10{sup 5} (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-14.7 x 10{sup 5}) endotoxin units (EU) for the blood C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, 1.1 x 10{sup 5} (95% CI: 0.6-1.7 x 10{sup 5}) EU for the blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count, and 1.5 x 10{sup 5} (95% CI: 0.4-2.5 x 10{sup 5}) EU for the sputum PMN count. Our study offers a risk-management framework for discussing future establishment of limits for respiratory exposure to airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants.

  16. Gender, Labour and Precarity in the South East European Periphery: the Case of Textile Workers in Štip

    Chiara Bonfiglioli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the living and working conditions of textile workers in the city of Štip (Macedonia. The textile industry was highly developed during socialist times, but underwent a process of decline after the Yugoslav break-up. While it still represents a relevant economic sector for post-socialist Macedonia, the textile industry is highly dependent on outsourced orders from Western Europe. Local workers’ living and labour conditions, therefore, are affected by the global ‘race to the bottom’ for production costs that is typical of the garment industry. On the basis of a series of interviews conducted in Skopje and Štip with workers and factory owners, the article argues that contemporary working conditions in the Macedonian textile industry are characterised by poor labour rights, gender discrimination and widespread precarity. In contrast to the current circumstances, working and living conditions during socialist times are positively remembered by workers, who claim that their social status and living standards have deteriorated in the course of the last twenty years. This narrative of precarity is also partially shared by local entrepreneurs, who emphasise the global and local obstacles that hinder the development of the textile industry in Macedonia.

  17. The added worker effect and the discouraged worker effect for married women in Australia

    Gong, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates both the added worker effect (the labour supply responses of women to their partners' job losses) and the discouraged worker effect (workers withdrawing from the labour market because of failed searches) for married women in Australia, with the emphasis on the former. We focus on the partners’ involuntary job loss experiences, and analyse women's labour market activities in the periods before and after their partners’ job loss. By estimating fixed effects labour supply...

  18. TANF workers' responses to battered women and the impact of brief worker training: what survivors report.

    Saunders, Daniel G; Holter, Mark C; Pahl, Lisa C; Tolman, Richard M; Kenna, Colleen E

    2005-02-01

    Battered women (n = 159) report on their experiences with their Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) case workers. Workers most often ask about physical harm, feelings of fear, and police involvement. They least often create a safety plan, give information about work exemptions, and ask whether the partner had a gun. Women's major reasons for not talking about abuse are that the worker did not ask and a fear of negative outcomes. Workers who attended 1-day training are more likely than untrained workers to discuss the women's fear and physical harm, to help develop a safety plan, and to be viewed as generally helpful. PMID:16043548

  19. Industrial Noise Pollution and its Impacts on Workers in the Textile Based Cottage Industries: An Empirical Study

    Aitbar Ali Abbasi; Hussain BuxMarri; Murlidhar Nebhwani

    2011-01-01

    This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum...

  20. Time of Change: 1983 Handbook on Women Workers. Bulletin 298.

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This handbook on women workers, revised from the 1975 edition, provides current data related to worklife experiences of women and their economic and legal status, especially during the last half of the 1970s. In addition, historical data provide a perspective on trends in the labor force, experiences of women, and the effects of legislation on…

  1. Women migrant workers' vulnerability to HIV infection in Hong Kong.

    Bandyopadhyay, M; Thomas, J

    2002-08-01

    Research on population mobility and HIV/AIDS risk among migrant populations is quite limited, and research on migrant women workers' vulnerability is further limited. Hong Kong, the Special Administrative Region of China, has currently about 200,000 women migrant workers working as domestic helps. This paper reports migrant women worker's access to AIDS-related health information and health care facilities, perceptions about vulnerability, and risk behaviour profile. Data was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire from a random sample of 2,010 women migrant workers. A majority of the migrant women workers (63.6%) have been living and working in Hong Kong for between 4-10 years. Fifty-four per cent of the respondents felt that being a female they were vulnerable to HIV infection. Overall, the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and its route of transmission is inadequate amongst the migrant women workers in Hong Kong. It appears that AIDS-related information education and communication needs of women migrants workers are not met by the current HIV prevention and care activities in Hong Kong. The study indicates that migrant women workers who experienced sexual violence (9%) in Hong Kong perceive themselves to be 'at risk' of HIV infection. Seventy per cent of the respondents reported that they have felt discriminated against in Hong Kong, of which 42% felt discriminated against in Hong Kong hospitals. Addressing discrimination in health care settings is an essential element of AIDS prevention. The discussion urges researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the vulnerability of migrant women workers. PMID:12204153

  2. A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City

    Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara, Sarita Mangukiya, Vimalkumar Tailor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and awareness about mode of transmission of HIV. This cross-sectional study of 250 textile workers reveal that 76.4% worker know that HIV can be transmitted by unsafe sexual route while 43.2% of workers does not know that HIV can be spread through reused injections. 43 worker currently had extra marital or premarital sexual relations and among them 48.8% had used condom during last such intercourse.

  3. Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    Zewdie Aderaw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls. Self-reported data from workers and document review from factories clinics were used to ascertain occupational injury status within one-year period. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level significance. Results. Young age (<30 years (AOR 1.90, 95% CI (1.22, 2.94, male gender (AOR 2.54, 95% CI (1.58, 4.07, health and safety training (AOR 1.85, 95% CI (1.17, 2.91, sleeping disturbance (AOR 1.99, 95% CI (1.30, 3.04, and job stress (AOR 2.25, 95% CI (1.15, 4.41 were significant predictors of occupation injury. Conclusion. Lack of training, sleeping disturbance, and job stress increased the risk of occupational injury. So, providing basic health and safety training with special emphasis on younger and male workers, reducing stressors, and providing sleep health education were recommended.

  4. Women, Work and Ethnic Identity: Personal Narratives and the Ethnic Enclave in the Textile City of Lowell, Massachusetts.

    Norkunas, Martha K.

    1987-01-01

    Many immigrant women from Europe settled in Lowell, Massachusetts and worked in textile mills. They lived in enclaves with little knowledge of others beyond their ethnic boundaries. Ethnic groups were in closer proximity in the work place, but the women were uneasy mingling with those outside of their culture. (VM)

  5. Women Workers: From Policy to Practice.

    Walsh, G.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses societal pressures, including the need for child care, that have resulted in the increased participation of women in the labor force. Outlines steps to increase women's participation in the labor movement and lists positive actions that some unions have already taken. (CH)

  6. Women's Worker Rights, Gender Equality, and Economic Justice

    Lisa A McGowan

    2012-01-01

    Lisa A. McGowan illustrates how women workers are bringing their feminism, demands for inclusiveness, new ways of building power, and caring practice into what is a hard-nosed and at times deeply conflicted battle to actualize a broad agenda of economic and labour rights. She shows how they contribute to the implementation of a new economic citizenship: a concept that integrates worker rights, social and economic justice, and gender equality.

  7. Interplay between economic empowerment and sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry

    Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth intervie...

  8. ABC of women workers' rights and gender equality

    International Labour Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    This concise and easy to read guidebook assists the layperson in understanding the legal frameworks and socio-economic developments surrounding gender equality in the world of work. Completely updated and revised, this guide incorporates important information relevant to women workers such as women in development, gender mainstreaming, the glass ceiling and much more. Each entry in the guide provides a clear, succinct definition and directs the reader to relevant laws, ILO conventions, and other topics for further research.

  9. Seeking Authenticity: Women and Learning in the Catholic Worker Movement

    Parrish, Marilyn McKinley; Taylor, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    Oral history interviews form the basis of an investigation into both the context and the everyday actions that contributed to the learning environment for women within the Catholic Worker Movement during the 1930s and 1940s. Findings reveal that narrators (a) were grounded in a variety of learning environments including family, Catholic Church,…

  10. Industrial Noise Pollution and its Impacts on Workers in the Textile Based Cottage Industries: An Empirical Study

    Aitbar Ali Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A and maximum as 109.8dB (A, which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems.

  11. Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile based cottage industries: an empirical study

    This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8< dB (A), which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems. (author)

  12. Jobs in Search of Workers. Preparing Students for Textile and Apparel Industry Jobs.

    Warfield, Carol L.; Barry, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    At an Alabama conference, state administrators, textile and apparel industry representatives, and community, junior, and technical college faculty identified the skill needs of the industry, existing college programs, and ways for industry and education to cooperate in meeting the labor force development requirements of the industry. (SK)

  13. Waiting time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among Danish workers in the textile, clothing, and footwear industries.

    Schaumburg, I; Boldsen, J L

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion. PMID:1496329

  14. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis. PMID:3232687

  15. Comparison of Health Behaviors Among Women Brothel Workers to Those of the General Population of Women in Denmark

    Pedersen, Pia Vivian; Arnfred, Anders; Algren, Maria Holst;

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on behavioral risk factors for illness among sex workers has been limited and based on mixed, poorly defined groups of sex workers. Our aim was to compare the health behaviors and weight of women brothel workers with women in the general population in Denmark. We used logistic...... regression analyses to compare data from 88 women working in brothels in 2010 with data from 3,225 women of similar age from the nationally representative Danish Health Survey 2010. Compared to Danish women, the prevalence of daily and heavy smoking was higher among brothel workers, but the prevalence of...... wanting to quit smoking was lower. The prevalence rates of exceeding the Danish high-risk level of alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and illicit drug use were higher among women brothel workers compared to Danish women. The prevalence of underweight was higher and overweight and obesity lower among...

  16. Associations of blood pressure and arterial compliance with occupational noise exposure in female workers of textile mill

    NI Chun-hui; ZHANG Yu-jun; CHEN Zhi-yong; ZHOU Yin; ZHOU Jian-wei; Pan Jing-jing; LIU Nian; WANG Jun; LIANG Chen-ke; ZHANG Zhi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Background There are few studies on the arterial compliance of noise exposure. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between hearing loss, blood pressure and arterial compliance of female workers who exposed to occupational noise in a textile mill.Methods The noise levels in the workplace were measured with a HS6288 sound level meter. Cumulated noise exposure (CNE) was calculated according to the noise intensity and the exposure period. Hearing ability and arterial compliance were measured in 618 noise exposed workers. The database was set up with EpiData and the statistical analysis was performed with SAS software 9.1.3.Results The noise levels were 80.1dB(A) to 113.5dB(A), of which the levels at 92.5% of the noise monitoring sites were over the national standard. The incidence of high frequency hearing loss (HFHL) was 24.43% and language frequency hearing impairment (LFHI) was 0.81%. The incidence of hypertension was 7.93%. Both systolic blood pressure (SBP)and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the high frequency hearing loss group were significantly higher than those in the normal hearing group (P<0.05), while C1 (large artery compliance) and C2 (small artery compliance) were significantly lower (P<0.05). The high frequency hearing threshold (HFHT) of the hypertension group was significantly higher than in the normal blood pressure group (P<0.05), while C1 and C2 were significantly lower (P<0.05). C1 and C2 had a negative correlation with HFHT, SBP, DBP, mean of arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP) and pulse rate (PR) (P<0.05).The multiple regression analyses showed that blood pressure and PR were the main influencing factors on C1 and C2.LFHT was an influence on C2 and HFHT on C1.Conclusions Textile mill noise pollution is very serious and has an obvious influence on worker's auditory function. The female workers with Iow artery compliance or with high blood pressure might be suffering from hearing loss; those with noise

  17. Interplay between economic empowerment and sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry.

    Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji

    2014-01-01

    Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of 'power to' and 'power within', on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants, the ability to make independent sexual decisions was also enhanced. These improvements were greeted enthusiastically, particularly by the female participants, given their previously disadvantaged status as a result of coming from rural patriarchal villages with gender-defined hegemonic notions of respectability. The findings also indicate that environmental factors and others, such as meagre salaries, encouraged some of the female workers to engage in transactional sex, while some of the male participants tended to increase their sexual relationships as a result of acquiring employment and income from the industry. It is the contention of the authors of this study that true empowerment requires both vital resources and individual and

  18. Women as Unpaid Family Workers, Their Health Risks and Problems

    Ulfiye Celikkalp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has one of the highest numbers of and #8220;unpaid family workers and #8221;(UFW among women. This study aimed that to determine the health problems and risks works as an UFW. Economic, social and cultural causes have been undermining the women and #8217;s status in the society and these before mentioned causes make women dependent. In addition to their biological burden, women are also exposed to diversified amount of health risks with the effects of their gender role in the society. This study determined that, being an UFW might increase the risk of psychosocial, chemical, physical, biological, ergonomic exposure among women and poor working conditions might cause additional health problems in physiological periods such as pregnancy and senescence; it might increase the risk of pathological exposures such as violence and harassment. This predicament blocks the health services accessing. It is possible to say the increased disease burden; unfulfilled health services needs and demands addition to the unsecured and unhealthy working conditions of the women as an UFW. Women have been experiencing a waste range of risk factors and falling ill as UFW. These women are unaware of these dangers and the ones around them are oblivious to these risks. In order to make the woman labor visible and perpetual, there must be made regulations and social educational studies. Being an UFW must be predefined as a line of business by the legal regulations and these women must benefit from all the rights and assurances in the working life. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 233-240

  19. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers.

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-17

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  20. Workers of the world, unite? : a study of global solidarity in the textile and garment industries

    2005-01-01

    Marxist theories have for a long time been grappling with the question of the international solidarity among workers. This thesis revises the argument put forward especially in neo-Marxist theories of imperialism about the conflicting interests between workers in core countries and in peripheral ones. It seeks to do so by analyzing the impact of the new regime of accumulation upon global trade unionism and thus solidarity. The twin issues of global trade unionism and solidarity are seen throu...

  1. Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers

    Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening (±S.E.) of 1.8 ±0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of 226Ra + 228Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment

  2. The Struggles of Women Industrial Workers To Improve Work Conditions in the Progressive Era.

    Barrett, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a lesson plan that addresses the working conditions endured by women in the Progressive Era and their struggles for womens rights in the workplace. Strives to demonstrate the similarities between the plights of the Progressive Era women to those of women workers in the 1990s. (CMK)

  3. Women Clerical Workers: Sex-Role Socialization, Work Attitudes, and Values.

    Pearson, Hilary M.; Kahn, Sharon E.

    1989-01-01

    Explored differences in sex-role socialization, personality orientation, and work attitudes and values of two groups of women clerical workers (N=91) who made their initial career choices in different historical time frames (the 1950s and 1970s). Results suggest that women clerical workers with differing sex-role socialization experiences may have…

  4. "Not Everything That the Bourgeois World Created Is Bad": Aesthetics and Politics in Women Workers' Education

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I look into the papers of Fannia Cohn, an immigrant labour organizer, who served the Education Department of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) between 1918 and 1962 and became one of its few women vice-presidents. As an internationally recognized figure in the history of workers' education, Cohn left a rich…

  5. Auxiliary Women Workers in the Legal Sector: Traversing Subjectivities and "Self" to Learn through Work

    Cavanagh, Jillian Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study is about female auxiliary workers in the Australian legal sector. The purpose is to explore the impact of subjectivities on women workers and how they negotiate their positionality to participate in meaningful work and learning. The study is grounded in theories of identity and socio-cultural perspectives of subjectivity, agentic action…

  6. Young women workers in export industries: the case of the semiconductor industry in southeast Asia.

    Eisold E

    1984-01-01

    Working paper on the working conditions of rural women workers, especially young workers, in the export oriented microelectronics electronics industry in South East Asia. Highlights occupational disease hazards associated with production processes, the need for a cheap labour supply, and the social and cultural factors motivating rural migration and employment. Notes resistance of companies to trade unionization. Bibliography and statistical tables.

  7. Facts on Women Workers of Minority Races. [Revised Version, May 1975].

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    Data provided in this study encompass topics such as: labor force participation, unemployment, marital status, women heads of families, working mothers, the children of working mothers, education, employment status of high school dropouts, occupations, full-time and full-year workers, and earnings. Minority workers (data refers to all races other…

  8. Worker role identity development of women with disabilities who experience domestic violence.

    Helfrich, Christine A; Badiani, Chaula; Simpson, Emily K

    2006-01-01

    This two-year longitudinal qualitative study explored worker role identity development of seven women with disabilities who experienced domestic violence. Yearly semi-structured interviews and monthly follow up calls elucidated the meaning of work in women's lives and the development of role identity during transitions from shelters to the community. Participants aged 26-47, were from two domestic violence shelters and an independent living center in the Midwestern United States. Data analyses, using constant comparative methods, a peer team and member checking, revealed that women's work roles remained in a state of identity diffusion. Identity diffusion in the worker role was delineated into three themes: role ambivalence, impact of disability, and relationship of the worker role to other roles. Study findings suggest a conflict between staff urgency to support women's return to work and economic self-sufficiency, and women's readiness to assume stronger work identities. PMID:17006009

  9. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309

  10. Women employed in textile sector in Turkey and their problems: (Istanbul-Adana-Denizli-Sivas and Tekirdağ Province samples

    Faruk Kocacık

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study is to determine the problems of women working in textile factories as parallel to the characteristics of female labor in Turkey and the factors affecting these problems. With this purpose, 564 women working in textile factories in Istanbul, Adana, Denizli, Tekirdağ and Sivas provinces were included in the study. It was determined according to the results obtained that factors affecting the problems women encounter in working life in a statistically significant way (P>0,25 are monthly income of the family, form of the family, number of members of the household, quality of the intra-family relationships, daily working hours, job satisfaction, relationships of the employee with managers and way of making decisions inside the family, respectively.

  11. Sex Object and Worker: Incompatible Images of Women

    Gutek, Barbara A.; Dunwoody, Verna

    1987-01-01

    The authors contend that the research on sex at work reveals an interesting paradox. At work, women are perceived as using sex to their advantage, yet in practice, they are hurt by sex at work. On the other hand, men who are perceived as concerned with business display more sexual behavior than women at work and may benefit from it. This paradox contains three components: actual behavior, the impacts of sex at work, and beliefs and stereotypes concerning women and men. This paper exa...

  12. Women Workers in India; Why So Few Among So Many?

    Sonali Das; Sonali Jain-Chandra; Kalpana Kochhar; Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of female labor force participation in India, against the backdrop of India having one of the lowest participation rates for women among peer countries. Using extensive Indian household survey data, we model the labor force participation choices of women, conditional on demographic characteristics and education, as well as looking at the influence of state-level labor market flexibility and other state policies. Our main finding is that a number of policy ...

  13. Change in worker/nonworker ratios for women.

    Duncan, B

    1979-11-01

    Effects of age, birth year, and observation year on work behavior are estimated by minimum logit chi-square regression, using data from Current Population Surveys. Most of the observation-year effect is captured by indicators of the business cycle. Further, a model which permits the cycle effects to vary by age is preferred over any additive model. The ratio for young women is most depressed relative to that for older women when times are "good". PMID:520638

  14. Women Workers: Subsistence in Eighteenth-century Buenos Aires

    Mª Selina Gutiérrez Aguilera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In colonial society of eighteenth-century Buenos Aires, there was a series of women who Traditional historiography has not given their rightful place: working women.This study aims to analyze and re-evaluation of these females, there also arises a series of networks of “gender solidarity” among women in need of help, in which working women had a role. This is taken as the standard source that rose in the city of Buenos Aires in 1744; it throws a lot of information to understand this complex phenomenon.There will be a thorough analysis of all models of working women the pattern shows, from different perspectives. These ladies are a very heterogeneous group, as work motivations are very different: for aggregate found, being slaves, etc. But at the same time is to keep track of paper, which together with the work effort of these played the charity and solidarity and support for female survival at this time.

  15. Comparison of the effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and ginseng in prevention of noise induced hearing loss in male textile workers

    Afsaneh Doosti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed the role of antioxidant agents in prevention of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC and ginseng on protection of NIHL in textile workers exposed to continuous noise in daily working. In this study, 48 participants were randomly allocated to three groups; Group I received NAC 1200 mg/day, Group II received ginseng 200 mg/day, and Group III (control group received no supplement. Pure tone audiometry and high frequency audiometry were performed preshift before and after 14 days (on day 15. Linear regression analysis results showed reduced noise-induced temporary threshold shift (TTS for NAC and ginseng groups at 4, 6 and 16 kHz (P < 0.001 in both ears. Furthermore, the protective effects were more prominent in NAC than ginseng. Our results show that NAC and ginseng can reduce noise induced TTS in workers exposed to occupational noise. Further studies are needed to prove antioxidants benefits in hearing conservation programs.

  16. Employment and environmental hazard: women workers and strategies of resistance in northern Thailand.

    Theobald, S

    1996-10-01

    This case study explores women's awareness of health and environmental dangers associated with employment in electronics factories in export processing zones (EPZs) in Thailand. The author illustrates with two examples of alliances between women and two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) the constraints of formal alliances. Data are obtained from participatory research conducted among women employed in the electronics industry in 1995 in the Northern Regional Industrial Estate (NRIE) in Lamphun in rural northern Thailand. This article discusses whether the emphasis on women's employment in EPZs really results in the greater good for women or whether it is exploitation. Women working in the NRIE were aware of the environmental hazards of their jobs. Many women workers migrated to EPZs from rural areas in order to create income to support a family or pay educational expenses. Another reason for seeking work at NRIE was to earn high wages for a limited period that could be used as capital to start their own business. Although women expressed interest in reducing the environmental hazards of their jobs, women put a stronger priority on not jeopardizing their employment status. Labor is in great supply, and women trouble-makers are likely to lose their jobs. The Center for the Advancement of Lanna Women (CALW) is an NGO that was set up by academics from Chiangmai University. CALW encourages women to speak out about health and working conditions, but workers did not know how far to go in protests before losing their jobs, and this undermined the alliance building and potential for change. It is urged that the Thai government acknowledge NGOs legally and open up dialogue. Civil participation can only be actualized, if there is formal recognition of the role of the state and its relationship to industry and industry's goals of profit. PMID:12347711

  17. Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.

    Werbner, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both. PMID:20879188

  18. Educated Immigrant Women Workers Doing Well with Change: Helping and Hindering Factors

    Koert, Emily; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the strategies that helped or hindered 10 immigrant women workers to do well with change that affected their work. A total of 182 incidents were extracted and grouped into 9 categories: personal beliefs/traits/values, taking action, skills/education, personal challenges, self-care, relationships/support,…

  19. Liberating Voices: Autobiographical Writing at the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers, 1921-1938.

    Hollis, Karyn

    1994-01-01

    Describes the genesis and history of the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers from 1921-38. Discovers in that school's methodology an antecedent to today's feminist and progressive pedagogies. Looks at the autobiographical narratives of participants to analyze the development of powerful critical voices. (HB)

  20. Women and reproductive loss: client-worker dialogues designed to break the silence.

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2008-10-01

    An estimated one in four women experiences a pregnancy loss during her lifetime. Despite the pervasiveness of fetal mortality reflected by these numbers, social workers rarely initiate dialogues regarding reproductive loss history. Reproductive loss experiences are interwoven with typical themes emerging in everyday social work practice, including mental health, self-conceptualization, social roles, and future parenting. To advance the knowledge of professional social workers regarding reproductive loss in women's lives, this article begins by synthesizing theory and empirical research related to reproductive loss and subsequent parenting. Then, four worker-initiated dialogues emerge as recommendations for integration into routine social work practice, expanding discussion of reproductive loss beyond a subset of specialized providers and into the multitude of practice settings. PMID:18853673

  1. Europe, women, and work: is the "adult worker" ideal achieved?

    Montanari, Ingalill

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of an overall increase in female labor force participation in Europe, this article presents a comparative analysis of the development of the extent and quality of women's participation in market work over the last 15 years in relation to selected sectoral and, with regard to the service sector, subsectoral sites in which women perform their market work. This is an explorative test of the utility of the theoretical perspective that focuses on the gendered division of total necessary work in society, production as well as reproduction, in order to explain gender inequality. Countries examined are the "old E.U." member states in various constellations. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, International Labor Organization, European Social Survey, and Luxembourg Income Study are used. PMID:19492624

  2. Inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal sessions in rural India.

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The District Level Household Survey (2007-08 was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%-72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver

  3. Women and Plant Closings: Unemployment, Reemployment, and Job Training Enrollment Following Dislocation.

    Smith, Suzanna D.; Price, Sharon J.

    Thousands of workers have been dislocated from jobs in the textile and apparel industries as a result of recessions and structural changes in the economy. Because of the large concentrations of female workers in these industries, women have been particularly vulnerable to dislocation. This study examined job dislocation and factors that affect…

  4. Textile Wastes.

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Disjunctures for Women and Frontline Workers: Implementation of the Family Violence Option

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Padgett, Julianna D.

    2005-01-01

    This research uses analysis of qualitative interviews with 10 battered welfare clients and 15 frontline welfare workers to examine the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform. States adopting the FVO agree to screen for domestic violence, refer identified victims to community resources, and waive program requirements that would endanger the women or with which they are unable to comply. The analyses find that none of the 10 clients in this study received these ...

  6. Participation of Married Women in the Labour Market and the 'Added Worker Effect' in Europe

    Prieto-Rodríguez, Juan; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, César

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate labour participation equations for married women for eleven European countries, using data from the European Community Household Panel corresponding to the years 1994, 1995 and 1996. The main objective of our study is to test whether the 'added worker effect' holds. From our results it can be concluded that the labour market participation of the married woman basically depends on her personal and family characteristics, her non-wage income and her potential earnings...

  7. How Are Women Served by the WIA Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs? Findings from Administrative Data

    Nan Maxwell; Heinrich Hock; Natalya Verbitsky-Savitz; Davin Reed

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics, service receipt, and short-term job outcomes of female customers leaving the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Adult and Dislocated Worker programs in 2009. It also assesses gender differences and local variation in service receipt and outcomes. Females were more likely than males to face employment barriers before enrolling in WIA programs. Along with geographic factors, these differences mostly explained why women received more extensive training and ...

  8. The added worker effect of married women in Greece during the Great Depression

    Giannakopoulos, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the wife’s labour supply responses to their husband’s job loss during the economic crisis in Greece. Using data from the Labour Force Survey (2007-2014) we explicitly identify the labour market transitions of both spouses within the household. We found that women whose husbands involuntarily separated from their jobs have increased their participation into the labour market, confirming the theoretical predictions of the added worker effect. However, this result is not ...

  9. Gender, migration and social change: the return of Filipino women migrant workers

    Sri Tharan, Caridad

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the consequences of feminised migration on migrant women workers, on their families and on the Philippine society as a whole. The continued dependence on migration and increasingly, women‘s migration, by the Philippine government to address unemployment on one hand, and by the Filipino families on the other hand, to secure employment and a better life, has led to social change: change in migrant women‘s sense of identity and personhood; restructuring of households and rede...

  10. Book review: cosmopolitan sex workers: women and migration in a global city

    Goodburn, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Cosmopolitan Sex Workers examines the phenomenon of non-trafficked women who migrate from one global city to another to perform paid sexual labour in Southeast Asia. Overall, this is a fascinating and extremely unusual book, writes Charlotte Goodburn, which brings together macro and micro perspectives to present a rich and nuanced picture of transnational sex work, based on extensive fieldwork in hard-to-access communities. Christine B. N. Chin‘s work should be of interest to all those studyi...

  11. Labor force participation of married women in Turkey: Is there an added or a discouraged worker effect?

    Karaoglan, Deniz; Okten, Cagla

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes married women's labor supply responses to their husbands' job loss (added worker effect) and worsening of unemployment conditions (discouraged worker effect). We find that married women whose husbands are unemployed or underemployed are more likely to participate in the labor force and work more hours using yearly cross-sectional data from Turkey for the 2000-2010 period. We also construct two year panels based on questions on previous year's labor market outcomes. Panel...

  12. Mediators and Moderators of the Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Intervention That Improved Dietary Outcomes in Pregnant Latino Women

    Shah, Megha K.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Choi, Hwajung; Schumann, Christina; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy is an opportune time to initiate diabetes prevention strategies for minority and underserved women, using culturally tailored interventions delivered by community health workers. A community-partnered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with pregnant Latino women resulted in significantly improved vegetable, fiber, added sugar,…

  13. WOMEN POST OFFICE WORKERS IN BRITAIN: THE LONG STRUGGLE FOR GENDER EQUALITY AND THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II

    Mark James Crowley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Britain during the Second World War, the Post Office constituted the single largest employer of women. Historically, the Post Office, like many other employers, had discriminated against women. During World War I, shortages of male labor had resulted in some opportunities for women at the Post Office, but the improvement had neither been comprehensive nor enduring. Unlike World War I, World War II, however, proved to a real turning point in the Post Office's personnel practices. By the end of the Second World War, while the Post Office still did not treat women workers completely equally (persisting, for instance, in gender-biased pay practices, management nevertheless had made strides in their treatment and perception of women workers. Post Office executives increasingly perceived women on the payroll not as temporary wartime employees, but as permanent employees, who would be just as essential peacetime as in war.

  14. [Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces. PMID:22031197

  15. Future Textiles

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Degn; Jensen, Hanne Troels Fusvad; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Magasinet Future Textiles samler resultaterne fra projektet Future Textiles, der markedsfører området intelligente tekstiler. I magasinet kan man læse om trends, drivkræfter, udfordringer samt få ideer til nye produkter inden for intelligente tekstiler. Områder som bæredygtighed og kundetilpasning...

  16. Textile Tectonics

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2008-01-01

    The meeting of architecture and textiles is a continuous but too often forgotten story of intimate exchange. However, the 2nd Ventulett Symposium hosted by the College of Architecture, within Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, was one of these precious moments celebrating such a marriage....... Organized by Lars Spuybroeck, principal of Nox, Rotterdam, and current Thomas W. Ventulett III distinguished chair of Architectural Design, the event was embracing the textile tectonics as a core topic, praising textiles as the key component of architecture, relying on Gottfried Semper’s understanding...... of the discipline. Inspiring time gathering some of the most exciting architects of the moment, Lars Spuybroeck, Mark Burry, Evan Douglis, Michael Hensel and Cecil Balmond were invited to discuss their understanding of tectonics. Full text available at http://textilefutures.co.uk/exchange/bin/view/TextileFutures/TextileTectonics...

  17. Pernicious anaemia in the textile industry.

    Roman, E.; Beral, V; Sanjose, S; Schilling, R; Watson, A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to examine whether the observed excess mortality from anaemia in textile and clothing workers was associated with any specific anaemia type or occupational activity. The design was a death certificate based case-control study of textile and clothing workers who died in England and Wales in the years surrounding the decennial censuses of 1961, 1971, and 1981. The main outcome measures were type of anaemia, place of residence, place of birth, and occupation. The frequency of t...

  18. Determinants of the Use of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women Workers in Urban Mexico

    Sergio R. Sánchez-Peña, PhD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis case-control study aimed to determine critical factors influencing the use of clinical breast examination and mammography among women workers in Monterrey, Mexico.MethodsWe determined case and control status from survey results. Cases were defined in accordance with the guidelines of the Official Mexican Standard as lack of at least one clinical breast examination during the past year by surveyed women. For women older than 40 years, cases were further defined as lack of at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years and, for women older than 50, lack of a mammogram in the previous year. Controls were defined as adherence by surveyed women to these guidelines. Participants (N = 306 clerks aged 18–60 provided information about their practices, knowledge, and perceptions regarding breast cancer screening. Factors identified by odds ratio analysis as significantly different between cases and controls were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.ResultsSurvey participants’ knowledge about the utility of breast self-examination (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–33.9, perception that the health care system has enough equipment and personnel for clinical breast examination (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–13.2, and perception that they have enough time to wait for and receive clinical breast examinations (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–5.8 significantly predisposed women to use screening services independent of years of formal education, number of pregnancies, number of living children, hours worked per week, and monthly family income.ConclusionPerception of organizational and structural factors played a significant role in screening use. Our findings have implications for the general population, provider practices, community interventions, and future development of strategies to increase use of screening services in similar locales.

  19. Textile Supercapacitors

    Jost, Kristy Alana

    Innovative and interdisciplinary solutions to wearable textile energy storage are explored as power sources for wearable electronics and smart textiles. Due to their long cycle life, non-toxic and inexpensive materials, supercapacitors were converted into textiles. Textile supercapacitors were developed using scalable fabrication methods including screen-printing, yarn making, and 3D computerized knitting. The electrode materials reported in this thesis undergo thorough electrochemical analysis, and are capable of storing up to 0.5 F/cm2 which is on par with conventionally solid supercapacitors (0.6 F/cm2). Capacitive yarns are capable of storing up to 37 mF/cm and are shown to be knittable on industrial knitting equipment. Both are some of the highest reported capacitance for all-carbon systems in the field. Yet both are the only systems composed of inexpensive and non-toxic activated carbon, the most commonly used electrode material used in supercapacitors, opposed to carbon nanotubes or graphene, which are typically more 10-100 times more expensive. However, all of the fabrication techniques reported here are also capable of incorporating a wide variety of materials, ultimately broadening the applications of textile energy storage as a whole. Fully machine knitted supercapacitors are also explored and electrochemically characterized in order to determine how the textile structure affects the capacitance. In conclusion, a wide variety of fabrication techniques for making textile supercapacitors were successfully explored.

  20. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Shamsuddin K; Rashidah S; Chee HL; Intan O

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Da...

  1. Textile Architecture

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

    2010-01-01

    Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles...... to create human habitation is not new. As Diether S. Hope phrases it, referring to tents: The history of development of humanity would be barely conceivable without free spanning textile membrane structures....

  2. [Women's organizations in India].

    Patel, V

    1985-01-01

    Community development projects in India during the 1950s and 60s viewed women as beneficiaries, but in fact few women benefitted measurably. The realization among field motivators of the necessity of improving the status of women prompted formation of women's organizations based on the participation of women in development. Non-government organizations and militant organizations have had greater success than government sponsored organizations in creation of employment for women. Some employment-generating organizations directed by high caste women or by men merely continue the oppression of poor women, providing abysmal pay for long hours, but a women's cooperative serving textile workers in Bombay has been successful because of the large number of unaccompanied males migrating to the city who desire reasonably priced home-cooked food. Other organizations have attempted to mobilize women to allow them to benefit from development. Struggles of women in the electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, mining, clothing, and other small scale industries have been supported by women's organizatinns. Rural women's organizations have forced village authorities to provide drinkig water and have demanded creation of employment for unemployed rural workers. The "Self-Employed Women's Association" supports negotiations of such women in their respective professions, and others struggling for women's rights have also undertaken development projects in health, education, and employment with a view to increasing women's independence. Some organizations provide child care services and others assist women in obtaining credit. Numerous cooperatives for food and housework have been formed but their ultimate effect on the distribution of power between castes and classes remains uncertain. Government sponsored cooperatives and women's organizations have benefitted mainly the intermediaries and have tended to use women as a source of cheap labor. A strategic plan for the emancipation of women

  3. Textiles Quotas

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai launched China’s first electronic trading platform for textiles export licenses yesterday, allowing firms to easily sell or buy quotas. The platform (www.e-tj.cn) is aimed at raising efficiency and curb-

  4. Textile Architecture

    Maurin, Bernard; Motro, René

    2013-01-01

    The basic idea for a textile architecture project originates during early meetings between the architect and the engineer. The morphologic richness of such projects is provided by the varying curvatures of shapes, in contradiction with a classical straight line and orthogonal architecture. However the rules of construction are quite different in terms of realisation and of mechanical behaviour: textile membranes are subjected to a pre-stress conferring them their rigidity, and a major objecti...

  5. Tailored lay health worker intervention improves breast cancer screening outcomes in non-adherent Korean-American women

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an intervention trial with a 6-month follow-up. Trained LHWs recruited 100 KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram during the pas...

  6. Women's Health Leadership to Enhance Community Health Workers as Change Agents.

    Ingram, Maia; Chang, Jean; Kunz, Susan; Piper, Rosie; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Strawder, Kay

    2016-05-01

    Objectives A community health worker (CHW) is a frontline public health worker who is a trusted member of and/or has an unusually close understanding of the community served. While natural leadership may incline individuals to the CHW profession, they do not always have skills to address broad social issues. We describe evaluation of the Women's Health Leadership Institute (WHLI), a 3-year training initiative to increase the capacity of CHWs as change agents. Methods Pre-/postquestionnaires measured the confidence of 254 participants in mastering WHLI leadership competencies. In-depth interviews with CHW participants 6 to 9 months after the training documented application of WHLI competencies in the community. A national CHW survey measured the extent to which WHLI graduates used leadership skills that resulted in concrete changes to benefit community members. Multivariate logistic regressions controlling for covariates compared WHLI graduates' leadership skills to the national sample. Results Participants reported statistically significant pre-/postimprovements in all competencies. Interviewees credited WHLI with increasing their capacity to listen to others, create partnerships, and initiate efforts to address community needs. Compared to a national CHW sample, WHLI participants were more likely to engage community members in attending public meetings and organizing events. These activities led to community members taking action on an issue and a concrete policy change. Conclusions Leadership training can increase the ability of experienced CHWs to address underlying issues related to community health across different types of organizational affiliations and job responsibilities. PMID:27440785

  7. Work Organization and Health Among Immigrant Women: Latina Manual Workers in North Carolina

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe work organization attributes for employed immigrant Latinas and determine associations of work organization with physical health, mental health, and health-related quality of life. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 319 employed Latinas in western North Carolina (2009–2011). Measures included job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, psychological demand), decision latitude (skill variety, job control), support (supervisor control, safety climate), musculoskeletal symptoms, mental health (depressive symptoms), and mental (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) health-related quality of life. Results. Three fifths reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean scores for depression, MCS, and PCS were 6.2 (SE = 0.2), 38.3 (SE = 0.5), and 42.8 (SE = 0.3), respectively. Greater job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, greater psychological demand) were associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms and worse MCS. Less decision latitude (lower skill variety, job control) was associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms. Greater support (supervisor’s power and safety climate) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better MCS. Conclusions. Work organization should be considered to improve occupational health of vulnerable women workers. Additional research should delineate the links between work organization and health among vulnerable workers. PMID:24432938

  8. Survival times of women radium dial workers first exposed before 1930

    Life table methods were applied to survival data on U.S. women radium dial workers in order to compare observed and expected deaths as a function of time after exposure to radium. The study population consisted of 1235 workers employed in the industry before 1930 for whom age and year of death, withdrawal or loss from the study were known. Expected deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for U.S. white females. The closing year for analysis was 1976, so observation times of 45 to 60 years were possible. For all causes, 529 deaths before age 85 were observed versus 461 expected, and the cumulative survival of the population was significantly less than expected at 10 and more years after first employment. Estimates were made of the net survival probabilities after elimination of risk due to the well-known radium-related malignancies, i.e. bone sarcomas and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and the mastoid air cells. There were 455 observed deaths from other causes versus 460 expected, and there was no significant difference between observed and expected cumulative net survival at one-year intervals from zero to 59 years after first employment. These findings indicate that only the known radium-related malignancies contributed significantly to life shortening of the exposed population as a whole, but the presence of other radium-related causes of death may yet be detectable by examination of specific risks as a function of dose. (author)

  9. Ergonomic evaluation of conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking with women workers.

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Sharma, D K

    2012-01-01

    Conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking were evaluated ergonomically on an experiment conducted for 20 minute with women workers. The working heart rate, energy expenditure rate, total cardiac cost of work and physiological cost of work with conventional tools varied from 93-102 beats.min-1, 6-7.5 kJ.min-1, 285-470 beats, 14 -23 beats.min-1 while with machine varied from 96-105 beats.min-1, 6.5-8 kJ.min-1 , 336-540 beats, 16-27 beats.min-1 respectively. OWAS score for conventional method was 2 indicating corrective measures in near future while with machine was 1 indicating no corrective measures. Result of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire revealed that subjects complaint of pain in back, neck, right shoulder and right hand due to unnatural body posture and repetitive movement with hand tool. Moreover pricking was carried out in improper lighting conditions (200-300 lux) resulting into finger injuries from sharp edges of hand tool, whereas with machine no such problems were observed. Output with machine increased thrice than hand pricking in a given time. Machine was found useful in terms of saving time, increased productivity, enhanced safety and comfort as involved improved posture, was easy to handle and operate, thus increasing efficiency of the worker leading to better quality of life. PMID:22316889

  10. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  11. Knowledge and practice of breast self examination and Pap smear screening among a group of electronics women workers.

    Chee, H L; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Zainiyah, S Y

    2003-08-01

    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear. PMID:14750370

  12. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers

    Rhonda C. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1 screening and referral, (2 facilitators to referral, (3 barriers to referral, (4 culture and language, (5 life events, and (6 support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services.

  13. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers.

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Mogul, Marjie; Newman, Deena; Coyne, James C

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1) screening and referral, (2) facilitators to referral, (3) barriers to referral, (4) culture and language, (5) life events, and (6) support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services. PMID:21603131

  14. Exploring Women's Experiences with Job Loss and Community College Retraining: What Do I Do Now?

    Hodges, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    As the United States economy moves away from manufacturing, members of this workforce are facing an uncertain future. In this study, an interpretive methodological framework is used to explore women's experiences with textile manufacturing job loss, and subsequent retraining at a local community college. Narratives of four displaced workers and…

  15. International Consultation on Micro-Chip Technology: Its Impact on the Lives of Women Workers. Summary of Proceedings (Manila, Philippines, October 5-15, 1986).

    Participatory Research Group, Toronto (Ontario).

    An international consultation was attended by 40 women workers, educators, and organizers who work directly with women affected by the new "global assembly line" that has developed as a part of the microchip technology industry. The women, who represented 12 countries, shared information and organizing experiences and worked to consolidate an…

  16. [Maquiladoras and women on the US-Mexican border: a benefit or a detriment to occupational health?].

    Jasis, M; Guendelman, S

    1993-01-01

    This article examines the impact of work conditions on the health of women working in assembly plants known as "maquiladoras". A sample of 480 women residing in Tijuana and with similar low socioeconomic conditions was studied. The sample included 120 electronics workers, 120 textile workers, 120 service workers and 120 women with no history of labor-force participation. These groups were compared on physical and psychosocial health outcomes, including depression, nervousness, functional impediments and sense of control over life. Data were obtained from interviews conducted in the communities where workers reside. Although high levels of depression and a low sense of control over life was observed, maquiladora workers--particularly in the electronics industry--suffered less functional impediments and nervousness than service workers. However, maquiladora workers were at higher risk of delivering infants of low birthweight. PMID:8128301

  17. Community Health Worker Perspectives on Recruitment and Retention of Recent Immigrant Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Choi, Eunsuk; Heo, Grace Jeongim; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the recruitment and retention strategies used by community health workers who enrolled Korean Americans in a church-based, randomized trial to promote mammogram and Papanicolaou tests and retained them for 6 months. We conducted 4 focus groups with 23 community health workers. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Themes were identified in relation to recruitment: personal networks, formal networks at churches, building on trust and respect, and facilitating a nonthreatening environment. Themes were identified for retention: trust and peer support. Qualified, well-trained community health workers can recruit and retain hard-to-reach immigrant women in a randomized trial by using multiple culturally sensitive strategies. PMID:26605955

  18. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    Priya Mannava

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. RESULTS: From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education. CONCLUSIONS: We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  19. Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers and sex workers in China

    Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Results Of the 1696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32–4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16–1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28–2.06) among FSWs. Discussion Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. PMID:22389186

  20. Keeping Them in Their Place: Migrant Women Workers in Spain’s Strawberry Industry

    Susan E. Mannon; Petrzelka, Peggy; Glass, Christy M.; Radel, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The idea of guest-worker migration has resurfaced in recent decades as the global agri-food industry has confronted a shortage of workers willing to take low-wage and often seasonal jobs. To date, there have been very few cases studies of these twenty-first century guest-worker programs and their role in managing contemporary labor migration. This article examines guest-worker migration in the strawberry industry of southern Spain. In this case, guest-worker programs at- tempt to regulate and...

  1. Between the empowered self and the social costs: Arab abused women's perceptions of their relationship with social workers in community health clinics in Israel.

    Buchbinder, Eli; Barakat, Rouzin

    2014-01-01

    Abused women seek help from medicine services extensively. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 married Arab-Israeli abused women about their relationships with social workers in community health clinics. Analysis reveals that women's evaluation of the impact of encounters with social workers is bipolar. On one pole are the difficulties and stressors derived from the cultural limitations that are placed on their ability to bring changes. On the other pole are the benefits--awareness in coping with repressive social powers and empowerment as competent choosers. The discussion elaborates the conflicts and paradoxes inherent in the nature of the interventions with abused women in a collectivistic culture. PMID:24717186

  2. TEXTILE SALVAGE

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    Readers are reminded that Geneva's agency for salvaging used clothing, other textiles and old shoes (Coordination d'oeuvres d'entraide pour la récupération de vêtements, textiles et chaussures usagés dans le canton de Genève) has a container in the car park outside CERN's Meyrin site. In 2001, 1000 tonnes of such items were collected in the Canton of Geneva (as compared with 840 tonnes in 2000), of which 4460 kg came from the container outside the Meyrin site. The operation's organisers (Caritas, Centre Social Protestant, the Geneva Section of the Swiss Red Cross, Terre des Hommes, the Geneva branch of Terre des Hommes Suisse and Emmaüs, Geneva) would like to thank all those who have donated clothing or otherwise supported their campaign. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848 http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  3. Textile Technology Analysis Lab

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textile Analysis Labis built for evaluating and characterizing the physical properties of an array of textile materials, but specifically those used in aircrew...

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China

    Cai, Yong; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph TF; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, transgender women sex workers have a high prevalence of HIV and condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients (CRAIMC). We investigated the prevalence of CRAIMC and factors associated with CRAIMC among transgender women sex workers in China. Methods In 2014, we anonymously interviewed 220 transgender women sex workers face to face in Shenyang, China. Those who self-reported as HIV negative or as having unknown HIV serostatus were invited to take up free, anonymous HIV rapid testing (n=183); 90 did so. Using CRAIMC in the last month as the dependent variable, three types of associated factors were investigated, in addition to background factors: feminizing medical interventions, sex work and perceptions related to condom use. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Of the participants, 16.8% self-reported as HIV positive and 9.1% were detected to be HIV positive through free HIV testing; 26.8% had had CRAIMC in the last month, 45.5% had performed sex work in other Chinese cities (last year), and 23.2% had had condomless anal intercourse with men who were non-clients. In the adjusted analysis, significant factors associated with CRAIMC (last month) included the following: 1) any feminizing medical intervention performed (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.22); 2) sex-work-related factors, including recruitment of male clients most often at hotels (AOR: 5.02) and charge per episode of transactional sex (201 to 400 RMB, AOR: 0.27; reference group: ≤100 RMB); and 3) perceptions related to condom use, including perceived transgender identity's impact on condomless sex such as wearing feminine attire, concern about exposing their status as a transgender woman to male clients (AOR: 1.20) and perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients (AOR: 0.56). Perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients fully mediated the association between perceived transgender identity's impact

  5. Hospital Textiles, Are They a Possible Vehicle for Healthcare-Associated Infections?

    Sabina Fijan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Textiles are a common material in healthcare facilities; therefore it is important that they do not pose as a vehicle for the transfer of pathogens to patients or hospital workers. During the course of use hospital textiles become contaminated and laundering is necessary. Laundering of healthcare textiles is most commonly adequate, but in some instances, due to inappropriate disinfection or subsequent recontamination, the textiles may become a contaminated inanimate surface with the possibility to transfer pathogens. In this review we searched the published literature in order to answer four review questions: (1 Are there any reports on the survival of microorganisms on hospital textiles after laundering? (2 Are there any reports that indicate the presence of microorganisms on hospital textiles during use? (3 Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection of patients? (4 Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection for healthcare workers?

  6. Entangled inequalities, divergent struggles: migration and the Argentine textile industry

    Sergio Caggiano

    2014-01-01

    Despite the economic recovery that followed the 2001-2002 crisis in Argentina, sectors that rely on a significant migrant worker presence, such as textiles, have maintained and consolidated previously-existing forms of exploitation and discrimination. In this context, trade unions and other civil society actors are fighting against the inequalities that affect Bolivian migrant workers in the textile industry in Buenos Aires and La Plata. This article seeks to understand some of the limitation...

  7. African Trade Unions and the Challenge of Organizing Women Workers in the Unorganized Sectors.

    Date-Bah, Eugenia

    1993-01-01

    Democratization should be considered in terms of equal representation of women and men in government as well as in the relevant bodies and decision-making organs of society. Trade unions should be perceived and assessed in relation to the participation of women within their structures and the reflection of women's concerns in their policies and…

  8. Do women giving in more in industrial relations? Social support and giving in behaviour among male and female worker representatives

    Elgoibar, Patricia; Munduate, Lourdes; Medina, Francisco J.; Euwema, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An important role of the shop steward is negotiating with management on behalf of the employees. Acting as a mediator between management and their co-workers, they find themselves often in a challenging position, and in many European countries it becomes more and more difficult to attract and maintain competent shop stewards. In this, it is remarkable, that still only a small percentage of shop stewards appear to be female, compared with men. Do women also have a different idea on the role...

  9. Is Being a Health-care Worker a Risk Factor for Women's Reproductive System?

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposures to workplace hazards in health-care workers can affect on their health including the reproductive system. Some exposures cause reproductive system disorders. Objective of this study was to compare reproductive system disorders between hospital personnel who work in clinical and administrative setting. Methods: This is a historical cohort study on clinical and administrative workers of hospitals. The study tool was flexible interview and questionnaire. Pr...

  10. Predictors of female worker attitudes towards menstruation and the provision of help to institutionalized women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan.

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-yann J; Pu, Cheng-yun; Lan, Chung-Fu

    2008-08-01

    No previous research has examined the importance of both individual and environmental factors for predicting caregivers' menstrual attitudes. To explore the predictors of female caregivers' attitudes towards menstruation and the help they give to women with intellectual disabilities, we conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey which was completed by 725 female workers from 12 institutions in Taiwan. The Menstrual Attitudes Questionnaire (MAQ) and a structured questionnaire were used. Logistic regression analysis revealed that individual characteristics such as age and education were significantly associated with menstrual attitudes of female caregivers working with institutionalized women with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, the environmental context, such as the frequency of discussions with colleagues, training in menstrual management care and the level of difficulty when giving help in menstruation management, was important for improving caregivers' menstrual attitudes. This study contributes to the existing literature by determining both individual and environmental predictors of caregivers' menstrual attitudes. PMID:18550241

  11. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    2010-01-01

    "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened, held by China National Textile and Apparel Council, 23 cities and towns were awarded as China’s Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District. By far, China’s textile industrial clusters have grown

  12. Tear secretion dysfunction among women workers engaged in light-on tests in the TFT-LCD industry

    Sheen Jiunn-Woei

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display industry is rapidly growing in Taiwan and many other countries. A large number of workers, mainly women, are employed in the light-on test process to detect the defects of products. At the light-on test workstation, the operator is generally exposed to low humidity (in the clean room environment, flashing light, and low ambient illumination for long working hours. Many workers complained about eye discomfort, and therefore we conducted a study to evaluate the tear secretion function of light-on test workers of a TFT-LCD company. Methods We recruited workers engaged in light-on tests in the company during their periodical health examination. In addition to a questionnaire survey of demographic characteristics and ophthalmic symptoms, we evaluated the tear secretion function of both eyes of each participant using the Schirmer's lacrimal basal secretion test with anaesthesia. A participant with one or both eyes yielding abnormal test results was defined as a case of tear secretion dysfunction. Results During the study period, a total of 371 light-on test workers received the health examination at the clinic of the park, and 52 of them were excluded due to having ophthalmic diseases and other systemic diseases that may affect ophthalmic function. All the remaining 319 qualified workers agreed to participate in this study, and they were all females working by 4-shift rotations. The average age was 24.2 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8, and the average employment duration was 13.6 months (SD = 5.7. Among the 11 ophthalmic symptoms evaluated, eye dryness was the most prevalent (prevalence = 43.3%. In addition, the prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in at least one eye was 40.1% (128 cases, and contact lens users had an odds ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval = 1.02–2.94 in comparison with non-contact lens users. Comparing the Schirmer's test results of

  13. Unionization of women workers in different industrial sectors in South Africa.

    O'Regan C; Thompson, B.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the situation of women in the membership and leadership of the trade unions in South Africa, especially those affiliated to the major trade union federation, Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). Includes a brief historical description of the events of the 1980s; a description of the South African economy and its sectors; a discussion of the demographic information concerning women in the workforce; a discussion of the role of women in unions; and an analysis of a case-stu...

  14. Mulheres enfrentando as violências: a voz dos operadores sociais Women facing violence: the voice of social workers

    Adriana Dewes Presser

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de esclarecer a rota crítica de mulheres do município de São Leopoldo no enfrentamento da violência, por meio da análise das práticas discursivas de um grupo de trabalhadores de instituições sociais. Realizou-se uma seleção intencional de instituições dos setores saúde, educação, policial, jurídico-legal e comunitário e foram entrevistados dois representantes de cada setor. A partir das práticas discursivas dos operadores, percebemos que a violência praticada contra as mulheres é um problema de elevada frequência e baixa resolubilidade institucional. No processo da rota crítica - o caminho percorrido pelas mulheres para romper com a violência - muitas não recebem o acolhimento nos serviços. Apesar da criação do Centro de Referência para Mulheres, ainda há muito a ser feito para efetivar as políticas públicas. Os depoimentos dos trabalhadores sociais foram enunciados a partir da posição institucional que ocupam, e, nesses discursos, eles minimizaram os pedidos de ajuda das mulheres, culpabilizando-as. Os operadores ligados às organizações comunitárias foram os mais solidários e compreensivos. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que não há uma única rota ou itinerário ideal; pelo contrário, a rota percorrida pelas mulheres é longa, dolorosa e nem sempre eficiente. Nem todas as rotas empreendidas pelas mulheres em São Leopoldo puderam ser conhecidas, porém o fato de outros serviços estarem sendo disponibilizados na cidade, certamente possibilitará o traçado de outros caminhos.This article investigates the critical path followed by women facing violence in the city of São Leopoldo through the analysis of discursive practices of a group of workers from social institutions. An intentional selection of institutions was carried out, including the following areas: health, education, police force, law and community. Two representatives of each sector were interviewed. Based on the

  15. Towards 'reflexive epidemiology': Conflation of cisgender male and transgender women sex workers and implications for global understandings of HIV prevalence.

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Reisner, Sari L; Clark, Jesse L; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has had a widespread impact on global scientific and cultural discourses related to gender, sexuality, and identity. 'Male sex workers' have been identified as a 'key population' in the global HIV epidemic; however, there are methodological and conceptual challenges for defining inclusion and exclusion of transgender women within this group. To assess these potential implications, this study employs self-critique and reflection to grapple with the empiric and conceptual implications of shifting understandings of sexuality and gender within the externally re-created etic category of 'MSM' and 'transgender women' in epidemiologic HIV research. We conducted a sensitivity analysis of our previously published meta-analysis which aimed to identify the scope of peer-reviewed articles assessing HIV prevalence among male sex workers globally between 2004 and 2013. The inclusion of four studies previously excluded due to non-differentiation of cisgender male from transgender women participants (studies from Spain, Thailand, India, and Brazil: 421 total participants) increased the overall estimate of global HIV prevalence among 'men' who engage in sex work from 10.5% (95% CI 9.4-11.5%) to 10.8% (95% CI 9.8-11.8%). The combination of social science critique with empiric epidemiologic analysis represents a first step in defining and operationalising 'reflexive epidemiology'. Grounded in the context of sex work and HIV prevention, this paper highlights the multiplicity of genders and sexualities across a range of social and cultural settings, limitations of existing categories (i.e. 'MSM', 'transgender'), and their global implications for epidemiologic estimates of HIV prevalence. PMID:27173599

  16. Safeguarding the Legitimate Rights and Special Interests of Women Workers%切实维护女职工合法权益和特殊利益

    郑余敏

    2013-01-01

    This article mainly discusses how to safeguard the legitimate rights and special interests of women workers, and puts forward some suggestions, aiming at protecting women workers' physical and mental health and promoting social harmony and stability.%  本文主要对维护广大女职工的合法权益和特殊利益进行了探讨,并提出了几点意见和建议,旨在保障女职工身心健康,促进社会和谐稳定。

  17. Textile Index Monitor

    2010-01-01

    Textile Index Monitor is a new column that delivers a textile-specific price index profile in weeks that are bygone when this monthly magazine comes to your hand. China Textile City is the name of the world-largest yarn&fabric marketplace in the famous town of Keqiao in Zhejiang,China.Several years ago,Ministry of Commerce(MOC)set up a national price index centre for textiles-specific category,China Textile City takes the leading role in publishing its analytical report of textile price index on weekly,monthly,quarterly and yearly basis,making it possible for Keqiao or its textile city to be the weathercock for textiles market trend in China and in the world as well.From this issue,a new column is given to cover the gist&feeds of the latest developments&gradients in this market barometer.

  18. Tailored lay health worker intervention improves breast cancer screening outcomes in non-adherent Korean-American women.

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H; Kim, M T; Kim, K B

    2009-04-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an intervention trial with a 6-month follow-up. Trained LHWs recruited 100 KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram during the past 2 years. Ninety-three completed follow-up questionnaires. A 120-min, in-class education combined with LHW follow-up counseling and navigation assistance through the health care system was provided. Rates of breast cancer screening behaviors significantly increased at 6 months (P < 0.001); changes between pre- and post-intervention were 31.9% for mammography, 23% for clinical breast examination and 36.2% for breast self-examination. Modesty toward screening significantly decreased over time, but we did not find any significant differences in breast cancer knowledge and beliefs before and after the intervention. Results support the efficacy of this neighborhood-based, culturally sensitive intervention. Further research should seek to replicate these findings and to incorporate more self-care skills such as health literacy when designing an intervention program for linguistically and culturally isolated immigrant women. PMID:18463411

  19. The benefit of textile design research to the textile designer.

    Montgomery, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    If Textile Designers do not embark on and utilise textile research we will be left in a ‘sole less’ vacuum. The following article aims to show the benefit of textile design research to the textile designer. Textile design is increasingly complex, and influenced by a number of factors such as ethical textiles, sustainability, fast versus slow fashion, new digital technology and science. It is therefore necessary for increased research by the textile designer into these areas in order to u...

  20. Textiles and Apparel Design.

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on textiles and apparel design. The units cover: (1) fiber/fiber characteristics and textile development (including fabrication and dyeing, printing, and finishing); (2) textile and apparel design industries (including their history and…

  1. Textile Products from CTMTC

    2007-01-01

    @@ CTMTC http:// www.ctmtc.com,apart from the importer and exporter of textile machinery, is also the larget professional trading company in the field of Chinese Textile Machinery and it is also a Professional company with the fastest developing speed in textile, raw material and apparel.

  2. CHINA TEXTILE TEST

    2008-01-01

    China’s textile industry faces difficult times,but can survive them and create a brighter future. Sun Ruizhe,Vice Chairman of the China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC),shared his views with Belling Review while analysing the difficulties China’s textile industry is now confronted with.

  3. Risky health environments: women sex workers' struggles to find safe, secure and non-exploitative housing in Canada's poorest postal code.

    Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

    2011-12-01

    This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women's agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated 'enabling environments' where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public

  4. Why Are Racial And Ethnic Wage Gaps Larger For Men Than For Women? Exploring The Role Of Segregation Using The New Worker-Establishment Characteristics Database

    Kimberly Bayard; Judith Hellerstein; David Neumark; Troske, Kenneth R

    1999-01-01

    We examine the possible sources of the larger racial and ethnic wage gaps for men than for women in the U.S. Specifically, using a newly created employer-employee matched data set containing workers in essentially all occupations, industries, and regions, we examine whether these wage differences can be accounted for by differences between men and women in the patterns of racial and ethnic segregation within occupation, industry, establishments and occupation-establishment cells. To the best ...

  5. Biovars and Serotypes of Ureaplasma Urealyticum among Chinese Women Undergoing Routine Gynecologic Exam, Women with Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Female Sex Workers

    任翊; 赵春慧; 朱学骏

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the distribution pattern ofbiovars and serotypes of Ureaplasma urealyticum in normalhealthy women, sexually transmitted infections clinic clients,and in sex workers. Methods: We cultured cervical swabs taken from 261physical check-up clients, 599 STI clinic outpatients and 98 sexworkers using commercial selective medium. Some positivecultures were further biotyped and serotyped by PCR. Results: (1) U. urealyticum is more commonly isolated in sexworkers (90.8%) than in the physical check-up group (60.9%)or the STI outpatient group (61.3%) (P < 0.001). (2) Biovar 1of U. urealyticum (95.0%), especially single infection ofserotype 1, 3, and 6 of biovar 1, is commonly found in healthywomen. (3) Biovar 2 infection of U. urealyticum is moreprevalent in sex workers (28.1%) and STI outpatients group(26.6%) than that in the physical check-up group (4.9%) (P <0.001). (4) Mixed infection caused by more than one serotypeof U. urealyticum increased from physical check-up group(8.6%) to STI outpatients (12.4%) to sex workers (23.9%) (P <0.01). (5) There is no statistically significant difference in thedistribution of serotype 1, 3, and 6 of biovar 1 among thesethree groups (P=0.763). (6) The PCR method described here isrelatively simple, rapid and specific for the biotyping andserotyping of biovar 1 of U. urealyticum. Conclusion: We should pay more attention to biovar 2 andmixed infections of U. urealyticum than single infection ofbiovar 1 in clinic practice. PCR is a good method for biotypingand serotyping.

  6. Women of courage: commercial sex workers mobilize for HIV / AIDS prevention in Nigeria.

    Williams, E E

    1994-05-01

    The Calabar Project in Nigeria, which seeks to reduce the vulnerability of prostitutes to HIV infection, began informally in 1987. By 1988, a formal, community-based intervention was created to promote condom use, provide health education as well as literacy and vocational training, and seek better working and living conditions for the prostitutes. The first task of the Calabar Project was to overcome the resistance of the hotel owners and managers where the prostitutes work and to win the confidence of the women. The owners and managers had to be convinced that it was in their best interest for the women to insist on condom use by their clients. The women had to be informed about the nature of HIV/AIDS and to be convinced that the project sought improvements in their general welfare. This was accomplished by helping the prostitutes improve both their relationship with the local police and their access to health services. Negotiations with hotel owners stabilized the prostitutes' rent for a year to enable the women to increase their charges for services and reduce the number of clients they needed so they could insist on condom use. Peer educators were trained to provide health education and to teach prostitutes techniques to get clients to use condoms. Clients were reached through the prostitutes and by providing information to small groups in hotel bars. Condoms were initially distributed for free and eventually were sold through a social marketing program. Peer educators also encouraged prostitutes and their clients to use a clinic the project established to diagnose and treat sexually transmitted diseases. In 1993, the Calabar Project helped create a vocational and literacy training center to improve the women's ability to understand the complex issues related to HIV/AIDS and to give the women a way to supplement their income and improve their self-esteem. By this time, more than 60% of the women reported using condoms for all sex acts. PMID:12345902

  7. Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes

    Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

  8. Safeguard of Women Workers lLegal Rights and Interests%维护女职工合法权益工作的几点思考

    刘芳

    2012-01-01

    According to the new women workers should start and ers' legal rights and interests: situation of Kailuan Group transformation, the trade union's work towards act from the following five aspects to deepen the safeguard of women workstrengthen education guide work to change the women workers'strengthen training to improve women workers" quality; safeguard their rights and interests according ideas; to law and strengthen the rights protection implementation dimension; consolidate the organizational development to promote the work towards women workers; adapt to the enterprise situation to comprehensively promote women workers overall quality.%针对开滦集团公司转型发展的新形势,工会女职工工作应从加强教育引导,转变女职工思想观念;强化培养,提高女职工素质;依法维权,加大维权落实力度;夯实组织建设,推动女工工作;适应企业形势发展,全面提升女工工作者整体素质等五个方面作为工作的出发点和着力点,深化工会女工维权工作和维护职能。

  9. Prevalence of dieting among working men and women: the healthy worker project.

    Jeffery, R W; Adlis, S A; Forster, J L

    1991-01-01

    Examined dieting to lose weight in a population of 2,107 men and 2,540 women employed in 32 worksites in the upper Midwest. Lifetime prevalence of this behavior was estimated to be 47% in men and 75% in women, and point prevalence was reported as 13% and 25% in men and women, respectively. Lifetime prevalence of participation in organized weight-loss programs was 6% in men and 31% in women; current prevalence was 1% in men and 6% in women. The strongest correlate of dieting behavior was relative body weight. In logistic regression analyses, dieting tended to be associated positively with education and occupational status and, in men only, was more prevalent among those with a history of hypertension. Dieters reported lower food intakes than nondieters, but the two groups did not differ consistently in reported physical activity. Overall, dieting appears to be a pervasive behavioral U.S. phenomenon that may contribute in part to population differences in the prevalence of obesity. PMID:1915214

  10. 21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.

    2010-04-01

    ... Polybutene, hydrogenated; complying with the identity prescribed under 21 CFR 178.3740(b) of this chapter... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Textiles and textile fibers. 177.2800 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2800 Textiles and textile fibers. Textiles and...

  11. Import of textile machinery

    2008-01-01

    In 2007,the total importation of our textile machinery amounts to US$4.948 billion,increased by 20.62%over the same period of the previous year,which turns out to be a new high in the year of textile machinery.Among the imported produc ts in 2007,different impor ted produc ts witness growths of various degrees. The large-scale impor t increase of tex tile machiner y indicates the acceleration of textile technology and upgrading of textile industry,and demonstrates that our textile machinery industry still keeps distance from the international advanced technology in terms of product level,product stability as well as the product reliability although the rapid improvement was made in manufacturing in Chinese textile machinery industry in the last few years.In addition,the possibility of RMB appreciation still exists.Import increase of textile machinery brings a new historical high in 2007.

  12. Validation of a questionnaire for heat strain evaluation in women workers

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this research indicated that this quantitative questionnaire has an acceptable reliability and validity, and a cut-off point. Therefore it could be used in the preliminary screening of heat strain in women in warm workplaces, when other heat stress evaluation methods are not available.

  13. Poor but Not Powerless: Women Workers in Production Chain Factories in China

    Ma, Lang; Jacobs, Francine

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the processes by which 12 young women working in four production chain factories in China shape their own lives--their developmental trajectories--during the period following their entry into factory work. One-on-one, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in August, 2005, as part of an evaluation…

  14. Why Privatizing Government Services Would Hurt Women Workers. Research-in-Brief.

    Bernhardt, Annette; Dresser, Laura; Hill, Catherine

    A study used data from the 1998 Current Population Survey to document job growth in the public and private sectors and examine the quality of jobs in terms of wages and benefits. Findings indicated public sector employment declined for both women and men during the period from 1979-98 with a somewhat sharper decline among men. In 1998, median…

  15. The Declining Relative Status of Black Women Workers, 1980-2002

    Dozier, Raine

    2010-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, industrial restructuring led to a marked increase in wage inequality. Women, however, were not as negatively affected by declining manufacturing employment because their pay was relatively low within the industry, and their already high representation in the service sector provided access to newly created opportunities.…

  16. Rural Gambian women's reliance on health workers to deliver sulphadoxine – pyrimethamine as recommended intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy

    Brabin Loretta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of most anti-malarial medications is restricted during pregnancy, but two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended after the first trimester as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp. In The Gambia, only 32% of women receive two doses and very little research has been conducted on women's awareness of drug safety during pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to assess whether rural Gambian women were aware of the importance of the timing of the two-dose IPT dose schedule and its relevance to drug safety. Methods This was a qualitative study in which 41 interviews and 16 focus group discussions with women, adolescents, men and traditional birth attendants were conducted. A generic qualitative approach was used to generate a theory as to why women might not participate in IPTp as recommended. Results Although most women used calendar months to count their stage of pregnancy, these months did not correlate with their concept of foetal development. Foetal growth was described following Islamic tradition as water, clot, piece of meat and human being, although there was little consensus about the order or timing in which these stages occurred. Common signs and conditions of malaria were known. Women were anxious about miscarriage and recognized that some medicines should not be taken in the first trimester, but were urged by men and traditional birth attendants to attend for antenatal care in the first trimester to "start treatment." General knowledge about the purpose of pregnancy medications and when they should be taken was poor among both men and women. One important result was that women relied entirely on health workers to provide safe drugs, at the correct time. Conclusion Women did not have relevant information to judge the safety and appropriate timing of pregnancy drugs, which made them over-reliant on health workers. They should be encouraged to date their own pregnancies in

  17. Design development scopes towards occupational wellness of women workers: specific reference to local agro based food processing industries in NE India.

    Bhattacharyya, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Debkumar

    2012-01-01

    Women workers constitute one of the most vulnerable segments of the country's labour force. They often face different workplace health challenges than men do. They are engaged in a range of work that extends from heavy, monotonous, repetitive jobs, which are in many times experienced with low-paid and involves in long hours of work. Women's workplace health problems are frequently compounded by getting more of the same at home--the "double jeopardy" of domestic work. Specific issues to improve the workers motivation leading to enhancement of productivity and improving occupational health and safety were addressed. Context specific application of ergonomics principles were studied in the process of designing of work related equipment of local fruit processing units, as well as in tea industry, covering 180 subjects selected purposively. Ergonomic risk factors prevailed among the workers associates productivity and relevant health issues were quantified using QEC, RULA. NMQ was used to gather data on prevalence of CTDs among the workers. Pineapple peeling, tea leaves plucking were found highly labour intensive, done manually. Postures scores found were very high. WRMSDs were prevalent among the workers. Scope for ergonomic design intervention was observed to improve productivity and occupational health. PMID:23151732

  18. Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers

    Ikeda, JM; Schaffer, JR; Ixcot, MLS; Page, K; Hearst, N

    2014-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compare...

  19. Textile Industrial Clusters in China

    Nie Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ "National Textile Industry Cluster Development Seminar" convened,held by China National Textile and Apparel Council,23 cities and towns were awarded as China's Textile Industry Cluster Pilot District.By far,China's textile industrial clusters have grown to 164,which indicate a quick and gorgeous development.These textile industrial clusters have a great impact on the local economy and even the whole national textile industry's development.

  20. TEXTILE TECHNOLOGIES IN CONCRETE ENVIRONMENTS."

    Morrow, Ruth; Belford, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Girli Concrete is a cross disciplinary funded research project based in the University of Ulster involving a textile designer/ researcher, an architect/ academic and a concrete manufacturing firm.Girli Concrete brings together concrete and textile technologies, testing ideas ofconcrete as textile and textile as structure. It challenges the perception of textiles as only the ‘dressing’ to structure and instead integrates textile technologies into the products of building products. Girli Concre...

  1. Yönetim Tarzı ve Çalışma Koşulları, Arkadaşlık Ortamı ve Takdir Edilme Duygusu ile İş Tatmini Arasındaki İlişkiler : Tekstil Sektöründe Bir Uygulama = The Relationship Between Supervision Style, Working Conditions, Co-Workers Behavior, Recognition and Job Satisfaction : A Field Research on Textile Firms

    Salih Zeki İMAMOĞLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive competition forces firms to work efficiently and effectively with all their resources including human resources. The need for satisfying employees on the job arises as a necessity for the firm success. Firms can achieve their objectives only by developing and maintaining policies and work environments which in turn will result in job satisfaction. In this study the factors which effect job satisfaction are analyzed on a sample of firms operating in the textile industry. Turkish textile firms are well known with their export ability as well as with their use of labor-intensive production technology. High level of job satisfaction of employees is needed for firm performance. The findings of the survey results indicate that supervisory behavior, working conditions, co-workers behavior and recognition are related to job satisfaction, co-workers behavior having the highest effect among all.

  2. Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers.

    Jungari, Suresh Banayya

    2016-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. This coercive practice is still prevalent in many parts of the world, in both developed and developing countries. However, FGM is more prevalent in African countries and some Asian countries. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health. To fulfill the study objectives, the author collected evidence from various studies conducted by international agencies. Many studies found that FGM has no health benefits; is mostly carried out on girls before they reach the age of 15 years; can cause severe bleeding, infections, psychological illness, and infertility; and, most important, can have serious consequences during childbirth. The practice is mainly governed by the traditions and cultures of the communities without having any scientific or medical benefit. In conclusion, FGM is a practice that violates the human and reproductive rights of women. PMID:26946883

  3. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles. PMID:27005410

  4. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  5. 女性农民工返乡创业的困境与出路%Plight and Solutions of Women Migrant Workers Returning Home for Entrepreneurship

    程伟

    2011-01-01

    在综述有关女性农民工现有研究成果的基础上,从实地调研资料出发总结出当前女性农民工返乡创业的现状和特点,分析了女性农民工返乡创业的障碍性因素,如社会对女性的性别角色偏见、农村女性从来不是作为一个独立的个体而存在、女性农民工返乡创业时获取社会资源有限及女性农民工自身的原因等,提出了破解女性农民工返乡创业发展难题的对策建议。%The article reviewed the current research achievements about women migrant workers, and summarized the current situations and characteristics of women migrant workers returning home for entrepreneurship beginning. The middle-aged and young women migrant workers gave priority to the age structure, the level of entrepreneurship was low, mostly was necessity entrepre-neurship;Analyzed the obstacle factors of women migrant workers who wanted to return home for entrepreneurship, such as social bias to women’s gender role, rural women never existed as independent individuals. They could obtain very limited social resources when they started self-business and the own reasons of themselves. In the end,put forward the sussgetions and solusions to the barriers.

  6. Women, the welfare state, and their transnational dimension: the case of Mexico's community health worker programs.

    Ramirez-Valles, J

    1999-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has shown that the welfare state is not only a set of agencies and policies to distribute services, but is engaged in the promotion of normative concepts of the female through its structural arrangements and the content of its programs and policies. Yet, this scholarship conceptualizes the state as a national entity and free from external influences, ignoring its transnational dimension. States are embedded in an international network consisting of other states, international agencies, and corporations that influence the practices and discursive frame of the welfare state. To uncover the process by which the welfare state institutionalizes and promotes female identities and the transnational dimension of this process, the author analyzes the case of community health worker programs conducted by the Mexican state from the 1970s to the early 1990s. The analysis corroborates the gender practices of the welfare state and suggests a reconceptualization that takes into account the transnational dimension of the state practices. The implications for feminist theories on the welfare state and for analyses of health promotion policies and programs are discussed. PMID:10450549

  7. Home Textile Redefined at Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles

    Gracie; Guo

    2008-01-01

    Organized by China Home Textile Association, The Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT and Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd., Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles, one of Asia’s most popular home textiles trade shows, returns for its 14th year, 26 – 28 August 2008, at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre, with 100,000 sqm of exhibition space.

  8. Research on the Labor Rights and Interests Protection of Women Peasant Workers%女性农民工劳动权益保护研究

    王小春

    2012-01-01

    在明确女性农民工群体特征的基础上,分析了女性农民工劳动权益受侵蚀的现状与突出问题,探讨了她们的维权途径与障碍,提出构建维权长效机制的具体设想,为后续研究提供了参考。%On the basis of making the group identity of women migrant workers clear,this paper analyzes the present situation of the labor rights loss of Women Peasant Workers through reading related laws and regulations.The possible obstacles and right maintenance way are discussed for protecting their labor rights and interests,and the concrete construction plan of long-term effective mechanism is proposed so as to provide reference for further study.

  9. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    Relation with the Host States

    2001-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

  10. Shenzhen Textile Holdings

    2008-01-01

    Shenzhen Textile(Holdings)Co.,Ltd,founded in 1994 on the basis of the state-owned Shenzhen Textile Industry Company,listed on Shenzhen Stock Exchange in name of"Shen Fangzhi A"and"Shen Fangzhi B"in August 1994,the Group is mainly engaged in manufacturing,as well

  11. NIR Analysis for Textiles

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been found to be a useful technique to characterize raw materials and finished textile products, and NIR methods and techniques continue to find increasingly diverse and wide-ranging quantitative and qualitative applications in the textile industry. NIR methods ...

  12. The Textile Space

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    Textile has within the last decade increasingly been regarded as an architectural material. Many new textiles have been developed and this has increased its applications in architecture. But how do textile and space meet and which spatial qualities can arise in this meeting? The paper describes...... a series of practical studies of the spatial qualities that can be established through the design of three very different fabrics. The topic is part of an ongoing Ph.D. project at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. The main theme of the Ph.D. is the inter-play between textile, space and sound. Space...... and it has a special poetry which is not to be found in any other material. Which spatial qualities can be obtained with these textile properties? Contemporary conception of space in architecture can be said still to rely on the modernist conception. In practical experiments it is investigated how...

  13. Understanding the Limitations of Employer Prevention Programs in Transnational Settings: A Case Study of Women Workers in Canadian-Owned Maquiladoras in Honduras

    Spring, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Due to the failure of current studies of ergonomics programs in transnational factories in Honduras to adequately address the issue of prevention, this study examines how the production process in Canadian-owned factories operating in Honduras mitigate against primary and secondary prevention measures. Using a feminist lens and drawing on grounded theory, this study is based on interviews with seven Honduran women workers suffering from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and seven...

  14. Automated visual inspection of textile

    Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    A method for automated inspection of two types of textile is presented. The goal of the inspection is to determine defects in the textile. A prototype is constructed for simulating the textile production line. At the prototype the images of the textile are acquired by a high speed line scan camera...

  15. The Textile Form of Sound

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  16. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Shamsuddin K

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

  17. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories.

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-05-28

    BACKGROUND: The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. CONCLUSION: Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  18. Smart textiles: Challenges and opportunities

    Cherenack, Kunigunde; van Pieterson, Liesbeth

    2012-11-01

    Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. A key driver for smart textiles research is the fact that both textile and electronics fabrication processes are capable of functionalizing large-area surfaces at very high speeds. In this article we review the history of smart textiles development, introducing the main trends and technological challenges faced in this field. Then, we identify key challenges that are the focus of ongoing research. We then proceed to discuss fundamentals of smart textiles: textile fabrication methods and textile interconnect lines, textile sensor, and output device components and integration of commercial components into textile architectures. Next we discuss representative smart textile systems and finally provide our outlook over the field and a prediction for the future.

  19. Participation in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program as Reported by Documented and Undocumented Farm Worker Adults in the Households.

    Leigh, J Paul; Medel-Herrero, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Debate surrounds the provision of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits to undocumented immigrants. Few studies are available to estimate use of WIC services by documented and undocumented households using nationally representative data. The authors analyzed data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) annual cross-sections from 1993 through 2009 (N = 40,896 person-years). Household documentation status is defined by the status of the adults in the household, not children. Simple mean differences, logistic regressions, and time charts described household participation in WIC over 2-year intervals. Without adjustments for covariates, 10.7% of undocumented farm workers' households and 12.4% of documented households received WIC benefits, yielding an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.94). Logistic regressions revealed that for the same number of children in the household, participation by undocumented persons was higher than participation by documented persons. Time charts and logistic regressions with interaction terms showed a stronger correspondence between participation in WIC and number of children <6 years old in undocumented households than documented households. Undocumented farm workers' households were only a little less likely to participate in WIC than documented farm workers' households, and undocumented households' participation was especially responsive to the presence of children. These results are consistent with the legal requirements for WIC participation, which do not distinguish between documented and undocumented households. These results may be helpful in the debate surrounding the effects of undocumented workers on WIC participation and costs. PMID:26471950

  20. 城市女职工与农村妇女妇科病比较%The Comparison of City Female Workers and Rural Women with Gynecologic Disease

    姚玉萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对城市女职工与农村妇女妇科疾病进行普查,分析城市女职工与农村妇女患妇科病的种类及发病率,为妇科疾病的防治开展提供依据,从而改善育龄妇女的生活质量。方法:2009-2012年对笔者所在县的城市女职工和农村10000例育龄妇女妇科疾病进行普查,包括盆腔B型超声检查、乳腺B超检查、妇科常规内诊检查、阴道分泌物检查以及宫颈癌前期病变检查等。结果:通过对城市女职工与农村妇女10000例育龄妇女进行普查,城市女职工患有乳腺增生、子宫肌瘤、卵巢肿瘤发病率明显高于农村妇女,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而农村妇女患有阴道炎、盆腔炎、宫颈病变发病率明显高于城市女职工,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且农村宫颈癌发病率明显高于城市,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:妇科普查是发现妇科疾病的重要手段,对城市与农村的妇科病进行分析,可以有重点的进行疾病的预防,并提供相应的治疗措施。%Objective:Through a census of gynecological diseases of female workers in city and rural women,to analyze the types and incidence of city female workers and rural women suffering from gynecological diseases,and to provide evidence for the prevention of gynecological diseases in women of childbearing age,so as to improve the quality of life.Method:In our hospital from 2009 to 2012,10 000 the city of my county women workers and rural women did gynecological diseases census,including B type ultrasonography,mammography,routine gynecological examinations,vaginal examination and cervical precancerous lesion examination.Result:Through the survey of city female workers and rural women in 10 000 cases of women of childbearing age,the city female worker with hyperplasia of mammary glands,hysteromyoma,ovarian tumor incidence were obviously higher than rural women,these were significant difference(P<0

  1. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water. PMID:26215790

  2. Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil

    Ana Márcia Bustamante de Morais

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalhoEste estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cinco madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajoThis study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or

  3. Male Sex Workers Who Sell Sex to Men Also Engage in Anal Intercourse with Women: Evidence from Mombasa, Kenya

    Priya Mannava; Scott Geibel; Nzioki King'ola; Marleen Temmerman; Stanley Luchters

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design: Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods: Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was us...

  4. On the corporate organization of women workers rights mechanisms%浅谈企业女职工组织维权机制

    徐扬

    2014-01-01

    从女性第一次对于个人意识的觉醒,到现在已走过三百余年的历史,而今女性已经发展成为企业、事业单位等社会组织的重要组成部分。然而,时代仍在不断变化,企业改革也在不断强化和深入,女性职工应如何适应更高、更复杂的工作与保障机制,形成良好的劳动关系,是人们必须进行思考的话题。该文认为关键是建立健全职工保障机制,维护职工,尤其是女性职工的权利。女性作为社会弱势群体,在企业关系中仍处于被动地位,维护其权益是新形势下女工工作的重点。必须在充分考虑女性工作特点的情况下,强化女性职工素质,依法维护其利益,从而让女性职工为社会的发展做出应有之贡献。%Business women workers rights is the focus of the new situation of women workers to work,rights to highlight the female employees working characteristics,by women to enhance the quality,carried out according to activists and other activities,mobilize the enthusiasm and creativity of the majority of women workers,for economic development,social harmony contribute.

  5. Textiles gain intelligence

    Paula Gould

    2003-01-01

    Advances in textile technology, computer engineering, and materials science are promoting a new breed of functional fabrics. Fashion designers are adding wires, circuits, and optical fibers to traditional textiles, creating garments that glow in the dark or keep the wearer warm. Meanwhile, electronics engineers are sewing conductive threads and sensors into body suits that map users’ whereabouts and respond to environmental stimuli. Researchers agree that the development of genuinely interact...

  6. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    Relations avec les Pays hôtes

    2000-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

  7. Rapid Manufactured Textiles

    Bingham, Guy; Hague, Richard; Tuck, Christopher John; Long, Andrew; Crookston, Jonathan Josiah; Sherburn, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

  8. The Impact of Community Health Workers on the Self-Determination, Self-Sufficiency, and Decision-Making Ability of Low-Income Women and Mothers of Young Children

    Kovach, Andrea Crivelli; Becker, Julie; Worley, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant women at high risk for adverse health outcomes can benefit from the services of community health workers. Maternity Care Coalition identifies at risk women and provides links to health care and social services through the MOMobile Program. The purpose of this study was to explore (a) the relationship formed between community health…

  9. Human papillomavirus knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study.

    Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly; Kien

    2015-10-01

    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed human papillomavirus awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and human papillomavirus vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N = 220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of human papillomavirus. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the human papillomavirus knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n = 32) and pregnant (n = 11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine-type stimulants had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase human papillomavirus knowledge and the feasibility of successful human papillomavirus vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care. PMID:25505042

  10. The possible absence of a healthy-worker effect: a cross-sectional survey among educated Japanese women

    Nishikitani, Mariko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Yano, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite being highly educated in comparison with women in other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Japanese women are expected to assume traditional gender roles, and many dedicate themselves to full-time housewifery. Women working outside the home do so under poor conditions, and their health may not be better than that of housewives. This study compared the self-rated health status and health behaviours of housewives and working women i...

  11. Analysis of cervical diseases among rural women workers in Guangzhou%广州市部分女农民工宫颈疾病筛查

    王滢毅; 朱长艳; 陈筱华; 陈雯婷

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of cervical diseases among rural women workers staying in Guangzhou and to seek effective ways of improving their health in reproduction. Methods Gy-necological examinations of 1 000 women workers in Baiyun District of Guangzhou were performed and the cervical cells were tested by LBPSYSTEM. The data was collected and analyzed based on the gynecological examinations. Results 54 % of women are suffering from gynecological diseases. The rote is lower a-mong local women. Their ages, labor times, abortion times, contraception methods, support of their hus-bands and other factors have contributed to the higher rate. Conclusion Cervical diseases of the rural women workers were affected by various factors. In order to decrease the morbidity of cervical diseases and hnprove women's reproductive health, preventive measures should be taken.%目的 了解女农民工宫颈疾病发生情况及其影响因素,探讨改善该人群生育健康状况的有关策略. 方法 对广州市白云区1 000例女农民工进行妇科检查及液基薄层细胞检测,将所得资料进行统计分析. 结果 1 000名女农民工慢性宫颈炎的检出率为54.0%(540/1 000),鳞状上皮细胞异常为5.4%(54/1 000);20~39岁组女农民工的宫颈炎检出率高于40岁以上组,生育产次和人流次数增加,宫颈炎检出率也随之升高,采用节育环避孕者宫颈炎检出率高于其他避孕方式,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01). 结论 宫颈疾病受多种因素影响,应采取综合性防治策略,降低女农民工的宫颈疾病检出率,从而提高其生育健康水平.

  12. Women, Business and the Law 2010 : Measuring Legal Gender Parity for Entrepreneurs and Workers in 128 Economies

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report presents indicators based on laws and regulations affecting women's prospects as entrepreneurs and employees. Several of these indicators draw on the Gender Law Library, a collection of over 2,000 legal provisions impacting women's economic status. Both resources can inform research and policy discussions on how to improve women's economic opportunities and outcomes. The six in...

  13. Statistical Analysis on High Blood Pressure Epidemic Feature for Women Workers%女职工高血压病流行特征的统计分析

    冯变英; 张旭; 张丽霞

    2011-01-01

    Aim research the Epidemic Feature of high blood pressure of women workers, based on the data of physical examination of 1828 women workers by Yuncheng city, Shanxi province in 2008. Method A: Pearson chi-square test was used to study the related factors of the disease, indicating that age, overweight, obesity and family sick history were significantly related with the disease, beyond occupation. B: statistical model of changing law gained with regression analysis revealed that the possibility of the disease increase by 0.8% when ever age grew of one to the women workers who were over years old. Suggestion exercise should be done in prevention of the disease.%本文根据山西省运城市1828名女职工2008年体检数据研究女性职工高血压的流行特征。(1)用交叉表的Pearson卡方检验方法对高血压病的相关因素进行了研究,结果表明,年龄、超重、肥胖、家族病史与高血压病有显著关系,而职业与高血压病无显著关系。(2)用回归分析方法对高血压患病率随年龄变化的规律进行研究,建立了患病率的统计模型。结果表明,从28岁起,年龄增加1岁,患高血压病的可能性增加0.8%。研究结果表明预防高血压病应加强体育锻炼。

  14. Women Emoloyees’ Perceptions About Their Managers: A Field Study

    İsmail BAKAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The leadership style of people in managerial positions has a significant impact on employee behavior and attitudes towards business. Therefore, finding out the perceptions of employees regarding their managers’ leadership style will guide to managers to display successful management. There are several distinctions in the literature as to the type of leadership. In this study, first the concept and types of leadership determined and then the autocratic, democratic and free reign leadership styles will be explained. In the second part of the study a field research, to measure the perceptions of women workers about their managers’ leadership style, will be included in the textile industry as leading sector in Kahramanmaras.

  15. They Deserve "Workers of the Year"

    DENG Qiwei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Many Chinese people know a song from former USSR-"spinning girl".In this song,a tranquil scene presented:A spinning girl is rolling a handloom slightly and looking out of the window thoughtfully.This song makes me think about all the textile workers in China,they are operating the spinning machines every working day,but actually they are rolling the economic machine of China's textile industry.

  16. Functionalisation of textiles : future perspectives

    Almeida, Luís

    2006-01-01

    Multifunctional effects are essential for producing higher value added textiles, important not only for new technical applications but also for more “traditional” uses such as clothing and home textiles with high product differentiation. Within the “European Technology Platform for the Future of Textiles and Clothing”, functional textiles are a clear priority. Surface modification by means of finishing is very versatile and allows a large number of effects. The developments of new functional ...

  17. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  18. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  19. Impact of a physical activity promotion program in worker women from two companies in Bogotá (Colombia)

    Mendoza D; Pedroza LM; Páez DC; Ramos DM; García LV

    2011-01-01

    Active and healthy lifestyles have been associated with better quality of life in working women. Objective: To establish the effectiveness of a physical activity program to improve fitness componentsin working women from two Colombian companies. Materials and methods: A longitudinal,exploratory, descriptive study was conducted, previous and later measurements aboutthe quantitative aspects of fitness were taken. Women in the study were between 24-49 years old, without associated risk factors o...

  20. Radiation Modification of Textiles

    The application of ionizing radiation to textile finishing operations has become a commercial reality. Electron accelerators are currently being used in a process which imparts durable press, stain-releasing properties to a polyester-cotton blend fabric (Deering-Milliken Co., USA). There are other textile and chemical companies which have announced laboratory or pilot plant development of radiation-textile finishing processes. During the past ten years there has also been a tremendous number of research publications on radiation initiated reactions in fibres or fibre-monomer systems. This paper first briefly reviews the principles of radiation modification of textiles. The important molecular factors controlling such processes and their interaction will be considered. These factors include the G-values for radical formation, local propagation, transfer and termination rate constants, local monomer concentration and its coefficient of diffusion within the polymer matrix, radiation dose rate, temperature, and the presence of non-reactive (e.g. solvent) species. Economic factors will also be considered. Following this there is a review;of the most pertinent recent published work in this field, including the patent literature. This survey will be broken into two parts: bulk effects and surface effects. Emphasis will be placed on durable press and stain release properties. The chemistry of durable press and its application within the field of radiation chemistry will be covered. The principles of surface chemistry will then be discussed, as they relate to important wetting phenomena in textile fibres and fabrics. Data will be presented from a series of studies which the author has been conducting on the radiation modification of surface wettability of textile materials. (author)

  1. Experiences of women estate workers during the apprenticeship period in St. Vincent, 1834-38: the transition from slavery to freedom.

    Boa, S

    2001-01-01

    In 1834, the British Government abolished slavery in the British Caribbean. In order to appease slave owners, the Government awarded them 20 million compensation money and initiated an apprenticeship period. The aim of the apprenticeship period was to provide a transition from slave to wage labour and tie the ex-slaves to their owners for a further six years. The apprenticeship period was marred by repressive acts by planters against their workers. Women were especially singled out for abuse and lost many of the rights they had gained during slavery. Apprenticeship was eventually abandoned in 1838. Stories of excessive cruelty convinced the colonial authorities that the working relationship between apprentices and managers within the sugar estates had not improved. This article examines the experiences of women apprentices in St Vincent to highlight the indignities that they faced. It also explores the actions that some women employed to improve their working conditions. Previous studies of the Caribbean have mainly focused on the slavery period or the twentieth century. There has so far been little attention paid to the lives of African-Caribbean women immediately after the abolition of slavery. This study helps to explain why so many women withdrew from estate work as soon as they were fully free and chose instead to concentrate on growing and marketing provision crops. During this transitionary period, it became clear to women that working conditions on the estates would not improve for them. The plantation managers' inability to adjust to free labour resulted in a significant withdrawal of female labourers after 1 August 1838. PMID:19678421

  2. Textile technology development

    Shah, Bharat M.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate and select resin systems for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Powder Towpreg Material, to develop and evaluate advanced textile processes by comparing 2-D and 3-D braiding for fuselage frame applications and develop window belt and side panel structural design concepts, to evaluate textile material properties, and to develop low cost manufacturing and tooling processes for the automated manufacturing of fuselage primary structures. This research was in support of the NASA and Langley Research Center (LaRc) Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technologies for Primary Aircraft Structures program.

  3. A Moment in History: Mass training for women village health workers in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea

    Elizabeth Cox; Tekla Hendrickson

    2003-01-01

    Elizabeth Cox and Tekla Hendrickson describe how they achieved the training to enable 320 women volunteers to become village birth attendants and community sexual health educators in the East Sepik Women and Children's Health Project, Papua New Guinea. Development (2003) 46, 101–104. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110455

  4. Export of textile machinery products

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the export of textile machinery products continued to keep a rapidly increasing trend. In accordance with the statistics from the custom, as of December this year, the value of exported textile machinery products was USD1.528 billion, increased by 23.54% over the previous year. Except that the export of nonwoven cloth machinery products reduced to a certain degree compared with that in 2006, the export of other varieties of products increased greatly. The export of textile machinery products had been remaining relatively rapid growth since 2000. During this period, the structure of exported products has changed continuously, so do export enterprises. There are still many problems in export of textile machinery products, and manufacturers of textile machinery products should improve and advance continuously. However, on the whole, the integrated and international competitiveness of textile machinery products is enhanced, so is the internationalization level of manufacturers of textile machinery products.

  5. 高校女工工作的现状及思考%The Circumstances and Thoughts on the Job of Women Workers in College

    常娟; 郭玉霞; 孙宇

    2011-01-01

    The college women workers are the indispensable and important strength in the teaching, scientific research and educational work. There are great challenges for the physical and mental health of women with the progress of the society and scientific technology, with the pace speeding up of human life. The job of college women workers is an important part of College Trade Union. The method on how to do well the female staff work was studied in this paper.%高校女教职工是高校教学、科研和育人工作不可缺少的重要力量。随着社会的发展和人们生活节奏的加快,高校知识女性的生活和心理健康受到更大的挑战。女工工作是高校工会工作的重要组成部分,本文研究了做好高校女教职工工作的方法:(1)以提高女教工的素质为主线,充分发挥女教工的优势;(2)为女教工双重角色减负;(3)以丰富多彩的活动为手段,提高女教工生活质量;(4)依法维护女教职工的合法权益和特殊利益。

  6. Textile Index Monitor

    2010-01-01

    Part I–Price Index National Index for China Textile City (located in Keqiao, Shaoxing county in Zhejiang Province, east of China) concludes its price index (periodic code:20101101) at 100.31 points rise of 0.68% as against its previous week.

  7. Tin Can Textile Printing.

    Mansfield, Patricia; Sanford, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes the process of "canning"--applying textile pigment or dye to cloth by moving a pigment-filled can across the fabric to create a linear design. This printing process is described as low-cost, easy, and suitable for all age and artistic levels. (Author/SJL)

  8. Hemp for textiles

    Westerhuis, W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Key words: Cannabis sativa L., day length sensitivity, fibre hemp, genotype, harvest time, plant density, plant weight, primary fibres, secondary fibres, sowing date, textiles. Westerhuis, W. (2016) He

  9. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified. PMID:26918485

  10. Facing Reality, Meeting Challenges——An Interview on the Situation of Laid-Off Women Workers in Shangqiu

    1999-01-01

    THE continued deepening of thereform of Chinese State-ownedenterprises has caused a large number oflaid-off workers.How to deal with them isan entirely new subject for the State,society and the work unit and it is aproblem that is not going to just disappear.Though there are a number of policies and

  11. Learning with a Website for the Textile Industry in Botswana

    Mbambo, Buhle; Cronje, Johannes C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a locally initiated investigation into the suitability of the Internet in helping to meet the information needs of women in small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the textile industry in Botswana. The background is the stated government policy to encourage the development of SMMEs and the Internet infrastructure. The…

  12. Compact cavity-backed antenna on textile in substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology

    Moro, Riccardo; Bozzi, Maurizio; Agneessens, Sam; Rogier, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a folded cavity-backed patch antenna implemented in substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is presented. The antenna has been designed to operate at 2.45 GHz, in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency band, and a textile substrate has been adopted for the realization of the component. This topology of textile antenna could be useful for the monitoring of the activities of rescue workers in emergency situations such as the localization of firefighters, an...

  13. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN BEEDI WORKERS IN BUNDELKHAND REGION OF UTTAR PRADESH: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Mohd Shamim Ansari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of this paper is to explore link between socio-economic positions of women working in unorganized sector with special reference to beedi rolling. In India Beedi making is an age old industry and one of the largest job providers for women in the unorganized sector. Women are having inherent advantage in this job in this job of beedi rolling due to deft fingers; yet significant gender bias exists. The job is mainly done by weaker economic class in the country who don’t have adequate education and skill to look for alternate job. The work of beedi rolling is preferred by the women because it can be carried from home along with domestic chores. Thus, they supplement family income along with managing the household jobs. However, in the recent year the trade is shrinking thus there is situation of underemployment.

  14. The women of the Maghreb.

    Ghurayyib, R

    1992-01-01

    Women's status in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia is briefly summarized. It is based on a pamphlet produced by the Women's Committee of the Center for Arab Studies for Development, Canada. In Algeria, women's status has been severely restricted by fundamentalism. The independence of 1963 brought with it fundamentalist conditions: mosques became places for political sermons and schools were filled with Islamic zealots. The Family Code of 1984 was imposed. It considered women minors for life, polygamy and divorce freely available for men, and threats to women's right to vote. In 1990, women's organizations in a large rally protested abolition of the 1984 law. The 1991 elections reflected the differences in opinions on women's issues and a 3rd party may be formed with democratic tendencies and support for the Women's Liberation Movement. Morocco also has an antidemocratic regime. 78% of women in 1982 were illiterate. Many work as domestics (56.5%) or in the textile (62%), agricultural, and industrial sectors. Little girls also work as apprentices in exchange for food and clothing. 100% of women are untrained while 100% of men are trained. Rural seasonal workers are ignored. Female employment rose in public services from 16% to 28% in 1989. 53% are engaged in menial occupations; 36% are teachers, secretaries, or nurses. Prostitution thrived when oil merchants invaded. Most women are divorced or widowed, and consequently must work for subsistence because the family code does not permit these women economic independence. In the 1970s men and women protested the royal family's codes. Tunisian women have a more privileged position, due in part to the support from the male feminist leader, Tahar El Haddad, who wrote a book espousing the right of divorce and equal rights in education, and condemning polygamy, sex segregation, and the veil. In 1956, the code changed and forced marriage and polygamy were prohibited. Implementation lags behind the law. Islamic law still gives

  15. Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years) In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness

    Prabir Kumar Manna; De, Debasis; Debidas Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs) of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility we...

  16. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  17. Impact of a physical activity promotion program in worker women from two companies in Bogotá (Colombia

    Mendoza D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Active and healthy lifestyles have been associated with better quality of life in working women. Objective: To establish the effectiveness of a physical activity program to improve fitness componentsin working women from two Colombian companies. Materials and methods: A longitudinal,exploratory, descriptive study was conducted, previous and later measurements aboutthe quantitative aspects of fitness were taken. Women in the study were between 24-49 years old, without associated risk factors or physical activity practice restrictions according to PARQ & YOU questionnaire. 15 women (37,33 ±9,3 voluntarily decided to join for the intervention onphysical activity for a period of 12 weeks, 60 minutes per day.Statistical analysis was made with SPSS 17. Results: Statistical changes appeared after the intervention, body mass index (BMI (p= 0,023, abdominal strength (p = 0,004 and lower limbs strength (p= 0,001. There were no significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and flexibility. Conclusion: From these results, it was established that the implemented physical activity promotion protocol was effective to change fitness of women who completed the program, meaning that it can be replicated with effective results after its completition.

  18. Emissivity Measurement of Semitransparent Textiles

    P. Bison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the textiles production industry it is more and more common to advertise new textiles, especially for sportswear, by claiming their ability to emit IR radiation in the long wave band at a higher degree with respect to normal clothes, that is highly beneficial to improve sporting performances. Three textiles are compared, one normal and two “special,” with Ag+ ions and carbon powder added, with different colors. The emissivity of the textiles has been measured to determine if it is increased in the “special” textiles with respect to the normal one. No substantial increase has been noticed. Nonetheless, the test implied some nonstandard procedures due to the semitransparent nature of the textiles, in comparison with the normal procedure that is commonly used on opaque surfaces.

  19. Index of Selected Textile Journals of 2002

    Rafiq, Muhammad

    2003-01-01

    It is the complete index of the six renowned journals of textiles. The index is arranged by keywords and entries are well formated. The index covers the published issues of year 2002 of the following journals. Library World, Coloration Technology, AATCC Review, Pakistan Textile Journal, Textile Research Journal, International Dyer, and Textile Today. The index is useful for textile designers, textile engineers, fashion designers, managers, decision makers, and researchers.

  20. Textile ecology at home economy

    Novak, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Offer of textiles and clothes greatly exceeds its needs. In the area of textile and clothes industry consumerism is highly developed. On the other hand, environmental awareness is strengthening whereas the current economic crisis is demanding more responsible shopping. Media such as television, newspapers and commercials give us information about numerous new detergents that are supposedly better than the existing ones. In shops we can find more and more textiles and clothes having labels ECO...

  1. Offshoring in Textile Industry

    MONTÓN GARCÍA, JORGE

    2015-01-01

    [ EN] This project is about offshoring in the textile industry, focusing in the rights violated in this process, this concept can be defined as the moving of various operations of a company to another country for reasons such as lower labor costs or more favorable economic conditions in that other country. The project describes the evolution of offshoring, which started in 1960’s and has continued since then; it was characterized primarily by the transferring of factories from the develope...

  2. Treatment of textile wastes

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Krsteva, Silvana; Golomeova, Saska

    2013-01-01

    The production of a textile requires several stages of mechanical processing such as spinning, weaving, knitting, and garment production, which seem to be insulated from the wet treatment processes like pretreatment, dyeing, printing, and finishing operations. Тhere is a strong interrelation between treatment processes in the dry state and consecutive wet treatments. Most of the processes and products have a negative impact on the environment. Laws and standards for environmental protection a...

  3. Textiles gain intelligence

    Paula Gould

    2003-10-01

    The term ‘smart dresser’ could soon acquire a new meaning. An unlikely alliance between textile manufacturers, materials scientists, and computer engineers has resulted in some truly clever clothing1–4. From self-illuminating handbag interiors to a gym kit that monitors workout intensity, the prototypes just keep coming. But researchers have yet to answer the million-dollar question, perhaps critical to consumer acceptance, will they go in the wash?

  4. Fixed textile shutters

    K.A. Chernova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with multifunctional properties, formed by the interwoven threads of a vigorous fixed formwork textile material (basalt, linen, silica and other glass yarns adhered by binding material. The innovative construction technology of production and installation of a new generation of textstone buildings has been registered as a brand TextStone. The fundamental difference between texstone and reinforced concrete and all known building materials is that the whole outer surface of solidified light binders is protected by strong, vigorous and fixed formwork made from inexpensive textile materials. Manufacturing textile shells allows using it as an internal finishing material, reducing or eliminating the cost of finishing work.The use of fixed textile construction shutters during the construction of buildings has obvious technical, economic, operational, sanitary and environmental benefits: short construction time (from 3 to 10 days, compact packaging and light weight of fabric shells, high fire resistance, frost resistance, ease of engineering services installation in the hollow communicating shells; minimal amount of finishing, roofing, heat and noise insulation works. Texstone is a durable solid monolithic construction that provides high viability and earthquakes, hurricanes wind, solar sultriness and frost resistance. Material complies with all sanitary and environmental requirements. Due to such physical, mechanical, operational, sanitary and ecological characteristics

  5. Silver Studio textile project.

    Hendon, Zoë

    2007-01-01

    This talk outlined the phased process by which the Museum of Domestic Design & Architecture improved the storage and documentation of its Silver Studio textile collection. Several small allocations of external funding were used to lever in a larger AHRB award. This talk outlined both the problem and the solution to museum professionals as part of a training day aimed at encouraging museums to achieve Accreditation.

  6. Emissivity Measurement of Semitransparent Textiles

    Ferrarini, G.; G. Cadelano; A. Bortolin; P. Bison; Grinzato, E.

    2012-01-01

    In the textiles production industry it is more and more common to advertise new textiles, especially for sportswear, by claiming their ability to emit IR radiation in the long wave band at a higher degree with respect to normal clothes, that is highly beneficial to improve sporting performances. Three textiles are compared, one normal and two “special,” with Ag+ ions and carbon powder added, with different colors. The emissivity of the textiles has been measured to determine if it is increase...

  7. Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women: a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs

    Vera Alicia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4% were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return; 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez. All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9% were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8% had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study

  8. The Significance of Education for Establishment in the Care Sector: Women and Men and Care Workers with a Migrant Background

    Johansson, Stina; Ahnlund, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have followed women and men with a Swedish or an immigrant background that have completed the Upper Secondary Health Care Program. In which occupations do they work? Who employs them? Which target groups do they serve? Official statistics and survey data were used. The interaction between occupational structure and educational…

  9. Reproductive Counseling by Clinic Healthcare Workers in Durban, South Africa: Perspectives from HIV-Infected Men and Women Reporting Serodiscordant Partners

    L. T. Matthews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Understanding HIV-infected patient experiences and perceptions of reproductive counseling in the health care context is critical to inform design of effective pharmaco-behavioral interventions that minimize periconception HIV risk and support HIV-affected couples to realize their fertility goals. Methods. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews with 30 HIV-infected women (with pregnancy in prior year and 20 HIV-infected men, all reporting serodiscordant partners and accessing care in Durban, South Africa. We investigated patient-reported experiences with safer conception counseling from health care workers (HCWs. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded using content analysis for conceptual categories and emergent themes. Results. The study findings indicate that HIV-infected patients recognize HCWs as a resource for periconception-related information and are receptive to speaking to a HCW prior to becoming pregnant, but seldom seek or receive conception advice in the clinic setting. HIV nondisclosure and unplanned pregnancy are important intervening factors. When advice is shared, patients reported receiving a range of information. Male participants showed particular interest in accessing safer conception information. Conclusions. HIV-infected men and women with serodiscordant partners are receptive to the idea of safer conception counseling. HCWs need to be supported to routinely initiate accurate safer conception counseling with HIV-infected patients of reproductive age.

  10. Community health workers and health care delivery: evaluation of a women's reproductive health care project in a developing country.

    Abdul Wajid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA. Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. RESULTS: The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an

  11. The Mycenaean Palace-Organised Textile Industry

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    Investigation of the textile production in af tekstilprodutionen in Linear B archives. The administration of the textile prodution is compared to the administration of land holdings.......Investigation of the textile production in af tekstilprodutionen in Linear B archives. The administration of the textile prodution is compared to the administration of land holdings....

  12. Research of archaeological and historical textiles

    Březinová, Helena; Bravermanová, M.

    Liberec: Technical University of Liberec, 2013. s. 22. ISBN 978-80-7372-989-9. [Textile Science /8./. 23.09.2013-25.09.2013, Liberec] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological textiles * historical textiles * textile technology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. “Columns of the House” and Proud Workers: Greek Immigrant Women in Vancouver, 1954-1975

    Kalogeropoulou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I study the experiences of eight first-generation Greek immigrant women who moved to Vancouver between 1954 and 1975 by listening to and contextualizing their oral life histories. Looking at their lives before they immigrated, I explore how these women’s gender experiences were very much shaped by religion, class, and rural vis-à-vis urban locations in Greece. I also demonstrate that many exercised agency in this patriarchal culture, and that they were part of the decision-mak...

  14. APPLICATION OF VIA IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL DISEASES AMONG WOMEN WORKERS%VIA在女职工体检中的应用

    高琨; 李力; 梁欢欢; 黄玲莎

    2011-01-01

    [目的]评价在女职工体检中采用醋酸肉眼观察法(VIA)的筛查宫颈病变的效果.[方法]对737位女职工进行妇科检查,同时采用VIA及巴氏涂片法进行宫颈病变的筛查,评价两种方法的宫颈病变检出率.[结果]参检率为75.20%(737/980),参检妇女关于癌症的知晓率为62.5%;宫颈癌的筛查方法的知晓率为42.5%,其中宫颈细胞学检查知晓率为36.5%;人乳头瘤病毒知晓率为19%;CIN Ⅱ级以上病变的检出率VIA法为0.54%(4/737);巴氏涂片法为0,两种检查方法比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]大多数妇女对宫颈癌症的防治知识了解甚少,需加强知识的普及:应用VIA联合巴氏涂片法进行宫颈癌的初筛可进一步提高癌前病变的检出率.%[ Objective] To explore feasibilities of visual inspection with acetic acid ( VIA) in screening of cervical diseases among women workers. [Methods] 737 female workers were screened by using VIA and Pap smear screening for cervical lesions. The detection rates of cervical lesions were evaluated. [ Results] Participation rate was 75.20% (737/980). The rate of awareness about cancer in the women worker was 62.5%, and the rate of awareness about screening methods for cervical cancer was 36.5%, in which the rate of awareness of cervical cy(t)ology was 42.5%, and 19% knew human papillomavirus. CIN Ⅱ lesion detection rate was 0.54% by using VIA method, but we did not find cases by the Pap smear screening. Comparing two methods,there was a significant difference (P< 0.05). [Conclusion] Most of the women poorly understand ahout the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, so we should strengthen the popularization of health knowledge. Application of VIA method combined Pap smear screening for cervical cancer may further improve the detection rate of precancerous lesions.

  15. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing) and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental) of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation ...

  16. Towards ‘reflexive epidemiology’: Conflation of cisgender male and transgender women sex workers and implications for global understandings of HIV prevalence

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Reisner, Sari L.; Clark, Jesse L.; Parker, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has had a widespread impact on global scientific and cultural discourses related to gender, sexuality, and identity. ‘Male sex workers’ have been identified as a ‘key population’ in the global HIV epidemic; however, there are methodological and conceptual challenges for defining inclusion and exclusion of transgender women within this group. To assess these potential implications, this study employs self-critique and reflection to grapple with the empiric and conceptual implications of shifting understandings of sexuality and gender within the externally recreated etic category of ‘MSM’ and ‘transgender women’ in epidemiologic HIV research. We conducted a sensitivity analysis of our previously published meta-analysis which aimed to identify the scope of peer-reviewed articles assessing HIV prevalence among male sex workers globally between 2004–2013. The inclusion of four studies previously excluded due to non-differentiation of cisgender male from transgender women participants (studies from Spain, Thailand, India, and Brazil: 421 total participants) increased the overall estimate of global HIV prevalence among “men” who engage in sex work from 10.5% (95% CI 9.4–11.5%) to 10.8% (95% CI 9.8–11.8%). The combination of social science critique with empiric epidemiologic analysis represents a first step in defining and operationalizing ‘reflexive epidemiology’. Grounded in the context of sex work and HIV prevention, this paper highlights the multiplicity of genders and sexualities across a range of social and cultural settings, limitations of existing categories (i.e., ‘MSM’, ‘transgender’), and their global implications for epidemiologic estimates of HIV prevalence. PMID:27173599

  17. Textiles in Transit. An Investigation of Contract Textiles in Airport Terminals

    Fislage, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    The selection of textiles for public spaces is an essential task for interior designers, as they must decide whether and where textiles are needed as well as to what extent. Due to the wide availability and variety of textiles, the choice of materials and qualities becomes a challenging task, requiring interdisciplinary dialogue between textile and interior professionals. The objective of this thesis is to describe the contract textile business, the relationship between textile designers ...

  18. Auxetic warp knit textile structures

    Alderson, Kim; Alderson, Andrew; Anand, Subhash; Simkins, Virginia; Nazare, Shonali; Ravirala, Naveen [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, The University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The design, manufacturing and characterization of warp knit textile structures with enhanced drapeability and energy absorption is reported in this paper. Four textile structures were produced, all based on a triangular or double arrowhead structure, which is known to lead to a negative Poisson's ratio {nu}. Mechanical testing has confirmed that textile structures can be produced which are auxetic at {+-} 45 to the warp direction, with {nu} of up to -0.22 {+-} 0.03. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Vietnamese Textile and Garment Industry in the Global Supply Chain: State Strategies and Workers’ Responses

    Angie Ngoc Tran

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the development of textile and garment manufacturing in the context of the prevailing arguments on pursuing market-oriented liberalisation and state directed domestic linkages, and the impacts of these developments on unions and workers in Vietnam. Despite rapid growth in exports and employment, the empirical evidence shows that market-oriented integration in the global economy has limited firms’ operations to low value-added activities and workers to toil for non-livable ...

  20. CONCENTRATION, VULNERABILITY AND ADJUSTMENT: RURAL TEXTILE AND APPAREL EMPLOYMENT AND THE EXPIRATION OF IMPORT QUOTAS

    Wojan, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper documents the degree of concentration of textile and apparel employment in rural countries, assesses the vulnerability to job loss by detailed industry in light of the expiration of import quotas, and assesses the potential for adjustment of displaced workers.

  1. Industria y trabajadores textiles en Tlaxcala : convergencias y divergencias en los movimientos sociales, 1906–1918

    Santibáñez Tijerina, Blanca Esthela

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the life and the organizations of Mexican textile workers in two concrete historic events. First, during the Porfiriato, as the period from 1876-1911 has been called, in which President Porfírio Díaz managed to establish order in Mexico, attract foreign capital, and create favour

  2. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  3. Longfeng Textile Strives for Excellence

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    The reporter of the magazine found an opportunity to have an interview with Wu Xiujian, vice- general manager of Longfeng Textile, in terms of its products, marketing, competitive advantages, the feeling of the show, etc.

  4. Responsive Textile Geometries : Vanadisbadet Revised

    Aidas, Nina

    2011-01-01

    How can principles found in textile behaviour be translated into architectural expression? With water as a program in context of a new bath in Vanadislunden, Stockholm, this project studies how a rigid material can be percieved as soft and flexible.

  5. Textiles Intelligence Reports to Be Published in Chinese

    2012-01-01

    Textiles Intelligence and the China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC) have agreed to cooperate in making Chinese language editions of two of Textile Intelligence's business and market information publications available to the Chinese fibre, textile and clothing industries.

  6. Availability and Quality of Size Estimations of Female Sex Workers, Men Who Have Sex with Men, People Who Inject Drugs and Transgender Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Sabin, Keith; Zhao, Jinkou; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Sheng, Yaou; Arias Garcia, Sonia; Reinisch, Annette; Komatsu, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the availability and quality of population size estimations of female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drug (PWID) and transgender women. Methods Size estimation data since 2010 were retrieved from global reporting databases, Global Fund grant application documents, and the peer-reviewed and grey literature. Overall quality and availability were assessed against a defined set of criteria, including estimation methods, geographic coverag...

  7. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY [REVIEW

    RATIU Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology overcomes the limitation of applying conventional methods to impart certain properties to textile materials. There is no doubt that in the next few years nanotechnology will penetrate into every area of the textile industry. Nanotextiles are nanoscale fibrous materials...

  8. Architectures for e-Textiles

    Nakad, Zahi Samir

    2003-01-01

    The huge advancement in the textiles industry and the accurate control on the mechanization process coupled with cost-effective manufacturing offer an innovative environment for new electronic systems, namely electronic textiles. The abundance of fabrics in our regular life offers immense possibilities for electronic integration both in wearable and large-scale applications. Augmenting this technology with a set of precepts and a simulation environment creates a new software/hardware archite...

  9. Textile compositions with chitosan hydrogels

    Esquena, Jordi; Vílchez, Susana; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Solans Marsa, Concepción; Miras Hernández, Jonathan; Fages-Santana, Eduardo; Ferrándiz-García, Marcela; Gironés-Bernabé, Sagrario; Cambra-Sánchez, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a novel method for providing textile substrates with novel superficial properties sensitive to external stimuli, of interest in various applications, preferably medical and cosmetic applications. The invention involves the fonnation of a hydrogel and its subsequent application to the material that can be in the fonn of a fabric, thread, or textile fibre. The invention also relates to the method for producing the hydrogel compos...

  10. 浅析新常态下石油物探企业如何加强女职工工作%The Way of Strengthening the Work of Women Workers in Petroleum Exploration Enterprise under the New Normal State

    蔡巍

    2015-01-01

    正处在改革重组、转型发展新常态下的石油物探企业 ,其女职工工作 ,既具有广泛的群众性、民主性 ,又有其特殊性.本文在客观分析石油物探企业特点及女职工现状的基础上,强调运用科学合理的方法 ,结合本企业实际,不断完善女职工管理体系,发挥其"半边天"作用 ,为石油物探企业"战严寒、创效益"做出应有贡献.%The petroleum exploration enterprise is in the new normal state of its restructure and development by transformation .The work of its women workers has its special characteristics as well as a wide mass na-ture and democratic nature .T his paper ,by analyzing the enterprise peculiarity and the present situation of its women workers ,concludes that a scientific method should be employed on the basis of the enterprise re-ality to improve women workers management system which can encourage them to play a half -the-sky role in making benefit for their enterprise .