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1

The pattern of lung function abnormalities in cotton textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reversible airway obstruction has been shown to be a characteristic finding of early byssinosis. In the chronic phase of this disease, the patterns of respiratory abnormalities have not been well defined. We examined the lung function of a cohort of 383 older (45 yr of age or more), active and retired, cotton textile workers seen both in 1973 and in 1979 in Columbia, South Carolina. A group of control subjects consisted of 277 white community residents of comparable age from Lebanon, Connecticut. Using data at follow-up, 25% of the male and 14% of the female cotton textile workers had moderate to severe obstructive airway abnormalities, as opposed to 13 and 5% for male and female control subjects (p less than 0.01). There were fewer persons with restrictive than with obstructive lung patterns among cotton textile workers and control subjects, but again, abnormalities were more prevalent among cotton textile workers. Overall, 50% of male cotton textile workers and 37% of female cotton textile workers had some abnormality of lung function, as opposed to 29% of male and 20% of female control subjects (p less than 0.001). More abnormalities were present in cotton textile workers than in control subjects when only lifetime nonsmokers were examined. We conclude that there is an increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung function abnormalities among cotton textile workers when compared with control subjects, with the most common pattern being obstructive.

Schachter EN; Maunder LR; Beck GJ

1984-04-01

2

Long-term respiratory health effects in textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over 60 million people worldwide work in the textile or clothing industry. Recent studies have recognized the contribution of workplace exposures to chronic lung diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early studies in textile workers have focused on the relationship between hemp or cotton dust exposure and the development of a syndrome termed byssinosis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to organic dust in textile workers on chronic respiratory disease in the broader context of disease classifications, such as reversible or irreversible obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma or COPD), and restrictive lung disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Cessation of exposure to cotton dust leads to improvement in lung function. Recent animal models have suggested a shift in the lung macrophage:dendritic cell population ratio as a potential mechanistic explanation for persistent inflammation in the lung due to repeated cotton dust-related endotoxin exposure. Other types of textile dust, such as silk, may contribute to COPD in textile workers. SUMMARY: Textile dust-related obstructive lung disease has characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of chronic lung disease due to organic dust exposure in textile workers.

Lai PS; Christiani DC

2013-03-01

3

Cotton Dust Exposure, Respiratory Symptoms and PEFR in Textile Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purposes of this study was to measurement cotton dust levels in air workplace, Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determine of changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) before and after during workday among textile workers. This study was done among 31 workers carding and blowing rooms. Us...

M. Ghasemkhani; S. Firoozbakhsh; K. Azam; F. Ghardashi

4

Textile Trade and Women's Work in Vietnam and the Philippines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study makes the following findings: In mid-1980s, in both Vietnam and the Philippines, 85 to 90 percent of textile workers are women. In both Vietnam and the Philippines, wages are higher and social conditions are better in factories than in small-time production units. The political systems are, of course, different in the two countries. In the Philippines, there are labor laws outlining general minimum conditions. Also, trade unions make special agreements in various factories to improve income and working conditions. In Vietnam, there are also certain regulations carried out at a national level. The functions of trade unions are important in the implementation of social security measures. In Vietnam, state-employed workers do not lose their jobs but when crisis occurs, they only receive the basic wages. In the Philippines, there is no employment support. There is not much difference in the capacities of the textile industry in Vietnam and in the Philippines, but the small producers of textiles are much more important in Vietnam than in the Philippines. As for the garment industry, the capacity is much bigger in Vietnam than in the Philippines. The structural organization of textile and garment production has some interesting similarities and differences. In Vietnam, the cooperative sector is organized under local district handicraft unions while in the Philippines, the garment producers are organized in a national association. The small producers and the workers in the Philippines are not organized at all. The independent producers in Vietnam are not organized, either, but so far, the number is probably much smaller than that in the Philippines.

Irene Norlund

1989-01-01

5

Malignant mesothelioma in non-asbestos textile workers in Florence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By means of a review of histological diagnosis in the Pathology Department of the University of Florence, suspected cases of malignant mesothelioma, diagnosed in the period 1979-1984, were identified. Study of histological specimens permitted the selection of 13 cases of malignant mesothelioma resident in the Province of Florence. To these cases, referents were matched for age, sex, and year of hospital admission, with residence weighted for the general population of the Province. Both cases and referents (or their next of kin) completed an occupational questionnaire detailing possible occupational exposures. Out of the 13 cases of mesothelioma, 6 were textile workers and 5 of these were rag-sorters. There were only 5 textile workers among the 52 controls. No asbestos cloth production plants have been in operation in the area from which the cases and referents are derived. Possible sources of exposure to asbestos in the textile industry of this area are discussed.

Paci, E.; Dini, S.; Buiatti, E.; Seniori Costantini, A.; Lenzi, S.; Zappa, M.

1987-01-01

6

Chronic bronchitis in textile industry workers in Lodz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the cross-sectional representative study of textile workers health, the prevalence of chronic bronchitis was evaluated. In addition, the impact of working conditions, sex, age and smoking habit was assessed. Chronic bronchitis was found in 4.2% of subjects. Among the factors affecting the prevalence of bronchitis the smoking habit predominated. No significant effect of sex and dustiness in the working environment was noted.

Starzynski, Z.; Kubasiewicz, M.; Wilczynska, U.; Szymczak, W.

1984-01-01

7

Further studies of respiratory health of wool textile workers. Final report, October 1986-July 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contents include: plan of study and layout of report; estimated risks of symptoms in wool textile workers in relation to inspirable-dust concentration; lung functional and chest radiographic effects of wool dust exposure in textile workers; ability of wool-dusts to cause pulmonary inflammation in rats, and immunological responses in mice; further characterization of respiratory illnesses related to wool mill dust.

Love, R.G.; Donaldson, K.; Cullen, R.T.; Smith, T.A.; Muirhead, M.

1988-10-01

8

Prevalence of oral leukoplakia and lichen planus in 1167 Iranian textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions in textile workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess a total of 1167 textile factory workers randomly selected from a total of 6947. An overall 97 women and 1070 men aged 18-69 years (mean=31.8 years) were studied. Regular smoking during the past 6 months was considered as the smoker group. Leukoplakia lesions were classified in accordance to Axell criteria [Axell T, Pindborg JJ, Smith CJ and Van-der-waal I (1996). J Oral Pathol Med 25: 49]. RESULTS: The results showed that 115 workers (9.9%) had red and white lesions. Among these 43 positive detections (3.7%) had leukoplakia and six cases (0.5%) had lichen planus. The smoking habits of the workers were limited to cigarette smoking. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between tobacco smoking and oral leukoplakia (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant positive correlation between tobacco smoking and leukoplakia in this relatively young cohort with generally mild tobacco use. The prevalence of leukoplakia had an inverse relationship with the level of education.

Jahanbani J

2003-11-01

9

Comparative analysis of gynaecological status of workers from textile and metal industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Female workers in textile and metal industry are exposed to various physical and chemical hazards that can lead to the occurrence of gynaecological diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of gynaecological diseases among workers of textile and metal industries. METHOD The investigation comprised 197 female workers, 148 from textile and 49 from metal industry, aged from 26 to 57 years. All subjects were hospitalized based on non-gynaecological diagnoses. Gynaecological diagnoses included: tumours of the genital organs and breasts, cervical ectopy and lacerations, inflammatory diseases, disturbances of static of genital organs, cysts, and irregularities of menstrual cycle. Results Textile workers were significantly younger than metal workers, but the groups were comparable according to total and exposure work-time, qualifications and diagnosis on hospital admission. Gynaecological diseases were diagnosed among all investigated subjects. About 80% were diagnosed with tumours and inflammatory diseases. A highly statistically significant difference was observed among groups according to the presence of cervical ectopy and lacerations, which were more frequent among textile workers. Conclusion Comparison of gynaecological status of workers revealed that, among textile workers, cervical ectopy and lacerations were more frequent than among workers in metal industry. .

Milovanovi? Aleksandar; Dotli? Jelena; Jakovljevi? Branko; Milovanovi? Jovica; Petkovi? Slavica; ?orac Aleksandar; Blagojevi? Tatjana

2008-01-01

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Reproductive factors and risk of lung cancer in female textile workers in Shanghai, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Hormonal factors may play a role in the development of lung cancer in women. This study examined the relationship between lung cancer and reproductive factors in a large cohort of women, most of whom never smoked (97%). METHODS: A cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China, enrolled in a trial of breast self-examination provided information on reproductive history, demographical factors, and cigarette smoking at enrollment in 1989-91. The cohort was followed until July of 2000 for incidence of lung cancer; 824 cases were identified. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with selected reproductive factors were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling, adjusting for smoking, age, and also parity when relevant. RESULTS: Nulliparous women were at increased risk compared to parous women (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.00-1.77). Women who had gone through menopause at baseline were at increased risk compared to women of the same age who were still menstruating. Risk was higher in women with a surgical menopause (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 0.96-2.79) than in those with a natural menopause (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.84-2.18), and risk was highest in those postmenopausal women with a hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy at baseline (HR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.96-2.00), although the risk estimates were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results support experimental data that demonstrate a biological role for hormones in lung carcinogenesis.

Gallagher LG; Rosenblatt KA; Ray RM; Li W; Gao DL; Applebaum KM; Checkoway H; Thomas DB

2013-07-01

11

Cotton Dust Exposure, Respiratory Symptoms and PEFR in Textile Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to measurement cotton dust levels in air workplace, Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determine of changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) before and after during workday among textile workers. This study was done among 31 workers carding and blowing rooms. Using a short questionnaire for demographic characteristics, medical record were collected in a modified questionnaire of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and 12 air samples were collected of work area. The PEFR was measured with a peak flow meter. The mean cotton dust levels in carding and blowing rooms were 0.39±0.03 and 0.20±0.01 mg m 3, respectively. The mean age and year?s employment were 45±7.97 and 12.5±6.28, respectively. Thirty three percent of the workers were smoking. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms increased with age and employment years and there were found significantly between age and employment years with cough, phlegm, dyspnea (p<0.05, 0.05, 0.05, respectively). The mean PEFR before and after during workday were 362.9±147.8 and 305.8±147.5, respectively and subjects had found significantly (p<0.0001). The decline in PEFR was significantly associated with years employment (p<0.05), whereas with age and cotton dust levels were found to be non significant. One explanation for thelack of age and cotton dust levels effects in workers may be due to the low number of subjects and samples, respectively. Technological improvement has resulted in reduction of cotton dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms.

M. Ghasemkhani; S. Firoozbakhsh; K. Azam; F. Ghardashi

2006-01-01

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Prevalence and burden of primary headache in Akaki textile mill workers, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Headache disorders are the most common complaints worldwide. Migraine, tension-type and cluster headaches account for majority of primary headaches and impose a substantial burden on the individual, family or society at large. The burden is immense on workers, women and children in terms of missing work and school days. There are few studies that show relatively lower prevalence of primary headaches in Africa as compared to Europe and America. There might be many reasons for this lower prevalence. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and burden of primary headaches among the Akaki textile factory workers, which may provide data for the local and international level toward the campaign of lifting the burden of headache worldwide. The overall 1-year prevalence of all types of primary headaches was found to be 16.4%, and that of migraine was 6.2%. The prevalence of migraine in females was 10.1% while it was 3.7% in males. The prevalence of tension-type headaches was found to be 9.8%. This was 16.3 % in females as compared to 5.7% in males. The burden of the primary headaches in terms of lost workdays, gross under recognition and absence of effective treatment is tremendous. In conclusion, the prevalence of primary headaches in the Akaki textile mill workers is significant, particularly in females, and the burden is massive, in a place of poverty and ignorance. We recommend the availability and administration of specific therapy to the factory workers with primary headaches, and community based well-designed study for the whole nation's rural and urban population.

Takele GM; Tekle Haimanot R; Martelletti P

2008-04-01

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Ventilatory functions in cotton textile workers and the role of some inflammatory cytokines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to cotton dust in industrial environments causes inflammation in the airways of the exposed workers. This may manifest as respiratory complaints and changes in the respiratory functions after work shift and in the baseline of their ventilatory functions. The study aimed to investigate the effect of occupational exposure to cotton dust on respiratory symptoms, ventilatory functions and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1?). The study was conducted on 63 textile workers and 65 nonexposed subjects. Both groups were matched for age, socioeconomic status and smoking habit. The respirable dust measured in the workplace did not exceed the permissible values of the Egyptian law 1994. The bacterial counts detected were within the occupational exposure limits of the industrial settings. The results revealed that the percentage of respiratory symptoms was higher in textile workers. Respiratory complaints were chronic cough (33.2%), chronic bronchitis (39.7%) and dyspnea (23.8%) in textile workers compared to (6.2%, 6.2% and 1.5%), respectively, in controls. There was a marked reduction in the ventilatory functions (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in the textile workers compared to the controls. The additive effect of smoking on the ventilatory functions was not apparent. The ventilatory functions of the workers were significantly positively correlated with the duration of exposure. The cytokines were insignificantly higher in the textile workers compared to their controls. The textile workers with respiratory complaints showed significant decline in ventilatory functions and elevation in the cytokine levels compared to the nonsymtomatizing workers with significant difference in interleukin 1? and interleukin 6. In conclusion, the results supported the fact that exposure to cotton dust deteriorates ventilatory functions and elevates proinflammatory cytokine levels. Analysis of the release of cytokines can be used to evaluate the immune responses to organic dust-induced airway inflammation.

Beshir S; Mahdy-Abdallah H; Saad-Hussein A

2013-03-01

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Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Functions of Workers Employed in Turkish Textile Dyeing Factories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dyes are known to be a causative agent of occupational asthma in workers exposed to them. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms among textile workers. The study population comprised 106 exposed workers and a control (unexposed) group. Data were collected by a questionnaire. PFTs (Pulmonary Function Test) were performed. Among the exposed workers 36.8% defined phlegm. Respiratory symptoms were not significantly different between two groups. The employment duration of the exposed workers with phlegm was longer than those without phlegm (p = 0.027). The mean % predicted of FEF25–75 of the exposed workers was found to be significantly lower than the control (unexposed) group (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that textile dyeing might cause respiratory symptoms in workers.

Sibel Ozkurt; Beyza Akdag Kargi; Murat Kavas; Fatma Evyapan; Göksel Kiter; Sevin Baser

2012-01-01

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Effect of scapular muscle endurance on chronic shoulder pain in textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scapular muscle endurance on chronic shoulder pain in textile workers. METHODS: In total, 91 textile workers were divided into two groups based on the presence (n=43) or absence (n=48) of chronic shoulder pain, as assessed using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). The endurance of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles was assessed using the Scapular Muscle Endurance (SME) test. RESULTS: In the group with chronic shoulder pain, mean scapular muscle endurance was significantly lower than that in the pain-free group (t-test, p< 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between rest - activity pain intensity and SME (Pearson correlation analysis, p< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Scapular muscle endurance has an effect on the development of shoulder pain in textile workers.

Eraslan U; Gelecek N; Genc A

2013-01-01

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Case-referent study of lung tumors in non-asbestos textile workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case series in the Province of Florence showed an increased risk of mesothelioma in textile workers (nonasbestos) and a survey of working conditions confirmed potential exposure to asbestos. In order to investigate the risk in textile workers, including some specific job titles, a case-referent study on lung tumors was carried out. The lung cancer cases included 441 males with histologically confirmed primary lung cancer during the period 1980-1983. Referents included 1,075 males selected from two hospitals and matched for age, sex, and smoking habits. Those who had ''ever worked'' in the textile industry showed an adjusted odds ratio of 1.52 (95% C.I. 1-2.25) compared with other ''industrial workers.'' This moderately increased risk is maintained in selected jobs in the textile industry. An analysis of the modifying effect of time factors showed an increased risk in the period of 15-35 years from the date of first employment in the industry. The results support the hypothesis that a probable risk of lung cancer in textile workers in the Prato area was related to asbestos exposure.

Paci, E.; Buiatti, E.; Geddes, M.

1987-01-01

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Effect of occupational exposure to aflatoxins on some liver tumor markers in textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In a study of textile workers, the effects of occupational exposure to cotton dust-with possible exposure to aflatoxin-on levels of some liver tumor biomarkers were explored. METHODS: The study included 58 textile workers and 64 controls. Skin prick tests, urinary Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and the tumor biomarkers (alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU), insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1) were measured. RESULTS: Positive reactants to Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and cotton dust were significantly higher in pre-spinning (14.3%, 28.6%, and 28.6%, respectively) and spinning workers (25.0%, 33.3%, and 25.0%, respectively) compared to controls (4.7%, 7.8%, and 3.1%, respectively). Urinary AFM1 was significantly higher in the pre-spinning, spinning, and weaving groups compared to controls (554.2?±?346.2?pg/ml, 459.1?±?781.6?pg/ml, 296.5?±?336.5?pg/ml and 68.5?±?136.8?pg/ml, respectively). We found a highly significant increase in levels of serum AFU in textile workers, compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fungi had a significant effect on AFM1 measurements and tumor biomarkers, especially in allergic textile workers (with the exception of the arginase biomarker), though results were generally within normal limits.

Saad-Hussein A; Beshir S; Moubarz G; Elserougy S; Ibrahim MI

2013-07-01

18

Byssinosis in South Africa. A survey of 2411 textile workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first study of the prevalence of byssinosis in the South African cotton textile industry is described. Questionnaires were administered to 2411 subjects from six textile mills. Height and weight were measured and pulmonary function was tested before and after the first shift of a working week. Dust concentrations were measured using a Lumsden-Lynch vertical elutriator sampler. The prevalence of byssinosis (all grades) according to work departments was as follows: spinning 11.2%, winding 6.1%, and weaving 6.4%. Subjects with symptoms of byssinosis had a significantly reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio when compared with controls matched for age, height and weight. Dust concentrations in many areas of the preparation and spinning processes exceeded the World Health Organisation's recommended permissible exposure limit for cotton dust in spinning operations. The prevalence of byssinosis in this study appears to be lower than that documented elsewhere. The mill design, machinery in use and environmental conditions in the South African cotton textile industry appear to be similar to those in Egypt and the USA before 1978. South Africa differs from these and other countries, including the UK, in having an exceptionally high labour turnover rate, which has reduced exposure periods. The subjects were found to have a high prevalence of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis (3.4% for males and 2.2% for females), and in this population this disease appeared to cause more respiratory impairment than byssinosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2718071

White, N W

1989-05-01

19

Byssinosis in South Africa. A survey of 2411 textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first study of the prevalence of byssinosis in the South African cotton textile industry is described. Questionnaires were administered to 2411 subjects from six textile mills. Height and weight were measured and pulmonary function was tested before and after the first shift of a working week. Dust concentrations were measured using a Lumsden-Lynch vertical elutriator sampler. The prevalence of byssinosis (all grades) according to work departments was as follows: spinning 11.2%, winding 6.1%, and weaving 6.4%. Subjects with symptoms of byssinosis had a significantly reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio when compared with controls matched for age, height and weight. Dust concentrations in many areas of the preparation and spinning processes exceeded the World Health Organisation's recommended permissible exposure limit for cotton dust in spinning operations. The prevalence of byssinosis in this study appears to be lower than that documented elsewhere. The mill design, machinery in use and environmental conditions in the South African cotton textile industry appear to be similar to those in Egypt and the USA before 1978. South Africa differs from these and other countries, including the UK, in having an exceptionally high labour turnover rate, which has reduced exposure periods. The subjects were found to have a high prevalence of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis (3.4% for males and 2.2% for females), and in this population this disease appeared to cause more respiratory impairment than byssinosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

White NW

1989-05-01

20

Shift work and sleep disorder among textile mill workers in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the length and quality of sleep among shift workers at Bahir Dar textile mill. DESIGN: A cross sectional study using structured questionnaire that contained sociodemographic variables, duration of work, work schedule, number of sleeping hours, sleep disorders, and associated reasons for such disorders. SETTING: A textile mill in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. SUBJECTS: Three-hundred ninety four random sample of production workers of the mill. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sleep disorders, and the impact of external and home environment on sleep. RESULTS: The mean duration of work in the factory was 25.4 +/- 7.1 years. Ninety-seven per cent of the study population work in a rotating eight hourly shift system. The mean number of hours a worker sleeps after a worked shift was 5.1 +/- 2.3. Two hundred thirty (58.4%) claimed to experience a sleep disorder. Sleep disturbance was significantly associated with rotating shift work, external environmental noise, and working in the spinning department. CONCLUSION: The majority of the workers in Bahir Dar textile mill experienced sleep disturbances as detailed in the study methodology.

Abebe Y; Fantahun M

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Occupational morbidities and their association with nutrition and environmental factors among textile workers of desert areas of Rajasthan, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Rajasthan 21,000 workers are engaged in hand processing textile industries (process gray/raw cotton cloth). They are exposed to hazards of the textile industries besides the harsh conditions of the desert which contributes to adverse effects on their health. To explore the occupational health problems of the desert textile workers and their association with nutrition and environmental factors, investigations were carried-out in two districts, Jodhpur and Pali. Data on occupational disease conditions, environmental factors, nutritional deficiency signs and anemia were collected for a total of 1,240 individuals out of which 845 were textile workers and 395 were comparative group workers of the same age groups. The main disease conditions, i.e. aches (19.4%), respiratory (12.1%) and fever (7.7%), were higher in textile workers than the comparative group. Dyeing group workers suffered the most (25.5%) from aches, significantly higher than the comparative group (11.6%), may be due to a higher percentage of severe anemia, besides physical labour. Printing and bleaching group workers suffered from respiratory problems (15.5%) almost twice as much as the comparative group, possibly due to exposure to fumes of acids and use of chemical dyes. Housing conditions, personal hygiene and education showed negative associations with disease conditions but positive associations with anemia. The study revealed that in the textile industry, disease conditions vary with the categorization of work. The findings suggest the need for implementation of safety measures according to the type of work in textile industries, besides extension of health and nutrition education and welfare programs.

Singh MB; Fotedar R; Lakshminarayana J

2005-09-01

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Cotton dust, endotoxin and cancer mortality among the Shanghai textile workers cohort: a 30-year analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although occupational exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin is associated with adverse respiratory health, associations with cancer are unclear. We investigated cancer mortality in relation to cotton dust and endotoxin exposure in the Shanghai textile workers cohort. METHODS: We followed 444 cotton textile and a reference group of 467 unexposed silk workers for 30 years (26 777 person-years). HRs for all cancers combined (with and without lung cancer) and gastrointestinal cancer were estimated in Cox regression models as functions of cotton textile work and categories of cumulative exposure (low, medium, high), after adjustment for covariates including pack-years smoked. Different lag years accounted for disease latency. RESULTS: Risks of mortality from gastrointestinal cancers and all cancers combined, with the exclusion of lung cancer, were increased in cotton workers relative to silk workers. When stratified by category of cumulative cotton exposure, in general, risks were greatest for 20-year lagged medium exposure (all cancers HR=2.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 5.2); cancer excluding lung cancer HR=3.4 (1.7-7.0); gastrointestinal cancer HR=4.1 (1.8-9.7)). With the exclusion of lung cancer, risks of cancer were more pronounced. When stratified by category of cumulative endotoxin exposure, consistent associations were not observed for all cancers combined. However, excluding lung cancer, medium endotoxin exposure was associated with all cancers and gastrointestinal cancer in almost all lag models. CONCLUSIONS: Cotton dust may be associated with cancer mortality, especially gastrointestinal cancer, and endotoxin may play a causative role. Findings also indirectly support a protective effect of endotoxin on lung cancer.

Fang SC; Mehta AJ; Hang JQ; Eisen EA; Dai HL; Zhang HX; Su L; Christiani DC

2013-07-01

23

Cotton dust and smoking effects on lung function in cotton textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Both smoking and exposure to cotton textile dust have been associated with the development of chronic obstructive lung disease. The relative importance of these two effects are examined in this paper. This investigation is based on a cross-sectional study of white active and retire cotton textile workers 45 years and older seen in 1973 in Columbia, South Carolina with an average of 35 years worked in the mills. A questionnaire was completed and an expiratory flow volume curve obtained for each worker studied. Standard pulmonary function parameters including the forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), and the maximum expiratory flow at 50% (MEF50%), and at 25% (MEF25%) were recorded. White residents 45 years and older from three communities studied from 1972 to 1974 were used as controls. A two-way analysis of variance examined both the effects of cotton dust and smoking on lung function. Both exposures significantly influenced lung function and were found to be additive and often equally important. When one effect was more important than the other, it was in FVC and FEV1 for cotton dust and in MEF50% and MEF25% for smoking.

Beck GJ; Maunder LR; Schachter EN

1984-01-01

24

Surviving the OSHA lead standard. No. 11. Fertile women workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reproductive implications of fertile women in the factory workplace are discussed in relation to their male co-workers. Women's personal hygiene is viewed as the most important variable in worker protection from possible lead hazards. (PSB)

Lundquist, M.

1980-01-01

25

WOMEN FACTORY WORKERS AND HOUSING CHOICE Case study: The experience of women factory workers in SIER Surabaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper give the contribution to the characteristic of women factory workers in housing choice. The phenomena about women factory workers have low affordability in housing, was explored again by life story research approach. With qualitative methods, it was found that the cheap price is not the key factors that influincing them in housing choice. But their characteristic as young workers, migrant workers, and women workers showed the essential factors in housing choice.

Lilianny Sigit Arifin

2000-01-01

26

Prevalence and burden of primary headache in Akaki textile mill workers, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Headache disorders are the most common complaints worldwide. Migraine, tension-type and cluster headaches account for majority of primary headaches and impose a substantial burden on the individual, family or society at large. The burden is immense on workers, women and children in terms of missing ...

Takele, Getahun Mengistu; Tekle Haimanot, Redda; Martelletti, Paolo

27

A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and awareness about mode of transmission of HIV. This cross-sectional study of 250 textile workers reveal that 76.4% worker know that HIV can be transmitted by unsafe sexual route while 43.2% of workers does not know that HIV can be spread through reused injections. 43 worker currently had extra marital or premarital sexual relations and among them 48.8% had used condom during last such intercourse.

Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara, Sarita Mangukiya, Vimalkumar Tailor

2010-01-01

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Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. AIM: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. METHOD: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were s (more) tudied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. RESULTS: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. DISCUSSION: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

Dantas, Ivan de Picoli; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro; Anselmo-Lim, Wilma Terezinha

2013-03-01

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Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. Method: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. Results: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. Discussion: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

Dantas, Ivan de Picoli; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

2013-01-01

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Ultrasonography findings of liver in textile workers for diagnosing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Ultrasonography, as a non-invasive method, has the advantage over other imaging methods in the investigation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), related to risk factors. Objective The aim of the study was to present the value of ultrasound imaging of fatty liver during a routine checkup of the selected working population. Fatty liver was related to obesity and hyperlipidaemia, excluding alcohol and diabetes mellitus. Method 120 textile workers were examined by ultrasound; blood cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in the meantime. Ultrasonography finding in the liver was normal echogenicity or "bright" hyperechogenicity (fatty liver). Five subgroups of examinees were formed using three risk factors for fatty liver: Body Mass Index (BMI), blood cholesterol and triglycerides. Results Ultrasonographic appearance of the liver was normal in 55% of examinees, while 45% had fatty liver. The highest incidence of fatty liver (70%) was in the first subgroup with the highest risk (elevated BMI, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides). The highest incidence of normal liver (85%) was in the fifth subgroup without risk factors (normal BMI, normal blood cholesterol and triglycerides). Incidence of fatty liver between subgroups was very different with high statistical significance. Conclusion Increased fat accumulation in the liver may be diagnosed with ultrasonography and related to risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), such as obesity and hyperlipidaemia.

Marovi? Dragana

2007-01-01

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The relationship of respiratory symptoms and lung function loss in cotton textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We explored the relationship between a number of respiratory symptoms or symptom complexes (e.g., cough, recent wheeze, byssinosis) and lung function in white cotton textile workers (CTW) and control subjects 45 yr of age or older. The CTW were studied in 1973 and in 1979 in Columbia, South Carolina, and the control subjects were studied in 1972 and in 1978 in Lebanon, Connecticut. The CTW had a high prevalence of byssinosis (18%) and other symptoms. For each symptom or symptom complex, among persons with the symptom, CTW had lower lung function on the average than did control subjects. Also, among persons without the particular symptom, CTW had lower lung function than did control subjects. This pattern also occurred for persons without any respiratory symptoms (i.e., asymptomatic). Moreover, persons (CTW or control subjects separately) reporting the presence of a particular symptom had, in general, lower lung function than did those without the symptom. Among nonsmokers, all these same patterns usually held, but differences were often not statistically significant because of the small numbers of persons with symptoms. We conclude that on a group basis, respiratory function is more impaired in CTW than in control subjects with respiratory symptoms, that respiratory function is more impaired in persons (CTW or control subjects) with symptoms than in those without, and that even asymptomatic CTW have significantly greater lung function impairment than do control subjects.

Beck GJ; Schachter EN; Maunder LR

1984-07-01

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Pattern and predictors for respiratory illnesses and symptoms and lung function among textile workers in Karachi, Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine pattern and predictors for respiratory illnesses and symptoms and lung function among textile workers in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of 372 adult male textile workers from the spinning and weaving sections of 15 textile mills from Karachi. Data were collected from November to December 2009 through a structured, pretested questionnaire and spirometry. RESULTS: Prevalence of byssinosis was 10.5%, chronic cough 7.5%, chronic phlegm 12.9%, wheeze with shortness of breath 22.3%, shortness of breath (grade 2) 21%, chest tightness ever 33.3%; whereas, a low prevalence of asthma (4%) was identified in this population. Eight per cent had obstructive, 8% restrictive and 2% mixed pattern of lung function abnormality. After controlling for potential confounders, work in the spinning section predicts frequent wheeze (AOR=2.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.5), wheeze with shortness of breath (AOR=1.8; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.4), and obstructive pattern on spirometry (AOR=2.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 6.2). Prolonged duration of work predicts breathlessness grade 1 (AOR=1.8; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.1) and grade 2 (AOR=2.7; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.4), as well as decrements in Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV(1)) and FEV(1)/Forced Vital Capacity ratio. Lack of education predicts frequent wheeze (AOR=2.0; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3), and Sindhi ethnicity predicts chest tightness apart from during cold (AOR=2.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 6.6). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the burden of respiratory illnesses and symptoms, and a low prevalence of asthma among textile workers in Karachi. Work in the spinning section, lack of education, prolonged duration of work and Sindhi ethnicity, were identified as important risk factors.

Nafees AA; Fatmi Z; Kadir MM; Sathiakumar N

2013-02-01

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Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile based cottage industries: an empirical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8

2011-01-01

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[Breastfeeding among children of women workers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil). Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify variables related to weaning in the fourth month of life. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were primiparous women who underwent cesarean section, initiated breastfeeding within four hours after birth and stayed with their child in the room. The following women had higher odds of stopping breastfeeding: mothers not participating in the incentive program (OR = 3.04 [95%CI: 1.35;6.85]), mothers who did not have a 30-minute break during the working hours (OR = 4.10 [95%CI: 1.81;9.26]), and mothers whose children used pacifiers (OR = 2.68 [95%CI: 1.23;5.83]) or bottles (OR = 14.47 [95%CI: 1.85;113.24]. CONCLUSIONS: The mothers who participated in the breastfeeding incentive group, who did not offer pacifiers and bottles to their babies and who had a break during the working hours stopped breastfeeding after the fourth month. Support and information on lactation management and on their rights guaranteed by law, together with the increase in the length of maternity leave, may play an important role in maintaining breastfeeding.

Brasileiro AA; Ambrosano GM; Marba ST; Possobon Rde F

2012-08-01

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Evidence of a paradoxical relationship between endotoxin and lung cancer after accounting for left truncation in a study of Chinese female textile workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Occupational exposure to endotoxin, found in Gram-negative bacteria in organic material, has been associated predominantly with a reduced risk of lung cancer among workers. An inverse exposure-response gradient among women textile workers in Shanghai, China, has been reported previously. In this case-cohort study, we investigated the influence of left truncation, which can itself induce a downward trend, on the observed association. METHODS: Subjects were enrolled between 1989 and 1991 and followed until 1998. The data were left-truncated as all subjects were hired before baseline. An analysis was performed with 3038 subcohort members and 602 cases of incident lung cancer. To evaluate left truncation, we compared lung cancer rates in those hired longer ago with those hired more recently among unexposed subjects. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to estimate incident rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Among those who were never exposed to workplace endotoxin, we compared lung cancer rates in those hired >35 years before enrolment with workers hired ?35 years before enrolment and observed a reduced risk in the former group, IRR=0.74, 95% CI (0.51 to 1.07). After accounting for this downward bias from left truncation, the reduced risk associated with endotoxin remained among those hired ?50 years before enrolment. In contrast, there was suggestion of an increased risk of lung cancer among those hired >50 years ago. CONCLUSIONS: After examination of left truncation bias, an inverse dose-response between endotoxin and lung cancer remained for all subjects except those hired longest ago.

Applebaum KM; Ray RM; Astrakianakis G; Gao DL; Thomas DB; Christiani DC; Lavalley MP; Li W; Checkoway H; Eisen EA

2013-10-01

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Waiting time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among Danish workers in the textile, clothing, and footwear industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion.

Schaumburg, Inger; Boldsen, J L

1992-01-01

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Migrant women farm workers in the occupational health literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little attention has been given to the vulnerable populations of migrant women agricultural workers. A systemic review in PubMed was carried out (1990-2008) using terms related to migrant agricultural workers, with specific focus on women. Case studies from Lebanon and California are presented to highlight key physical, psychosocial, and cultural risk factors among these working populations. The review revealed a host of potential problems that span from pesticide exposure and musculoskeletal disorders to socio-cultural barriers. Comprehensive exposure-outcome and intervention studies focusing specifically on migrant women in agriculture are lacking. In depth studies focusing on the work environment of migrant women workers in the agricultural sector are needed. Personal and environmental factors that influence health should be considered in any effective intervention aiming to influence policy making and have a positive impact on these vulnerable working populations.

Habib RR; Fathallah FA

2012-01-01

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Why Workers Switch Industry? The Case of Textile Industry of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify core reasons for employee’s turnover. The study is descriptive and cross-sectional. Twenty turnover intentions are identified from the literature and a questionnaire is designed on 5 point likert-scale for data collection. A sample of 160 respondents has been randomly selected from the textile industry of Pakistan. The data has been analyzed through one sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. The study reveals the most prominent factors responsible for employees’ intentions to leave and offer practitioners and researchers some practical recommendations to retain the workforce.

Madiha Rehman Farooqui; Mariam Ahmed

2013-01-01

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Women employed in textile sector in Turkey and their problems: (Istanbul-Adana-Denizli-Sivas and Tekirda? Province samples)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose of the study is to determine the problems of women working in textile factories as parallel to the characteristics of female labor in Turkey and the factors affecting these problems. With this purpose, 564 women working in textile factories in Istanbul, Adana, Denizli, Tekirda? and Sivas provinces were included in the study. It was determined according to the results obtained that factors affecting the problems women encounter in working life in a statistically significant way (P>0,25) are monthly income of the family, form of the family, number of members of the household, quality of the intra-family relationships, daily working hours, job satisfaction, relationships of the employee with managers and way of making decisions inside the family, respectively.

Sezer Ayan

2011-01-01

40

ABC of women workers' rights and gender equality  

CERN Document Server

This concise and easy to read guidebook assists the layperson in understanding the legal frameworks and socio-economic developments surrounding gender equality in the world of work. Completely updated and revised, this guide incorporates important information relevant to women workers such as women in development, gender mainstreaming, the glass ceiling and much more. Each entry in the guide provides a clear, succinct definition and directs the reader to relevant laws, ILO conventions, and other topics for further research.

International Labour Office. Geneva

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Smoking and cotton dust effects in cotton textile workers: an analysis of the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume curve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cotton textile workers have an increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung function patterns when compared to control subjects. Similar abnormal lung function patterns may occur with other respiratory diseases, notably those associated with cigarette smoking. The shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve has been used to characterize patterns of lung function abnormality. The authors defined a new functional parameter (angle ..beta..) related to the shape of the MEFV curve in order better to characterize the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure. In this study, 477 cotton textile workers, both current smokers and never smokers 45 years and older, were compared to 932 similarly aged control subjects from three communities: Lebanon and Ansonia, CT, and Winnsboro, SC. Smokers, regardless of their occupational exposure or sex, have smaller values of ..beta.. than do nonsmokers. Cotton textile workers who have more abnormal lung function than do controls, cannot be distinguished from controls by ..beta... They suggest that such functional differences between cotton and smoking effects may reflect injury to different portions of the bronchial tree.

Schachter, E.N.; Kapp, M.C.; Maunder, L.R.; Beck, G.; Witek, T.J.

1986-04-01

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Workplace Control: Women and Minority Workers in America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the effects of gender and race on American workers’ workplace control. Scholarship on gender, work, and occupation states that gender and race are important predictors of the extent of control workers exercise in workplaces. Literature also posits that job satisfaction and work-family conflict also contribute substantially to workers’ workplace control. However, there exists hardly any empirical study that explores the impacts of gender, race, job satisfaction and work-family conflict altogether on their workplace control. That is what we accomplished in this study. Obtaining data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW), we ask: 1) Do women and men workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? 2) Do non-white and white workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? And 3) Do gender and race of the workers influence their workplace control when job satisfaction and work-family conflict are considered? Analyses are based on quantitative methods. Results show that women perceive to have less control over their workplace as compared to men. Moreover, job satisfaction is a more significant predictor of their workplace control than work-family spillover.

Dina Banerjee; Ying Yang

2013-01-01

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Factory Women Workers: Household life and quality of life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working quality of life must involve a set of factors such as safeness, comfort, leisure, employment and wage project, functional ascension possibilities, satisfaction, besides individual development and qualification guarantees. This study aimed at approaching the factory women workers’ quality of life in the threshold of everyday life and work. It was an ethnographic research with the follow-up of ten women workers from a shoe factory in Sobral – Ce, primarily identified in a public health service. Data were gathered by means of participative observations registered in a field diary and a semi-structured interview route, both accomplished during the domiciliary visits. Although submitted to tiring conditions, depriving themselves of time for dedicating to them or their families, it was verified that those women affirm liking their job at the factory. They consider being well paid, appraised, helpful and beneficiated by it, feelings that they do not find in the household work. The last considered to be an obligation, an invisible work that no one values and that does not bring rewards. It is concluded that these factors interfere in those women’s quality of life.

Maristela Inês Osawa Chagas; Maria de Fátima Cardoso Marques; Maria Grasiela Teixeira Barroso

2005-01-01

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IMPACT OF MICRONUTRIENT FORTIFIED FOOD SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRITIONAL PROFILE AMONG GINNING WOMEN WORKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ginning factory discharges large amount of cotton dust, which might decrease haematological indices among the selected subjects. An attempt was made to study the haematological indices of women labourers located in the urban areas of Tirupur and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 150 non-pregnant, non-lactating adult women performing varied textile tasks and aged between 20 to 60 years were identified randomly from ginning (n=150) (gin house, gutter and sorting sections) industries. Socio demographic, work pattern, nutritional and health status were assessed by administering a questionnaire. Further, to correct micronutrient deficiency, iron and folic acid fortified soy biscuits were formulated. Intervention study was conducted among the selected moderate anaemic ginners (n=20). l00 g of micronutrient fortified soy biscuit containing 13.5 g of protein, 8.4 mg of iron (ferrous fumarate) and 120 µg of folic acid was supplemented to experimental group of women as a midmorning and midevening snack for a period of four months. Therapeutic efficacy of food supplement was studied by assessing their anthropometric and haematological conditions at pre and post supplementation period. Anthropometric indices showed an improvement in weight (48.7 ± 4.98 to 51.5 ± 6.25) and BMI (19.02 to 23.04). Haematological indices revealed that the mean haemoglobin of experimental group improved to 11.04 ± 0.56 g/dl from 9.1 ± 0.67. Similarly increase in serum iron from 61.9 ± 3.24 to 65.0 ± 2.95 µg/dl was noticed and showed a significant difference at 1 per cent. Improvement in total protein (6.62 ± 0.49 to 8.11 ± 0.20 g/dl), albumin (3.9 ± 0.36 to 4.73 ± 0.31 g/dl) and globulin (2.82 ± 0.24 to 3.8 ± 0.29 g/dl) showed significant difference at 1 per cent level. Similarly, an increase in Total WBC count (7326 ± 19.5 to 9725 ± 25.5 cumm), reduction in lymphocyte (942.16 ± 3.6 to 35.2 ± 2.2 per cent) seen among the ginning women workers.

D.Sridevi; S.Radhaisri

2013-01-01

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[Workers in primary health care and partner violence against women].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Health Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of primary care. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi(2) to compare the answers. RESULTS: Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). CONCLUSIONS: All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.

Arredondo-Provecho AB; Broco-Barredo M; Alcalá-Ponce de León T; Rivera-Álvarez A; Jiménez Trujillo I; Gallardo-Pino C

2012-01-01

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A large scale gene-centric association study of lung function in newly-hired female cotton textile workers with endotoxin exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to endotoxin is associated with decrements in pulmonary function, but how much variation in this association is explained by genetic variants is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with the rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) decline by a large scale genetic association study in newly-hired healthy young female cotton textile workers. METHODS: DNA samples were genotyped using the Illumina Human CVD BeadChip. Change rate in FEV1 was modeled as a function of each SNP genotype in linear regression model with covariate adjustment. We controlled the type 1 error in study-wide level by permutation method. The false discovery rate (FDR) and the family-wise error rate (FWER) were set to be 0.10 and 0.15 respectively. RESULTS: Two SNPs were found to be significant (P<6.29×10(-5)), including rs1910047 (P?=?3.07×10(-5), FDR?=?0.0778) and rs9469089 (P?=?6.19×10(-5), FDR?=?0.0967), as well as other eight suggestive (P<5×10(-4)) associated SNPs. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were also observed, such as rs1910047 and rs1049970 (P?=?0.0418, FDR?=?0.0895); rs9469089 and age (P?=?0.0161, FDR?=?0.0264). Genetic risk score analysis showed that the more risk loci the subjects carried, the larger the rate of FEV1 decline occurred (P trend?=?3.01×10(-18)). However, the association was different among age subgroups (P?=?7.11×10(-6)) and endotoxin subgroups (P?=?1.08×10(-2)). Functional network analysis illustrates potential biological connections of all interacted genes. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants together with environmental factors interact to affect the rate of FEV1 decline in cotton textile workers.

Zhang R; Zhao Y; Chu M; Mehta A; Wei Y; Liu Y; Xun P; Bai J; Yu H; Su L; Zhang H; Hu Z; Shen H; Chen F; Christiani DC

2013-01-01

47

Textile Exchange  

Science.gov (United States)

From crochet machines to the uses of acrylic yarn, the Textile Exchange website has rather fine comprehensive coverage across the nooks and crannies of the textile industry. Visitors to the homepage will find a search engine and a very thorough products directory which includes topical headings like "Textile Products", "Fibers, Yarns & Threads", and "Textile Chemicals". After looking over a few of these areas, visitors will definitely want to peruse the "Knowledge Center". Here they can learn more about fiber and textile history, and the types of weaves. One section that should not be missed is the "Textile Personalities" area. For those individuals who've been pining to learn about giants of the textile industry such as John Mercer, John Kay (who patented the flying shuttle), and Richard Roberts, this area will be quite the eye-opener.

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The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309

Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

2011-12-01

49

The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global.

Edmunds K; Berman H; Basok T; Ford-Gilboe M; Forchuk C

2011-12-01

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COATED TEXTILES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A textile material (21, 21') comprising a textile substrate (22, 22') has, at least on part of the surface of the textile substrate (22, 22'), a coating (24, 24') that contains at least one compound chosen from the group composed of hydrogels, except keratin hydrogels, of polyurethanes, polyvinyl chloride, polytetrafluoroethylene and any desired combinations of two or more of the aforementioned compounds. This textile material (21, 21') can be used particularly as a substance for an artificial intervertebral disc (16'', 16'''), as a replacement for the nucleus pulposus (16', 16''), cage (16, 16'), vertebral body implant (16''''), articular surface substitute, or as a tube (18, 18', 18', 18'') in vertebroplasty or nucleoplasty.

ABT NIELS A; CASUTT GUIDO

51

Textile World  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile World is a website for textile industry professionals, manufacturers, investors, as well as those who would like to offer students, young or old, a glimpse into the world of textile production. This website is the perfect vehicle to see all that the textile industry encompasses. One look at the menu on the left hand side of the page informs visitors of several different areas of textile production, such as the "Yarn Market", "Nonwovens/Technical Textiles", "Fiber World", and "Dyeing Printing and Finishing". The "Nonwovens/Technical Textiles" link takes visitors to articles such as "Nonwovens Focus: Human-Centered Applications", which discusses the various types of products that constitute nonwovens. Those products include baby diapers, feminine products, hygiene products, and medical and protective textiles, such as surgical gowns and drapes, and those textiles that protect humans against liquid, biological and chemical agents. An evenhanded look at the increasing friendliness towards the environment that is being manufactured into baby diapers is discussed thoroughly in the article, as is the growing demand for nonwovens in some countries.

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Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil/ Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil/ Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças (more) e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalho Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cinco madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, co (more) mo consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajo Abstract in english This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, from a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor co (more) nditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work

Morais, Ana Márcia Bustamante de; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Almeida, Maria Irismar de

2011-02-01

53

Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both. PMID:20879188

Werbner, Pnina

2010-01-01

54

Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both.

Werbner P

2010-01-01

55

Women's empowerment in rural China: the impact of community health workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surmang Foundation's Clinic is located in Qinghai Province, Yushu Prefecture, Xiao Surmang Township, China. It is a remote, 97 percent ethnic Tibetan, mountainous region with little access to organized health care services. Surmang Foundation, a US 501(c)3 charity, has organized a cadre of local women to provide community-based care and education to women, resulting in a notable reduction in maternal mortality based on the report of community members. A festival organized to celebrate the accomplishments of the community health workers provided an opportunity for the women to demonstrate how their roles benefit themselves and their community. Both health care services and support for community empowerment are provided through the community health worker model.

Levi A; Factor D; Deutsch K

2013-02-01

56

TEXTILE SALVAGE  

CERN Document Server

Readers are reminded that Geneva's agency for salvaging used clothing, other textiles and old shoes (Coordination d'oeuvres d'entraide pour la récupération de vêtements, textiles et chaussures usagés dans le canton de Genève) has a container in the car park outside CERN's Meyrin site. In 2001, 1000 tonnes of such items were collected in the Canton of Geneva (as compared with 840 tonnes in 2000), of which 4460 kg came from the container outside the Meyrin site. The operation's organisers (Caritas, Centre Social Protestant, the Geneva Section of the Swiss Red Cross, Terre des Hommes, the Geneva branch of Terre des Hommes Suisse and Emmaüs, Geneva) would like to thank all those who have donated clothing or otherwise supported their campaign. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848 http://www.cern.ch/relations/

Relations with the Host States Service

2002-01-01

57

[Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces. PMID:22031197

Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

2011-10-01

58

[Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, Sao Paulo State, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

Prazeres TJ; Navarro VL

2011-10-01

59

Hospital textiles, are they a possible vehicle for healthcare-associated infections?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Textiles are a common material in healthcare facilities; therefore it is important that they do not pose as a vehicle for the transfer of pathogens to patients or hospital workers. During the course of use hospital textiles become contaminated and laundering is necessary. Laundering of healthcare textiles is most commonly adequate, but in some instances, due to inappropriate disinfection or subsequent recontamination, the textiles may become a contaminated inanimate surface with the possibility to transfer pathogens. In this review we searched the published literature in order to answer four review questions: (1) Are there any reports on the survival of microorganisms on hospital textiles after laundering? (2) Are there any reports that indicate the presence of microorganisms on hospital textiles during use? (3) Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection of patients? (4) Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection for healthcare workers?

Fijan S; Turk SŠ

2012-09-01

60

Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect.

Chakrabarti D; Bhattachheriya N

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Determinants of the Use of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women Workers in Urban Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThis case-control study aimed to determine critical factors influencing the use of clinical breast examination and mammography among women workers in Monterrey, Mexico.MethodsWe determined case and control status from survey results. Cases were defined in accordance with the guidelines of the Official Mexican Standard as lack of at least one clinical breast examination during the past year by surveyed women. For women older than 40 years, cases were further defined as lack of at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years and, for women older than 50, lack of a mammogram in the previous year. Controls were defined as adherence by surveyed women to these guidelines. Participants (N = 306 clerks aged 18–60) provided information about their practices, knowledge, and perceptions regarding breast cancer screening. Factors identified by odds ratio analysis as significantly different between cases and controls were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.ResultsSurvey participants’ knowledge about the utility of breast self-examination (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–33.9), perception that the health care system has enough equipment and personnel for clinical breast examination (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–13.2), and perception that they have enough time to wait for and receive clinical breast examinations (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–5.8) significantly predisposed women to use screening services independent of years of formal education, number of pregnancies, number of living children, hours worked per week, and monthly family income.ConclusionPerception of organizational and structural factors played a significant role in screening use. Our findings have implications for the general population, provider practices, community interventions, and future development of strategies to increase use of screening services in similar locales.

Kristin Marie Wall, BS; Georgina Mayela Núñez-Rocha, DMSc; Ana María Salinas-Martínez, DrPH; Sergio R. Sánchez-Peña, PhD

2008-01-01

62

Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

2008-01-01

63

International Consultation on Micro-Chip Technology: Its Impact on the Lives of Women Workers. Summary of Proceedings (Manila, Philippines, October 5-15, 1986).  

Science.gov (United States)

An international consultation was attended by 40 women workers, educators, and organizers who work directly with women affected by the new "global assembly line" that has developed as a part of the microchip technology industry. The women, who represented 12 countries, shared information and organizing experiences and worked to consolidate an…

Participatory Research Group, Toronto (Ontario).

64

The Textile Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The Textile Museum in Washington, D.C. and its website offer a great look into an oft-ignored medium. Historic textiles, functional textiles, and art textiles can all be found on this museum's website, thanks to the collecting savvy of George Hewitt Myers, who founded the museum in 1925. Visitors will enjoy learning about the Textile of the Month when they go to the "Collections" link, found under "Exhibitions and Collections". Scroll down after reading the introductory paragraphs to "Collections", to learn about almost 60 textiles that have been featured as a textile of the month. There is a sock, (possibly from Egypt) from the 12th century, a 19th Century Bhutanese Throne Cover and an intriguing raffia skirt from 20th century Zaire. Visitors can click on the title below the thumbnail image of the textile to see it expanded in all its glory. Visitors can also read about what the textile is made from, how it was made, and how it was worn. As with any type of art work, its conservation is of utmost importance. In the "Care & Display" link at the bottom of any page, visitors can read the techniques employed by the museum to combat cloth-eating bugs, store Oriental carpets, and hang textiles appropriately.

65

[A study of textile noise influence on maternal function and embryo-growth  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ninety hundred seventy-eight female textile workers exposed to noise (greater than or equal to 85 dB (A)) were recruited as the subjects of observation group, and 402 nonexposed female workers were chosen as the controls (less than 75 dB (A)). According to noise level, the observation group was subdivided into three groups: group 1, 100-104 dB (A), 416 workers; group 2, 95-99 dB, (A), 310 workers; group 3, 85-94 dB (A), 252 workers. Non-conditional logistic regression model was used to exclude the effect of mixed factors, such as age and working life. The result showed that noise-exposure could have some adverse effect on reproductive function of women and embryo growth. The workers exposed to noise had significantly increased incidence rates for irregular menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhea, lumbago, hypertension in pregnancy, threatened abortion, spontaneous abortion, premature labour, dystocia and low birth weight of newborns. When the noise intensity heightened, the sorts of abnormal function of reproduction increased and the risk of incidence raised too. These demonstrated a dose-response relationship between the noise intensity and incidence rate. The noise-working life had significant effects on the incidence of hypertension in pregnancy and prematurity. Although the age had some influence, it was not statistically significant. In terms of the maternal function and embryo growth, the factors in order of risk are: noise intensity greater than working life greater than age.

Zhan C; Lu Y; Li C; Wu Z; Long Y; Zhou L; Zhou B

1991-09-01

66

Measurement of Organochlorine Pesticides Level in Milk Agricultural Women Workers (Mazandaran-Iran)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main purpose of this study levels of some organochlorine pesticides were determined in milk samples of mothers living in two agricultural cities of Iran (Sari and Babol in Mazandaran province) in order to assess the trends of woman workers exposure to persistent pollutants. The milk samples gathered from breastfeeding women routine determination of OCPs was performed with GC/ECD. The resulte showed the highest amounts were found for p,p`-DDE, which was 0.056 ?g g-1 in fat in Sari and 0.045 ?g g-1 fat in Babol , followed by ?-HCH, which was 0.037 ?g g-1 fat and 0.024 ?g g-1 fat, respectively. The low level of OCPs in human milk as found in the present study support the Iranian policy of encouraging breast-feeding. The fact that the mother breast-feeds her child and that she originally comes from a region where DDT is still in use as a vector control agent, as well as the former use of organochlorine pesticides OCPs in agriculture, seems to be the main factors for high DDT and other OCP residues in the mothers` milk.

A.G. Ebadi; M. Shokrzadeh

2006-01-01

67

Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. RESULTS: From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education. CONCLUSIONS: We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

Mannava P; Geibel S; King'ola N; Temmerman M; Luchters S

2013-01-01

68

Corantes têxteis Textile dyes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment technologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of synthetic organic dyes.

Cláudia C. I. Guaratini; Maria Valnice B. Zanoni

2000-01-01

69

Textile solar collector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disclosed is a solar collector employing a liquid collecting medium. A textile collection surface of which the thickness possesses different densities is employed to carry the medium. These densities are such that the densities increase from the surface exposed to the sun to the opposite surface, in order to enable the liquid to run in the upper thickness. The textile collecting surface consists of at least one nonwoven textile thickness.

Guadard, Y.; Guillemaud, H.

1982-04-27

70

CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES  

CERN Document Server

We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

Relation with the Host States

2001-01-01

71

Textile Museum of Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The Textile Museum of Canada contains more than 10,000 textiles and spans almost 2,000 years and 190 world regions. Visit this virtual exhibit to learn about fabric from all over the world. You can search exhibits or explore online projects.

Canada, Textile M.

72

Wrinkle resistant cellulosic textiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for treating a cellulosic textile material so as to impart wrinkle resistance and smooth drying properties. It comprises treating the cellulosic textile material with an aqueous solution comprising trans-1,2,3,4-cyclobutane tetracarboxylic acid, and a curing catalyst, and heating the treated material so as to produce esterification and crosslinking of the material with the acid.

Kitchens, J.D.; Patton, R.T.; Nadar, R.S.

1991-08-27

73

The Textile Form of Sound  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can be shaped by sound.

Bendixen, Cecilie

2010-01-01

74

Corantes têxteis/ Textile dyes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment technologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of synthetic organic dyes.

Guaratini, Cláudia C. I.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B.

2000-02-01

75

Bioplastics in Textiles / Bioplastics in Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of available biomass that needs to be used are the main reason for bioplastics revival. In many cases it is an optimal solution for a particular purpose. The production of textile used for clothing, medicine, and the automotive industry being the main consumer of technical textile where textile constitutes almost 85% of the car interior follow this trend. The important reasons for application are functionality and biomass utilization. Permanent increase in bioplastic production capacity is expected. The paper presents new achievements in textiles and the related areas. / Zbog velike koli?ine raspoložive biomase koju treba iskoristiti bioplastika doživljava renesansu. U nekim je slu?ajevima dobro rješenje za odre?enu namjenu. Takav trend slijedi i proizvodnja tekstila za potrebe odijevanja, medicine i automobilske industrije, glavnoga korisnika tehni?kog tekstila, gdje tekstil ?ini gotovo 85 % unutrašnjosti automobila. Važni razlozi primjene su funkcionalnost i iskoristivost otpadne biomase te se o?ekuje trajno pove?anje kapaciteta za proizvodnju bioplastike. U radu su prikazana nova dostignu?a u tekstilstvu i srodnim granama.

Ana Marija GRANCARI?; Ivona JERKOVI?; Anita TARBUK

2013-01-01

76

Tear secretion dysfunction among women workers engaged in light-on tests in the TFT-LCD industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display) industry is rapidly growing in Taiwan and many other countries. A large number of workers, mainly women, are employed in the light-on test process to detect the defects of products. At the light-on test workstation, the operator is generally exposed to low humidity (in the clean room environment), flashing light, and low ambient illumination for long working hours. Many workers complained about eye discomfort, and therefore we conducted a study to evaluate the tear secretion function of light-on test workers of a TFT-LCD company. Methods We recruited workers engaged in light-on tests in the company during their periodical health examination. In addition to a questionnaire survey of demographic characteristics and ophthalmic symptoms, we evaluated the tear secretion function of both eyes of each participant using the Schirmer's lacrimal basal secretion test with anaesthesia. A participant with one or both eyes yielding abnormal test results was defined as a case of tear secretion dysfunction. Results During the study period, a total of 371 light-on test workers received the health examination at the clinic of the park, and 52 of them were excluded due to having ophthalmic diseases and other systemic diseases that may affect ophthalmic function. All the remaining 319 qualified workers agreed to participate in this study, and they were all females working by 4-shift rotations. The average age was 24.2 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8), and the average employment duration was 13.6 months (SD = 5.7). Among the 11 ophthalmic symptoms evaluated, eye dryness was the most prevalent (prevalence = 43.3%). In addition, the prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in at least one eye was 40.1% (128 cases), and contact lens users had an odds ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval = 1.02–2.94) in comparison with non-contact lens users. Comparing the Schirmer's test results of those who also participated in the screening in the previous year, we found 40 of the 156 participants (17.2%) with normal test results in the previous year turned abnormal in 2001. In contrast, only 21 of the 76 participants (9.1%) with abnormal test results in the previous year turned normal, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02 for McNemar's test). Conclusion The prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in woman workers engaged in light-on tests is high and increases with a one-year duration of employment. The use of contact lens may further increase the risk.

Su Shih-Bin; Lu Chih-Wei; Sheen Jiunn-Woei; Kuo Shu-Chun; Guo How-Ran

2006-01-01

77

The Textile Space  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Textile has within the last decade increasingly been regarded as an architectural material. Many new textiles have been developed and this has increased its applications in architecture. But how do textile and space meet and which spatial qualities can arise in this meeting? The paper describes a series of practical studies of the spatial qualities that can be established through the design of three very different fabrics. The topic is part of an ongoing Ph.D. project at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. The main theme of the Ph.D. is the inter-play between textile, space and sound. Space, established with textile, differs in several ways from rooms built of conventional building materials. Textiles are flexible - it can both be folded and moved, it can be translucent and simultaneously provide a visual barrier, it is lightweight and at the same time very strong, it is sound absorbing and it has a special poetry which is not to be found in any other material. Which spatial qualities can be obtained with these textile properties? Contemporary conception of space in architecture can be said still to rely on the modernist conception. In practical experiments it is investigated how the textiles can be given shape in relation to modernist theories of space conception. In these theories a number of specific parameters which determine the formation of space are defined. Some of these parameters are the creation of distance between objects, structuring of the space in relation to platonic solids, transparency of materials and dissolution of space boundaries.

Bendixen, Cecilie

78

[Factors associated with calcium, vitamin D supplements intake and use of hormonal replacement therapy in health workers postmenopausal women].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To know the frequency and factors associated with the intake of calcium (Ca), vitamin D supplements and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) among postmenopausal (PM) health professionals women. METHODS: During January to June 2004, health workers women of IMSS General Hospitals in Tijuana and Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, were invited to participate. An interview and measurement of calcaneous bone mineral density (BMD) were performed. The following variables were assessed: sociodemographic, clinic and gynecologic features. We defined preventive osteoporosis (OP) treatment as the use of HRT, intake of Ca supplements (> or =1000 mg/ day) and supplements of vitamin D for a least six months. RESULTS: Among 739 women interviewed, 312 were PM, and 31%, 25% and 31% have been taking Ca supplements, vitamin D, and HRT respectively. Calcium, vitamin D supplements intake and use of HTR was similar during the menopause evolution. The variables significantly associated with the use of preventive OP treatment were older age, low weight, previous ooferectomy and use of corticosteroids. In the multivariate analysis, age and underweight were significantly associated with a low bone mass density, independently of the use of preventive OP treatment CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and length of time of Ca, vitamin D supplements intake and use of HRT was low, and 50% of PM health professional women are not under preventive OP therapy.

Zonana-Nacach A; Armenta-Rivera OT

2007-07-01

79

Operárias no Cariri cearense: fábrica, família e violência doméstica Women workers in the Brazilian Northeast: factory, family and domestic violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo discutimos as mudanças representadas pela entrada de mulheres no trabalho fabril numa região de industrialização recente, buscando verificar em que medida essa inserção, em um contexto de crise do emprego e em uma região marcada pela informalidade de parte significativa das atividades econômicas, tem influenciado a redefinição dos papéis familiares e acentuado conflitos geradores de violência doméstica. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 14 mulheres que denunciaram algum tipo de violência praticada por seus maridos ou companheiros na Delegacia Regional da Mulher, no município de Crato, CE. Os dados obtidos apontam, entre outros aspectos, que a entrada das mulheres na esfera pública e a autonomia financeira, propiciadas pelo trabalho fabril, tendem a provocar mudanças nos tradicionais papéis de gênero, cujas consequências tem se expressado no questionamento do lugar do homem como provedor, nos rompimentos do grupo familiar e violência doméstica contra as trabalhadoras.In this article, we will argue about the changes represented by the entrance of women in the factory work in a region of recent industrialization, aiming at verifying to which extent such insertion, in a context of employment crisis in a region marked by informal labor activities, has influenced the redefinition of the family roles and increased conflicts that cause domestic violence. A group of 14 women workers that denounced the domestic violence in Crato City, Ceará State, was observed. We intend to recoup the changes perceived by these workers in its life of work and its ordinary life. The women entrance in the public sphere tends to pressure for changes in the traditional roles of gender with distinct gradations, since adjustments in the domestic life until disruption of the family group.

Iara Maria Araújo; Jacob Carlos Lima; Izabel Cristina Ferreira Borsoi

2011-01-01

80

Operárias no Cariri cearense: fábrica, família e violência doméstica/ Women workers in the Brazilian Northeast: factory, family and domestic violence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo discutimos as mudanças representadas pela entrada de mulheres no trabalho fabril numa região de industrialização recente, buscando verificar em que medida essa inserção, em um contexto de crise do emprego e em uma região marcada pela informalidade de parte significativa das atividades econômicas, tem influenciado a redefinição dos papéis familiares e acentuado conflitos geradores de violência doméstica. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 14 mulhere (more) s que denunciaram algum tipo de violência praticada por seus maridos ou companheiros na Delegacia Regional da Mulher, no município de Crato, CE. Os dados obtidos apontam, entre outros aspectos, que a entrada das mulheres na esfera pública e a autonomia financeira, propiciadas pelo trabalho fabril, tendem a provocar mudanças nos tradicionais papéis de gênero, cujas consequências tem se expressado no questionamento do lugar do homem como provedor, nos rompimentos do grupo familiar e violência doméstica contra as trabalhadoras. Abstract in english In this article, we will argue about the changes represented by the entrance of women in the factory work in a region of recent industrialization, aiming at verifying to which extent such insertion, in a context of employment crisis in a region marked by informal labor activities, has influenced the redefinition of the family roles and increased conflicts that cause domestic violence. A group of 14 women workers that denounced the domestic violence in Crato City, Ceará S (more) tate, was observed. We intend to recoup the changes perceived by these workers in its life of work and its ordinary life. The women entrance in the public sphere tends to pressure for changes in the traditional roles of gender with distinct gradations, since adjustments in the domestic life until disruption of the family group.

Araújo, Iara Maria; Lima, Jacob Carlos; Borsoi, Izabel Cristina Ferreira

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Forecast and Analyzis Electricity Consumption in Textile Industry in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in textile Industry in Iran. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in textile industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. On the other hand, Iranian textile industries are facing numerous problems, such as lack of liquidity and lack of foreign exchange to import raw materials and spare parts; outdated and ageing machinery because of the impossibility of renovating production lines; rise in wages; and, finally, the inefficiency of the industry. This industry uses about 8.5% of electricity and 6.4% energy of Iran industrial sector and employs about 10.9 % of all workers in manufacturing. Textile industry provides about 5.4% of Iran industries added value. Energy consumption in Iran's textile industry is inefficient, with a huge possibility of improvement. This paper aims to analyze energy demand in the current condition and in the new government's plan. This paper has simulated these models with neural network. The comparison between results of these two models illustrates the effects of this plan on the electricity consumption in textile industry in Iran. Results show that with current electricity price, the most effective parameter on electricity consumption in Iran is added value.

Piltan, Mehdi; Farahani, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, S. Farid [University of Tehran, Faculty of Engineering (Iran)

2009-07-01

82

Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Mayan Women in Rural Guatemala Whose Partners are Migrant Workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compared to women whose partners did not. Women from the Mam and Kaqchikel ethnolinguistic groups reported higher rates of STI symptoms after adjustment for their partners' migration status.

Ikeda JM; Schaffer JR; Sac Ixcot ML; Page K; Hearst N

2013-08-01

83

Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE). MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhadores de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, condições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação), com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05) nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008), deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores.OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores) RESULTS: No significant differences (p < 0.05) were found comparing results of fatigue, workability index, and most demographic characteristics obtained among workers from the two groups. The best working conditions in the group with highest CSR scores (p = 0.008) were in plants that provided meals for the workers. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation and development of CSR projects do not necessarily mean better working conditions, less fatigue or higher workability. However, as this was a cross-sectional study with a small population sample and as working capacity may decrease with ageing of workers, new longitudinal studies must be performed with a larger population.

Ricardo Jorge Metzner; Frida Marina Fischer; Diogo Pupo Nogueira

2008-01-01

84

Problems with textile wastewater discharge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

Rantala, Pentti [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

1987-12-15

85

Problems with textile wastewater discharge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

1987-01-01

86

Attitudes of Turkish Blue Collar Workers Toward Healthy Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the behaviors in terms of healthy nutrition blue collar workers. 300 workers in total, 150 of which are women and 150 of which are men who work in textile factories in Bursa province were included in the content of the study The socio-demographic characteristics and behaviors in terms of healthy nutrition of the workers who were included in the study were taken into consideration. The data were evaluated according to SPSS 11.0 package software and also chi square test, independent samples test, one-way ANOVA analysis and sheffe test were used. According to the obtained results, it was detected that the majority (49.3%) of the workers were in the 21-31 age range, were graduates of high school (44.3%) and were married (65.3%). It can be seen that the maximum score that workers could obtain was 148, instead of the total possible score of 165. This shows that approximately 71.5% of the total possible score was obtained by the workers.

F. Pinar Cakiroglu; Eda Tangut

2008-01-01

87

Impact of a physical activity promotion program in worker women from two companies in Bogotá (Colombia)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Active and healthy lifestyles have been associated with better quality of life in working women. Objective: To establish the effectiveness of a physical activity program to improve fitness componentsin working women from two Colombian companies. Materials and methods: A longitudinal,exploratory, descriptive study was conducted, previous and later measurements aboutthe quantitative aspects of fitness were taken. Women in the study were between 24-49 years old, without associated risk factors or physical activity practice restrictions according to PARQ & YOU questionnaire. 15 women (37,33 ±9,3) voluntarily decided to join for the intervention onphysical activity for a period of 12 weeks, 60 minutes per day.Statistical analysis was made with SPSS 17. Results: Statistical changes appeared after the intervention, body mass index (BMI) (p= 0,023), abdominal strength (p = 0,004) and lower limbs strength (p= 0,001). There were no significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and flexibility. Conclusion: From these results, it was established that the implemented physical activity promotion protocol was effective to change fitness of women who completed the program, meaning that it can be replicated with effective results after its completition.

García LV; Ramos DM; Páez DC; Pedroza LM; Mendoza D

2011-01-01

88

New Skills for Rural Women. Report of a Training Program for Twelve Malian Community Development Workers (Banjul, The Gambia, June 7-15, 1977).  

Science.gov (United States)

In June, 1977, a 2-week tie-dyeing and batik training program was undertaken for 12 Malian community development workers by a newly formed cooperative of urban dyers in Gambia. Need for income-producing activity for women in the Bambara regions of rural Mali led to a decision to promote cloth processing and in 1974 training sessions were held in…

Caughman, Susan L.

89

The Declining Relative Status of Black Women Workers, 1980-2002  

Science.gov (United States)

During the 1980s and 1990s, industrial restructuring led to a marked increase in wage inequality. Women, however, were not as negatively affected by declining manufacturing employment because their pay was relatively low within the industry, and their already high representation in the service sector provided access to newly created opportunities.…

Dozier, Raine

2010-01-01

90

TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

91

Motherhood and HIV risk among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India: the need to consider women's life contexts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines whether the challenges of motherhood among female sex workers (FSW) are linked with vulnerability to sexual risk factors for HIV. FSW at least 18 years of age (n = 850) were recruited through respondent driven sampling for a survey on HIV risk in the Rajahmundry area of Andhra Pradesh, India. Logistic regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics were used to assess the relation between reported caretaking challenges and sexual risk indicators for HIV. In adjusted logistic regression models, FSW who reported three or more children in their household or current child health concerns were significantly less likely to report consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) range: 0.5-0.6) and more likely to take more money for sex without a condom (both AORs: 2.5). Women who reported current child health concerns were also more likely to report an STI symptom in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.6; 95 % confidence interval: 1.1-2.3). Findings suggest that challenging responsibilities related to caretaking of children are associated with heightened vulnerability to HIV risk among FSW. Such findings add to the cumulating evidence urging for the implementation of HIV prevention interventions that consider the multiple challenges across various domains of women's lives.

Reed E; Silverman JG; Stein B; Erausquin JT; Biradavolu M; Rosenberg A; Blankenship KM

2013-02-01

92

Validation of a Questionnaire for Heat Strain Evaluation in Women Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Physiological, anthropometrical and thermal perceptual are the most important factors affecting thermoregulation of men and women in workplaces. The purpose of this study was determining the validity of a questionnaire method for assessing women's heat strain in workplaces. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 96 healthy women. Data were continuously collected over a period of 3 months (July-September) in 2012. Mean ± (SD) of age was found to be 31.5 ± 7.48 years, of height 1.61 ± 0.05 m, of weight 61.55 ± 10.35 kg, and of body mass index 23.52 ± 3.75 kg/m2 in different workplaces. Heart rate and oral temperature were measured by heart rate monitoring and a medical digital thermometer, respectively. Subjects completed a draft questionnaire about the effective factors in the onset of heat strain. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed by applying Cronbach’sa calculation, factor analysis method, Pearson correlation and receiver operator characteristic curves using the SPSS 18 software. Results: The value for Cronbach's ? was found to be 0.68. The factor analysis method on items of draft questionnaire extracted three subscale (16 variables) which they explained 63.6% of the variance. According to the results of receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off questionnaire score for separating people with heat strain from people with no heat strain was obtained to be 17. Conclusions: The results of this research indicated that this quantitative questionnaire has an acceptable reliability and validity, and a cut-off point. Therefore it could be used in the preliminary screening of heat strain in women in warm workplaces, when other heat stress evaluation methods are not available.

Dehghan, Habibollah; Habibi, Ehsanollah; Habibi, Peymaneh; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

93

Validation of a questionnaire for heat strain evaluation in women workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Physiological, anthropometrical and thermal perceptual are the most important factors affecting thermoregulation of men and women in workplaces. The purpose of this study was determining the validity of a questionnaire method for assessing women's heat strain in workplaces. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 96 healthy women. Data were continuously collected over a period of 3 months (July-September) in 2012. Mean ± (SD) of age was found to be 31.5 ± 7.48 years, of height 1.61 ± 0.05 m, of weight 61.55 ± 10.35 kg, and of body mass index 23.52 ± 3.75 kg/m(2) in different workplaces. Heart rate and oral temperature were measured by heart rate monitoring and a medical digital thermometer, respectively. Subjects completed a draft questionnaire about the effective factors in the onset of heat strain. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed by applying Cronbach'sa calculation, factor analysis method, Pearson correlation and receiver operator characteristic curves using the SPSS 18 software. RESULTS: The value for Cronbach's ? was found to be 0.68. The factor analysis method on items of draft questionnaire extracted three subscale (16 variables) which they explained 63.6% of the variance. According to the results of receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off questionnaire score for separating people with heat strain from people with no heat strain was obtained to be 17. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this research indicated that this quantitative questionnaire has an acceptable reliability and validity, and a cut-off point. Therefore it could be used in the preliminary screening of heat strain in women in warm workplaces, when other heat stress evaluation methods are not available.

Dehghan H; Habibi E; Habibi P; Maracy MR

2013-06-01

94

Weibliche Arbeitserfahrungen in der DDR Women’s Work experiences in the GDR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annegret Schüle kommt in ihrer Untersuchung zu dem Ergebnis, dass die DDR-Diktatur das Leben von Frauen mehr veränderte als das der Männer. Ihre auf Interviews basierende Untersuchung fokussiert den (Berufs-)Alltag von Frauen in der Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei. Anhand der drei Kategorien „Generation“, „Frauenarbeit“ und „Vergemeinschaftung im Betrieb“ diskutiert sie die geführten Interviews , die Förderung weiblicher Erwerbstätiger einerseits und das Negativimage des Textilbetriebs andererseits. Die Autorin legt eine überzeugende Studie zur Erfahrungsgeschichte weiblicher Industriearbeit vor und zeigt am konkreten Beispiel, wie die DDR-Gesellschaft in einer von Frauen getragenen familiarisierten Betriebskultur nicht aufgebrochen, sondern in einer eigentümlichen Verbindung von Geborgenheit und Unterordnung reproduziert wurde.Schüle argues that the Eastern German dictatorship had a greater impact on the lives of women than on those of their male counterparts. Her research, based on interviews with female workers in a in a cotton-spinning factory in Leipzig, portrays women’s everyday-life and work, and offers a convincing study of the experience of female industrial workers. Using the three categories “cohort,” “women’s work,” and a discourse of “factory-as-community,” Schüle discusses her interviews with respect to the promotion of female textile workers on the one hand and the negative stereotypes associated with working in the textile industry on the other hand. Using concrete examples, Schüle demonstrates how a factory organised by women did not undermine the patriarchal frame in which it was embedded but how existing power differentials were reproduced as part of a discourse of family, security, and subordination.

Albrecht Wiesener

2001-01-01

95

Prevalência da dor orofacial e seu impacto no desempenho diário em trabalhadores das indústrias têxteis do município de Laguna, SC/ Prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life of textile industries workers of Laguna, SC, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram examinadas as tendências em saúde da população idosa brasileira utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998-2008). O estudo incluiu uma amostra probabilística de 105.254 pessoas com > 60 anos de idade. A média da idade foi de 69 anos e 56% eram mulheres. Houve um aumento gradativo da boa autoavaliação da saúde (39,3%, 43,5% e 45,0% em 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente) e uma diminuição na prevalência de artrite, doença do (more) coração e depressão autorreferidas. A prevalência da hipertensão (43.9%, 48.8% e 53.3%, respectivamente) e do diabetes autorreferidos (10.3%, 13.0% e 16.1% respectivamente) aumentou acentuadamente. A prevalência da incapacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária (alimentar-se, tomar banho ou ir ao banheiro) permaneceu estável (6.5%, 6.4% e 6.9%, respectivamente). A realização de três ou mais consultas médicas nos 12 meses precedentes aumentou 21% entre 1998 e 2008. As hospitalizações diminuíram 10% no mesmo período. Essas tendências foram independentes do sexo e da idade. Os resultados mostram melhora em algumas dimensões da saúde dos idosos, mas não em todas. As mudanças no uso de serviços de saúde ocorreram como esperado em decorrência da expansão das atividades de atenção primária no Brasil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the daily performance of workers in the textile industry in the municipality of Laguna, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving all workers (n= 267) of the five textile industries of the municipality in 2004 was conducted. Data were obtained through the questionnaire proposed by Locker and Gruska to measure the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) indicator. Socio-demographic da (more) ta such as gender, age, level of schooling, income, job function and absenteeism due to orofacial pain was collected. Data were descriptively analyzed and the prevalence ratios, confidence intervals and unconditional multiple logistic regression were calculated. The prevalence of orofacial pain was 32.2% and the oral impact on daily performance was 28.5%. The regression model indicated that orofacial pain was the only variable statistically associated with the oral impact on daily performance, increasing its prevalence by more than 22 times, compared to those without orofacial pain. It was concluded that the prevalence of orofacial pain was high among workers, representing a decisive factor on the oral impact on daily performance.

Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Ribeiro, Juliana Demétrio; Ribeiro, Dayane Machado; Traebert, Jefferson

2011-10-01

96

[Labor of women workers engaged in different fields of national economics (a sociological study)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Under the conditions of complex socio-hygienic studies of labour and living conditions and health status of the working women it is also reasonable to find the degree of their satisfaction with work. It gives a most complete idea of how important the mood of a person is in the sphere of the working activity. It has been shown, that psychological factors (satisfaction with work, interrelations in a collective of people etc.) constitute an important reserve in the elevation of labour productivity, health preservation. PMID:2055506

Karakashian, A N

1991-02-01

97

[Labor of women workers engaged in different fields of national economics (a sociological study)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Under the conditions of complex socio-hygienic studies of labour and living conditions and health status of the working women it is also reasonable to find the degree of their satisfaction with work. It gives a most complete idea of how important the mood of a person is in the sphere of the working activity. It has been shown, that psychological factors (satisfaction with work, interrelations in a collective of people etc.) constitute an important reserve in the elevation of labour productivity, health preservation.

Karakashian AN

1991-02-01

98

Abortion foe convicted and sentenced for murders of women's health clinic workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

On March 18, after deliberating for approximately nine hours over two days, a Dedham, Massachusetts, jury found John Salvi guilty of two counts of first-degree murder for the December 1994 shooting deaths of Shannon Lowney and Lee Ann Nichols, receptionists at two Brookline, Massachusetts, women's health care clinics. Salvi was also convicted of five counts of assault with intent to murder (see RFN IV/1). Almost immediately, Norfolk Superior Court Judge Barbara Dortch-Okara ordered Salvi to serve the maximum sentence--two consecutive life terms in prison without parole--for the murders and an additional 90-100 years for the five assaults. Under Massachusetts law, the first-degree murder convictions will be automatically appealed. In reaching their verdict, the jury of six men and six women rejected Salvi's plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. The five-week trial included testimony from more than 100 witnesses. In the past two years, two other men have been convicted for the first-degree murders of abortion providers: Michael Griffin, who was convicted of murdering Dr. David Gunn in March 1994, is now serving a life sentence; and Paul Hill, who was convicted of murdering Dr. John Britton and James Barrett in November 1995, is on Florida's death row while his sentence is pending mandatory appeal (see RFN III/19, 22). PMID:12319983

1996-03-22

99

Abortion foe convicted and sentenced for murders of women's health clinic workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On March 18, after deliberating for approximately nine hours over two days, a Dedham, Massachusetts, jury found John Salvi guilty of two counts of first-degree murder for the December 1994 shooting deaths of Shannon Lowney and Lee Ann Nichols, receptionists at two Brookline, Massachusetts, women's health care clinics. Salvi was also convicted of five counts of assault with intent to murder (see RFN IV/1). Almost immediately, Norfolk Superior Court Judge Barbara Dortch-Okara ordered Salvi to serve the maximum sentence--two consecutive life terms in prison without parole--for the murders and an additional 90-100 years for the five assaults. Under Massachusetts law, the first-degree murder convictions will be automatically appealed. In reaching their verdict, the jury of six men and six women rejected Salvi's plea of not guilty by reason of insanity. The five-week trial included testimony from more than 100 witnesses. In the past two years, two other men have been convicted for the first-degree murders of abortion providers: Michael Griffin, who was convicted of murdering Dr. David Gunn in March 1994, is now serving a life sentence; and Paul Hill, who was convicted of murdering Dr. John Britton and James Barrett in November 1995, is on Florida's death row while his sentence is pending mandatory appeal (see RFN III/19, 22).

1996-03-01

100

Fixed textile shutters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with multifunctional properties, formed by the interwoven threads of a vigorous fixed formwork textile material (basalt, linen, silica and other glass yarns) adhered by binding material. The innovative construction technology of production and installation of a new generation of textstone buildings has been registered as a brand TextStone. The fundamental difference between texstone and reinforced concrete and all known building materials is that the whole outer surface of solidified light binders is protected by strong, vigorous and fixed formwork made from inexpensive textile materials. Manufacturing textile shells allows using it as an internal finishing material, reducing or eliminating the cost of finishing work.The use of fixed textile construction shutters during the construction of buildings has obvious technical, economic, operational, sanitary and environmental benefits: short construction time (from 3 to 10 days), compact packaging and light weight of fabric shells, high fire resistance, frost resistance, ease of engineering services installation in the hollow communicating shells; minimal amount of finishing, roofing, heat and noise insulation works. Texstone is a durable solid monolithic construction that provides high viability and earthquakes, hurricanes wind, solar sultriness and frost resistance. Material complies with all sanitary and environmental requirements. Due to such physical, mechanical, operational, sanitary and ecological characteristics of the structure, long life and reduced assembly time textstone has great prospects for development and application in the future.

K.A. Chernova; N.V. Paranicheva

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Physical tools for textile creativity and invention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts. The first research project (completed) concerns how textile designers use new responsive materials and technologies, whereas the second (ongoing) concerns how architects and design engineers can use textile materials. In both projects, the developed inspirational tool is tested through workshops with the mentioned stakeholders. In these workshops, new ways of disseminating the results from research in textiles and textile design are experimented with. The submitted contribution therefore mainly addresses the role of interdisciplinarity in textile design research as well as the impact of new materials and technologies on directions and approaches in textile design research. It presents one example of what textile design research is.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

2010-01-01

102

Mujeres productoras y representaciones sociales: Movimiento de Mujeres en Lucha de Río Negro y Neuquén/ Women workers and representatives: Río Negro and Neuquén Women at fight Movement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los cambios económicos de la década del 90 y la dificultad de los partidos políticos y representaciones parlamentarias para responder a las demandas de la sociedad, facilitan la incorporación en los conflictos sociales de "nuevas formas de hacer política" con actores que se van definiendo de manera novedosa, como es el caso de las mujeres. La actividad frutícola en el Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén entra en crisis en las décadas del '80 y '90. La concentració (more) n económica, las desigualdades entre los distintos sectores del circuito agroindustrial y la aparición de fuertes conflictos constituyen las manifestaciones más notorias de la misma. En este contexto, el análisis de las prácticas, actividades y representaciones de las mujeres productoras que integran el Movimiento Mujeres en Lucha de Río Negro y Neuquén permite comprender el protagonismo que éstas adquieren en la lucha por sus reivindicaciones y determinar la incidencia de estas acciones en el proceso de conformación de su identidad social. Abstract in english The financial changes of the 90s decade and the difficulty of political parties and parlamentarian representations to answer the society demands, facilitate the incorporation in social conflicts of ¨new ways of engaing in politics¨ with agents that go defining themselves in a completely new way, as it is the case of women. The fruit activity in Alto Valle of Neuquén and Río Negro region starts going through a crisis in the 80s and 90s decades. The economic concentrati (more) on together with the disparities between the different groups of the farming industry circuit, and the appearance of strong conflicts establish the most notorious signs of that crisis. In this context, we are interested in analisying the practises, activities and representations of women workers that belong to Rio Negro and Neuquen Women at fight Movementin order to understand the prominence that they gain in this fight thanks to their demands, and in this way determine the incidence of these actions in the process of composition of their social identity.

González, Alicia Ester

2009-12-01

103

Effect of dust exposure in Ontario cotton textile mills.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acute effect of cotton dust on respiratory function was assessed. Respiratory questionnaires, preshift and postshift pulmonary function testing and air sampling were completed for 176 cotton textile workers and 33 controls. The results showed a dose-response relationship between vertical elutriator dust measurements and change in forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1) over the work shift. Dust levels of 0.2 mg/m3 or less were not associated with significant acute falls in FEV1.

Holness DL; Taraschuk IG; Pelmear PL

1983-01-01

104

Textile dryer heat recovery system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A textile dryer heat recovery system includes a textile dryer and a heat exchanger. A duct is provided for directing dryer exhaust gas to the heat exchanger for preheating dryer input air. A cleaning system within the heat exchanger removes dryer exhaust gas contaminants deposited in the heat exchanger.

Gordon, J. S.

1985-08-06

105

Textile materials with bioactive protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present invention relates to textiles endowed with bioactive protection against air or water borne toxic chemicals such as pesticides, nerve agents, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. More specifically, the object of the invention is a textile material carrying immobilized biocataly...

ISELLA, FRANCESCA; ROSACE, GIUSEPPE; GIOVANNONI, GIANLUIGI; DONELLI, ILARIA; ALBERTI FUSI, GABRIELLA; CITTADINI, CESARE

106

Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil/ Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE). MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhadores de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, c (more) ondições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação), com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05) nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008), deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were (more) classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores) RESULTS: No significant differences (p

Metzner, Ricardo Jorge; Fischer, Frida Marina; Nogueira, Diogo Pupo

2008-12-01

107

Respuesta sexual en mujeres de edad mediana trabajadoras de la salud Sexual response in mean age health workers women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: la incorporación al trabajo insertado y el escenario laboral son factores sociales implicados en la función sexual de la mujer en etapa reproductiva, sin embargo, sus significados no están bien establecidos en la mujer en etapa de climaterio. Objetivo: identificar algunos aspectos relativos a la respuesta sexual en mujeres de edad mediana que laboran en centros de salud de Ciudad de la Habana. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal que consistió en entrevistar a las 59 mujeres de edad mediana que respondieron a la convocatoria de participar en el estudio, todas trabajadoras de 2 centros asistenciales del sector salud del municipio San Miguel del Padrón, en Ciudad de La Habana, y todas con edades entre 38 y 59 años y con pareja sexual estable. Se empleó una encuesta autoadministrada para explorar aspectos sociodemográficos, y cambios en la respuesta sexual (deseo, excitación y orgasmo) en los últimos 6 meses. Como variables a controlar se utilizaron: la edad actual, la etapa de climaterio, las características de las relaciones de pareja y la sobrecarga de género. Se emplearon estadígrafos descriptivos y ANOVA para establecer diferencias entre grupos (valor de pIntroduction: to be incorporated into work and the working environment are social factors involved in sexual function of woman in reproductive stage, however, its meanings are not well established in the woman in climateric stage. Objective: our objective was to identify some features related to sexual response in mean age women working in health centers of Ciudad de La Habana. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to interview 59 mean age women participant in such study working in two assistance centers of health sector from the San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Ciudad de La Habana aged between 38 and 59 and with a stable sexual partner. A self-administered opinion poll was used to explore the sociodemographic features and the changes in sexual response (desire, excitation and orgasm) during the past months. The variables to be controlled were: present age, climateric stage, features of partner relationships and genre overload. Descriptive stadigraphs were used and ANOVA to establish differences among groups (value of p < 0,05 for statistical significance). Results: most of polled persons expressed no change in sexual response features. Decrease of any of the sexual response phases was related to the partner relationships features, with a older age of woman and to the menopause stage, results similar to other reports made in women with similar sociodemographic features no workers of health sector. Influence of genre overload over sexual response was not identified. Conclusions: features related to sexual response identified in the mean age women group were similar to those of other national and international reports. It is not confirmed that the working scenario selected had influence (negative or positive) on the sexual response of study women.

Yaquelín González Ricardo; Taira Maceo Coello; Daysi Antonia Navarro Despaigne; Emma Domínguez Alonso

2011-01-01

108

Textile industry: environment and energy; Industrie textile: environnement et energie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook was jointly elaborated by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the textile institute of France and is devoted to textile industrialists. The following topics are presented: prevention of air pollution, waste management, processing of aqueous effluents, energy mastery, environmental management. A status of the situation is provided for each of these domains using indicators and some solutions are proposed which aim at defining the environmental impact of textile companies, and at reducing the pollutant sources. (J.S.)

NONE

2000-07-01

109

Doubly periodic textile patterns  

CERN Document Server

Knitted and woven textile structures are examples of doubly periodic structures in a thickened plane made out of intertwining strands of yarn. Factoring out the group of translation symmetries of such a structure gives rise to a link diagram in a thickened torus. Such a diagram on a standard torus is converted into a classical link by including two auxiliary components which form the cores of the complementary solid tori. The resulting link, called a kernel for the structure, is determined by a choice of generators u and v for the group of symmetries. A normalised form of the multi-variable Alexander polynomial of a kernel is used to provide polynomial invariants of the original structure which are essentially independent of the choice of generators. It gives immediate information about the existence of closed curves and other topological features in the original textile structure. Because of its natural algebraic properties under coverings we can recover the polynomial for kernels based on a proper subgroup ...

Morton, H R

2008-01-01

110

Auxetic warp knit textile structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, manufacturing and characterization of warp knit textile structures with enhanced drapeability and energy absorption is reported in this paper. Four textile structures were produced, all based on a triangular or double arrowhead structure, which is known to lead to a negative Poisson's ratio {nu}. Mechanical testing has confirmed that textile structures can be produced which are auxetic at {+-} 45 to the warp direction, with {nu} of up to -0.22 {+-} 0.03. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Alderson, Kim; Alderson, Andrew; Anand, Subhash; Simkins, Virginia; Nazare, Shonali; Ravirala, Naveen [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, The University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15

111

PERFIL DE LA SITUACIÓN DE LA MUJER EN LAS COOPERATIVAS DE TRABAJO EN ESPAÑA / PROFILE OF THE SITUATION OF WOMEN IN WORKER´S COOPERATIVES IN SPAIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El artículo analiza los datos de un estudio sobre la situación de la mujer en las cooperativas de trabajo: su vinculación con la cooperativa, categoría profesional, cualificación, conciliación laboral y familiar, en comparación con una investigación realizada en 2004, así como respecto de la mujer en España y UE. / The article analyzes data from a study on the situation of women in the cooperative work: its relationship with the cooperative, professional, qualifications, work-life balance, compared to a survey conducted in 2004 and on the Women in Spain and EU.

Paloma ARROYO SÁNCHEZ

2011-01-01

112

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for textile identification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A range of natural and artificial textiles are examined using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Different types of textiles are shown to have different terahertz optical properties, which may be employed for textile identification and to combat textile counterfeiting.

Naftaly M; Molloy JF; Lanskii GV; Kokh KA; Andreev YM

2013-07-01

113

Disruptores endocrinos utilizados en la industria textil-confección en España/ Endocrine disruptors used in textile industry in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete (more) comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39). Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias. Abstract in english Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk prevention in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organiza (more) tions agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39). Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.

Gadea, Rafael; Mundemurra, Laura; Santos, Tatiana; Jiménez, Ruth; García, Ana M.

2009-03-01

114

Disruptores endocrinos utilizados en la industria textil-confección en España Endocrine disruptors used in textile industry in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39). Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias.Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk prevention in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organizations agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39). Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.

Rafael Gadea; Laura Mundemurra; Tatiana Santos; Ruth Jiménez; Ana M. García

2009-01-01

115

TEXTILE DYEBATH RECONSTITUTION AND REUSE  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the recent demonstration of the application of an important wastewater recycle technology (reconstitution and reuse of spent dyebath solutions) to the textile industry. After several months of bench and pilot testing, the technology was demonstrated under prod...

116

Textile wastes. [Processing and recycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature review of process technology applied to secondary effluents of textile plants is presented. Studies of waste heat recovery from dyehouse effluents indicate that energy consumption of dyehouses could be reduced by 50% or more. Included are 25 references.

Judkins, J.F. Jr.

1982-01-01

117

NICE3 Textile Finishing Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This new energy-saving approach to fabric finishing can help our domestic textile industry compete in an increasingly competitive global market. Learn how this new technology can lower your maintenance costs and increase your productivity.

Blazek, S.

1999-01-29

118

Nanotechnology in Textiles Finishment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ways of using the nanometer material to give the textile fabric some function is listed and compared in this article. In the early research, first the nanometer material preparation is alone carries on. And then using this to make the finishing agent. Finally put the agent on the fabric by finishment. At present, people combine the preparation of nanometer material and finishing agent together, and then cover this on fabric through the normal finishment. Recentlly research the trend is to compact the three steps to one step, completing the nanometer material preparation, the finishment agent production and the finishing process at the time. Various examples are given in this artile. At the end, some reserches about cotton fiber hole structure are listed, which has implicited a new way to take advantage of nanometer merterial and a bright future about a new type cotton fiber.

Dongxue Liu; Weiguo Dong

2009-01-01

119

Problems of energy intensity of textile industry and efficiency of measures for energy conservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years the energy intensity of the textile industry has risen by 18.6%. An examination is made of the effect of price reform of the specific weight of energy outlays in the total costs of production. The absence of material interest of the industrial worker in energy conservation is noted. This complicates the effective energy-conserving measures.

Fisiak, W.

1982-01-01

120

Indoor off-body wireless MIMO communication with dual polarized textile antennas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Off-body data communication for firefighters and other rescue workers is an important area of development. The communication with a moving person in an indoor environment can be very unreliable due to channel fading. In addition, when considering off-body communication by means of textile antennas, ...

Van Torre, Patrick; Vallozzi, Luigi; Hertleer, Carla; Rogier, Hendrik; Moeneclaey, Marc; Verhaevert, Jo

 
 
 
 
121

The Evaluation of Asthmatic Patients Working in a Textile Factory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Workers with asthma are one of the risk working groups. Being exposed to indoor air pollutants in the workplace makes it difficult to control asthma and can lead to asthma attacks. This study was conducted by a workplace physician of a textile factory in Denizli, 2009, and it was investigated whether workers with asthma were affected or not in the workplace. Material and Method: Some data about health/diseases status and individual characteristics of 41 workers who had previously been diagnosed with asthma were collected. Spirometric measurements were made. PEF (peak expiratory flow) meters recordings were made 4 times a day during 4 weeks to indicate the effects of the workplace. PEF rates were calculated using the measurements before and after the shift. Results: There were 1553 workers in the factory and 41 of them had asthma (2.6%). Twenty-eight of them were female. Nearly half of the workers with asthma were smoking more than 5 cigarettes per day. PFT (pulmonary function test) measurements were lower in workers with asthma. PFT measurements were lower in current smoker workers with asthma than in nonsmoker. When we evaluated PEF measurements; we found 8% decrease between the start and end of the shifts. Nearly half of the PFT results of asthma workers were found to be normal. Daily PEFR variability of more than 20% was 4.4%. Conclusion: The 75.6% of asthmatic workers were current smokers. Also, all workers having a daily PEFR variability higher than 20% were current smokers. These findings indicate that smoking is the most important problem that must be solved. A smoking cessation programme has been initiated for workers.

Semiha Balc?; Ali ?hsan Bozkurt

2012-01-01

122

A biological treatment technique for wool textile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biological treatment technique for wool textile was carried out by enzymes degradation coupled with H2O2 oxidation. The results demonstrated that the technique had ideal effects on wool textile such as better softness, plump and less loss of bursting stress. Because of mild reaction conditions, less textile damage and less environmental pollution, this technique for wool textile treatment could have promising prospect.

Yu Xiao-Wei; Wen-Jun Guan; Li Yong-Quan; Guo Ting-Jing; Zhou Ji-Dong

2005-01-01

123

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among at-risk women, young sex workers, and street youth attending community organizations in Quebec City, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite a relatively recent decline in the global incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae it seems that some segments of the population such as street youth, sex workers, and individuals with social problems or delinquent behavior could be part of a core group for STDs. These persons may be reluctant to undergo STD diagnosis in traditional medical settings. GOALS: To determine the prevalence of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae infection using polymerase chain reaction on urine samples among subjects attending an anonymous HIV testing clinic and four community organizations in Quebec City, and to identify associated risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 626 street youth, sex workers, and women with social problems or delinquent behavior was conducted. RESULTS: The prevalences of N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were, respectively, 1.1% (95% CI, 0.5%--2.3%) and 5.8% (95% CI, 4.1%--7.9%). No significant difference was found between men and women, but the sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence was much higher in subjects younger than 20 years: 11.4% versus 3.6% (P < 0.01). In a logistic regression model, factors independently associated with STD infection were age younger than 20 years (OR, 2.6; P = 0.007), occasional sex partners (OR, 2.9; P = 0.007), and injection of drugs (OR, 2.8; P = 0.002) in the preceding 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: A moderate STD prevalence was found in the study population. The prevalence, however, can be considered high (>10%) among street youth and young sex workers. Providing community-based STD screening and treatment services appear to be an efficient method for reaching these high-risk groups.

Poulin C; Alary M; Bernier F; Carbonneau D; Boily MC; Joly JR

2001-08-01

124

Textile Design for the Real World  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile design is a multimillion-dollar business that affects all of us. However, the idea of textile design is often ignored in art classes. This paper describes a project that challenges students to identify functional art in their everyday lives. In this project, students analyze textile designs, then create their own motifs and repeat them to…

Cassano, Denise M.

2007-01-01

125

Development of Textile Industrial Clusters in Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research investigates the textile industry clusters in Pakistan. A cross sectional data were collected from 30 textile industries by using simple random technique and data were analysis by using E-Views software. Structural questionnaire was the basic tool for measures the performance of textil...

Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal; Faiz. M. Shaikh; Babak Mahmood; Kamran Shafiq

126

Plasma treatment advantages for textiles  

CERN Document Server

The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

Sparavigna, Amelia

2008-01-01

127

Occupation and chronic bronchitis among Chinese women  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To examine the association between occupation and chronic bronchitis among a cross-section of Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS). Methods Cases were 4,873 women who self-reported a physician-diagnosed bronchitis during adulthood. Controls were 9,746 women randomly selected from SWHS participants and matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association between chronic bronchitis and occupation, adjusting for smoking, education, family income, and concurrent asthma. Results We observed excess prevalence of bronchitis for textile occupation (OR=1.09; 1.01–1.18) and industry (OR=1.11; 1.04–1.25), welders (OR=1.40; 1.01–1.92), packing and baling workers (OR=1.39; 1.15–1.68), and warehousing industry (OR=1.58; 1.08–2.30). We also identified several new associations that may warrant further exploration and confirmation, including employment in some metal fabrication industries, postal and telecommunication industry, and a few white collar occupations and industries. Conclusions Our study indicates that the risk of chronic bronchitis among women may be increased in some occupations and industries.

Krstev, Srmena; Ji, Bu-Tian; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Vermeulen, Roel; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho

2011-01-01

128

Textiles para turistas: tejedoras y comerciantes en los Altos de Chiapas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work investigates the role played by indigenous women as producers and sellers of textile pieces, considered handworks and indigenous tradition, with high demand in the tourism market in the region to the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. The presence of tourism in the area has led to the consolidation of a complex local market of textiles in which intertwine weavers, distributors and traders, commercial chains and multiple retail spaces. Through this female agency and marketing of “indigenous”, the research studied a local context that allows indigenous women take new social positions while it integrates social global goods and imaginary aspects.

Eugenia Bayona Escat

2013-01-01

129

Exposures and mortality among chrysotile asbestos workers. Part II: mortality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among a cohort of 1,261 white males employed one or more months in chrysotile asbestos textile operations and followed between 1940 and 1975. Statistically significant excess mortality was observed for all causes combined (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) . 150), lung cancer (SMR . 135), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR . 125), nonmalignant respiratory diseases (SMR . 294), and accidents (SMR . 134). Using estimated fiber exposure levels in conjunction with detailed worker job histories, exposure-response relationships were investigated. Strong exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and asbestos related non-malignant respiratory diseases were observed. Compared with data for chrysotile miners and millers, chrysotile textile workers were found to experience significantly greater lung cancer mortality at lower lifetime cumulative exposure levels. Factors such as differences in airborne fiber characteristics may partially account for the large differences in exposure response between textile workers and miners and millers.

Dement, J.M.; Harris, R.L. Jr.; Symons, M.J.; Shy, C.M.

1983-01-01

130

Asbestos hazard evaluation in South Korean textile production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The manufacture and use of asbestos-containing products has become the object of restrictive environmental and occupational health regulation in the United States and many European countries. World production, however, has not declined, but rather shifted to developing countries. Our knowledge of the working conditions in these countries is limited. This article describes an investigation conducted in 1991 into the conditions and work practices in asbestos textile manufacturing in South Korea. The findings are based on site visits to several asbestos textile manufacturing facilities, meetings with industrial safety experts, and labor and industry representatives. The authors describe the current status of exposure control technology and industrial hygiene practices, and the results of personal asbestos dust monitoring at five representative textile production workstations. In general, manufacturers and regulatory agencies have not taken the precautions necessary to adequately protect employee health and meet international standards. Worker exposure to asbestos dust well above U.S. and German standards is commonplace in South Korea. International cooperation of health and safety experts with experience in asbestos-related problems should be promoted to improve the level of industrial safety in developing countries.

Johanning E; Goldberg M; Kim R

1994-01-01

131

A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras Breastfeeding among children of women workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Piracicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno.OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]). CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil). Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify variables related to weaning in the fourth month of l

Aline Alves Brasileiro; Gláucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano; Sérgio Tadeu Martins Marba; Rosana de Fátima Possobon

2012-01-01

132

EDIPTEX : Environmental assessment of textiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EDIPTEX project has three main deliverables. These are 1. Modelling of the lifecycle of six textile products and calculation of the connected environmental impact 2. Obtaining almost 500 textile unit processes following the EDIP unit process data format 3. Calculation of equivalency factors for a number of chemicals For each of the deliverables extensive documentation material exists, which is published in this report. In the EDIPTEX project, a number of lifecycle assessments (environmental assessments) were carried out on textile products. But an extensive and detailed lifecycle assessment case is not particularly information friendly - only to other lifecycle assessment experts and consultants. The Programme for Cleaner Products etc. has therefore supported a dissemination project "Information on EDIPTEX". In this dissemination project the six EDIPTEX environmental assessments were transformed into six leaflets which, on only four pages each and in a professional layout, outline the environmental profile of the six products. The six environmental assessments include: A T-shirt of 100% cotton /1/ A jogging suit of nylon microfibres with a cotton lining /2/ A work jacket of 65 per cent polyester and 35 per cent cotton /3/ A blouse of viscose, nylon and elastane /4/ A tablecloth of cotton /5/ A floor covering of nylon and polypropylene /6/ The present report informs in detail about methods and principles used in the environmental assessments of the six selected EDIPTEX textile products. The major part of the lifecycle is common for many textile products, e.g. energy production, production of raw materials (e.g. cultivation and harvesting cotton), certain production processes (such as dyeing polyester), washing and ironing in the use phase and incineration during disposal. Such basic data have been established during the EDIPTEX project. The EDIPTEX project has been based upon the nationally and internationally recognised environmental assessment method EDIP - "Environmental Design of Industrial Products". The project has obtained environmental data for several hundred processes "from cradle to grave" in the lifecycle of textiles. EDIPTEX environmental data and a PC tool provide the possibility for combining the lifecycle of a textile product from cradle to grave, process by process, on the computer screen through a modelling, and letting the computers calculate the equivalency impacts. EDIPTEX environmental data and the environmental assessments, which can be modelled on the basis of these data, thus represent a unique tool in connection with e.g. preparing and documenting lifecycle assessments and environmental declarations for goods. In connection with the project "Information on EDIPTEX" a leaflet has been prepared "EDIP environmental data for textiles - a survey" /7/, which gives an overview of the environmental data, so that others can use the data during environmental assessment of textiles. All data are now also available in the PC tool GaBi EDIP - the successor of the EDIP PC tool. For anumber of commonly occurring emissions (discharges) and for emissions which have been assessed in previous projects within EDIP, equivalency factors had already been established. But for a number emissions, no equivalency factors had been calculated. If these emissions were to be included in the calculations of the contribution of a product on the impact categories regarding toxicity, equivalency factors for the substances would have to be calculated, and they would have to be included in the PC tool. In the EDIPTEX case scenarios, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity for approx. 50 textile specific chemicals are used. Within the EDIPTEX project, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity have been calculated for approx. 35 different substances, which are part of the very often composite chemicals. Further, approx. 20 substances are assessed as unproblematic regarding ecotoxicity and human toxicity in discharges via wastewater treatment plants. Fate factors for the technosphere for the substances h

Laursen, SØren Ellebæk; Hansen, John

2007-01-01

133

Health workers' perceptions of access to care for children and pregnant women with precarious immigration status: health as a right or a privilege?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canadian government's recent cuts to healthcare coverage for refugee claimants has rekindled the debate in Canada about what medical services should be provided to individuals with precarious immigration status, and who should pay for these services. This article further explores this debate, focussing on the perceptions of healthcare workers in Montreal, a large multiethnic Canadian city. In April-June 2010, an online survey was conducted to assess how clinicians, administrators, and support staff in Montreal contend with the ethical and professional dilemmas raised by the issue of access to healthcare services for pregnant women and children who are partially or completely uninsured. Drawing on qualitative analysis of answers (n = 237) to three open-ended survey questions, we identify the discursive frameworks that our respondents mobilized when arguing for, or against, universal access to healthcare for uninsured patients. In doing so, we highlight how their positions relate to their self-evaluations of Canada's socioeconomic situation, as well as their ideological representations of, and sense of social connection to, precarious status immigrants. Interestingly, while abstract values lead some healthcare workers to perceive uninsured immigrants as "deserving" of universal access to healthcare, negative perceptions of these migrants, coupled with pragmatic considerations, pushed most workers to view the uninsured as "underserving" of free care. For a majority of our respondents, the right to healthcare of precarious status immigrants has become a "privilege", that as taxpayers, they are increasingly less willing to contribute to. We conclude by arguing for a reconsideration of access to healthcare as a right, and offer recommendations to move in this direction. PMID:23906124

Vanthuyne, Karine; Meloni, Francesca; Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Rousseau, Cécile; Ricard-Guay, Alexandra

2013-06-18

134

Technological Change and Women Workers: The Development of Microelectronics. World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development, and Peace.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report reviews the current debate in industrialized market economy countries on the impact of microelectronics technology on employment. A special focus is on the impact on women's employment opportunities. Chapter 1 presents information on the technological background, including the development of microelectronics and their application in…

Hult, Marit

135

Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women): a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. METHODS/DESIGN: FSW-IDUs ?18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. DISCUSSION: Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4%) were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return); 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez). All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9%) were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8%) had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first intervention to attempt to simultaneously reduce injection and sexual risk behaviors among FSW-IDUs. The factorial design will permit analysis to determine whether the combination of the two interactive interventions and/or its respective components are effective in reducing injection and/or sexual risks, which will have direct, tangible policy implications for Mexico and potentially other resource-poor countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00840658.

Vera A; Abramovitz D; Lozada R; Martinez G; Rangel MG; Staines H; Patterson TL; Strathdee SA

2012-01-01

136

Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women): a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ?18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4%) were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return); 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez). All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9%) were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8%) had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first intervention to attempt to simultaneously reduce injection and sexual risk behaviors among FSW-IDUs. The factorial design will permit analysis to determine whether the combination of the two interactive interventions and/or its respective components are effective in reducing injection and/or sexual risks, which will have direct, tangible policy implications for Mexico and potentially other resource-poor countries. Trial registration NCT00840658

Vera Alicia; Abramovitz Daniela; Lozada Remedios; Martinez Gustavo; Rangel M; Staines Hugo; Patterson Thomas L; Strathdee Steffanie A

2012-01-01

137

Toxic and biomedical effects of textiles and textile production. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity associated with textiles. Vapors from burning flame-resistant fabric, magnesium vapors from polyester foam, and toxic emissions from insulation, clothing, and upholstery are described and evaluated. Health effects resulting from formaldehyde treatment of fabrics for crease-resistance, lubricant addition to polyester fabrics, and exposure to textile mill effluents and airborne particulates from textile mill rooms are examined. (Contains a minimum of 150 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-01-01

138

Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-in...

Boyd, Rhonda C.; Mogul, Marjie; Newman, Deena; Coyne, James C.

139

Towards an Indigenous Perspective on HRM: A Study of Textile Industry of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify external and internal forces shaping HRM practices in textile industry of Pakistan. The study aimed at describing the context-specific HRM practices in textile industry. Interviews were used as a source of primary data collection. Taking Faisalabad city as a case, top HRM officials from ten respondent organizations in textile industry were interviewed. An interpretive approach to research design was adopted using ‘human as an instrument’ for data analysis. Findings suggest that due to extensive competition in last few years HR planning has received serious attention in textile industry. Countries like China, India, and Bangladesh are posing huge threats to the industry. The industry is at best dominated by family owned businesses and now the young generation, after education from abroad, is taking charge of their parents. Assumptions about workers are getting transformed. Fresh leaders are thinking different from their predecessors. However, there is a state of inertia in textile industry where young leaders have an uphill task ahead to remove the obstacles in the course of change.

Qamar Ali

2012-01-01

140

Higher incidence and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in female sex workers compared with women attending family planning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There are no data on the incidence and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections in female sex workers (FSWs). We aimed to describe and compare the rates of incidence and persistence of HR-HPV infections in FSWs and women from the general population (WGP) who attended healthcare facilities between May 2003 and December 2006 in Alicante, Spain. METHODS: Women with an established HR-HPV infection at study entry were evaluated for the analysis of HR-HPV persistence, and those testing negative for HR-HPV infection at entry were evaluated for the analysis of incidence. HR-HPV infection was determined by the Digene HC2 HR HPV DNA Test. RESULTS: A total of 736 women - 592 WGP and 144 FSWs - were followed for a median of 16.8 months. Global incidence and persistence rates were 3.98 per 100 woman-years (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.91-5.45) and 26.81 per 100 woman-years (95% CI 20.08-35.79), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, only commercial sex work was associated with a statistically significant higher incidence (relative risk (RR) 4.72, 95% CI 2.45-9.09) and persistence (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.08-3.46) of HR-HPV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that FSWs have both a higher incidence and a higher persistence of HR-HPV than WGP and should be prioritized in HPV-related cancer screening programs.

González C; Torres M; Canals J; Fernández E; Belda J; Ortiz M; Del Amo J

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Ultrahydrophobic Textiles Using Nanoparticles: Lotus Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well established that the water wettability of ma-terials is governed by both the chemical composition and the geometrical microstructure of the surface.1 Traditional textile wet processing treatments do in-deed rely fundamentally upon complete wetting out of a textile structure to achieve satisfactory perform-ance.2 However, the complexities introduced through the heterogeneous nature of the fiber surfaces, the nature of the fiber composition and the actual con-struction of the textile material create difficulties in attempting to predict the exact wettability of a par-ticular textile material. For many applications the ability of a finished fabric to exhibit water repellency (in other words low wettability) is essential2 and po-tential applications of highly water repellent textile materials include rainwear, upholstery, protective clothing, sportswear, and automobile interior fabrics. Recent research indicates that such applications may benefit from a new generation of water repellent ma-terials that make use of the “lotus effect” to provide ultrahydrophobic textile materials.3,4 Ultrahydropho-bic surfaces are typically termed as the surfaces that show a water contact angle greater than 150°C with very low contact angle hysteresis.4 In the case of tex-tile materials, the level of hydrophobicity is often determined by measuring the static water contact angle only, since it is difficult to measure the contact angle hysteresis on a textile fabric because of the high levels of roughness inherent in textile structures.

Karthik Ramaratnam, Ph.D.; Swaminatha K. Iyer, Ph.D.; Mark K. Kinnan; George Chumanov, Ph.D.; Phillip J. Brown, Ph.D.; Igor Luminov, Ph.D.

2008-01-01

142

Community Health Workers and Health Care Delivery: Evaluation of a Women's Reproductive Health Care Project in a Developing Country.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. RESULTS: The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a national and global challenge that remains a work in progress.

Wajid A; White F; Karim MS

2013-01-01

143

Community Health Workers and Health Care Delivery: Evaluation of a Women's Reproductive Health Care Project in a Developing Country  

Science.gov (United States)

Background As part of the mid-term evaluation of a Women's Health Care Project, a study was conducted to compare the utilization of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services in two areas with different levels of service in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to interview Married Women of Reproductive Age (MWRA). Information was collected on MWRA knowledge regarding danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, postnatal periods, and MNH care seeking behavior. After comparing MNH service utilization, the two areas were compared using a logistic regression model, to identify the association of different factors with the intervention after controlling for socio-demographic, economic factors and distance of the MWRA residence to a health care facility. Results The demographic characteristics of women in the two areas were similar, although socioeconomic status as indicated by level of education and better household amenities, was higher in the intervention area. Consequently, on univariate analysis, utilization of MNH services: antenatal care, TT vaccination, institutional delivery and use of modern contraceptives were higher in the intervention than control area. Nonetheless, multivariable analysis controlling for confounders such as socioeconomic status revealed that utilization of antenatal care services at health centers and TT vaccination during pregnancy are significantly associated with the intervention. Conclusions Our findings suggest positive changes in health care seeking behavior of women and families with respect to MNH. Some aspects of care still require attention, such as knowledge about danger signs and neonatal care, especially umbilical cord care. Despite overall success achieved so far in response to the Millennium Development Goals, over the past two decades decreases in maternal mortality are far from the 2015 target. This report identifies some of the key factors to improving MNH and serves as an interim measure of a national and global challenge that remains a work in progress.

Wajid, Abdul; White, Franklin; Karim, Mehtab S.

2013-01-01

144

Textile production in Quartier Mu  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The most common archaeological evidence for weaving in the Aegean is the presence of loom weights, which indicate the use of the warp-weighted loom.  A wide variety of loom weight shapes have been recorded. In the past, this diversity has generally been explained in terms of cultural, geographical and chronological factors.  In contrast, recent research has considered some aspects of shape as an expression of loom weight function. This new approach, which draws on experimental archaeology, has made it possible to render textile craft visible, even if the textiles themselves are not preserved (Mårtensson et al. 2009). It is this approach that has been adopted in the following analysis of the loom weights from Quartier Mu. The chapter divided into four parts. The first part gives an outline of general textile techniques and presents the methodology. The second part consists of an overview of the Quartier Mu loom weights, whilst the third part focuses on their contexts. The results of the analysis are discussed in the fourth and final part.

Cutler, Joanne; Andersson Strand, Eva Birgitta

2012-01-01

145

Os melhores empregados: a inserção e a formação da mão-de-obra feminina em fábricas têxteis mineiras no final do século XIX/ "The best employees": the insertion and training of the female workforce in textile factories in Minas Gerais State in the late 19th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute o processo de inserção e formação da mãode-obra feminina na indústria têxtil em Minas Gerais no final do século XIX, tomando para análise a Companhia de Fiação e Tecidos Cedro e Cachoeira. Como ocorrido em muitas outras fábricas têxteis, as mulheres foram durante muito tempo o maior conjunto de trabalhadores desta Cia. Trabalhando como fiandeiras e tecelãs, as operárias ingressavam, muitas vezes, ainda jovens, passando boa parte da vida (more) dentro das fábricas, inseridas em um tipo de relação que lhes ensinava a serem operárias e, ao mesmo tempo, as educava enquanto mulheres, a partir de determinados valores culturais, dentre os quais se destaca a religiosidade. Nesse sentido busca-se aqui refletir sobre como esse processo se materializava no cotidiano das fábricas, os aspectos aí envolvidos e suas principais implicações para a vida das trabalhadoras. Abstract in english This paper discusses the process of insertion and training of the female workforce in the textile industry in Minas Gerais State in the late nineteenth century, and for this purpose the Company of Textiles and Spinning Cedro e Cachoeira will be analyzed. As also happened in many other textile factories, women have been for a long time the largest group of employees of that Company. Working as spinners and weavers, the women often started working at a young age, spending m (more) uch of their life inside the factories, being part of a relationship that taught them to be workers and at the same time, educated them from certain cultural values, being the religion a relevant issue in this context. In this sense, reflections will be searched in order to understand how this process occurred in the daily life of plants, the aspects involved and their main implications for the lives of workers.

Lima, Junia de Souza

2011-06-01

146

Lover, mother or worker : women's multiple roles and the HIV/AIDS and reproductive health agenda in Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

International and national campaigns to prevent HIV/AIDS and efforts to promote reproductive health remain separate in terms of conceptualisation and implementation. Local negotiations around reproductive health issues similarly seem to lack explicit attention to HIV/AIDS. This paper argues that even in reproductive health clinics a gap exists between the extent of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and AIDS talk. There also appears to be a mismatch between collective knowledge of the behavioural and biomedical context of HIV/AIDS and the socio-economic context of AIDS as a lived experience. Using an ethnographic account, I explore how one woman's lived experience and her knowledge of AIDS can teach us to take HIV/AIDS into account when theorising, promoting or providing services for improving African women's reproductive health. The background for this ethnography comes from data collected during 25 months of fieldwork at 10 maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) clinic sites in the Morogoro, Ruvuma and Kilimanjaro regions of Tanzania. Rehema's story shows that AIDS, like other diseases, is significantly linked to host-susceptibility and economic vulnerability. Separate and competing vertical programmes on AIDS and MCH/FP, as commonly encountered throughout Africa, cannot meet the needs of women in countries like Tanzania. Yet, we still hear most often of abstinence, anti-retrovirals and condom use as the primary focus of HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention in Africa.

Richey, Lisa Ann

2005-01-01

147

Feature extraction of the deformed patterned textile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deformation is very common in textile materials. In this paper, we consider the feature extraction problem in a deformable textile image, where the original shape is required to be recovered. We formulated this problem as a combined optimal control and optimal parameter selection problem, where the ...

Feng, ZG; Yiu, KFC; Mak, KL

148

Problem Based Learning in Constructed Textile Design  

Science.gov (United States)

Staff observing undergraduate students enrolled on the BSc Hons Textile Design and Design Management programme in The School of Materials, The University of Manchester, identified difficulties with knowledge retention in the area of constructed textile design. Consequently an experimental pilot was carried out in seamless knitwear design using a…

Sayer, Kate; Wilson, Jacquie; Challis, Simon

2006-01-01

149

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

150

Cyborgs and Knowledge Workers? Gendered Constructions of Workers in Vocational Education and Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussions of knowledge workers are gender blind and ignore or devalue women's work. A more useful conception of the worker as cyborg illuminates questions of ownership of skills and knowledge and the blurring of boundaries between humans and technologies. (SK)

Connole, Helen

1996-01-01

151

Wastewater effluent characteristics from Moroccan textile industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this work were to carry out a complete characterization of textile wastewater, resulting from a textile unit located in the Marrakesh region. A physico-chemical characterization has been performed, focused on organic and toxicological aspects. The cladoceran Daphnia magna was used as the sensor organism and lethal concentration as a criterion to measure the toxicity of textile wastewater. The physico-chemical and toxicological status of a local textile effluent showed considerable values limitation, when compared to the European Union standard limit and Moroccan guide level and other studies. In view of those characteristics, the wastewater effluent from the textile industry should be considered to be treated before discharge to the environment.

Mountassir Y; Benyaich A; Rezrazi M; Berçot P; Gebrati L

2013-01-01

152

LOW FREQUENCY STIMULATING SYSTEM USING CONDUCTIVE TEXTILE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A low frequency stimulating system using a conductive textile is provided to maximize utilization and effects of the low frequency stimuli by utilizing a conductive material as a conducting route or an electrode. A low frequency stimulating system using a conductive textile includes a conductive material and clothes or a textile(600). The conductive material is utilized as a conducting route or an electrode with a low frequency stimulating device(610). The clothes or textile has the arrangement of electrodes for giving low frequency stimuli to a specific part of a human body by using a textile in which the conductive material and an ordinary fiber are mixed. The conductive material is made of metal yarn, and is made of any one of gold, silver, copper and iron.

CHOI KYUNG IL

153

Application of membrane technologies for the treatment of textile wastewater and synthetic textile dyes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile industry is characterized by using a great variety of chemicals and by large water consumption. In this way, textile effluents contains many types of dyes, detergents, solvents and salts depending on the particular textile mill processes (dyeing, printing, finishing...) and on the raw matter. For those reasons, textile industry is one of the main sources of industrial pollution, producing effluents discharges characterized by high conductivities and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values and strong colour. Process selection and operating conditions are important issues to optimize technically and economically the textile effluent treatment. This work presents the results of the laboratory-scale membrane experiments of textile industry effluents and synthetic textile dyes. Different types of Ultrafiltration (UF) and Nano filtration (NF) membranes were evaluated for permeate flux and their suitability in separating COD, colour, conductivity. Experiments demonstrated that membrane treatment is a very promising advanced treatment option for pollution control for textile industry effluents. The results of this work show that the direct ultrafiltration seems to be a realistic method in the pretreatment of the textile wastewater. In fact, NF process was successfully used to improve permeate quality of synthetic dyeing textile wastewater, but this process presented some limitations in the treatment of textile industry effluents because of membrane fouling problems. So, this process requires an efficient and appropriate technique such as ultrafiltration as a pre-treatment step for textile wastewater reuse. For direct nano filtration of synthetic textile dyes aqueous solutions, with a weak salt concentration (500 ppm), good results were obtained. More than 95 pour cent of color was removed from the treated water accompanied with a reduction of 92 pour cent of conductivity and COD. Based on the experiments; NF membranes are suitable for producing permeate of reusable quality.

2009-01-01

154

[Prevalence of respiratory diseases in the textile industry. Relation with dust levels  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many workers in the textile industry have respiratory symptoms that are related to their work environment. In this study we observed the dust level conditions of eleven textile industries of the North of Portugal. The dust levels determined were between 0.1 mg/m3 and 1.25 mg/m3, in many cases above the Portuguese standard levels of exposure (VLE). For these dust levels we found a prevalence of 23% of workers with respiratory symptoms with occupational characteristics in 10.8%, and 5.7% presenting byssinosis. Workers exposed to cotton fibres in spinning areas have the highest prevalence of symptoms, and reduction of the FEV1. These characteristics were related to dust levels and were higher in the initial phases of the spinning processes. We found no cases of byssinosis in workers exposed to synthetic fibres, or in workers from weaving areas. Smoking habits were related to the reduction of the FEV1, and severity of respiratory illness but not to the presence of byssinosis.

Da Costa JT; Barros H; Macedo JA; Ribeiro H; Mayan O; Pinto AS

1998-04-01

155

LACTOSE TO NATURALIZE TEXTILE DYES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many natural dyes, for example carminic acid, are soluble in water. We present a simple strategy to naturalize synthetic azadyes through their linkage with lactose to induce their water solubility. The dyeing process of textile fibres then becomes possible in water without additives such as surfactants and mordants, which result in products that are difficult to eliminate. Glyco-azadyes (GADs) we are presenting here are obtained through a diether linker to bond the azadye and the sugar. Tinctorial tests were carried out with fabrics containing wool, polyester, cotton, nylon, and acetate. GADs were found to be multipurpose and capable of dyeing many fabrics efficiently under mild conditions.

Roberto Bianchini; Giorgio Catelani; Elena Frino; Jalal Isaad; Massimo Rolla

2007-01-01

156

Development of Textile Industrial Clusters in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research investigates the textile industry clusters in Pakistan. A cross sectional data were collected from 30 textile industries by using simple random technique and data were analysis by using E-Views software. Structural questionnaire was the basic tool for measures the performance of textile clusters in Pakistan. It was revealed that the industry is in urgent need of financial and technological investments. However, according to recent official figures, the Pakistan textile industry contributes more than 60% to the country’s total exports, which amounts to around 5.2 billion US dollars. The manufacturing sector contributes to around half of the total exports and textile sector contributes around 46% of the manufacturing sector’s contribution. The negative growth of 2.6 % declining from $ 16.4 billion last year to $ 16.0 billion in July-April 2008-09. Ministry of Textile Industry should launch and endorse the development of cluster-based textiles vision. It further revealed that Government should emphasis on increase Efficiency and Productivity with the help of research and development department and identifies key areas for process.

Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal; Faiz. M. Shaikh; Babak Mahmood; Kamran Shafiq

2010-01-01

157

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1994-01-01

158

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-01-01

159

Textile Architecture : How to Dress Buildings Up  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles to create human habitation is not new. As Diether S. Hope phrases it, referring to tents: The history of development of humanity would be barely conceivable without free spanning textile membrane structures.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

160

Application of cyclodextrins in textile processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are water soluble cyclic sugars with a hydrophobic nanometric cavity that permits the formation of host/guest inclusion complexes with a large variety of molecules, alternating their physical-chemical properties. In the present review CD research related to the processing of textiles is revised and discussed. CDs may function as encapsulating, dispersing and levelling agents in the dyeing and washing of textiles. Furthermore they may be anchored to polymers and textile fibers in order to impart special properties such as odor reduction, UV protection or for the controlled release of perfumes, aromas, mosquito repellents or substances with therapeutical effects. (author)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Measuring and monitoring energy in textile finishing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''Monitoring and Targeting'' (M and T) method has already been recognised as a key method of achieving energy cost savings in textile finishing through the experience of a pilot scheme financed by the Department of Energy. This report is aimed at energy managers and designers of textile machinery. It provides a detailed guide to the use of simple techniques for measuring and monitoring energy consumption in individual heat-using textile finishing machines (ranges, dyeing machines, washers, stenters, bakers, setters, singeing machines) and applying ''Monitoring and Targeting'' at the machine level. (author).

1988-11-01

162

Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Friction and shear forces, as well as moisture between the human skin and textiles are critical factors in the formation of skin injuries such as blisters, abrasions and decubitus. This study investigated how epidermal hydration affects the friction between skin and textiles.The friction between the inner forearm and a hospital fabric was measured in the natural skin condition and in different hydration states using a force plate. Eleven males and eleven females rubbed their forearm against the textile on the force plate using defined normal loads and friction movements. Skin hydration and viscoelasticity were assessed by corneometry and the suction chamber method, respectively.In each individual, a highly positive linear correlation was found between skin moisture and friction coefficient (COF). No correlation was observed between moisture and elasticity, as well as between elasticity and friction. Skin viscoelasticity was comparable for women and men. The friction of female skin showed significantly higher moisture sensitivity. COFs increased typically by 43% (women) and 26% (men) when skin hydration varied between very dry and normally moist skin. The COFs between skin and completely wet fabric were more than twofold higher than the values for natural skin rubbed on a dry textile surface.Increasing skin hydration seems to cause gender-specific changes in the mechanical properties and/or surface topography of human skin, leading to skin softening and increased real contact area and adhesion.

Gerhardt LC; Strässle V; Lenz A; Spencer ND; Derler S

2008-11-01

163

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1994-10-01

164

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

165

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

166

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-06-01

167

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-10-01

168

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1992-07-01

169

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

170

Profesionales de atención primaria de Madrid y violencia de pareja hacia la mujer en el año 2012/ Workers in Primary Health Care and Partner Violence Against Women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: La morbilidad asociada a la violencia de pareja hacia la mujer (VPHM) justifica que sus víctimas acudan reiteradamente a los centros de salud. La accesibilidad y continuidad asistencial hacen de la atención primaria (AP) el lugar idóneo para su detección y primer abordaje. Sin embargo, los datos reflejan las dificultades de los/as profesionales para lograr este fin. El objetivo es analizar el nivel de conocimientos, opiniones, barreras organizativas perci (more) bidas y propuestas de mejora de los profesionales de AP. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo realizado mediante una encuesta anónima y autoadministrada durante los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2010, dirigida a todos/as profesionales de AP del área 8 de Madrid. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables y la chi² para comparar las respuestas obtenidas. Resultados: Tasa de respuesta 170 (21,4%). 118 (70,7%) profesionales creen que este es un problema importante y 154 (91,7%) que habitualmente pasa desapercibido. 91 (55,2%) conocen las obligaciones legales que tienen cuando la detectan. 73 (51,8%) piensan que existen barreras organizativas. Entre ellas: presión asistencial 50(29%), fa de formación específica 40(23,5%), desconocimiento del procedimiento a seguir 20(11,8%) y de las competencias de cada profesional 12(7%). Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos medio para todas las categorías profesionales estudiadas, excepto para trabajo social que es alto. Los/as profesionales de AP consideran que la VPHM es un problema importante que pasa desapercibido. La mitad de ellos/as conocen las obligaciones legales que conlleva la detección. Existen barreras organizativas y estereotipos. Abstract in english Background: Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Heh Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of prim (more) ary care. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi² to compare the answers. Results: Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). Conclusions: All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.

Arredondo-Provecho, Ana Belén; Broco-Barredo, Manuel; Alcalá-Ponce de León, Teresa; Rivera-Álvarez, Araceli; Jiménez Trujillo, Isabel; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen

2012-02-01

171

Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

Bergfjord C; Mannering U; Frei KM; Gleba M; Scharff AB; Skals I; Heinemeier J; Nosch ML; Holst B

2012-01-01

172

Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe. PMID:23024858

Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B

2012-09-28

173

Environmental Pollution Control: Textile Processing Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgra...

A. Lubell

1978-01-01

174

Electroflocculation for textile wastewater treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF) process for chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: current density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum); and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.

A. Cerqueira; C. Russo; M. R. C. Marques

2009-01-01

175

Total design for textile products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Product development is less than 20-30 years old and a relatively new area of research compared to the other classic academic disciplines. Integrated product development is a philosophy that systematically employs the teaming of functional disciplines to integrate and concurrently apple all the necessary processes to produce an effective and efficient product that satisfies customer needs. Product development might also be understood as a multidisciplinary field of research. The disciplines directly participating in product development include engineering design, innovation, manufacturing, marketing and management. A background contribution is also generated by disciplines such as psychology, social sciences and information technology. This article is an overview that introduces this philosophy to textile product development.

Zafirova Koleta

2004-01-01

176

Electroflocculation for textile wastewater treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF) process for chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: current density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum); and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameter (more) s on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.

Cerqueira, A.; Russo, C.; Marques, M. R. C.

2009-12-01

177

Strines Textiles make M and T pay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring and targeting procedures at Strines Textiles, Stockport, are playing a crucial role in the company's fight to reduce energy costs. Now fully re-established, following a management buy out in 1982, Strines Textiles is earning an ever increasing reputation for quality printing in a wide range of designs on considerably varied fabrics: from light-weight dress fabrics in fashion designs to waterproof combat camouflage prints with exacting demands in quality and shade control.

1987-01-01

178

Research and development in the textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

None

1987-06-01

179

Gender and respiratory findings in workers occupationally exposed to organic aerosols: A meta analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies. Methods Three thousand and eleven (3011) workers employed in "organic dust" industries (1379 female and 1632 male) were studied. A control group of 806 workers not exposed to any kind of dust were also investigated (male = 419, female = 387). Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were measured. The weighted average method and the Mantel-Haentszel method were used to calculate the odds ratios of symptoms. Hedge's unbiased estimations were used to measure lung function differences between men and women. Results There were high prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in all the "dusty" studied groups compared to controls. Significantly less chronic cough, chronic phlegm as well as chronic bronchitis were found among women than among men after the adjustments for smoking, age and duration of employment. Upper respiratory tract symptoms by contrast were more frequent in women than in men in these groups. Significant gender related lung function differences occurred in the textile industry but not in the food processing industry or among farmers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that in industries processing organic compounds there are gender differences in respiratory symptoms and lung function in exposed workers. Whether these findings represent true physiologic gender differences, gender specific workplace exposures or other undefined gender variables not defined in this study cannot be determined. These data do not suggest that special limitations for women are warranted for respiratory health reasons in these industries, but the issue of upper respiratory irritation and disease warrants further study.

Schachter E Neil; Zuskin Eugenija; Moshier Erin L; Godbold James; Mustajbegovic Jadranka; Pucarin-Cvetkovic Jasna; Chiarelli Angelo

2009-01-01

180

“ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILES: A NEED OF TODAY AND TOMMOROW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food, clothing and shelter are the primary needs of human being. Today in clothing ,textile industry is playing important role. Textile industry is second largest employer after agriculture. In modern world,consumer are now aware of many things especially eco-friendly textile. Their demand for eco-friendly textile is also related with quality, quantity ,price. For this Government ,Production dept of textile, Manager and also Consumers are playing important role .There are ill effects on health to overcome this problem some solutions are suggested ,also government role ,managerial role ,production department role are important factor to make India eco friendly textile.

AMRUTA.S.DUDHEDIA; J.R.BHOR

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Energy consumption in the Brazilian textile industry; Consumo energetico na industria textil brasileira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work discusses the energetic consumption in the textile Brazilian industry. First, the international market of textile products is described, followed by the Brazilian situation facing this market. The greater opportunities for saving electric power in this sector are presented and discussed 9 tabs.

Fonseca, Maria Aparecida Sanches da; Atem, Suely Muniz; Serra, Neusa; Camargo, Carlos Augusto de

1992-12-31

182

Patterns of Change: Transitions in Hmong Textile Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional Hmong life, women produced complex textiles as markers of clan identity and cultural values. Paj ntaub (flower cloth), created by embroidery, appliqué, reverse appliqué, and indigo batik (among the Blue or Green Hmong), were primary transmitters of Hmong culture from one generation to the next over centuries. Clothing, funeral and courtship cloths, baby carriers and hats were designed with traditionally geometric, abstract patterns Hmong could understand as a shared visual language within an oral culture.This photo essay introduces the author’s twenty-five year fascination with paj ntaub and documents a trip to Laos and northern Thailand in November/December 2009 to discover whether story cloths were being produced in Hmong villages in Laos or if story cloths remain a product of refugees only. The researcher also hoped tolearn whether traditional Hmong clothing is still produced and worn in the Laos, to observe how Hmong textiles are made and consumed for a tourist market, and to discover possible sources for the dramatic shift in paj ntaub visual language from symbolic abstraction to pictorial representation.

Geraldine Craig

2010-01-01

183

Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially i...

A. Hasanbeigi

2010-01-01

184

The application of cyclodextrins in textile area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of Cyclodextrins for textiles was reviewed in this paper. Cyclodextrins are crystalline, water soluble, cyclic, non-reducing oligosaccharides consisting of six, seven, or eight glucopyranose units. Cyclodextrins are known as products which are able to form inclusion complexes. The ability of Cyclodextrins to form inclusion complexes can be used, e.g., to remove malodor from textile materials, etc. Furthermore, some modifications of the parent Cyclodextrins are possible. The derivatives can be reactive (e.g. cyclodextrin with a monochlorotriazinyl group), more hydrophilic (by means of hydrophilic side groups, such as hydroxypropyl and hydroxyethyl), less hydrophilic (by means of lipophilic side groups, such as ethylhexyl glycidyl) or ionic (by means of ionic side groups, such as hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride).The methods for treating textiles are thus quite simple. The method using anchor-bearing Cyclodextrins is especially useful, since no fixation agent is needed, enabling they use of conventional textile treatment techniques and equipment. Furthermore, this method has virtually no limitations with respect to the textile materials that can be used.

?or?evi? Dragan; Novakovi? Mile; Konstantinovi? Sandra

2006-01-01

185

Uzbekistan: Forming a cluster strategy for textile industry development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article confers urgency of establishing clusters in textile industry. Particular focus is given to resource interaction among compound elements of national textile cluster. Policy recommendations targeted to development of cluster in the textile sector of Uzbekistan are provided.

Dilyafruz Nasirkhodjaeva

2010-01-01

186

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-09-01

187

Textile dyeing by dyestuffs of natural origin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry is one of the biggest industrial consumers of water especially dye houses which utilize synthetic dyes and other chemicals. Natural dyes are generally environmental friendly and have many advantages over synthetic dyes with respect to production and application. In recent years, there has been an interest in the application of these dyes due to their bio-degradability and higher compatibility with the environment. A review of previous work in the field of applying dyestuffs of natural source as possible textile dyes is given. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes by 'natural products' in textile dyeing may be feasible and may represent not only a strategy to reduce risks and pollutants, but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses which can develop from the inclusion of ecology in trade policy.

Šmelcerovi? Miodrag; ?or?evi? Dragan; Novakovi? Mile

2006-01-01

188

Physical Tools for Creativity with Textile Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper seeks to develop a better understanding of how physical objects can stimulate creativity, studying the case of textile material samples employed to inspire textile designers to use new responsive materials and technologies in their designs. I show: 1) how physical objects can act both as triggers for idea generation and as solution proposals in a design process; 2) how the correlation between the developed idea and the relevant inspirational material can be of different kinds and 3) how the complexity and level of generic character of material samples influence their inspirational qualities. I finish with a brief presentation of an ongoing project investigating how architects can be inspired to use textile materials.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

2010-01-01

189

Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

Alica Grilec Kauri?

2009-01-01

190

METHOD OF ANTIBACTERIAL TEXTILE FIBROUS MATERIAL PRODUCTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: textile industry, paper industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: described method of antibacterial textile fibrous material production includes silver recovery from aqueous solution of silver nitrate by reductives (tannin), fixed on fibrous material of recovered silver onto the fibrous material by saturating tartrated antimony with wt. of 0.5-1.5 % of concentration in aqueous solution, aqueous phase separation, washing of the material with water, whereafter the moisture fibrous material is put into aqueous solution of silver nitrate, which is heated to 50-100 DEG C and has concentration of wt. of 0.1-3.0 %, aqueous phase is separated and prepared fibrous material covered with silver is dried. The invention enhances binding stability of particles of nanodimensional silver with textile fibrous material based on cotton, lint, silk, wool, viscose and other hydrophilic materials. ^ EFFECT: stability enhancement of materials with antibacterial agents and opportunity decrease of material disruption. ^ 4 ex

VISHNJAKOV ANATOLIJ VASIL EVICH; MANAEVA TAT JANA VLADIMIROVNA; CHASHCHIN VALERIJ ALEKSANDROVICH; KHOTIMSKIJ DMITRIJ VLADIMIROVICH

191

Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

2010-09-29

192

Method for Acaricidal and Microbicidal Treatment of Textile Materials  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention concerns a method of agaricidal and microbicidal treatment of textile materials, a Neem oil microcapsule composition specifically for said treatment and a bioactive textile material obtained. More particularly, the present invention concerns the industrial and commercial areas of the treatment of fabrics and like products and is of particular application to textile materials produced from natural fibers such as cotton, feathers or down, or synthetic fibers such as polyester, nylon, acrylic or the like, or mixed fibers such as polyester-cotton. The present invention concerns a method of agaricidal and microbicidal treatment of a textile material, in which microcapsules containing Neem oil are fixed on said textile material.

CHETBOUN NATHALIE

193

Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C.

1992-01-01

194

Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The results also indicated that nanoscale silver and silver salts that achieve functionality with very low application rates offer clear potential benefits for textile use. The regular care of textiles consumes lots of resources (e.g. water, energy, chemicals) and antimicrobial treatments can play a role in reducing the frequency and/or intensity of laundering which can give potential for significant resource savings and associated impact on the environment.

Windler L; Height M; Nowack B

2013-03-01

195

Efficient air conditioning system for textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air conditioning of production rooms in the field of textile industry is absolutely necessary because of the higher demands on quality on one hand and an efficient production process on the other. Apart from plants which must be often installed in walls because of their constructional properties and which are not transportable there are also requirements for plant constructions which can easily be assembled and disassembled. Thus an industrial air conditioning system was developed. It is adapted to the special requirements of the textile industry.

Hoenes, E.

1983-01-01

196

DATABASE ON BIOCIDES FOR TEXTILE PROTECTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the desire to control bacteria, fungi, mold, algae and eliminate some human healthproblems, damage, stains, smells, a number of materials that have been antimicrobially modified increasedconsiderably. Biocides are used to maintain textiles in good hygienic conditions to avoid formation of mold andtheir deterioration. This paper aims to provide an analysis tool for the most common biocides used in textile industry for the protection materials. We designed and developed a database in which we introduced useful information for the most common biocides and which can be supplemented and updated later with other new substances.

Claudia Roman; Rodica Diaconescu; Luminita Scripcariu; Aurelia Grigoriu

2011-01-01

197

Industrial Agglomerations and Clusters. The Textile and Textile Products Industry from Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this article is to identify the formal clusters and potential clusters from the textile and the textile products from Romania. The statistical method has been used to delimit the potential clusters. In addition, there have been studied all the available works and internal and international reports on Romania, having as topic this type of industrial organization. The research conclusions are the following: (1) there are two young formal clusters, holding the premises of a “triple helix”: Astrico North-East and TMV South-East; (2) the spreading of the textile organizations, next to the structure of formal clusters, suggests the possibility of the natural building of three clusters: a common one for the North Eastern and Eastern regions, another one for the Central region and the third for the North-Western and Western regions. With reference to the professional literature, this work brings the picture of the spatial distribution of the textile industry in Romania.

Monica DUDIAN; Liliana CR?CIUN

2011-01-01

198

Na costura do sapato, o desmanche das operárias: estudo das condições de trabalho e saúde das pespontadeiras da indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil/ Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo é fundamentado em pesquisa que teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre as condições de trabalho na indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil, e os problemas de saúde relatados pelas trabalhadoras especializadas na atividade de pesponto (costura mecânica). A pesquisa de caráter qualitativo foi embasada teórica e metodologicamente no materialismo histórico-dialético e combinou técnicas de pesquisas sociológicas e etnográficas. A c (more) oleta de dados se deu por entrevistas gravadas, focadas na história de vida e trabalho, na observação sistematizada do processo de trabalho, na consulta a documentos históricos e na produção imagética. A análise dos dados permitiu compreender os efeitos do trabalho na saúde das trabalhadoras empregadas nas fábricas e no domicílio, que vivenciam processos laborais precários que se objetivam na intensificação e ampliação da jornada de trabalho, na cobrança por metas de produção, na insegurança do emprego e nos ambientes de trabalho insalubres. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic o (more) bservation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

2011-10-01

199

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screenin...

Chee HL; Rashidah S; Shamsuddin K; Intan O

200

Application of enzymes for textile fibres processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review highlights the use of enzymes in the textile industry, covering both current commercial processes and research in this field. Amylases have been used for desizing since the middle of the last century. Enzymes used in detergent formulations have also been successfully used over the past 4...

Araújo, Rita; Casal, Margarida; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

 
 
 
 
201

Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique.

1999-01-01

202

HYPERFILTRATION FOR TEXTILE PREPARATION CAUSTIC DISCHARGE REDUCTION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study, joining a hyperfiltration (HF) system with an operating caustic scour and preparation range in an integrated textile dye and finishing plant. (HF is a membrane separation technique widely used in desalination of natural water and in some indus...

203

State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

204

External force estimation for textile grasp detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our current work on external force estimation without end-effector force sensor is resented.To verify if a grasp of a textile has been successful, the external wrench applied on the robot is computed online, with a state observer based on a LWPR [3] model of a task.

Colomé Figueras, Adrià; Pardo Ayala, Diego Esteban; Alenyà Ribas, Guillem; Torras, Carme

205

Biodegradation of Textile Dyes Using Fungal Isolates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industries produces considerably high amount of aquatic toxicity which is discharged directly into the environment before treated properly. The waste generation volume and load produced is hazardous in nature. Thus, this study explores the role of fungal biomass against pollution due to textiles dyes as degrading agent. This study will be beneficial for treating water effluent from textile industry and will decrease the pollution form environment with advanced technology for future use. In this study the evaluation of fungal species for the decolourization and degradation of textile dye has been carried. Four potential fungal strains (NS-1, NS-2, NS-9 and NS-10) were exploited after screening for the decolourization of Rubine Toner-12 dye under aerobic condition. Growth associated decolorization studies were carried out in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) supplemented with Rubine Toner-12. About 99% percent decolorization was achieved on supplementation with 10 mg L-1 of dye. Comparative spectrophotometric analysis of control and fungus inoculated medium supplemented with rubine toner-12 showed almost 100% decolorization in inoculated flasks. The fungus was identified to be Aspergillus niger. Maximum decolorization of Rubine Toner-12 was observed at pH 6. It is a better technique to check environmental pollution.

Noorpreet Inder Kaur Dhanjal; Bharti Mittu; Ashish Chauhan; Saurabh Gupta

2013-01-01

206

Participating within the Global Textile Value Chain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project is an attempt to understand some of the dynamics involved in the development of textile manufacturing capabilities of Zambia, South Africa and Lesotho. It attempts to understand how path dependencies affect rent construction and how trade dynamics affect development and upgrading potent...

Borgmann, Marie Louise; Hindborg Riise-Knudsen, Ida; Wyckoff, Oliver

207

Monday anxiety in office workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study, comparison of state and trait anxiety levels of office workers on monday and on thursday was aimed. Method: On monday morning, sociodemographical form, State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were delivered to the 230 office workers. The data collected from 144 participants were usable. On thursday morning (3 days after) anxiety inventories were delivered again to these 144 workers. Complete and valid forms were collected from 61 participants. Results: The mean SAI scores of 61 participants on monday and on thursday were 44.4±10.2 and 42.2±9.9 (t=2.226, p=0.030) respectively; whereas their TAI scores were 44.7±8.8 and 43.0±8.2 (t=2.123, p=0.038) respectively. Mean BDI scores was 14.4±10.5. Mean TAI scores of workers both on monday and thursday were higher than managers?. Similarly, mean BDI score of workers on Monday was also higher than managers?. Mean TAI scores was higher in middle aged workers than youngs and higher in women than men. Additionally, mean SAI and TAI scores of high school graduates were higher than university graduates?. Conclusion: Relatively higher levels of anxiety on monday was found to be associated with women gender, being over middle ages, longer job experience in the same work, lower education level, and being blue collar employee.

Yasin Bez; Abdurrahim Emhan; Mustafa Ar?; ?akir Özen

2011-01-01

208

PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF IRANIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although textile industry lies upon a long antecedent in Iran, it suffers these days from a critical circumstance.The reasons, from which the existing problems of textile industry originate, must be recognized otherwise, there would be no possibility to find applicable solutions. Crisis discussion in this part is not new; this industry needs to be refashioned in many domains. In this way, pathological study of textile industry emerges as a vital investigational responsibility by which all systems and problems are carefully studied. As a goal this article seeks for, the role and importance of internal organizational factors are crystallized rather than external organizational factors. Also prioritization of these factors and offering some solutions and suggestions for departing from this situation to a suitable one are the other goals in this essay. We use an analytic model, which divide the problems of textile industry in two categories including internal and external organizational factors.The problems from which this branch suffers are included into two genres of internal organizational and external organizational factors. In this article managerial dysfunction, machine depreciation, high cost price, disrespecting the standards and low quality of production, raw materials with low quality and, counter-productivity of working staff have been considered as six internal organizational factors. In addition, five external factors including lack of government support, decrease in market requirement, investor's lack of job security, high rate of banking interest and disabled system of banking facilities, and formal/informal smuggling of goods, have been noted as the most effective factors explaining crisis in this industry. We use a questionnaire, SPSS software and some appropriate statistical tests in order to evaluate these factors.The results of factors assessment show that among internal organizational factors, machine depreciation besides smuggling of goods among external organizational ones, are the most important factors causing crisis in Iranian textile industry.

Jalal Haghighat Monfared; Nika Vatankhah

2013-01-01

209

Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years) In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs) of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility were recorded for both the groups before and after delivering awareness. Results: We found that the mean height of the respondents in control (C) and experimental (E) group before delivery of awareness were 150.64 cm and 150.36 cm and after deliberation of awareness these were 150.68 cm and 150.44 cm, respectively. A significant increase was observed in weight of the subjects of the experimental group after the nutritional awareness. The percentages of severe, moderate and mild degree of chronic energy deficiency were decreased after awareness in the experimental group and the percentages of low weight normal and normal women were increased. The hemoglobin level of the subjects under experimental group was also increased significantly. The percentages of severe and moderate degree of anemia were decreased after awareness given and the percentage of mild anemia was increased. The women with normal hemoglobin level were increased after awareness in the experimental group. The levels of blood pressure of the control and experimental group were not changed significantly. Subjects under experimental group improved their cooking practices, diet pattern, food hygiene, sanitation and ultimately decreased disease susceptibility. Conclusion: We found that nutritional awareness has a great impact on the nutritional status of the women particularly on weight and hemoglobin level. Mothers gladly learned the values of different local vegetables and pulses and incorporated there in their diet and improved their health status. They also improved food hygiene and sanitation and changed cooking practices.

Prabir Kumar Manna; Debasis De; Debidas Ghosh

2012-01-01

210

EUROPEAN REGULATIONS REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE TEXTILE PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, I present an overview of important regulations regarding the environmental impact of the textile products on the level of European Union.There is always an environmental impact of the textile products, across the entire lifecycle. The most important environmental hazards from textiles are: use of chemicals, use of water, use of energy, generation of waste water contaminated with hazardous substances, hazardous and toxic waste generation.The textiles and clothing sector is an important part of European manufacturing industry. Many of the new member states are very dependent upon the textiles and clothing industry in terms of value added and employment. Nevertheless, the total EU export in textiles and clothing decreased while the import increased dramatically over the last years.The European textile industry has been facing a long period of decline, rising global competition, and relocation to low-income countries. Compared to the other main producers of textiles, like China and India, for instance, the European textile industry is disadvantaged due to the high labour costs and higher environmental standards.There are a lot of regulations regarding environmental impact of the textile products, to the level of European Union, like in other few developed countries. All these regulations are necessary for the protection of the environment and consumer protection, in the context of sustainable development, and it should be harmonized and mandatory for all. Unfortunately, however, this will not happen soon.

Mariana Ratiu

2013-01-01

211

77 FR 65366 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS [Docket :121018560-2560-01...Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard Actions on Imports...The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Notice of...

2012-10-26

212

78 FR 17923 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-25

213

78 FR 7414 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-02-01

214

78 FR 31886 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS [Docket : 130430427-3427-01...Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard Actions on Imports...The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Notice of...

2013-05-28

215

78 FR 11159 - Determination under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-02-15

216

78 FR 18561 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the United...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-27

217

78 FR 39713 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-07-02

218

78 FR 16662 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the United...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-18

219

78 FR 16661 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-18

220

78 FR 52907 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-08-27

 
 
 
 
221

78 FR 17642 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-22

222

Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK B188 Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature. This summary refers to work done in approximately the twelve months to the present in our contract ''Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature,'' which commenced in August, 1997. Our activities have consisted mainly of measurements of creep-controlled crack growth in ceramic matrix composites (CMCS) at high temperature; imaging of deformation fields in textile CMCS; the assessment of mechanisms of damage in textile composites, especially those with through-thickness reinforcement; the formulation of models of delamination crack growth under fatigue in textile composites; analytical models of the bridging traction law for creeping fibers in a CMC at high temperature; and an analytical model of a bridging fiber tow in a textile composite.

Cox, Brian

1999-03-01

223

Do Ghanaians Prefer Imported Textiles to Locally Manufactured Ones?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper ascertains whether consumers prefer locally made textile to imported ones or vice versa and what accounts for the choice. The study uses survey data of industry, traders and consumers to explain the issue. The results show that most consumers prefer locally-made textiles to imported ones. More than half of those who prefer locally-made textiles claimed local textile products are of a better quality. Others claimed they are more affordable and attractive while a few claimed local textiles are cheaper. This appears to contradict the country-of-origin effect and the results of previous studies in Africa and other developing countries. Im-plications for traders, governments and local manufacturers are also discussed. The study provides insights with respect to Ghanaians’ preference of locally-produced textiles to foreign-made ones.

Peter Quartey; Joshua Abor

2011-01-01

224

Analysis of the Restrictive Elements of China's Textile Industry in Upgrading Based on “Value Chain”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our country’s textile industry is in the producing and processing field in the global value chain, so textiles’ addedvalue is low and profit margins is narrow. Developed countries take up fields of high-grade fabrics productionand advanced textile machinery manufacture. Because textile fabrics, textile machinery and equipment ofChina's textile industry fall behind developed countries, product quality and product variety can not yet fullymeet the market demand, and can not compete with developed countries. In order to quicken the upgrade pace oftextile industry, this paper brings forward some measures on the Chinese textile fabrics and textile machinerydeficiencies.

Tong Yang; Meilin He; Aixiang Zhang

2010-01-01

225

Verification of Surface Conductance Model of Textile Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface conductance is one of the main parameters which describes basic characteristics of specific textile materials.These textile materials are used, for example, in environments with higher requirements on hardware electrostaticprotection during their production process. Published measurement standardized methods are followed by modelingmethods which do not reach satisfactory results. This paper is therefore focused on the modeling of surfaceconductance of textile materials. The results show that the structure of textile materials can be seen as serial-parallelconnections of resistors. A derivation of this model is described.

M. Neruda; L. Vojtech

2012-01-01

226

Sensor for Measuring Strain in Textile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80%) in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles): It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hysteresis, no ageing effects and a small dependance on the strain velocity. The total mean error caused by all these effects was +/-5.5% in strain. Washing several times in a conventional washing machine did not influence the sensor properties. The paper finishes by showing an example application where 21 strain sensors were integrated into a catsuit. With this garment, 27 upper body postures could be recognized with an accuracy of 97%.

Corinne Mattmann; Frank Clemens; Gerhard Tröster

2008-01-01

227

GORE-TEX AND SYMPATEX TEXTILE WATERPROOFING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waterproofing is the treatment of reduction of water absorbing properties of materials. It is more of a coating than a finishing process because it uses polymer materials for covering spaces and pores. These textiles leaves no air or water vapor to pass through the material because the pores are completely coated . Thismaterial is impermeable to liquid water, and air and water vapor. It resists the water test with a pressure in the water column >1000mm, before the first drops of water start to penetrate.Depending on the methods used to waterproof and textile media, you can get waterproof breathable, microporous membranes such as GORE-TEX, or hydrophilic membranes - SYMPATEX.

Viorica Porav

2011-01-01

228

Environmental impact of plasma application to textiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma technology is currently implemented in a wide range of industrial processes due to high efficiency, low environmental impact and simplicity. Low-temperature plasma treatment can be an alternative to traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing, causing modification of the fibre surface, which is mainly responsible for the material end-use properties i.e. wettability, dyeability, printability, shrinking, pilling etc. Appropriate choice of gas and control of plasma operation conditions provide a variety of effects on textiles (improvement of dyeability, printability and colour fastness, improvement of adhesion properties of coated fabrics, increase in hydrophobicity and water resistance, etc.). However, in spite of extraordinary efficiency, multifunctionality and simplicity, low-temperature plasma treatments still cannot replace all wet finishing processes, though they can be viable pretreatments that offer plenty of environmental and economical benefits.

Radetic, M [Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovancic, P [Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Puac, N [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Petrovic, Z Lj [Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

2007-05-15

229

Environmental impact of plasma application to textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma technology is currently implemented in a wide range of industrial processes due to high efficiency, low environmental impact and simplicity. Low-temperature plasma treatment can be an alternative to traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing, causing modification of the fibre surface, which is mainly responsible for the material end-use properties i.e. wettability, dyeability, printability, shrinking, pilling etc. Appropriate choice of gas and control of plasma operation conditions provide a variety of effects on textiles (improvement of dyeability, printability and colour fastness, improvement of adhesion properties of coated fabrics, increase in hydrophobicity and water resistance, etc.). However, in spite of extraordinary efficiency, multifunctionality and simplicity, low-temperature plasma treatments still cannot replace all wet finishing processes, though they can be viable pretreatments that offer plenty of environmental and economical benefits.

2006-09-01

230

Environmental impact of plasma application to textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma technology is currently implemented in a wide range of industrial processes due to high efficiency, low environmental impact and simplicity. Low-temperature plasma treatment can be an alternative to traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing, causing modification of the fibre surface, which is mainly responsible for the material end-use properties i.e. wettability, dyeability, printability, shrinking, pilling etc. Appropriate choice of gas and control of plasma operation conditions provide a variety of effects on textiles (improvement of dyeability, printability and colour fastness, improvement of adhesion properties of coated fabrics, increase in hydrophobicity and water resistance, etc.). However, in spite of extraordinary efficiency, multifunctionality and simplicity, low-temperature plasma treatments still cannot replace all wet finishing processes, though they can be viable pretreatments that offer plenty of environmental and economical benefits.

Radetic, M.; Jovancic, P.; Puac, N.; Petrovic, Z. Lj

2007-05-01

231

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE EVOLUTIONS OF TEXTILE SECTOR ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complete liberalization of international trade led to important changes in financial performancesof the national enterprises. This paper has in view to present the consequences of these changes fromthe macroeconomic level to microeconomic level. Thus, indicators of the financial performance forthree enterprises at the textile sector from Galati are studied selectively. The scope of this study isboth to realize a financial performance hierarchy and to present of their evolution directions in thefuture.

Nicoleta BARBUTA MISU

2005-01-01

232

Wearable textile-based phototherapy systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we discuss the phototherapy concepts developed by Philips in the EU FP7 PLACE-it project. These concepts demonstrate the use of e-textiles for medical applications in a meaningful way. By introducing a comfortable, wearable technology, Philips has enabled a new world of devices which provide comfortable home treatment of different diseases and complaints. Here, we show concepts and clinical validation, and give insight in the development steps to be taken to build this kind of devices.

van Os K; Cherenack K

2013-01-01

233

Method and apparatus for the application of textile treatment compositions to textile materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for applying textile treatment compositions to textile materials. A conduit member is provided which includes a passageway having a first end, a second end, and a medial portion with a constricted (narrowed) region. The passageway may include at least one baffle having an opening therethrough. A yarn strand is then moved through the passageway. A textile treatment composition (a sizing agent or dye) dissolved in a carrier medium (a supercritical fluid or liquified gas) is thereafter introduced into the constricted region, preferably at an acute angle relative to the passageway. The carrier medium expands inside the passageway which causes delivery of the treatment composition to the yarn. The treated yarn then passes through the baffle (if used) which facilitates drying of the yarn. During this process, a carrier gas can be introduced into the passageway to ensure the production of a smooth, dry product.

Argyle, Mark D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Propp, William Alan (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

234

Adaptation of Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to the Problems Faced by the Power Loom Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. In this research Paper we study the socio economic problems faced by power loom workers in Avinashi in Tamilnadu, India, using Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (IFCMs). We have interviewed 50 households in the study area using a linguistic questionnaire. As the problems faced by them at large, involved so much of feelings and uncertainties. We felt it to fit to use fuzzy theory in general and induced fuzzy cognitive maps in particular. For IFCMs is the best suited tool when the data is an unsupervised one.

S. Narayanamoorthy; S. Kalaiselvan

2012-01-01

235

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

236

Vida de agricultoras e histórias de documentos no Sertão Central de Pernambuco Lives of peasant and worker women and stories of documents in the South Central Sertão of Pernambuco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo enfoca como as mulheres agricultoras, ao terem acesso a direitos sociais, especialmente à Previdência Social, lidam com a normatização e a regulamentação dos processos de nascimento, envelhecimento e morte. O objetivo é analisar as dificuldades e as estratégias que as mulheres utilizam para cumprirem as exigências legais de comprovação do trabalho na agricultura familiar através de documentos civis e profissionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde e Triunfo, situados no Sertão de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. A ausência de documentos é reveladora dos parâmetros de modernidade instaurados no país e deve ser entendida à luz das intersecções de gênero, classe, raça, etnia e critérios geopolíticos.The article focuses on how peasant and worker women deal with norms and rules about birth, ageing and death, in the process of getting access to social rights, especially to Social Security. The aim is to analyze difficulties and strategies used by women in order to comply with the legal demands of proof of work experience in family farming by way of civil and professional documents. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde and Triunfo, in the Pernambuco Sertão in Northeast Brazil. The absence of documents reveals how parameters of modernity are installed in the nation, understanding them as necessarily related to gender, class, race, ethnicity and geopolitical criteria.

Rosineide de L. Meira Cordeiro

2007-01-01

237

[Worker's health & outsourcing: worker's profile in a hospital cleaning service].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last two decades, service outsourcing has reduced companies' costs by the rationalization of their actions and the exploration of precarious work relations. This research aimed to outline the profile of outsourced workers in the cleaning service of a university hospital, identify their points of view about the health-illness process and future plans. This is a descriptive study from a quantitative approach, involving a random sample with 50 cleaning workers. Most of them started to work early, 74% were women and education level was low. In 36% of the cases, physicians diagnosed some kind of illness. In the analyzed period, 84% of the interviewees had realized medical consultations, resulting in an average of 3.6 consultations per worker, 56% of which involved general clinicians. Data analysis allowed for the identification of these professionals' perspectives in relation to the health/illness process and their future.

Chillida Mde S; Cocco MI

2004-03-01

238

Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.

Ridgley, H.

1998-08-01

239

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICS STUDY, PHASE II  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study concerned with BATEA for the textile manufacturing industry. The level of removal of specific toxic pollutants and toxicity (measured by results of bioassays) attained by selected tertiary systems treating secondary effluents from textile plant...

240

Radio frequency and infrared drying of sized textile warp yarns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Drying sized textile warp yarns without contacting the warp is easily accomplished by either radio frequency or infrared techniques. Although the process is more expensive than conventional drying, the substantial savings accrued during subsequent weaving and finishing of the cloth can help keep the US textile industry competitive and support electrical load. 5 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

Ruddick, H.G. (West Point Foundry and Machine Co., GA (USA))

1990-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Energy analysis for the textile and clothing industry branch; Brancheenergianalyse for textil- og beklaedningsindustrien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy analysis and energy saving measures are proposed for the textile branch. Spinning, weaving, knitting and dye mills are analyzed as well as carpet production industry and clothing industry. Mechanical equipment, drying equipment, processing lines are investigated with regard to the possible energy savings. (EG) 19 refs.

Hansen, J.; Hart, M.; Moeller, J. [DTI, Beklaedning og Tekstil, Herning (Denmark)

1995-09-01

242

Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented.

Rita Salvado; Caroline Loss; Ricardo Gonçalves; Pedro Pinho

2012-01-01

243

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD), a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel phases). The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no precedent for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual organs, perhaps with the interior shown also.La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000 - 1350 DC), descendiente de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa, en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fases Maytas/San Miguel). La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. La imagen sobre el fondo de la red de algodón blanco está formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, quizás con su interior.

Alfredo Rosenzweig; Bat - ami Artzi

2011-01-01

244

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR/ UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000 - 1350 DC), descendiente de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa, en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fases Maytas/San Miguel). La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. La imagen sobre el fondo de l (more) a red de algodón blanco está formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, quizás con su interior. Abstract in english One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD), a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel phases). The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton ne (more) t. There is no precedent for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual organs, perhaps with the interior shown also.

Rosenzweig, Alfredo; Artzi, Bat - ami

2011-01-01

245

Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development for women workers and the broader workers' movement.

BROADBENT, Kaye

2005-01-01

246

Interfacial microfluidic transport on micropatterned superhydrophobic textile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Textile-enabled interfacial microfluidics, utilizing fibrous hydrophilic yarns (e.g., cotton) to guide biological reagent flows, has been extended to various biochemical analyses recently. The restricted capillary-driving mechanism, however, persists as a major challenge for continuous and facilitated biofluidic transport. In this paper, we have first introduced a novel interfacial microfluidic transport principle to drive three-dimensional liquid flows on a micropatterned superhydrophobic textile (MST) platform in a more autonomous and controllable manner. Specifically, the MST system utilizes the surface tension-induced Laplace pressure to facilitate the liquid motion along the hydrophilic yarn, in addition to the capillarity present in the fibrous structure. The fabrication of MST is simply accomplished by stitching hydrophilic cotton yarn into a superhydrophobic fabric substrate (contact angle 140 ± 3°), from which well-controlled wetting patterns are established for interfacial microfluidic operations. The geometric configurations of the stitched micropatterns, e.g., the lengths and diameters of the yarn and bundled arrangement, can all influence the transport process, which is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Two operation modes, discrete and continuous transport, are also presented in detail. In addition, the gravitational effect as well as the droplet removal process have been also considered and quantitatively analysed during the transport process. As a demonstration, an MST design has been implemented on an artificial skin surface to collect and remove sweat in a highly efficient and facilitated means. The results have illustrated that the novel interfacial transport on the textile platform can be potentially extended to a variety of biofluidic collection and removal applications.

Xing S; Jiang J; Pan T

2013-05-01

247

Decolorization of textile dyes by cyanobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Cianobactérias estão amplamente distribuídas no ambiente e podem ser uma alternativa eficaz e econômica para a remoção de corantes de efluentes de indústrias têxteis. O presente trabalho investigou o potencial de seis linhagens de cianobactérias de descolorir onze tipos de corantes têxteis. A absorção máxima de cada corante foi verificada usando um espectrofotômetro. Espectrometria de massas foi utilizada na verificação da degradação e possível remoçã (more) o de corantes pelas cianobactérias. Os resultados mostraram que todas as linhagens avaliadas foram capazes de remover indigo, amarelo palanil, amarelo indantreno, azul indantreno, azul dispersol, vermelho indantreno e vermelho dispersol em mais de 50%. O isolado brasileiro Phormidium sp. CENA135 foi capaz de descolorir e remover completamente o índigo azul BANN 30. Este estudo confirmou a capacidade das cianobactérias de descolorir e, possivelmente, degradar corantes têxteis estruturalmente diferentes, sugerindo a possibilidade de sua aplicação em estudos de biorremediação. Abstract in english Cyanobacteria are widely distributed in the environment and may be an effective and economic alternative for removing dyes from textile industry effluents. The present work investigated the potential of six cyanobacterial strains in decolorizing eleven types of textile dyes. The maximum absorbance of each dye was verified using a spectrophotometer. Mass spectrometry was used to verify the removal and possible degradation of dyes by the cyanobacteria. The results showed th (more) at all of the evaluated cyanobacteria were able to remove indigo, palanil yellow, indanthrene yellow, indanthrene blue, dispersol blue, indanthrene red and dispersol red by more than 50%. The Brazilian isolate Phormidium sp. CENA135 was able to decolorize and completely remove indigo blue BANN 30. This study confirmed the capacity of cyanobacteria to decolorize and possibly to structurally degrade different textile dyes, suggesting the possibility of their application in bioremediation studies.

Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Vieira, Felipe D. P.; Genuário, Diego B.; Silva, Caroline S. P.; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B.; Fiore, Marli Fátima

2012-10-01

248

Corporate Social Responsibility In Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of social responsibility is a fairly recent one in the business world. Awareness about the social responsibility of business organizations is rapidly on the rise and firms are also accepting this concept. The textile industry is no exception. Textile producing and trading firms are also realizing their responsibility towards the society and the environment. This article aims at analyzing the concept of social responsibility and the common ways in which textile firms try to fulfill it.When India is making a transformational progress, GDP is growing at the rate of 8-8.5 percent per annum, sensex is reaching new heights every day, world is looking at us as one of fastest emerging economies of world. Shall we assume that our society is also progressing at the same rate as the economy is growing or there is a gap between economic vs. social progress of the country. If society is progressing at the same pace as the economy is growing then it is a very healthy sign but if there is a mismatch between the two then it would be very grave situation since it may widen the gap between the different strata of society. When most societies are wrestling with an acceleration and intensification of social change, there is a revolution of rising expectations. But how this change will happen. There are various measures to bring about such changes in the form of war, revolution or planned way. But in India we believe in democracy, rationality and progress. But question arises whether the initiatives taken by government for social upliftment is sufficient or private players should also contribute or government, corporate

Neha Gupta

2012-01-01

249

La industria textil uruguaya (1900-1960)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La industria textil uruguaya se inició a comienzos del siglo XX con la instalación de algunas fábricas de tejidos de lana y de una gran hilandería de lana peinada. Desde la crisis de 1929, sustentada en la protección cambiaría, se expandió en forma acelerada durante el periodo conocido como de industrialización por sustitución de importaciones. Alcanzó su apogeo entre fines de la segunda guerra mundial y comienzos de la década de los cincuenta, al instalar hilanderías de algodón y de fibras sintéticas y cuando las exportaciones industriales laneras adquirieron una importante dimensión. El progresivo agotamiento de la sustitución de importaciones, los frenos opuestos a las exportaciones, junto al estancamiento económico del país y el desmontaje de la protección estatal, la sumieron en una profunda crisis y en la pérdida creciente de significación en la industria y en la economía uruguaya.The Uruguayan textile industry started in the early xxth century based on the production of woven fabric and wool spinning mill (tops). From the years of the 1929's crisis onwards, it went through a great expansion due to a protectionist policy based on favourable exchange rates. Those were the times of the Import Substitutive Industrialization (ISI) in the country. After the Second World War and, particularly, during the fifties it reached its height with the production of cotton fabrics and synthetic fibers. Meanwhile, wool exports would grow strongly. However, in the late fifties, the ISI strategy was in trouble and the obstacles for export's growth and the economic stagnation together with the removal of the protectionist's policies, put an end to the textile industry development. As a consequence, it experienced a deep crisis and lost importance both for the industry and for the economy as a whole.

Magdalena Bertino

2009-01-01

250

La industria textil uruguaya (1900-1960)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La industria textil uruguaya se inició a comienzos del siglo XX con la instalación de algunas fábricas de tejidos de lana y de una gran hilandería de lana peinada. Desde la crisis de 1929, sustentada en la protección cambiaría, se expandió en forma acelerada durante el periodo conocido como de industrialización por sustitución de importaciones. Alcanzó su apogeo entre fines de la segunda guerra mundial y comienzos de la década de los cincuenta, al instalar hila (more) nderías de algodón y de fibras sintéticas y cuando las exportaciones industriales laneras adquirieron una importante dimensión. El progresivo agotamiento de la sustitución de importaciones, los frenos opuestos a las exportaciones, junto al estancamiento económico del país y el desmontaje de la protección estatal, la sumieron en una profunda crisis y en la pérdida creciente de significación en la industria y en la economía uruguaya. Abstract in english The Uruguayan textile industry started in the early xxth century based on the production of woven fabric and wool spinning mill (tops). From the years of the 1929's crisis onwards, it went through a great expansion due to a protectionist policy based on favourable exchange rates. Those were the times of the Import Substitutive Industrialization (ISI) in the country. After the Second World War and, particularly, during the fifties it reached its height with the production (more) of cotton fabrics and synthetic fibers. Meanwhile, wool exports would grow strongly. However, in the late fifties, the ISI strategy was in trouble and the obstacles for export's growth and the economic stagnation together with the removal of the protectionist's policies, put an end to the textile industry development. As a consequence, it experienced a deep crisis and lost importance both for the industry and for the economy as a whole.

Bertino, Magdalena

2009-06-01

251

Vêtement et textile : sources et ressources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Progressivement, les acteurs de la recherche scientifique s’organisent en réseaux, conscients que l’amélioration des connaissances passe par le partage et l’élaboration collective. L’outil internet offre une interface efficace, mais son offre est si multiple qu’elle mérite d’être organisée. L’histoire du vêtement, des matières et des accessoires textiles bénéficie désormais d’une interface spécifique à l’échelle de la recherche française, mais aussi internationale. Le projet « Vêtement et tex...

Sophie Jolivet-Jacquet

2009-01-01

252

Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode. 5 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1995-10-10

253

Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1995-01-01

254

Development of nanostructured thermoregulating textile materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present studies provide the first example of a nanostructured thermoregulating textile materials obtained by electrospinning process. Microencapsulated phase change material was dispersed into a Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)-acetone solution and electrospun at ambient temperature. The morphological analysis showed that the addition of microcapsules to the PCL lead to the formation of nanofibers with a significantly lower average diameter with respect to that obtained by pure PCL in the same conditions. The resulting functional material has demonstrated to have the higher efficiency in the thermoregulating effect in comparison with more of the dispersion methods used up to now. PMID:19049032

Romeo, Valentina; Vittoria, Vittoria; Sorrentino, Andrea

2008-09-01

255

Treatment of Textile Wastewater with Chlorine: An Effective Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the chlorination of textile wastewater achieves all the objectives of its treatment such as color removal and reduction of TDS, BOD and COD; and the treated effluents meet the standards set as per Schedule 12-B of the Environment Conservation Rules-1997 (ECR-97, Bangladesh), the treatment of textile wastewater with chlorine gas is a practical technological option for Bangladesh. If this process which is simple if adopted by the textile sector, the ETP operation would be widely practised for its low operating costs because of low price of chlorine produced by local chlor-alkali plants in the country. Satisfactory operation of the ETPs treating textile wastewater with chlorine at low costs has made this process affordable and attractive to the textile sector. Some of the perceived limitations of chlorination outweighs the greater benefits of textile wastewater treatment with chlorine gas leading to cleaner water bodies which receive these effluents otherwise.Keywords:Textile wastewater, chlorination, ETP, wastewater treatmentDOI = 10.3329/cerb.v14i1.3206 Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin 14 (2010) 59-63 

A. K. M. Abdul Quader

2010-01-01

256

Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is first adopted to quantitatively describe texture semantics. Then texture features of textile images are extracted using Gabor decomposition. Finally, the mapping model between texture features and texture semantics in the semantic space is built using three different methods: linear regression, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and multi-layered perceptron (MLP). The performance of the proposed mapping model is evaluated with a dataset of 1352 textile images. The results confirm that the mapping model is effective and especially KNN and MLP reach the good performance. We further apply the mapping model to two applications: automatic textile image annotation with texture semantics and textile image search based on texture semantics. The subjective experimental results are consistent with human perception, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed mapping model. The proposed model and its applications can be applied to various automation systems in commercial textile industry.

Xiaohui Wang; Jia Jia; Yongxin Wang; Lianhong Cai

2011-01-01

257

Electric energy consumption in the cotton textile processing stages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electric energy is one of the primary energy sources consumpted in cotton textile processing. Current energy cost rate is reported about 8-10% in the total production cost of an ordinary textile product manufactured in Turkey. Significantly important share of this energy cost is electric energy. The aim of this paper was to investigate unit electric energy consumption of cotton textile processing stages using real-time measurements method. Actual and estimated Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) values for electric energy was calculated in the cotton textile processing stages of spinning, warping-sizing, weaving, wet processing and clothing manufacturing. Actual electric energy consumption data are gathered from monthly records of the involved plant managements. Estimated electric energy consumption data is gathered through on-site measurement. Actual and estimated electric energy consumption data and monthly production quantities of the corresponding months are used to facilitate specific electric energy consumption of the plants. It is found that actual electric energy consumption amount per unit textile product is higher than the estimated electric energy consumption amount per unit textile product of each involved textile processing stages. (author)

Palamutcu, S. [Textile Engineering Department, Pamukkale University, Engineering Faculty, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

2010-07-15

258

Strategy for Introducing Nanotechnology in Textile Industry of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile Industry is one of the oldest industries in Pakistan and considered as the backbone of the country’s economy, even then, it is lagging behind in competition among the global textile players and losing its position because of traditional conservative culture of the industry. Thus, industrial and technological revolution is direly needed in the industry to stay competitive in the international market. Textile industry in the global world is adopting more promising technologies to achieve functional and high performance characteristics which include specialized coating, plasma based products, smart/technical technologies and nanotechnologies. Nanotechnology has a great potential to generate modern/ innovative products that could strengthen the economy and create new trade opportunities for the global textile industry, consequently, strengthening the economy of a country and resolving the major communal problems of the society. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current status of Pakistani Textile Industry and possible application of nanotechnology in textiles followed by a strategy for transferring conventional Industry of Pakistan into a nano-based textile Industry

O. A. Golra; A. Luqman; N. M. Butt

2011-01-01

259

Manufactura textil en México: Un enfoque sistémico/ Textile Manufacturing in México: a Systemic Approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo es resultado de un trabajo de investigación, cuyo objetivo establece la determinación y análisis de los factores que inciden en la competitividad de la manufacturera textil y del vestido. Aplicando el modelo de competitividad sistémica, se profundizó en los distintos factores que influyen en los niveles sistémicos (micro, meso, macro y meta), con el fin de proponer las condiciones necesarias para generar el desarrollo del sector. La infraestructura pr (more) oductiva textil se integra en 99,5% de micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES), que revelan diferentes problemáticas y no logran interactuar debidamente con las instituciones de apoyo. Por su parte el Estado ha mantenido un entorno propicio para la competitividad y ha establecido políticas industriales dirigidas a un cambio en los tipos de organización industrial (clusters y empresas integradoras). Pero para participar con éxito en los nuevos sistemas de competencia internacional se deben lograr consensos entre actores sociales que permitan hacer los cambios necesarios para encauzarse hacia una competitividad sostenida en la industria textil. Abstract in english This article is a result of a research the objective of which is the determination and analysis of the factors that influence the competitiveness of the textile and garment industry in México. The systemic competitive methodology is applied in order to study the different factors that influence the systemic levels (micro, meso, macro, goal) in order to propose the necessary conditions for the development of this industry. The textile productive infrastructure is 99.5% co (more) mposed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSME?s), which present multiple types of problems of different kinds and which are unable to interact adequately with the supporting institutions. On the other hand, the government has maintained an adequate environment for competitiveness and has established industrial policies which pursue the change in industrial organization (?clusters? and ?integrative companies?). However, in order to be successful in new systems of international competition, consensus among the social actors will have to be achieved in order to introduce the necessary changes to sustain competitiveness in the textile industry.

Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos; Fernández Chalé, Lizbeth

2006-09-01

260

Development Strategy for a Textile Firm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The researched firm is a state-owned company of more than forty years of operation and is one of pioneer companies providing textile and garment to Vietnam market. Its vision is to be the sustainable multidisciplinary firm which operates in three main areas: textile and gament industry, travel – real estate and financial investment in global market. After more than forty years of operation in the market, company has obtained some recognized results but these are still low and do not meet company’s strategic goals and company’s shareholders expectation. A need of a development of strategy which will help company to take market positioning and to develop. This research will help to have an overview of company, its business environment, its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Business environment and SWOT analysis are used for alternatives of strategies. Each activity of the company is reviewed to find the real problem that company is facing and helps to find a solution. A strategy is finally given for company’s competitiveness anddevelopment.

Luu Trong Tuan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Advanced textile structural composites -- status and outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Composites with 3D woven, braided or knitted fiber reinforcement offer a high potential for the cost-effective manufacturing of structures featuring an interesting mechanical performance, for example with regard to damage tolerance or energy absorption capability. In this paper, the properties of various textile structural composites with regard to stiffness, strength, damage tolerance, energy absorption capability as well as the respective manufacturing processes (RTM or thermoplastic hybrid-yarn technique) are presented in comparison to conventional ud tape based composites. The influence of the fiber architecture on the mechanical performance (tensile stiffness and strength, compression strength, interlaminar shear strength, compression strength after impact, fracture mechanical properties, through-penetration resistance) of monolithic and composite sandwich structures has been evaluated in an experimental study. It has been shown that composites involving new 3D weavings with minimum fiber crimp can compete with tape-based laminates as far as stiffness and strength are concerned. Using knittings makes it possible to manufacture composites having superior through-penetration resistance. The specific feature of the 3D braiding process is the ability to produce complex shaped structures having a high degree of freedom with regard to fiber geometry. Finally, the application of various textile structural composites will be presented on the basis of three demonstrator components (automotive engine mount, aircraft leading edge and motor cycle helmet), and the potential for further developments will be discussed.

Arendts, F.J. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany); Drechsler, K.; Brandt, J. [Deutsche Aerospace, Ottobrunn (Germany)

1993-12-31

262

STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF A ROMANIAN TEXTILE COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a market research, with the purpose to give an answer to the following fundamental question namely what are the main needs of the customers, of a textile company. The data collected should provide a clear view of the customer requirements and customer expectations, and especially the degree of fulfillment of these. The customers are the only ones who know their own needs and have at the same time expectations with the company, their products and their after sale services. Therefore, we tried to see the assortment of this textile company with the eyes of its customers. The answer to these questions should provide approaches on how to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. The research highlighted the need of introduction of several models, because the potential of the market. Each question provides the necessary information to establish the wishes and expectations of customers and especially their degree of fulfillment by the company. Customers are the only oes able to know their own needs and at the same time, they have been in contact with the company, its products and marketing style. In conclusion, we tried to observe the assortment of the company in terms of the buyer. The answers to these questions should provide benchmarks for the company in order to assure customer satisfaction and loyalty. Least a SWOT analysis is developed and presented in.

Zenovia Cristiana Pop

2013-01-01

263

Instruídas e trabalhadeiras trabalho feminino no final do século XX Educated and earnest workers: women's work at the end of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com base em informações oficiais do IBGE/Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, do MTE/Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego e do MEC/Ministério da Educação e Cultura, o texto mostra a consolidação do acesso das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho na década de noventa e sua manutenção no mercado informal e formal, apesar das crises econômicas da década. Com ênfase na escolaridade, o artigo revela que a escolaridade feminina supera a masculina a partir do 2º grau, as jovens concluem os cursos técnicos e profissionais, assim como o ensino médio, em maior número do que os rapazes e constituem cerca de 60% dos que cursam o superior. Contudo, as moças concentram-se em algumas áreas do conhecimento - artes, humanas, biológicas e saúde - que as qualificam para ocupar posteriormente, no mercado de trabalho, os chamados guetos profissionais femininos.Based on official data provided by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), by the Ministry of Labor and Employment, and by the Ministry of Education and Culture, this text shows the consolidation of women's access to the labor market during the 90's. It also shows that their presence remained unchanged, both in the formal and in the informal market in spite of the economic crisis of that decade. Emphasizing the schooling level, the article reveals that after elementary school, girls tend to conclude technical and professional courses, as well as achieve high school degrees, in a higher number than boys. Young women account for 60% of college students. However, young girls concentrate their preference in some areas of knowledge such as Humanities, Social Sciences, Arts, Biological Sciences and Health. Therefore, they end up as skilled professionals in the so-called ghettos of female laborforce.

Cristina Bruschini; Maria Rosa Lombardi

2002-01-01

264

Radium dial workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated

1982-01-01

265

[Prevention and protection of workers' reproductive health].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article mentiones issues of preserving and strengthening the reproductive health of women workers, dealed by researchers of the laboratory, established in 1974. It describes the developed concept of the reproductive health problems and scientific research areas, developed documents, including legislative fields, formulates main prospects of the laboratory to meet the requirements of the present moment. Noted the role of the Problem Commission "Scientific basis for the reproductive health of workers", in the work of the Scientific Council on medical and environmental issues of workers' health.

Sivochalova OV; Fesenko MA; Golovaneva GV; Morozova TV; Fedorova EV; Irmiakova AR; Gromova EIu; Stepanian IV; Vu?tsik PA

2013-01-01

266

Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process.

2007-01-01

267

Current state of the cotton and textile industry in Kazakhstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry of Kazakhstan is presented basically by enterprises created in period of centrally planned economy and as consequence. Low labor productivity, lacking equipment base and technologies, poor marketing are problems of the current state of industry. But, there are also advantages as a vicinity of potential cotton manufacturers - Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. A free economic zone (FEZ) “Ontustik” has been established and a program of “Ontustik” FEZ development has been adopted for developing the cotton and textile cluster in Kazakhstan. The law “About development of the cotton branch” has been adopted in Kazakhstan to provide the textile enterprises with necessary raw material and to develop the domestic cotton growing.

Gulfari Azhimetova

2010-01-01

268

Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1-5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-01

269

Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1--5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric. 5 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1998-09-22

270

Study on the Features of Textile Industry Cluster in Guangzhong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xi'an and Xianyang is two famous textile towns in Guangzhong, it formed a cotton textile industry-orientedresearch, production systems and international market networks which have great influence throughout thecountry. The textile industry cluster in the region is now in cluster development infancy, being a free competitivemarket structure. According to the cluster features it explores the main form factors: Well-known localentrepreneurs, social networks and local government. Then it brings forward the corresponding developmentstrategies: 1) nurturing local entrepreneurs, building networks and strengthening local industry localgovernment's macro-control and service functions; 2) Selecting gathering space-based development model.

Tong Yang

2010-01-01

271

Waste heat recovery: Textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning descriptions and evaluations of waste heat recovery operations used in the textile industry. Heat recovery and utilization from wastewater streams, flue gas, finishing processes, dyeing operations, and air jet systems are presented. The use of waste heat for space heating and process preheating is considered. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-08-01

272

Textile industry: how control your electric power consumption?; Industrie textile: comment maitriser vos consommations electriques?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the program on the electric power demand optimization, the ADEME and the textile industry, developed a collaboration on the electric power utilization knowledge. The aim of the collaboration is the better management of this energy in the enterprise and to optimize the consumptions. This book provides recommendations on the equipment, the management and the energy sources choices. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2001-05-01

273

Study of energy optimization in textile sector; Estudo de otimizacao energetica setorial textil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a study carried by CEMIG (electric power public utility of Minas Gerais state) and CEAG (support center for the medium and small company of Minas Gerais State) on the energy optimization in the textile sector. The main results were the following: characterization of the sector`s productive process; consumption distribution of electric power and alternative sources of energy; specific consumptions; recommendations for energy conservation and technologic situation of the sector. 11 refs., 4 tabs

Simoes, N.W.B.; Camargos, J.O. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Morais, F.M. de; Mattos Silva, E. de [Centro de Apoio a Pequena e Media Empresa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

1990-12-31

274

Identificación de nichos de mercado para el sector textil. identification of niche markets for textiles.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se identifican de nichos de mercado para el sector textil a partir de una caracterización del sector textil a nivel internacional, específicamente en Canada y Venezuela en relación a las fibras sintéticas (poliéster y acrílicos), tejidos de sombra, hilos, cordeles y soga de sisal y propipropileno,  se identifican los precios de los productos y se caracterizan las empresas potenciales interesadas. La metodología utilizada incluyó: analizar la solicitud, se identificó el problema del cliente a resolver, se enmarcó en un tipo de estudio,  se ejecutaron los procedimientos para solucionar el problema, se identificaron las fuentes de información, se seleccionó la estrategia de búsqueda y se realizó el respectivo análisis de información utilizando Excel y Endnote X4. También se tuvo en cuenta información sobre el acceso al mercado, las barreras arancelarias y no arancelarias, restricciones, tamaños del mercado, tendencias y crecimiento del mercado, segmentación y consumo, las importaciones, volumen, país de origen, fortalezas y debilidades del mercado y precios, nomenclatura de los productos como la ALADI, sistema de clasificación internacional y el sistema armonizado de designación y codificación de mercancía de Cuba. Como resultado se elabora un perfil de cada uno de los países, sus canales de distribución y se identifican los acuerdos internacionales sobre la industria textil.

Silvio Leonel Curiel Lorenzo

2011-01-01

275

Comunicación y productividad en pequeñas y medianas empresas de un cluster textil en Colombia/ Communication and productivity in small and medium sized businesses of a textile cluster in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza la opinión que tienen los gerentes y obreros sobre la comunicación y su incidencia en la productividad. El estudio consiste en una encuesta aplicada a una muestra de 17 empresas de un cluster textil en Colombia. Estas empresas fueron seleccionadas por conveniencia de un listado de 36 empresas de la Asociación Colombiana de las Micros, Pequeñas y Medianas empresas (ACOPI, Antioquía). Como se muestra en el artículo, los gerentes y los obreros opin (more) an que la comunicación directa, las conversaciones y las reuniones tienen una relación con el crecimiento de la productividad. Abstract in english The paper analyzes the view of managers and workers about communication and its influence in productivity. The study consists of an applied survey to a 17 companies sample from a textile business cluster in Colombia. These companies were selected from a list of 36 companies of the Asociación Colombiana de las Micros, Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (ACOPI, Antioquia). As shown in the paper, the managers and the workers believe that face to face communication, talks and meetings have a close relation to productivity's growth.

Muñoz Hernández, Mario Humberto

2012-06-01

276

CREATIVE RECYCLING – A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR ROMANIAN SMALL TEXTILE COMPANIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every year, more than 5 million tons of textiles are generated in the European Union, and only a small amount (25%) is recycled, that is why there are strongly encouraged strategies, programs and business plans based on recycling of pre-consumer and post-consumer textile waste [2].This paper presents in short a few projects made by the students from the Faculty of Textiles, Leatherwork &Industrial Management. They did intense research work and then they gave practical solutions for creative recycling of the textile industrial waste. There are shown some types of original products that can be used as an inspirational source by Romanian investors for developing small business.

Ana Lacramioara LEON

2012-01-01

277

SHIFTS IN GLOBAL TEXTILE AND APPAREL INDUSTRY, WHAT IS NEXT?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile and clothing production always changed its geographic location usually occurring from developed to developing countries in medium term ranges. Analyzing and understanding the shifts in textile and clothing industry is very important to see the new challenges and opportunities for many countries in order to determine the future activities and make strategic decisions. In this study, the textile and clothing trade around the globe is analyzed. The emerging and descending countries in terms of textile and clothing production andtrade are carried out within 30 year period beginning with 1980. Future expectations and discussion are made based on the analysis and the countries that are supposed to receive shift are given with a classification.

Canan Saricam; Nancy L. Cassill; Fatma Kalaoglu

2012-01-01

278

DIVERSIFICATEX: STRATEGIC TOOL FOR DIVERSIFICATION IN THE TEXTILE SECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the globalization, one of the possibilities of the textile Valencian companies is diversification. The majority textile companies do not know the possibilities that offer them the new markets. They found barriers of entry that consider cannot overcome. The companies need tools that allow them to think about whichare his possibilities. Tools for the strategic reflection, that allow them to analyse his technology and know how to make and to commercialize new products. Funded by IMPIVA (II Plan of Competitiveness of the Valencian Company) and ERDF: European Regional Development Fund, and in collaboration with the UPV GIITEX GROUP (Integrated Management Group Textile Industry Technical University of Valencia), the Association of Textile Businessmen of the Valencian Community (ATEVAL) has developed the project “DIVERSIFICATEX”.The result of this project is a tool specific promote diversification and assist companies to make strategic decisions based on technology and the market.

Pablo Díaz; Beatriz Satorres; Ignacio Montava; Mª Ángeles Bonet; Ignacio Tortajada

2012-01-01

279

COMBINED ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile manufacturing consumes a considerable amount of water in its manufacturing processes. The water is primarily utilized in the dyeing and finishing operations of the textile establishments. Considering both the volume generated and the effluent composition, the textile industry wastewater is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors. In this study a combined anaerobic-aerobic reactor was operated continuously for treatment of textile wastewater. Cosmo balls were used to function as growth media for microorganisms in anaerobic reactor. Effect of pH, dissolved oxygen, and organic changes in nitrification and denatrification process were investigated. The results indicated that over 84.62% ammonia nitrogen and about 98.9% volatile suspended solid (VSS) removal efficiency could be obtained. Dissolved oxygen (DO), pH were shown to have only slight influences on the nitrification process; and for each 10% removal of nitrogen, only 3% of pH changes were achieved.

MAHDI AHMED; AOFAH ADAM

2007-01-01

280

The purification of textile wastes by radiation and coagulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model wastes from textile industry plants were processed by gamma radiation and coagulation. 2,5-50 kG doses were applied. Preliminary irradiation had positive effect on coagulation process. 2 tabs., 9 refs. (A.S.).

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Unified approach for predicting mechanical behaviors of textile composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to establish unified prediction method of mechanical properties and fracture behaviors in the composites reinforced with textile fabric preforms such as two and three-dimensional woven fabrics, braided fabrics and knitted fabrics. In this analysis model, factors deciding weaving structure such as fiber orientation state, crimp and continuity of fiber, transmission of force at cross part between fiber bundles and surface resin of the composite which affect on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the textile composites, were considered. The validity of this numerical analysis method was examined by comparing predicted results with experimental data. Consequently, it could be confirmed that this numerical analysis method was valid for predicting the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the textile composites. In this analysis model, not only the mechanical properties but also local stress state and fracture behavior of the textile composites could be estimated.

Hamada, H.; Fujita, A.; Maekawa, Z. [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Textile Science; Yokoyama, A. [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). Faculty of Education

1994-12-31

282

CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

283

Textile reinforced rubber belting for fire resistant applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The textile-reinforced, fire-resistant conveyor belt is discussed. Its progress in the material handling industry, the wide range of specifications available, and the manufacturing considerations in meeting these specifications are examined.

Murphy, G.

1984-01-01

284

HYPERFILTRATION PROCESSES FOR TREATMENT AND RENOVATION OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes a computer program developed for the design and simulation of a multistage hyperfiltration system for renovation of textile wastewater. The program is capable of practical design, parametric simulation, and cost projection of the multistage hyperfiltration sy...

285

Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.

Sanda VISAN; Ligia Florica BOTEZ

2010-01-01

286

Community Health Worker Handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

287

Tectonics in Building Culture II: Textile Blocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international workshop "Tectonics and Building Culture II: Textile Blocks" was held as part of the Erasmus Intensive Programme between 19 and 30 August 2009 in Ireland, on the route between Dublin and Letterfrack. On the way from Dublin to Letterfrack, we visited some areas where dry-stone wall construction is part of the traditional architecture.At the end of a three-day trip, we arrived in the town of Letterfrack, where a practical workshop on safety and skills in processing stone and traditional techniques of stacking walls was held over the ensuing days. The results were three stone installations/sculptures at three different locations in Letterfrack and the village of Tully.

Igor Seljak

2012-01-01

288

E-COMMERCE AREA FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents some management aspects concerning the e-commerce area for textile industry.Here it can have database management – customers, products and brand visualisation management. The databasemanagement can be doing by using a database management system. For database management it was use therelational model based on first-order predicate logic [1]. In this paper it was analyzed the relational databasemodel. The e-commerce area is born from need to simplify the buying and selling garment product, the virtualstore have the advantage that is require low cost and is more accessible in different regions and at any hour. Thee - store can simple addressing to different population by respecting their cultural specific tradition.

R. M. Aileni; D. Farima; M. Ciocoiu

2011-01-01

289

Studies on textile sludge treatment options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of sludge samples of a textile processing factory revealed that the BOD and COD as well as the levels of total solids, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of sludge liquor were high needing treatment before disposal or reuse. Detention time of 60 days was established for aerobic treatment of the sludge. Optimum dosage for physicochemical methods were established at 4 g/l, using alum and iron III chloride each and 15.5 g/l and 550 mg/l, for lime and polyelectrolyte each. Solids were reduced by 67%, through aerobic and 61 % through anaerobic digestion, while the sludge treated by physicochemical method had higher solid content, recording the highest increase with lime. (author)

2008-01-01

290

Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan's energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan's textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074 ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving was equivalent to 94,614 MWh of electricity, 23,686 kl of fuel oil and 4887 ton of fuel coal. It represented a potential reduction of 143,669 ton in carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 3848 ha plantation forest. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users and identifies the areas for making energy saving to provide an energy efficiency baseline.

2010-01-01

291

Risk of oligomers in the textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental research was carried out at the Institute of Occupational Health of Turin University on the risks following exposure to oligomers with particular reference to the textile industry. A group of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were injected endotracheally with a suspension of dust collected from various sections of twisting and spinning departments while 6 rats used as controls were treated with normal solution. Five rats had pneumonia and 1 rat showed the presence of aspecific granuloma; the histological patterns for the other rats were found to be similar to those of the control group. In the Authors' opinion it is impossible at the moment to give a definite conclusion as to the role of oligomers in lung damage.

Giachino, G.M.; Perrelli, G.; Passarino, G.; Comino, E.; Pira, E.; Scansetti, G.; Rubino, G.F.

1982-11-01

292

The US textile industry: An energy perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report investigates the state of the US textile industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. Specific objectives were: To update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1984; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1984), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2010); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. Results of this study concluded that in the year 2010, there is a potential to save between 34% and 53% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry in three categories: process modification, basic research, and improved housekeeping practices that reduce energy consumption. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.

Badin, J. S.; Lowitt, H. E.

1988-01-01

293

Irradiation experiment of textile materials by excimer laser pulses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the irradiation experiment of natural and synthetic textile materials by XeCl (excimer) laser pulses (emission wavelenght ?=0.308 ?m) are presented. The friction, finish and look variations of the irradiated textiles are examined as a function of the laser radiation parameters (e. g. fluence and shots number). The possibility of using excimer laser systems on industrial bases is also discussed.

1995-01-01

294

Removal of textile dyes with biopolymers xanthan and alginic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile industry is an important activity that provides considerable benefits to people, but unfortunately dyeing of yarn and cloth produces pollution of water, a resource that is valuable and scarce. Dyeing of textiles fibers is an inefficient process, in view of the fact that approximately ten percent of total dye is thrown to municipal sewage. Although different treatment systems are applied to wastewater, dyes are resistant to physical, chemical and biological factors because of the way they are designed. (Author)

2008-09-00

295

Comparative toxicity of leachates from 52 textiles to Daphnia magna.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental aspects of textiles are very complex and include production, processing, transport, usage, and recycling. Textiles are made from a variety of materials and can contain a large number of chemicals. Chemicals are used during production of fibres, for preservation and colouring and they are released during normal wear and during washing. The aim of this study was to investigate the release to water of toxic chemicals from various textiles. Altogether 52 samples of textiles made from cotton (21), linen (4), cotton and linen (7), cellulose (3), synthetic fibres (7), cotton and synthetic fibres (8) and wool (2). Seven were eco-labelled. All textiles were cut into squares and placed into Petri dishes with 50 ml ISO test medium in a concentration series (4-256 cm(2)/50 ml) and tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Estimated EC50s were converted into weight/volume, and 48-h EC50s ranged between 182 g/L. It was not possible to detect any difference between fibre type and toxicity (ANOVA), but a significantly higher toxicity was found for printed versus unprinted cotton and cotton/linen textiles, while the opposite was found for synthetic textiles. Eco-labelled products were evenly distributed on a toxicity scale, which means that eco-labelling in its present form does not necessarily protect users or the environment from exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore, the results from the present study suggest that bioassays and toxicity tests should become an integrated part of textile environmental quality control programs. PMID:20579734

Dave, Göran; Aspegren, Pia

2010-06-26

296

Comparative toxicity of leachates from 52 textiles to Daphnia magna.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The environmental aspects of textiles are very complex and include production, processing, transport, usage, and recycling. Textiles are made from a variety of materials and can contain a large number of chemicals. Chemicals are used during production of fibres, for preservation and colouring and they are released during normal wear and during washing. The aim of this study was to investigate the release to water of toxic chemicals from various textiles. Altogether 52 samples of textiles made from cotton (21), linen (4), cotton and linen (7), cellulose (3), synthetic fibres (7), cotton and synthetic fibres (8) and wool (2). Seven were eco-labelled. All textiles were cut into squares and placed into Petri dishes with 50 ml ISO test medium in a concentration series (4-256 cm(2)/50 ml) and tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Estimated EC50s were converted into weight/volume, and 48-h EC50s ranged between <1 and >182 g/L. It was not possible to detect any difference between fibre type and toxicity (ANOVA), but a significantly higher toxicity was found for printed versus unprinted cotton and cotton/linen textiles, while the opposite was found for synthetic textiles. Eco-labelled products were evenly distributed on a toxicity scale, which means that eco-labelling in its present form does not necessarily protect users or the environment from exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore, the results from the present study suggest that bioassays and toxicity tests should become an integrated part of textile environmental quality control programs.

Dave G; Aspegren P

2010-10-01

297

Tecnologías de Información y Rentabilidad de las Pymes del Sector Textil/ Information Technologies and the Profitability of SAMEs in the Textile Sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre el uso de las tecnologías de información y la rentabilidad de las pymes del sector textil ubicadas en el Municipio Maracaibo del Estado Zulia. La investigación se desarrolló a través de un estudio correlacional; para la recolección de datos se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado, bajo la modalidad de entrevista, a propietarios, presidentes, gerentes y administradores de 16 empresas. Los resulta (more) dos evidencian que a pesar de los beneficios que brindan las tecnologías de información en la gestión empresarial, su uso, en el corto plazo, no contribuye al incremento de la rentabilidad en el sector estudiado; asimismo, factores como dificultad para acceder a mano de obra calificada, repuestos y soporte técnico adecuado, además de los altos costos de adquisición, limitan su uso. Se concluye que el incremento de la rentabilidad pudiera estar asociado a otros factores. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between the use of information technologies and the profitability of textile sector SAMEs located in the Maracaibo Municipality of the State of Zulia. The research developed through a correlational study. To collect data, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied in the interview mode, to owners, presidents, managers and administrators from 16 companies. Results show that despite the benefits offered by informat (more) ion technologies for business management, in the short term, their use does not contribute to a profitability increase in the sector studied; likewise, factors such as difficulty in obtaining qualified workers, replacement parts and technical support, as well as high acquisition costs, limit their use. Conclusions were that a profitability increase could be associated with other factors.

Leal Morantes, Miraidy Elena

2009-12-01

298

Coated textiles in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with increasing prevalence over the last few decades. Various factors are known to aggravate the disease. In particular, wool and synthetic fabrics with harsh textile fibres, aggressive detergents and climatic factors may exacerbate AD. Cutaneous superinfection, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus, is also recognized as an important factor in the elicitation and maintenance of skin inflammation and acute exacerbations of AD. The severity of AD correlates with S. aureus colonization of the skin. Beside the treatment of AD patients with creams and emollients, new developments in the textile industry may have therapeutic implications. Silk or silvercoated textiles show antimicrobial properties that can significantly reduce the burden of S. aureus, leading to a positive effect on AD. Silver products have been used as wound dressing, whereby silver has antiseptic properties, and drug resistance is hardly found. Padycare textiles consist of micromesh material containing woven silver filaments with a total silver content of 20%. In vitro studies of these silver-coated textiles demonstrated a significant decrease in S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Candida albicans. Silk has been increasingly implemented in medical treatment of AD thanks to its unique smoothness that reduces irritation. Silk can be coated with antimicrobials (Dermasilk). The combination of the smoothness of silk with an antimicrobial finish appears to make an ideal textile for patients suffering from AD. PMID:16766886

Haug, S; Roll, A; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Johansen, P; Wüthrich, B; Kündig, T M; Senti, G

2006-01-01

299

Removal of Heavy Metals from Textile Wastewater using Zeolite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) are widely used for production of colour pigments of textile dyes. Textile dyes pollutants are being released to the environment at various stages of operation therefore it is necessary that the pollutants are treated before discharge using zeolite with and without alum. A study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of treatment using zeolite with and without alum for the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr) in textile effluent. The concentrations of these heavy metals in the textile wastewater samples were reduced to more than 50 percent after treating with zeolite. The sequence in increasing order of removal efficiency of these heavy metals using zeolite was Cd < Pb < Cr < Cu. When the textile wastewater sample was treated using zeolite and 10 mg/L of alum, 80% of the heavy metals (Cd and Cu) were removed. The most effective treatment prior to removal of heavy metals from textile wastewater sample is by using zeolite with the addition of 10 mg/L of alum as flocculants.

Normala Halimoon

2010-01-01

300

Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

1989-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

The Interaction of Noise Pollution and Blood Pressure in a Textile Factory in Ilam, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the industrial noise pollution and its effects on the blood pressure of workers during activities in textile factory in Ilam,which is situated in west of Iran. A cross-sectional study was performed on a group included 81 workers and 30 people as sample and control group, respectively. A questionnaire was filled out and then the other measurements including the total sound pressure level, weight, height, pulse, blood pressure and all the rest of medical examinations have been respectively done. The average sound pressure level measured for sample and control group was respectively (94.86 ±6.63) and (61.93 ± 4.56) dBA. The result also showed that by taking mean values for each quantitative variable, statistically only the age has significant difference between opposing groups. Sound frequency analysis in A and C networks over a frequency range between 125 to 16000 Hz revealed a significant differences in such away that sound pressure level for the sample group was higher than the limited threshold (85 dBA).  Moreover, the results from the survey of the total sound pressure level in A –and C – weighted according to blood pressure status, BMI and age indicate a significant statistical correlation between the mentioned variables. A highly significant correlation was found by    test between the level of sound pressure, blood pressure status, BMI and the age group in different octave band center frequencies. It is concluded that planning for working hours of workers to decrease the noise exposure and employment of young workers with appropriate BMI may reduce the adverse effects of noise.

Parvin Nassiri; Ali Mohammad Abbasi

2009-01-01

302

Noise pollution in textile industry (case of Khartoum spinning and weaving factory)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research dealt with noise problem in the working environment in relation to textile industry. The study was carried out in Khartoum spinning and weaving factory to evaluate noise problem and its effect on workers. To achieve the goal of this study noise levels were measured in the working environment in three sections which are weaving, spinning and preparation by using dosimeter. Also questionnaires were given to the workers to fill out so as to know the effect of noise on the workers health. All measurements showed that the level of noise was above permissible limit (85 dBA). Graphs were drawn to show measurements of noise level. In addition statistical analysis of information obtained from the questionnaire was carried over, it is shown in frequency tables and correlation tables. There are many effects resulting from noise problem in working environment which could be summarized in hearing the machine sound after completion of work, effect on hearing sense, difficulty in conversing with others during working, instability, disturbance and anxiety, sleepless, nervousness etc.... Not with standing, the questionnaire results did not give high percentage in all cases yet this does not neglect the existence of the problem. On the contrary, this may mean lack of knowledge and inability to deal with the problem. It is hoped that this research will pave the way to future studies in this field so as to arrive at the suitable solution to the problem raised in the this research. The study recommended the following: 1. Reduce the noise in the working environment by engineering control and acoustic absorbent to the room boundaries. 2. The workers must be provided by ear protection or/and the working hours must reduce. (Author)

2004-01-01

303

[Duodenal ulcer of foreign workers (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comparative study of the patients with a duodenal ulcer in our clinic in the past 3 years has shown a greater incidence of the disease in foreign workers in Germany, aged between 20 and 30 years. This difference concerns men as well as women. The consequences of this kind of ulcer and the possibilities of an indication for operation are discussed in detail.

Horn J; Herfarth C

1978-10-01

304

Men and women are different.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Examine your existing incentive programs. Study your incentives to make sure they aren't geared toward only male workers. Build in rewards for group achievements. Studies show that women are better at building consensus than their male counterparts. Help women workers map out a career plan. The glass ceiling still looms large at many organizations. Work with female employees to set goals and career paths. Put more emphasis on recognition. The history of corporate America's discrimination against women is still fresh in the minds of many and, because of that, women appear to value meaningful recognition more than some men.

O'Connor S

1997-09-01

305

Men and women are different.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examine your existing incentive programs. Study your incentives to make sure they aren't geared toward only male workers. Build in rewards for group achievements. Studies show that women are better at building consensus than their male counterparts. Help women workers map out a career plan. The glass ceiling still looms large at many organizations. Work with female employees to set goals and career paths. Put more emphasis on recognition. The history of corporate America's discrimination against women is still fresh in the minds of many and, because of that, women appear to value meaningful recognition more than some men. PMID:10173300

O'Connor, S

306

??? VE A?LES? ARASINDAK? KADIN: TEKST?L VE B?LG? ??LEM G?R???MC?LER?N?N ÇATI?MASINA GET?RD?KLER? ÇÖZÜM STRATEJ?LER? = WOMEN BETWEEN WORK AND FAMILY: WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS IN THE TEXTILE AND IT INDUSTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the professional experiences of female entrepreneurs, their motivations and their psychological characteristics have been subject to academic research in recent years, the management strategies they employ in order to lessen their work-family conflict (WFC) has been largely neglected. This article attempts to address this void. In the first part the situation of female entrepreneurs in the world and Turkey are discussed, then the reasons for their WFC are introduced. Based on interviews conducted with female entrepreneurs in the textile and IT industries, their coping strategies are investigated. WFC management strategies are categorized as “role elimination”, “role minimization”, “role postponing ” and “role sharing”. In the last part of the study, the findings are discussed and limitations are provided.

Dilek Zamant?l? NAYIR

2008-01-01

307

The Tripod Approach : A Systematic and Structured Framework to Designing Applied Textiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The term ‘next to my skin’ is frequently used as a way to describe the close bonds between human beings and textiles. It is also widely accepted within the broad field of textile professionals that textile attributes related to emotional value – for example hand, look and drape – can be a make-and-break decision for a company. However textile design research has shown that experience of emotional value is closely connected to fabric perception, and much literature suggests that textiles are experienced by a combination of sensory evaluation and memory associations. This paper introduces the Tripod Approach as a framework that can support designing the stimuli, which can lead to personal experiences of emotional value in relation to applied textiles. It can be used to access the relevant level of entry in the textile design process focusing on appropriate design parameters, and support designing the textile as part of an overall context.

Bang, Anne Louise

2012-01-01

308

Fabrication of super-repellent cotton textiles with rapid reversible wettability switching of diverse liquids  

Science.gov (United States)

We fabricated super-repellent cotton textiles by in situ doping polymerization.The textile displayed extreme resistance to wetting from diverse liquids.A rapid and reversible wettability switching of various liquids could be observed.

Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Zhu, Xiaotao

2013-07-01

309

Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to plasma nutrient concentrations in women in Shanghai, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intakes as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations in Chinese women, using three classification schemes. DESIGN: Intakes were calculated using an interviewer-administered FFQ. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood samples collected within 1 week of questionnaire completion. SETTING: Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: Participants (n 2031) comprised women who had participated in a case-control study of diet and breast-related diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n 266 064) RESULTS: Fruit intake was significantly (P < 0·05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of ?-tocopherol, ?-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, retinyl palmitate and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with ?-tocopherol and lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with ?-tocopherol and ?-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intakes and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped leads to different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating the associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes.

Frankenfeld CL; Lampe JW; Shannon J; Gao DL; Li W; Ray RM; Chen C; King IB; Thomas DB

2012-01-01

310

Health Care Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Safety Confined Spaces Construction Safety and Health Correctional Health Care Workers Information for Workers Cross-Contamination Information for ... Crew Research Program at NIOSH Haulage in Mining Health Care Highway Work Zones Construction Equipment Visibility Highway Work ...

311

Measurement uncertainty in colour characterization of printed textile materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject of uncertainty of spectrophotometric measurement of printed textile materials is one of the majorunsolved technical problems in textile colourimetry today. Textile manufacturers are often trying to maintain colourdifference tolerances which are within the range or even less than the uncertainty of the measurement systemcontrolling them. In this paper, two commercial spectrophotometers with different measuring geometries (GretagMacbethEye-One Pro with 450/0° geometry and ChinSpec HP200 with d/8° geometry) were comparativelyinvestigated in terms of measurement uncertainty in colour characterization of textile products. Results of the studyindicate that, the despite of different measuring geometry, instruments had the similar measurement repeatabilitybehaviour (repeatability of readings from different parts of the same sample) in the case of used digitally printedpolyester materials. The important influence on measurement variability had the material preparation method (werethe materials triple folded, placed on a black backing or a white backing). On the other hand, instruments showeddifference concerning the inter-model agreement. Although this difference was not confirmed as significant withvisual assessment, observers evaluated the measurement readings from the Eye-One Pro spectrophotometer as moreaccurate colour appearance characterization of textile materials.

Neda Mili?; Dragoljub Novakovi?; Nemanja Kašikovi?

2011-01-01

312

Textile integrated sensors and actuators for near-infrared spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Being the closest layer to our body, textiles provide an ideal platform for integrating sensors and actuators to monitor physiological signals. We used a woven textile to integrate photodiodes and light emitting diodes. LEDs and photodiodes enable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) systems to monitor arterial oxygen saturation and oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in human tissue. Photodiodes and LEDs are mounted on flexible plastic strips with widths of 4 mm and 2 mm, respectively. The strips are woven during the textile fabrication process in weft direction and interconnected with copper wires with a diameter of 71 ?m in warp direction. The sensor textile is applied to measure the pulse waves in the fingertip and the changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin during a venous occlusion at the calf. The system has a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 70 dB and a system drift of 0.37% ± 0.48%. The presented work demonstrates the feasibility of integrating photodiodes and LEDs into woven textiles, a step towards wearable health monitoring devices.

Zysset C; Nasseri N; Büthe L; Münzenrieder N; Kinkeldei T; Petti L; Kleiser S; Salvatore GA; Wolf M; Tröster G

2013-02-01

313

A Novel Method for Applying Reduced Graphene Oxide Directly to Electronic Textiles from Yarns to Fabrics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conductive, flexible, and durable reduced RGO textiles with a facile preparation method are presented. BSA proteins serve as universal adhesives for improving the adsorption of GO onto any textile, irrespective of the materials and the surface conditions. Using this method, we successfully prepared various RGO textiles based on nylon-6 yarns, cotton yarns, polyester yarns, and nonwoven fabrics.

Yun YJ; Hong WG; Kim WJ; Jun Y; Kim BH

2013-08-01

314

Improvement of Serviceability and Strength of Textile Reinforced Concrete by using Short Fibres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, thin-walled load bearing structures can be realised using textile reinforced concrete (BRAMESHUBER and RILEM TC 201-TRC [1]). The required tensile strength is achieved by embedding several layers of textile. By means of the laminating technique the number of textile layers that can be incl...

Marcus Hinzen; Wolfgang Brameshuber

315

Electrochemical coagulation for textile effluent decolorization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The three most commonly used dyestuffs in textile industry are reactive, acid, and dispersed dyes. One dye from each group, C.I. Reactive Blue-19, C.I. Acid Red-266, and C.I. Disperse Yellow-218 was chosen to study the feasibility of coagulation for color removal. The dyes used in these experiments were chosen to represent the two major structural features: anthraquinone and azo dyes. Reactive Blue is an anthraquinone-based dye, and Acid Red and Disperse Yellow represent azo-based dyes. As there is no standard method to measure the color intensity, a Hach spectrophotometer was used to measure the absorbance before and after the dye solution was treated. Removal efficiencies on these dyes were obtained by measuring absorbance of a sample at 592 nm for Reactive Blue, 498 nm for Acid Red, and 428 nm for Disperse Yellow. Aluminum and ferric coagulants were produced in a parallel-plate electrochemical reactor by anodic dissolution. Removal efficiencies of more than 98%, in terms of absorbance, were observed in laboratory conditions. Removal was found highly dependent upon NaCl concentration, applied voltage, current density, and pH. The NaCl in the solution effectively reduced the power consumption and promoted the coagulant generation by depasivating the Al-water and Fe-water electrochemical systems. The processes were determined to be highly NaCl dependent. A mechanism was proposed for the corresponding liquid phase chemistry. PMID:16112432

Yang, Chen-Lu; McGarrahan, Jared

2005-08-19

316

Color reduction in textile effluents by membranes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of polymeric membranes in terms of reductions in color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in textile industry effluents was investigated. Effluents containing different mixtures of dyes, taken from different processing stages, and some pure dyes in aqueous solution were used. Five membranes were used, three commercial ones produced by Osmonics (two nanofiltration M1 and NF-HL and one reverse osmosis SG) and two ultrafiltration (UF) membranes pr (more) epared in the laboratory using PES (polyethersulfone) named T1 and T2. Each membrane, due to its particular chemical nature and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), had distinct values for permeate flux, and color, conductivity and COD reductions. After stabilization, the permeate flux varied from 20 to 71 L/h/m² and the dye retention from 81 to 100%. For aqueous solutions containing pure dyes, the permeate flux varied from 57 to 119 L/h/m², depending on the temperature used in the process. Membrane M1 showed a good performance; when considering the values for permeate flux (66 L/h/m²) and color reduction (99.3%).

Ulson De Souza, A.A.; Petrus, J.C.C.; Santos, F.P.; Brandão, H.L.; Guelli U. Souza, S.M.A.; Juliano, L.N.

2009-01-01

317

Color reduction in textile effluents by membranes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the efficiency of polymeric membranes in terms of reductions in color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in textile industry effluents was investigated. Effluents containing different mixtures of dyes, taken from different processing stages, and some pure dyes in aqueous solution were used. Five membranes were used, three commercial ones produced by Osmonics (two nanofiltration M1 and NF-HL and one reverse osmosis SG) and two ultrafiltration (UF) membranes prepared in the laboratory using PES (polyethersulfone) named T1 and T2. Each membrane, due to its particular chemical nature and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), had distinct values for permeate flux, and color, conductivity and COD reductions. After stabilization, the permeate flux varied from 20 to 71 L/h/m² and the dye retention from 81 to 100%. For aqueous solutions containing pure dyes, the permeate flux varied from 57 to 119 L/h/m², depending on the temperature used in the process. Membrane M1 showed a good performance; when considering the values for permeate flux (66 L/h/m²) and color reduction (99.3%).

A.A. Ulson De Souza; J.C.C. Petrus; F.P. Santos; H.L. Brandão; S.M.A. Guelli U. Souza; L.N. Juliano

2009-01-01

318

In vitro osteoclastogenesis on textile chitosan scaffold  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile chitosan fibre scaffolds were evaluated in terms of interaction with osteoclast-like cells, derived from human primary monocytes. Part of the scaffolds was further modified by coating with fibrillar collagen type I in order to make the surface biocompatible. Monocytes were cultured directly on the scaffolds in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) for up to 18 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the formation of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells on both the raw chitosan fibres and the collagen-coated scaffolds. The modified surface supported the osteoclastogenesis. Differentiation towards the osteoclastic lineage was confirmed by the microscopic detection of cathepsin K, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), acidic compartments using 3-(2,4-dinitroanillino)-3’-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP), immunological detection of TRAP isoform 5b, and analysis of gene expression of the osteoclastic markers TRAP, cathepsin K, vitronectin receptor, and calcitonin receptor using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The feature of the collagen-coated but also of the raw chitosan fibre scaffolds to support attachment and differentiation of human monocytes facilitates cell-induced material resorption – one main requirement for successful bone tissue engineering.

C Heinemann; S Heinemann; A Bernhardt; A Lode; H Worch; T Hanke

2010-01-01

319

ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTION OF SEAWEED THREADS IN TEXTILES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solar radiation that we perceive has increased in recent times and especially during the last years. This is due largely to changing lifestyles and the decrease of the ozone layer. For this reason has increased social awareness about the need for protection against ultraviolet radiation. Since 20 years ago, and especially during the last years, the research of textiles protection has increased exponentially. The main areas under investigation are the structure of the fabric, the materials used, the weight of the fabric, the title of the yarns, the color of the fabric, and some finishings which are subjected the fabric to improve their characteristics.Also, the different ways to evaluate the UPF are under research. The most used system is the spectrophotometric method, although in vivo method and dosimetric systems are used too. In recent years, the dosimetric methods are being studied depth with new photo-sensible materials.In this paper an evaluation of different weft density and materials is done. First of all a weft density study is made to test what importance has as structural parameter. Then is made a study of three different materials like cotton, polyester and seaweed. That study concludes that the most important material of those three is the last one.

J. Campos; P. Díaz-Garcia; I. Montava; M. Bonet; E. Bou-Belda

2013-01-01

320

MARITAL AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKERS, MARCH 1966. SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORT NUMBER 80.  

Science.gov (United States)

|THE THRIVING ECONOMY'S DEMAND FOR WORKERS RESULTED IN DECREASED UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN 1966 FOR WHITE AND NEGRO WOMEN AND WHITE MEN. THE INCREASED NUMBER OF WOMEN WORKERS RESULTED NOT ONLY FROM THE EXPANDING JOB MARKET BUT ALSO FROM FEDERAL LEGISLATION OUTLAWING SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT. IN THIS DECADE, THE MOST SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN…

WALDMAN, ELIZABETH

 
 
 
 
321

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG WOMEN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a labour surplus and capital hungry country like India jobs are very important to individuals. They help to determine standards of living, places of residence, status and even one's sense of self worth. Jobs are important to organizations because they are the means of accomplishing organizational objectives. Technological advances and competitive pressures may often force an organization to put more emphasis on characteristics of successful performance rather than on standard jobs duties and tasks etc. When negative stress is high it reduces job satisfaction. When a job does not correspond with employee's personal life, or is the source of anxiety and confusion, it's stressful. Work places must be in normal conditions allowing employee to do their job properly

K. SHOBHA

2012-01-01

322

Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles  

CERN Document Server

Here we discuss two alternative approaches for building flexible batteries for applications in smart textiles. The first approach uses well-studied inorganic electrochemistry (Al-NaOCl galvanic cell) and innovative packaging in order to produce batteries in a slender and flexible fiber form that can be further weaved directly into the textiles. During fabrication process the battery electrodes are co-drawn within a microstructured polymer fiber, which is later filled with liquid electrolyte. The second approach describes Li-ion chemistry within solid polymer electrolytes that are used to build a fully solid and soft rechargeable battery that can be furthermore stitched onto a textile, or integrated as stripes during weaving process.

Qu, Hang; Rolland, Julien; Vlad, Alexandru; Gohy, Jean-François; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

2013-01-01

323

Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

2010-01-01

324

Numerical Simulation of Textile Composite Stamping On Double Dome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stamping is one of the most effective ways to form textile composites in industry for providing high-strength, low-weight and cost-effective products. This paper presents a fully continuum mechanics-based approach for stamping simulation of textile fiber reinforced composites by using finite element (FE) method. A previously developed non-orthogonal constitutive model is used to represent the anisotropic mechanical behavior of textile composites under large deformation during stamping. Simulation are performed on a balanced plain weave composite with 0 deg./90 deg. and ±45 deg. as initial yarn orientation over a benchmark double dome device. Simulation results show good agreement with experimental output in terms of a number of parameters selected for comparison.

2011-05-04

325

ASSISTANCE STRATEGIC TOOL FOR CHANGE IN THE SPANISH TEXTILE SECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spanish textile sector is facing important changes several years. This paper aims to analyses the adverse evolution in the Spanish manufacturing textile firms. Another contribution of our work is to show alternative strategic change in business.In this way we are able to provide some indication of which operational decisions would improve the international competitiveness of the industry. The population of the study is composed of the Spanish manufacturing firms in the textiles sector, particularly incompanies of Valencia Community. It was found that to start the process of diversification, companies have problems on the technical and market knowledge. It is considered necessary to use reflective tools to help them make strategic decisions in the company.

Pablo Díaz; Beatriz Satorre; Ignacio Tortajada; Mª Ángeles Bonet; Ignacio Montava

2011-01-01

326

PRECONDITIONS OF SERBIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS AND PROSPERITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the present problems, the textile industry is of great importance in Serbian economy, and it has the perspective to become the one of the most important economy branches if it employs all advantages and successfully overcomes the key problems.Textile and clothing competition is possible only if the following factors are taken into account: price, as the factor that usually stands out, and non-price factors such as product quality, design, rich assortment, top-line standardisation, and market organisation and delivery term. Due to nonprice factors, many companies in textile industry from developed countries acquire high competition. Because the performances of high quality are dominating factor of competition in the developed countries’ markets, Serbian exporters are not competitive in this sector, and it creates the necessity to improve the competition position on the international market that will be based on the non-price factors of competition.

Snežana Uroševi?

2012-01-01

327

Multivariate analysis and chemometric characterisation of textile wastewater streams.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to design a quick and reliable method for the evaluation and classification of wastewater streams into treatable and non-treatable effluents for reuse/recycling. Different chemometric methods were used for this purpose handling the enormous amount of data, and additionally to find any hidden information, which would increase our knowledge and improve the classification. The data obtained from the processes description, together with the analytical results of measured parameters' characterising the wastewater of a particular process, enabled us to build a fast-decision model for separating different textile wastewater outlets. Altogether 49 wastewater samples from the textile finishing company were analysed, and 19 different physical chemical measurements were performed for each of them. The resulting classification model was aimed at an automated decision about the choice of treatment technologies or a prediction about the reusability of wastewaters within any textile finishing or other company having similar characteristics of wastewater streams.

Kavsek D; Jeric T; Le Marechal AM; Vajnhandl S; Bednárová A; Voncina DB

2013-01-01

328

Biomimicry in textiles: past, present and potential. An overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural world around us provides excellent examples of functional systems built with a handful of materials. Throughout the millennia, nature has evolved to adapt and develop highly sophisticated methods to solve problems. There are numerous examples of functional surfaces, fibrous structures, structural colours, self-healing, thermal insulation, etc., which offer important lessons for the textile products of the future. This paper provides a general overview of the potential of bioinspired textile structures by highlighting a few specific examples of pertinent, inherently sustainable biological systems. Biomimetic research is a rapidly growing field and its true potential in the development of new and sustainable textiles can only be realized through interdisciplinary research rooted in a holistic understanding of nature. PMID:21325320

Eadie, Leslie; Ghosh, Tushar K

2011-02-16

329

Biomimicry in textiles: past, present and potential. An overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The natural world around us provides excellent examples of functional systems built with a handful of materials. Throughout the millennia, nature has evolved to adapt and develop highly sophisticated methods to solve problems. There are numerous examples of functional surfaces, fibrous structures, structural colours, self-healing, thermal insulation, etc., which offer important lessons for the textile products of the future. This paper provides a general overview of the potential of bioinspired textile structures by highlighting a few specific examples of pertinent, inherently sustainable biological systems. Biomimetic research is a rapidly growing field and its true potential in the development of new and sustainable textiles can only be realized through interdisciplinary research rooted in a holistic understanding of nature.

Eadie L; Ghosh TK

2011-06-01

330

Antifungal Textiles Formed Using Silver Deposition in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Science.gov (United States)

The antifungal properties of two silver-coated natural cotton fiber structures prepared using a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) solvent were examined. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the scCO2 process may be used to produce cotton fiber textiles with uniform silver nanoparticle coatings. A version of the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test was used to assess the ability of these textiles to inhibit fungal growth. Cotton fabric samples modified with Ag(hepta) and Ag(cod)(hfac) exhibited measurable zones of inhibition. On the other hand, the uncoated fabric had no zone of inhibition. Possible applications of antifungal textiles prepared using scCO2 processing include use in hospital uniforms and wound dressings.

Gittard, Shaun D.; Hojo, Daisuke; Hyde, G. Kevin; Scarel, Giovanna; Narayan, Roger J.; Parsons, Gregory N.

2010-04-01

331

Combustion of textile residues in a packed bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Textile is one of the main components in the municipal waste which is to be diverted from landfill for material and energy recovery. As an initial investigation for energy recovery from textile residues, the combustion of cotton fabrics with a minor fraction of polyester was investigated in a packed bed combustor for air flow rates ranging from 117 to 1638 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.027-0.371 m/s). Tests were also carried out in order to evaluate the co-combustion of textile residues with two segregated waste materials: waste wood and cardboard. Textile residues showed different combustion characteristics when compared to typical waste materials at low air flow rates below 819 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.186 m/s). The ignition front propagated fast along the air channels randomly formed between packed textile particles while leaving a large amount of unignited material above. This resulted in irregular behaviour of the temperature profile, ignition rate and the percentage of weight loss in the ignition propagation stage. A slow smouldering burn-out stage followed the ignition propagation stage. At air flow rates of 1200-1600 kg/m{sup 2} h (0.272-0.363 m/s), the bed had a maximum burning rate of about 240 kg/m{sup 2} h consuming most of the combustibles in the ignition propagation stage. More uniform combustion with an increased burning rate was achieved when textile residues were co-burned with cardboard that had a similar bulk density. (author)

Ryu, Changkook; Phan, Anh N.; Sharifi, Vida N.; Swithenbank, Jim [Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC), Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2007-08-15

332

Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste. PMID:21847829

Harrington, Carol

2011-01-01

333

Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste.

Harrington C

2011-01-01

334

A Study on Energy Conservation in Textile Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

In textile mill, electricity consumption is in increasing trend, due to modernised machines and continuous usage of the equipments in inefficient operating parameters. The energy cost is around 15 % to 20 % over the production cost and it stands next to raw material cost. Hence now a day's area of focus is towards energy consumption at load end and by optimizing the efficiency of the motor. In this paper, influence of motors and process of optimisation in textile mill on energy conservation is discussed with practical data.

Dhayaneswaran, Y.; Ashokkumar, L.

2013-08-01

335

Copper oxide resistive switching memory for e-textile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A resistive switching memory suitable for integration into textiles is demonstrated on a copper wire network. Starting from copper wires, a Cu/CuxO/Pt sandwich structure is fabricated. The active oxide film is produced by simple thermal oxidation of Cu in atmospheric ambient. The devices display a resistance switching ratio of 102 between the high and low resistance states. The memory states are reversible and retained over 107 seconds, with the states remaining nondestructive after multiple read operations. The presented device on the wire network can potentially offer a memory for integration into smart textile.

Jin-Woo Han; M. Meyyappan

2011-01-01

336

Second stage energy conservation experience with a textile industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indian textile industrial sector is one of the oldest industrial sectors in the country, which is also energy intensive. It is currently undergoing several studies to reduce its energy consumption and hence energy conservation (EC) in this context offers an excellent opportunity. This paper, at the beginning, addresses the experiences of the authors with a textile industry, which has already carried out some fruitful EC measures. Then it highlights the EC potential availability and suggests some practicable environmental friendly EC policies suitable for the Indian context to achieve the estimated potential, and finally it highlights the Government's role in the EC endeavour.

2005-01-01

337

Second stage energy conservation experience with a textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Indian textile industrial sector is one of the oldest industrial sectors in the country, which is also energy intensive. It is currently undergoing several studies to reduce its energy consumption and hence energy conservation (EC) in this context offers an excellent opportunity. This paper, at the beginning, addresses the experiences of the authors with a textile industry, which has already carried out some fruitful EC measures. Then it highlights the EC potential availability and suggests some practicable environmental friendly EC policies suitable for the Indian context to achieve the estimated potential, and finally it highlights the Government's role in the EC endeavour. (author)

Palanichamy, C. [Sultan Saiful Rijal Technical College, Brunei (Brunei Darussalam). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Sundar Babu, N. [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2005-03-01

338

Effect of Hybridization on Stiffness Properties of Woven Textile Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study focuses on stiffness properties of woven textile reinforced polymeric composites with respect to hybridization, and geometry of reinforcement. The analyzed composites represent combinations of different fibre materials (E-glass, Kevlar 49, carbon HM) in a predetermined fabric geometry (a plane weave embedded in thermosetting polymeric resin) serving controlled properties and required performance. The effects of hybridization on the stiffness properties of woven textile composites have been studied with respect to the fibres materials, the unbalancing degree of fabrics, and the variation of compactness and undulation of yarns. Some undesirable effects in fabric geometry can be overcome by the combined effects of hybridization and compactness.

Bejan, Liliana; Taranu, Nicolae; Sîrbu, Adriana

2013-04-01

339

The incorporation of iodine-131 into textile dyestuffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An efficient technique for labelling textile dyestuffs was developed for the purpose of utilizing the labelled dyestuffs in textile processing or in the quality control of finished fabrics. The labelling procedure used is essentially a diazotization process wherein the resulting diazotization process wherein the resulting diazonium salt is reacted with Na131I solution for six hours at a raised temperature. Although the dyestuffs successfully labelled with 131I were all direct dyestuffs. It should be noted that any dyestuff containing a diazotizable aromatic amine in the molecule ArNH2 can easily be labelled with Na131I with the use of this method

1975-01-01

340

DYED POLYOLEFIN YARN AND TEXTILE FABRICS USING SUCH YARNS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel polyolefin textile fabric knitted woven and non-woven that in one aspect of the invention is disperse dyed to a light, medium or deep solid hade. In another aspect, the textile fabrics of the present invention are manufactured using polyolefin yarns that contain variable amounts of dye acceptor additives. A fabric with more than one tone of a color is dyed in a single dye bath. The fabrics and yarn using this invention can be processed using conventional spinning, weaving, knitting, web forming machines and will dye using existing dyeing and finishing systems. This invention is of particular value in the apparel and home furnishings industry.

NEGOLA EDWARD J

 
 
 
 
341

Bacterial Influence on Textile Wastewater Decolorization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to isolate and optimize bacterial strains having the ability to degrade and decolorize azo dyes produced in the final effluent of textile dying industries. In this regard, ten bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater treatment plants, and most of them were subjected to the colored effluents resulting from dilapidated houses. The ability of these bacterial isolations to use a wide range of azo dyes to determine the sole carbon source was determined. According to these screening testes, two bacterial isolations were selected as the most potent decolorizer for azo dyes, and they were identified as Comamanas acidovorns-TN1 and Burkholdera cepace-TN5. The optimization process started with the addition of 1 g/l yeast extract, where the decolorization ability of the two strains increased sharply and according to this experiment, the two azo dyes, Acid orange 7 and Direct blue 75, were selected to complete the study. The effect of different conditional and chemical factors on the decolorization process of Acid orange 7 and Direct blue 75 by Comamanas acidovorns-TN1 and Burkholdera cepace-TN5 was studied. Factors that contributed to the difference were different pH, temperature, incubation period, inoculum size, carbon source, nitrogen source and the respective concentrations of yeast extract. This study recommends the application of the two most potent bacterial strains in the decolorization of the azo dyes, along with acid orange 7 and direct blue 75, specifically in the industrial effluents under all nutritional and environmental conditions.

Aamr Alalewi; Cuiling Jiang

2012-01-01

342

Textile dyeing industry an environmental hazard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Color is the main attraction of any fabric. No matter how excellent its constitution, if unsuitably colored it is bound to be a failure as a commercial fabric. Manufacture and use of synthetic dyes for fabric dyeing has therefore become a massive industry today. In fact the art of applying color to fabric has been known to mankind since 3500 BC. WH Perkins in 1856 discovered the use of synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyes have provided a wide range of colorfast, bright hues. However their toxic nature has become a cause of grave concern to environmentalists. Use of synthetic dyes has an adverse effect on all forms of life. Presence of sulphur, naphthol, vat dyes, nitrates, acetic acid, soaps, enzymes chromium compounds and heavy metals like copper, arsenic, lead, cad- mium, mercury, nickel, and cobalt and certain auxiliary chemicals all collectively make the textile effluent highly toxic. Other harmful chemicals present in the water may be formaldehyde based dye fixing agents, chlorinated stain removers, hydro carbon based softeners, non bio degradable dyeing chemicals. These organic materials react with many disinfectants especially chlorine and form by products (DBP’S) that are often carcinogenic and therefore undesirable. Many of these show allergic reactions. The colloidal matter present along with colors and oily scum increases the turbidity, gives the water a bad appearance and foul smell and prevents the penetration of sunlight necessary for the process of photosynthesis. This in turn interferes with the Oxygen transfer mechanism at air water interface which in turn interferes with marine life and self purification process of water. This effluent if allowed to flow in the fields’ clogs the pores of the soil resulting in loss of soil productivity. If allowed to flow in drains and rivers it effects the quality of drinking water in hand pumps making it unfit for human consumption. It is important to remove these pollutants from the waste waters before their final disposal.

Rita Kant

2011-01-01

343

[Gossypiboma--retained textile foreign body].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: INTRODUCTION, HISTORY: Increasing complexity of modem surgery is accompanied by the emergence of very different possibility of errors; one of the oldest and most obvious errors is the foreign body forgotten inside the patient. Surgeons worldwide have reported this incident since the first record by Wilson in 1884. DEFINITIONS: Over time, different terms have been used for retained textile foreign body (RTFB), with various etymologies, sometimes controversial: gossypiboma is the latest in this line. EPIDEMIOLOGY: Various studies indicate the incidence of RTFB in range of 1:833-1:32.672; this expresses the difficulty to determine precisely due to complex causes. In our unit the incidence is 1:15.047. RTFB occur after operations on any cavity or organ (operations on the abdomen 56%, pelvis 18%, thorax 11%, orthopedic, neurosurgical, cardiovascular, etc.), at all ages and both sexes. DIAGNOSIS IS VARIABLE: from a loud postoperative evolution, with fever, suppuration of the wound, fistula tracks, spontaneous erosion into various hollow organs to a long asymptomatic period. Imaging diagnosis is difficult and requires RTFB inclusion in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of surgery. Treatment involves a patient's informed consent and an adjustment to a case: removal of RTFB and individualized treatment of any associated injuries (abscess, fistulas, adhesions, remaining cavity, foci of bone lysis) or just monitoring. Prevention: From the theory of "bad apple" (mistake of an incompetent doctor) we moved forward to address systems that often contain latent errors whose summation results in the unfortunate incident. Various national authorities have issued regulations to prevent RTFB, based on counting compresses, intra-/postoperative radiography, marking compresses with two-dimensional matrix label or radio frequency identification. CONCLUSIONS: RTFB, no matter how exotic we name it, remains an unfortunate incident with serious consequences for patient and surgeon alike. The introduction of new technologies can help create a safer environment in the operating room, but beyond that the human factor implies the presence of variables difficult or impossible to control.

Andronic D; Lupa?cu C; Târcoveanu E; Georgescu S

2010-11-01

344

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile Abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents. Effluents that contain dyes are discussed in a separate bibliography. Recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents are discussed. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. (This updated bibliography contains 322 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

1989-12-01

345

Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

2011-09-22

346

The Reason Why Our Country’S Export of Textile Was Limited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our country is the biggest textile export country of the world. Now for the textile industry of our country, it is a period of facing the expansive world market, and getting a new opportunity to improve. But with the opportunity, we also face much more challenges. Seen from outside, EU and US set limits, which make textile companies into an austere condition? Setting limits, anti-dumping, and its chain-reaction, make textile export of our country face an austere and complicated international trade condition. Seen from inside, some relative policies which our country made to vindicate new trade orders, and some problems which the textile industry had, are also have influence on our country’s export of textile to some extent. The purpose of research of this essay is to find relevant countermeasures by investigating the reason of export restriction, then make sure that our country’s textile export can be carried though successfully.

Jin Zhang; Ruiqi Qin

2009-01-01

347

Shortened menstrual cycles in LCD manufacturing workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many chemical agents used in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing have been evaluated in animal studies of female reproductive toxicity. Knowledge of their reproductive toxicity in humans is scant. AIMS: To determine the effect of organic solvents on menstrual cycle characteristics of workers in LCD manufacturing. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of female premenopausal workers in an LCD plant in Taiwan. Menstrual cycle characteristics were assessed from self-administered questionnaires, and chemical exposure was assessed using hand-held volatile organic compound (VOC) monitors with 24h canister sampling. RESULTS: There was a response rate of 94%, and the final study population after exclusions was 288. Canister sampling found many chemical compounds with potential reproductive effects in the fabrication areas of the plant. Concentrations of total VOC were higher in the panel and module fabrication areas than in other areas of the plant. The prevalence of short menstrual cycles (>24 days) was higher in panel workers (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 7.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-39.15) and module workers (adjusted OR: 8.38; 95% CI: 1.72-40.95) than in array fabrication workers and office workers. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for a possible link between repeated exposure to multiple organic solvents such as ethanol and acetone and increased prevalence of short menstrual cycles in premenopausal women.

Lin CC; Huang CN; Hwang YH; Wang JD; Weng SP; Shie RH; Chen PC

2013-01-01

348

Radiation exposure and the woman worker: biological and legal parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The interpretation of federal and state legislation and regulations concerning the radiation protection of women in the workplace has not been a clear and straightforward procedure. On one hand, the safety of all workers, independent of sex, imposes a specific directive for the enforcement of working standards in general. On the other hand, must allowance be made in setting radiation standards for the particular biological characteristics of workers, some of whom are women. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act provides equal employment opportunity for women and is now being enforced. All legal questions aside, men and women are decidedly different in one aspect; only women can conceive and carry a fetus and studies have shown that, in humans, the most radiosensitive stage of the fetus is during the first trimester of pregnancy. Possible legal and socio-economic aspects of questions posed by the employment of women by the nuclear industry are considered

1976-09-29

349

Changing Structure of Indian Textiles Industry after MFA (Multi Fiber Agreement) Phase out: A Global Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian textile enjoys a rich heritage and the origin of textiles in India traces back to the Indus valley Civilization where people used homespun cotton for weaving their clothes. If we talk about the Indian Textiles Industry in the present era, it is one of the leading industries in the world. The WTO has played an important role in the growth and development of the textiles industry at global level. Various steps have been taken to uplift the sector. In the year 1995, WTO had renewed its MFA and adopted Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) which stated that all quotas on textiles and clothing shall be removed among the WTO member countries by 2005. The MFA phased out and the textiles trade got integrated in to GATT provisions by 2005. The world T&C export had grown from US$ 272.43 billion in 1994 to US$ 530 bn in 2006, registering almost a two-fold rise. World textile and clothing trade rose by 9.7% to US$530 bn in 2006, by 10.6% to US$583 bn in 2007. As expected, the implementation of ATC had brought about structural changes in the international trade arena on textiles & clothing. In the years, during the post-quota period, India has emerged as a major sourcing destination for new buyers. As a measure of growing interest in the Indian textile and clothing sector a number of buyers have opened their sourcing/ liaison office in India. The paper focuses on the changes in the Textiles exports of different countries after the MFA (Multi Fiber Agreement). Special focus is on the Indian Textiles Industry and its position in the world in terms of textiles and clothing exports. The paper explores the changes in the exports and profits of the Indian textiles exporters. Further it investigates the role of FDI in the industry and what Indian Government is doing for the promotion of the industry.

Dr. Asiya Chaudhary

2011-01-01

350

Treatment of textile waste water with activated coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The adsorption properties of lignite oven coke towards waste water from textile mills were investigated. In particular, the results obtained with a semi-technical experimental plant were taken into consideration and discussed. COD reductions of over 80% were observed. A reactivation of the used coke is not planned, because it can be reused more economically as fuel.

Krieger, U.; Mohtadi, M.; Franke, F.H.

1981-11-01

351

Facilitated Articulation of Implicit Knowledge in Textile Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a report from an ongoing research project and as such it is work in progress. The paper proposes an exploratory approach in order to enable end-users to contribute with their experiences of emotional values of fabrics in use. It is suggested that the textile designer with her repertoire of (...

Bang, Anne Louise

352

Transferring fabric marker on textile material using inkjet printer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digital textile printing plays an important role on many levels during individual fashion design concept. It offers an innovative approach from fabric design to pattern making when creating unique models that will fit the personal shapes of individual customers' sizes. The main goal of this research...

Jevšnik, Simona; Neral, Branko; Vraz, Silva; Heinkinhemio, L.

353

Textile and Apparel Export from Bangladesh: Measure of Competitiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aim at examining the export competitiveness of selected textile and apparel products using indicators like Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis. The selected four categories textile and seven categories apparel product are taken into account on the basis of three digit level Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) for the period between (1985 until 1999). The RCA calculation clearly indicates an increasing strength of comparative advantage of Bangladesh in the textile as well as apparel products, This is mainly due to the negligible import for these products. The CMS results suggest that export gain of mainly due to the negligible import for these products. The CMS results suggest that export gain of Bangladesh for textile and apparel are largely attributed to the size of the market and also to her competitiveness efforts. The CMS analysis also depicts that the competitiveness effect of apparel products are subsequently improved in general during the period I and III (1985-89 and 1995-99) as compared to those for period I and II (1985-89 and 1990-94) and period II and III (1990-94 and 1995-99).

Ahasanul Haque; Mahbubur Rahman

2002-01-01

354

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

355

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICS STUDY--PHASE I  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of the first phase of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants,...

356

Textile & Apparel Production, Management, and Services: Curriculum Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum guide contains materials for a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the textile and apparel industries. Contents include an introduction; the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) covered; sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized…

Killman, Letitia

357

A RECAPITULATION OF SCM IN CONJUNCTION WITH TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an endeavor to explore the supply chain management specifically in connection with textile/apparel industry of a developing country. A review of pertinent literature is conducted to explore the continuation of supply chain management and its existence in textile/apparel industry of a developing country. Databases such as: EBSCO Host, Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, and Science Direct are searched for the works concerned to supply chain management. The review of literature suggests that there is lack of consensus about the definition of supply chain management, and textile/apparel industry of a developing country, is being neglected in the perspective of supply chain management. This study enriches the knowledge of supply chain management by describing the categories of supply chain management, discussing a lack of consensus about the definition, and describing a comprehensive definition for supply chain management. Moreover, it contributes to supply chain management by identifying the gaps, so that future research for supply chain management, in textile/apparel industry of a developing country, should be conducted.

Amer Rajput; Abdul Hamid Abu Bakar

2011-01-01

358

Optimum Conditions for the Synthesis of Dimethylol Urea Textile Fixer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being a major textile exporting country, Pakistan exports textile products and earns a lot of money. On the other hand it spends huge amount of foreign exchange on importing textile auxiliaries like dye intermediates, dye fixing agents, fluorescent brighteners etc. formaldehyde precondensates with amino compounds and this forms an important class of polymers like Phenol-formaldehyde, Melamine-formaldehyde etc. used largely and effectively in textile industry as dye fixing agents. At present Dimethoylol Urea (DMU) is one of the main chemical is being imported from Germany and United States of America. Present project is an attempt to synthesize DMU locally on laboratory scale. Results revealed that formalin on treatment with urea at pH 7.5 synthesized low molecular weight precondensate (DMU) that was miscible with water. Optimum time period for the completion of reaction was found to be 2 hrs. Moreover it was determined that one mole of urea required 1.5 to 1.6 moles of formalin (formaldehyde) to react completely. The results revealed that DMU precodensate is the better for rayon as compared to cotton.

Fiyyaz Ahmad Chughtai; Khalid Pervez Bhatti; Muhammad Zuber; Sofia Nosheen

2003-01-01

359

Competitiveness in the textile and clothing supply chain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The competitiveness scenario in the textile and clothing is always changing with the entrance of new players and changes in the rules of trade. This can be observed by looking at the developments that took place around the world in the last decade. This study finds how things are changing in this ch...

Hussain, Deedar; Figueiredo, Manuel; Tereso, Anabela Pereira; Ferreira, Fernando

360

Flexible system for recognition and handling of textile articles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with the development and implementation of a flexible handling system which is dedicated to pick up textile articles of various shapes, weights and colors, which are packed in polyethylene bags and which may have an arbitrary position and orientation within the box. The detection of ...

Schmucker, U.; Berndt, D.; Hartung, G.

 
 
 
 
361

Strategies for incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into garments and textiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into textiles was demonstrated following two different strategies. Simple incorporation of a polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) substrate carrying the polymer photovoltaic device prepared by a doctor blade technique necessitated the use of the photovoltaic device as a structural element. The total area of the device on PET was typically much smaller than the active area due to the decorative design of the aluminium electrode. Elaborate integration of the photovoltaic device into the textile material involved the lamination of a polyethylene (PE) film onto a suitably transparent textile material that was used as substrate. Plasma treatment of the PE-surface allowed the application of a PEDOT electrode that exhibited good adherence. Screen printing of a designed pattern of poly 1,4(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy))phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) from chlorobenzene Solution and final evaporation of an aluminium electrode completed the device. The total area of the textile device was 1000 cm(2) (25 cm x 40 cm) while the active area (190 cm(2)) was considerably smaller due to the decorative choice of the active material. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.

2006-01-01

362

Use of Beech Wood Sawdust for Adsorption of Textile Dyes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research a new efficient adsorbent of dyes is used. Thus, adsorption of some textile dyes from aqueous solution by using an industrial waste lignocellulosic product is studied. Between five dyes tested, three dyes were chosen for testing: Direct Orange 26, Acid Orange 7, Acid Green 20. Kinet...

Soheila Izadyar; Maryam Rahimi

363

Carbon Nanotube Areas - Printed on Textile and Paper Substrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mass printing processes are the key technology to produce mass products to the point of one-disposable. Carbon nanotube (CNT) based structures were prepared by flexographic printing using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions in water. The carbon nanotubes were applied to a textile substr...

Thomas Fischer; Nora Wetzold; Holg Elsner; Lothar Kroll; Arved C. Hubler

364

Interactive Sample Book (ISB) : An Inspirational Tool for Smart Textiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Which responsibilities do designers have? One could claim that designers have the responsibility of cooperating with persons from other fields, in order to create synergies, which can generate new product or service innovations, with high aesthetic as well as functional qualities. In this perspective, important aspects of the design process are the materials and technologies that are worked with. In relation to these, designers need to cooperate with experts from other fields, especially when working with new materials and technologies. Using new materials is a challenge, and one of the situations when cooperation with persons from other fields than the design field can be particularly fruitful. Another aspect that needs to be taken into consideration when working with new materials and technologies are environmental aspects. In relation to this, one could say that designers have the responsibility of minimizing the negative effects these could have on the environment, and of considering not only aesthetic and functional, but also environmental aspects when selecting materials and technologies. The ISB project is an example of a cross-disciplinary project about new materials and technologies involving designers and engineers. It is carried out by Elisabeth Heimdal as her Master thesis from Design & Innovation, The Technical University of Denmark. Collaboration partners are the design bureau Diffus, textile designer Priya Mani, master student in medialogy at AAU Marija Andonovska and DTU supervisor Torben A. Lenau. Inspiration to use smart materials Interactive textiles are still quite an unknown phenomenon to many. It is thus often difficult to communicate what kind of potentials lie within these materials. This is why the ISB project was started, as a practice based research project, with the aim of exploring and communicating some of the possibilities within interactive textiles. The applications for interactive textiles range from medical applications to architecture, and from the fashion industry to costumedesign. In relation to the sample book, focus will be on texture, lightning and senses in relation to integrated decoration and function primarily to indoor applications. The result of the project will be a number of interactive textiles, to be gathered in an interactive sample book (ISB), in a similar way as the sample books of wallpapers one can take home from the shop and choose from. In other words, it is a kind of display material, which in a simple manner can illustrate how different techniques and smart materials work. The sample book should display a number of possibilities where sensor technology, smart materials and textiles are mixed to such an extent that the textile can react to different kinds of input from the surrounding world.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

2009-01-01

365

Healthy worker effect on the studies of radiation workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When we study the effect on health of a specified population as compared to the general population, the occurrence of a healthy worker effect bias is indicated. In this paper, the healthy worker effect on radiation workers and other industry workers is reviewed, followed by a discussion of the healthy worker effect characteristics and prevention against the bias. (author)

Hisazumi, Shizuyo; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Matsudaira, Hiromichi [Association of Radiation Effects, Chiba (Japan)

1999-11-01

366

Facilitated Articulation of Implicit Knowledge in Textile Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is a report from an ongoing research project and as such it is work in progress. The paper proposes an exploratory approach in order to enable end-users to contribute with their experiences of emotional values of fabrics in use. It is suggested that the textile designer with her repertoire of (experiential, implicit and tacit) textile design knowledge should facilitate the articulation process. The paper specifically draws on a series of workshops conducted within the collaborating company inviting all employees to participate. The series of workshops were based on a game-like setting and introduced an emergent framework for accessing implicit knowledge in textile design. The framework is based on the distance to the fabric. Present at each workshop were materials, chairs and images as initiators for articulation. In each workshop rules for playing and gaming materials were introduced by the author - being a textile designer herself, who functioned as the facilitator. This paper uses two examples from the series of workshops to exemplify a facilitated articulation of implicit knowledge in textile design. From the examples the following themes are synthesised as being important for articulation: The hands-on experience as initiator for articulation; the game-like setting including rules and gaming materials as a facilitating set-up; and finally feeling as experts enables the participants to contribute and articulate their experiences. In future exploratory workshops it is suggested to elaborate on an introducing, an exploring and a summarising phase in order to work more in-depth with articulation and contribution to the design process.

Bang, Anne Louise

2009-01-01

367

An electric power conservation study at Santana Textil, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil; Estudo de otimizacao energetica na Santana Textil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an electric power conservation study performed on Santana Textil, by the Electrical Engineering Dept. of Universidade Federal do Ceara, sponsored by a SIGA Project, SENAI. In addition, the paper presents the methodology applied, final conclusions and recommendations. (author)

Cavalcante Neto, Tomaz Nunes [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

1999-07-01

368

Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

369

Part I. improve flame retardant textile. Part II. novel approach layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textile.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical rea...

370

ANALYZING COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE AND COMPETITIVENESS: THE CASE OF ROMANIAN TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given the importance of Romanian textile industry in the Romanian and European market, this study examines data on textile and clothing sector. The paper estimates the comparative and competitive advantage of the textile and clothing industry using different indicators to measure it. We used the Revealed Comparative Advantage Index (RCA) and Revealed Competitive Advantage Index (CA) as two objects to study the international competitiveness of Romanian textile trade. The analysis is based on the annual time series data on textile and clothing exports and imports, obtained from the World Trade Organization (WTO) Total Merchandise Trade over the period 1990 to 2011. This period was selected as being long enough to permit longer-term trends to be identified, and based on the availability of a complete data set for both of the product groups – textile and clothing. We found out that Romania still has a comparative advantage industry in the world market their clothing but that advantage is dwindling in recent years - since 2002. Regarding the textile industry is a slight diminishing of competitive disadvantage decrease mainly on export growth (especially in textile and nonwoven fabrics impregnated) and the reduce Romania's textile imports in recent years. This reduction of Romania's textile imports was driven mainly by lower apparel exports in recent years - knowing that in Romania most of the production of clothing is made in the tallies.

Simona Tripa; Sunhilde Cuc

2013-01-01

371

FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF HISTORICAL TEXTILES AND APPROACHES FOR THEIR CONTROL IN EGYPT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study represents both a study case about the fungalmicroflora deteriorating historical textiles in the EgyptianMuseum and the Coptic Museum in Cairo, and evaluation ofthe efficacy of several combinations of consolidants forreinforcement of textiles and fungicides for prevention offungal deterioration. Two different methods were used forisolation of fungi from historical textile objects. The platemethod with a manual key was used for identification offungi. The results show that the most dominant fungi isolatedfrom the examined textile samples belong toAlternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium andTrichoderma species.Microbiological testing was used for evaluation of the usefulnessof consolidation polymers combined with fungicidesin prevention of fungal deterioration of ancientEgyptian textiles. Textile samples were treated using fourselected polymers combined with two selected fungicides.Untreated and treated textile samples were deteriorated bythree selected active fungal strains isolated from ancientEgyptian textile objects. This study reports that all of thetested polymers combined with fungicides prevent fungaldeterioration of textiles. The treatments not only reinforcetextiles, but also prevent fungal deterioration and increasetheir durability. The tested polymers without fungicidesreduce fungal deterioration of textiles but do not prevent itentirely.

Omar Abdel-Kareem

2010-01-01

372

Advanced worker protection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

373

Teaching and Learning in Industries: Are We Malaysian Workers Really Ready for The E-training?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-training style requires a strong readiness level among industrial workers in order to ensure that they gain its optimum advantages. The purpose of the study is to explore analytically how the demographic factors affect the computer usage attitude, computer literacy, computer facility and access technology. The study also explores analytically the e-training readiness level in terms of computer usage attitude, computer literacy, computer facility and technology access among industrial workers. Four hundreds industrial workers from electronics industries, food industries, poultry industries and textile industries in Batu Pahat, Johore were involved in this study. The data were collected using questionnaires and were analyzed quantitatively. Through multiple regression analysis, the findings showed that some demographic factors (workers’ characteristics and work place) were significant at predicting the computer usage attitude, the computer literacy, the computer facility and the technology access. The findings also showed that there was a high level of e-training readiness among industrial workers in the aspect of computer usage attitude. But the aspects of computer literacy, computer facility and technology access showed only a moderate level of readiness. In general, the e-training readiness level among industrial workers is still moderate. This situation should be overcome in order to ensure that the e-training approach which has been emphasized in Malaysian Occupational Skills Development and Training Master Plan 2008-2020 would be implemented successfully. Therefore, some suggestions for improvement have been presented toward enhance the e-training readiness among industrial workers.

Hasmadi Hassan

2012-01-01

374

Daily practices of health among sex workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.

Elouyse Fernandes Leitão; Lívia Louise Souto Costa; Mércia Zeviani Brêda; Maria Cícera dos Santos de Albuquerque; Jorgina Sales Jorge

2012-01-01

375

Energy control. The textile could have found its clue; Maitrise de l'energie. Le textile pourrait bien avoir trouve son fil d'ariane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ademe and the Textile Institute of France have implemented a training and energy audit operation in the textile improvement enterprises of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area. Five enterprises among twenty at the beginning, have invested at the term of this operation for a better control of energy. Some actions and results are detailed in this article. (N.C.)

Anon.

2000-09-01

376

Hygiene monitoring of textiles used in the food industry Monitoramento da higiene de têxteis usados na indústria de alimentos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protective clothing is required in the food-processing industry, to protect workers from contamination by bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions etc. contained in the secretions and raw meat of slaughtered animals, and to protect the meat from being contaminated by microorganisms carried by the workers. It is well-understood that textiles are a control point (CP), and must be appropriately cleaned and disinfected in order to prevent biocontamination. Although the laundering procedure itself is important for achieving disinfection, it is also essential to maintain an appropriate hygiene level in the laundry, in order to prevent recontamination of textiles by environmental viable microorganisms. In this study, a sanitary-microbiological analysis was carried out in selected CPs in two laundries. Chemo-thermal washing efficiency was determined by evaluating the anti-bacterial effect against Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. The hygienic state of the laundries was determined by evaluating the number and type of microorganisms at selected CPs throughout the whole laundering procedure. The results indicated that the sanitary condition of both laundries did not reach the required levels and that several microbes were resistant to cleaning and disinfecting agents. It is obvious from the results that achievement of an appropriate hygiene level during laundering textiles from the food processing industry requires the implementation of appropriate corrective monitoring measures.Na indústria de alimentos é necessário o uso de roupas de proteção, para proteger os trabalhadores da contaminação por bactérias, fungos, virus, prions, etc, encontrados nas secreções e carne dos animais abatidos, assim como proteger a carne da contaminação com microrganismos carreados pelos trabalhadores. Os têxteis são um Ponto de Controle (PC), e devem ser limpos e desinfetados de forma adequada para prevenir a biocontaminação. Embora o processo de lavagem seja importante para obter a desinfecção, é também essencial manter um nível apropriado de higiene dentro da lavanderia para prevenir recontaminação dos têxteis com microrganismos do ambiente. Nesse trabalho, realizou-se uma análise microbiológica de Pontos Críticos de duas lavanderias. A eficiência da lavagem termoquímica foi determinada através da análise do efeito antibacteriano contra Enterococcus faecium e Staphylococcus aureus. A higiene nas lavanderias foi avaliada através da determinação do número e tipos de microrganismos presentes em PCs selecionados no processo de lavagem. Os resultados indicaram que as condições de higiene nas duas lavanderias não atingiram os níveis necessários, e que vários microrganismos apresentaram resistência aos agentes sanificantes e de limpeza, indicando a necessidade de implementação de medidas corretivas apropriadas.

Sabina Fijan; Avrelija Cencic; Sonja Šostar Turk

2006-01-01

377

Hygiene monitoring of textiles used in the food industry/ Monitoramento da higiene de têxteis usados na indústria de alimentos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Na indústria de alimentos é necessário o uso de roupas de proteção, para proteger os trabalhadores da contaminação por bactérias, fungos, virus, prions, etc, encontrados nas secreções e carne dos animais abatidos, assim como proteger a carne da contaminação com microrganismos carreados pelos trabalhadores. Os têxteis são um Ponto de Controle (PC), e devem ser limpos e desinfetados de forma adequada para prevenir a biocontaminação. Embora o processo de lava (more) gem seja importante para obter a desinfecção, é também essencial manter um nível apropriado de higiene dentro da lavanderia para prevenir recontaminação dos têxteis com microrganismos do ambiente. Nesse trabalho, realizou-se uma análise microbiológica de Pontos Críticos de duas lavanderias. A eficiência da lavagem termoquímica foi determinada através da análise do efeito antibacteriano contra Enterococcus faecium e Staphylococcus aureus. A higiene nas lavanderias foi avaliada através da determinação do número e tipos de microrganismos presentes em PCs selecionados no processo de lavagem. Os resultados indicaram que as condições de higiene nas duas lavanderias não atingiram os níveis necessários, e que vários microrganismos apresentaram resistência aos agentes sanificantes e de limpeza, indicando a necessidade de implementação de medidas corretivas apropriadas. Abstract in english Protective clothing is required in the food-processing industry, to protect workers from contamination by bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions etc. contained in the secretions and raw meat of slaughtered animals, and to protect the meat from being contaminated by microorganisms carried by the workers. It is well-understood that textiles are a control point (CP), and must be appropriately cleaned and disinfected in order to prevent biocontamination. Although the laundering pro (more) cedure itself is important for achieving disinfection, it is also essential to maintain an appropriate hygiene level in the laundry, in order to prevent recontamination of textiles by environmental viable microorganisms. In this study, a sanitary-microbiological analysis was carried out in selected CPs in two laundries. Chemo-thermal washing efficiency was determined by evaluating the anti-bacterial effect against Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. The hygienic state of the laundries was determined by evaluating the number and type of microorganisms at selected CPs throughout the whole laundering procedure. The results indicated that the sanitary condition of both laundries did not reach the required levels and that several microbes were resistant to cleaning and disinfecting agents. It is obvious from the results that achievement of an appropriate hygiene level during laundering textiles from the food processing industry requires the implementation of appropriate corrective monitoring measures.

Fijan, Sabina; Cencic, Avrelija; Turk, Sonja ?ostar

2006-09-01

378

Special Issue: Rural Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

1995-01-01

379

A review of stimuli-responsive polymers for smart textile applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimuli-responsive polymers (SRPs) are smart materials which can show noticeable changes in their properties with environmental stimulus variations. Novel functionalities can be delivered to textiles by integrating smart SRPs into them. SRPs inclusive of thermal-responsive polymers, moisture-responsive polymers, thermal-responsive hydrogels, pH-responsive hydrogels, and light-responsive polymers have been applied in textiles to improve or achieve textile smart functionalities. The functionalities include aesthetic appeal, comfort, textile soft display, smart controlled drug release, fantasy design with color changing, wound monitoring, smart wetting properties and protection against extreme variations in environmental conditions. In this review, the applications of SRPs in the textile and clothing sector are elucidated; the associated constraints in fabrication processes for textiles and their potential applications in the near future are discussed.

Hu, Jinlian; Meng, Harper; Li, Guoqiang; Ibekwe, Samuel I.

2012-05-01

380

Textile electrode characterization: dependencies in the skin-clothing-electrode interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the advances in the technology known as smart textiles, the use of textile electrodes is more and more common. However this kind of electrodes presents some differences regarding the standard ones as the Ag-AgCl electrodes. Therefore to characterize them as best as possible is required. In order to make the characterization reproducible and repetitive, a skin dummy made of agar-agar and a standardized measurement set-up is used in this article. Thus, some dependencies in the skin-electrode interface are described. These dependencies are related to the surface of the textile electrode, the conductive material and the applied pressure. Furthermore, the dependencies on clothing in the skin-textile electrode interface are also analyzed. Thus, based on some parameters such as textile material, width and number of layers, the behavior of the interface made up by the skin, the textile electrode and clothing is depicted.

Macías, R.; Fernández, M.; Bragós, R.

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Three roles for textiles as tangible working materials in co-design processes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Textiles are increasingly complex materials used in a growing number of applications, e. g. in architecture. The textile industry must therefore engage with other professions when developing both textiles and products of which textiles are a part. In this article, we argue that tools taken from the field of participatory design represent a potential for staging such co-design situations and report on our experience from a co-design process where architects, engineers and textile experts engaged in designing future textile solutions for Danish hospital environments. During this process we used what we call tangible working materials to stage the collaboration between the stakeholders engaged as co-designers. Our experience using the tangible working materials showed us that they can be divided into three types, with different attributes and roles in the design process: real, mediating and representative materials.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

2012-01-01

382

Feasibility of Genetic Algorithm for Textile Defect Classification Using Neural Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global market for textile industry is highly competitive nowadays. Quality control in productionprocess in textile industry has been a key factor for retaining existence in such competitive market.Automated textile inspection systems are very useful in this respect, because manual inspection is timeconsuming and not accurate enough. Hence, automated textile inspection systems have been drawing plentyof attention of the researchers of different countries in order to replace manual inspection. Defect detectionand defect classification are the two major problems that are posed by the research of automated textileinspection systems. In this paper, we perform an extensive investigation on the applicability of geneticalgorithm (GA) in the context of textile defect classification using neural network (NN). We observe theeffect of tuning different network parameters and explain the reasons. We empirically find a suitable NNmodel in the context of textile defect classification. We compare the performance of this model with that ofthe classification models implemented by others.

Md. Tarek Habib; Rahat Hossain Faisal; M. Rokonuzzaman

2012-01-01

383

Electrical characterization of conductive textile materials and its evaluation as electrodes for venous occlusion plethysmography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ambulatory monitoring of biosignals involves the use of sensors, electrodes, actuators, processing tools and wireless communication modules. When a garment includes these elements with the purpose of recording vital signs and responding to specific situations it is call a 'Smart Wearable System'. Over the last years several authors have suggested that conductive textile material (e-textiles) could perform as electrode for these systems. This work aims at implementing an electrical characterization of e-textiles and an evaluation of their ability to act as textile electrodes for lower extremity venous occlusion plethysmography (LEVOP). The e-textile electrical characterization is carried out using two experimental set-ups (in vitro evaluation). Besides, LEVOP records are obtained from healthy volunteers (in vivo evaluation). Standard Ag/AgCl electrodes are used for comparison in all tests. Results shown that the proposed e-textiles are suitable for LEVOP recording and a good agreement between evaluations (in vivo and in vitro) is found.

Goy CB; Dominguez JM; Gómez López MA; Madrid RE; Herrera MC

2013-08-01

384

Analytical Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals in the Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heavy metals in textile wastewater represent a major environmental problem, and are a potential danger to human health when present on textiles. Furthermore, the presence of some metals influences the production of textiles. Heavy metals are often used as oxidizing agents, as metal complex dyes, dye stripping agents, fastness improvers, and finishers. Thus, they act as hazardous sources throughout entire textile processing. Toxic effects of heavy metals on humans are well documented. Therefore, it is important to monitor heavy metals throughout the entire production. Today, maximum permissible values for metals in textiles are given by different regulations, according to which the heavy metals have to be determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. Several analytical procedures for the determination of heavy metals were tested for their application on textiles. The advantages and disadvantages of TLC, UV-VIS, GF-AAS, ICP-OES, and ICP-MS methods are discussed.

Zeiner, M.; Rezic, I:; Steffan, I.

2007-01-01

385

Textiles as Tangible Working Materials in Participatory Design Processes: Potentials and Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative nature facilitating dialogue between different stakeholders and its ability to move stakeholder participation to the early stages of the design process. We have explored PD tools in a design process engaging architects and textile designers in designing textile products for Danish hospitals. From this we have realized a potential in dividing the materials into three types with different attributes, which should consequently be staged differently in a PD process. We have thereby seen that exploring PD in a textile design process improves the understanding of the role of tangible working materials in PD processes. We believe that the application of PD to the textile industry will enrich the theoretical foundations of PD ingeneral.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

2010-01-01

386

The Impact of Financial Crisis on Textile Trade Pattern between China and ASEAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China and ASEAN have been maintaining a relationship both cooperative and competitive in the textile trade. Due to its labor intensive feature and high dependence on foreign trade, the textile trade has received much attention after the 2008 financial crisis. The customs data (classified by the HS code) from year 2006-2009 is employed to research the impact of the crisis on the trade pattern of textile industry as a whole and each of the 4 subfields (raw materials, textiles, clothing and textile machinery). G-L index and the export-import unit value ratio are analyzed with Brown-Mood median test, and the results show that the China-ASEAN trade pattern has not changed fundamentally. However, the trade-pattern indicators of the textile industry and the subfields, except for the machinery subfield, have been experiencing some quantitative variation in the crisis.

Yanyun Zhao; Wenjing Fu; Yao Wei; Lin Chen

2010-01-01

387

Contesting Business Networks in Liberalising Economy and Polity: Evidence from Regional textile Business in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available A decade has passed since the fall of president Soeharto. The landscape of Indonesia’s economy and polity has considerably changed. Preaching market and democratic solutions become new medicines for healing Indonesia’s economy. This paper argues that the imposition of liberalisation without accounting for institutional contexts in which textile businesses operate have implications for deindustrialisation. By situating a textile producing region in Central Java as a case study and by using new institutional approach, this paper shows a process of depletion of various textile business networks. A process characterised by the lessening positions of actors in the textile market. The rise of political parties and civic associations has opened public dialogue. However, long steps have to be taken to facilitate the emergence of strong textile business association to influence the politics of textile industry.

Rochman Achwan

2010-01-01

388

Endovascular Delivery System Having Textile Component for Implant Restraint and Delivery  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A stent-graft delivery system is disclosed having an outer tubular shaft or sheath with a relatively stiff proximal segment and a distal segment formed from a tubular textile component. The proximal segment being formed from a polymeric tubing and having a distal end attached to a proximal end of the tubular textile component. During tracking of the delivery system through the vasculature, a self-expanding stent-graft is constrained by and within the tubular textile component in a compressed delivery configuration. Upon positioning at a treatment site, such as an aneurysm, retraction of the outer tubular shaft proximally slides the tubular textile component over the stent-graft to expose and deploy the stent-graft. The tubular textile component may be made from strands of one or more biocompatible materials that have been formed into a textile by weaving, braiding, knitting, crocheting, felting or a combination thereof.

STIGER MARK

389

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT APPROACH IN TEXTILE AND APPAREL INDUSTRY  

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Full Text Available This article deals with transformation of classical production line into cellular manufacturing enables to produce a wide variety of products with reduced demands for storage and production areas, removal of operational workers (masters) with a high degree of awareness, commitment, and responsibility of every employee, etc. Nowadays, existence of software and hardware support for activities in the apparel industry enables to reduce time and financial costs in mode designing, construction and modelling of the cut, designingcut positions and cutting of the materials, logistics, transfer of information, management activities, etc. The 3D scan of the human figures introduces entirely new opportunities for taking and controlling measures, suitability of used material, overall visualization and creation of virtual twins. The recession in apparel and textile industry, which has been caused by more factors, forces change of look on present way of orientation of the branch.Quantitative and price competition is not sufficient to gain market prevalence. Increasing the quality of all the parameters of produced clothing is the way to succeed. Via transformation of the apparel industry in Slovakia from the realization of the work in salary to the own development, design, manufacturing and sale, it is possibleto create a basis for innovative business in this sector with high added value and market share in home and foreign markets.

Janka Nemcová; Sergej Hloch; Hakan Tozan; Kerim Goztepe

2012-01-01

390

An Urban-Spatial Analysis of the Women in the Informal Sectors of Greater Guwahati City of Assam, India  

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Full Text Available This article reflects the use of urban space by women in urban informal sectors in the city of Guwahati located in North East India. The population influx from across the borders in the aftermath of the partition has huge implications both on polity and on economy of the northeastern states in general and Assam in particular.  Importantly, the urban informal sectors have a sizeable share in terms of its significant contributions towards Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as well as generation of employment opportunities largely. Using a feminist perspective, the research is an attempt to investigate the engagement of women in the informal sector in greater Guwahati. Research findings reveal that the occupations of the women workers are location-specific, that is, the manufacturing sectors (textiles, food preparation, printing and skilled service) are mainly home/shop based production (fixed locations) whereas the service sectors (leisure, caring, elementary construction, elementary sales and cleaning occupation) operate at variable locations (construction sites, street pavements, marketplaces and other various locations). Further analysis shows that the informal sector is highly demand dependent and such demands are in the central business areas of the city, therefore informal sector services (skilled services and elementary services) are found to be located in and around the central areas of Guwahati city. Women operators in the informal sector are attracted to the central business district because of the many advantages that it enjoys relative to other parts of a city. The paper concludes by calling on policy makers and physical planning agencies to evolve more pragmatic strategies for urban development matters in order that urban informal sector activities can be integrated into urban development plans. Finally, further research is called for on how urban planners could redesign the urban space with appropriate consideration of the informal sector operators.

Zona Bhuyan

2013-01-01

391

Child rearing practices amongst brothel based commercial sex workers  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The experiences of the commercial sex workers as they fulfill the role of being a parent, have rarely been reported. Considering their socioeconomic background, profession and work pattern, the women are bound to face major challenges. AIMS: To describe child bearing, family support, dietary practices and various placement options for raising children. STUDY DESIGN : A cross-sectional descriptive study of brothel- based commercial sex workers. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : X2 test, Fisher?s Exact test RESULTS: Some commercial sex workers continued pregnancy with the hope of security and support, while others were compelled to do so, as they report late for medical termination of pregnancy. A group of sex workers (Devdasis) received support during pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and child-rearing. The role and responsibilities of raising the child, depended upon the kind of family support available to the mothers. Being a single parent, stigma of the profession, odd working hours and variable family support were major challenges, while the fact that the women were earning, availability of rehabilitation centers, the homogeneous groups within the brothels, supportive peers and local non governmental organizations were factors which helped them in the process of raising their children. CONCLUSIONS : Day care centers and night shelters should be opened up in the red light area where the children can be looked after, during the working hours. The sex workers should be educated about weaning and nutrition. The role of peer workers and NGOs was very important in helping the women raise their children.

Pardeshi Geeta; Bhattacharya S

2006-01-01

392

Higher leukocyte subpopulation counts in healthy smoker industrial workers than in nonsmoker industrial workers: possible health consequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoke contains free radicals, which cause injury to endothelial cells and oxidize bioactive components in the blood. Neutrophils, a subpopulation of leukocytes, contain the enzyme myeloperoxidase that mediates production of hypochlorous acid during oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether smoker industrial workers had significantly higher neutrophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers. DESIGN AND METHODS: We collected blood samples from 183 apparently healthy male and 30 female industrial workers. We obtained blood cell counts, measured the concentration of plasma aminothiols and determined the concentration of serum and erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 in the samples. RESULTS: Smoker industrial workers had significantly higher neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in smoker industrial workers were higher than in nonsmoker industrial workers (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that smoker industrial workers have higher neutrophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers. Therefore, our observations suggest that smokers may become more easily prone to chronic inflammation than nonsmokers. About 84% of the study participants were male subjects; therefore, our findings may be more representative for men than women.

Mansoor MA; Stakkestad JA; Drabløs PA

2013-01-01

393

FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

1992-01-01

394

The Effect of China's Exchange Rate Policy on U.S. Textile Imports  

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Full Text Available This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of China's exchange rate policy on the United States' textile imports between May, 2001 and December 2010. The effect of the yuan/dollar exchange rate on textile imports is tested using a multiple regression model that incorporates both macroeconomic and microeconomic regressors. The analysis reveals that changes in China's exchange rate have not had a statistically significant effect on the percentage change in the United States' textile imports from China. Most of the changes in textile imports have arisen from changes in production costs for Chinese firms.

Frederick Schneider

2012-01-01

395

Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents  

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Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

Valeria Tigini; Valeria Prigione; Pietro Giansanti; Antonella Mangiavillano; Antonella Pannocchia; Giovanna Cristina Varese

2010-01-01

396

Smart textiles for tactile sensing and energy storage  

Science.gov (United States)

During my master's I have mainly worked on two subjects in the research area of electroactive smart textiles. My first project involved building a touch sensitive textile pad using original home-made all-polymer soft capacitor fibers. The capacitor fibers featuring relatively high capacitance and resistance were fabricated using fiber drawing technique. For the ease of connectorization, a thin copper wire was integrated into the fiber core during drawing procedure. Soft-capacitor fibers have a typical capacitance per unit length of 69 nF/m, and a typical resistivity parameter of 5 k?·m. Our measurements and theoretical modeling show that the fiber capacitance is a very stable, geometry defined parameter independent of the fiber diameter, and fiber fabrication parameters. In contrast, fiber resistivity has a very strong positive temperature coefficient, it is highly sensitive to stretching, and it is strongly dependent on the fiber drawing parameters. Next, an individual capacitor fiber was demonstrated to act as a slide sensor that allows determining the touch position along its length by measuring the fiber AC response at a single point at the fiber surface. Electrical response of such a sensor was described by the RC ladder model, with the modelling data in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Developed capacitor fibers are soft, small diameter, lightweight and do not use liquid electrolytes, thus they are ideally suited for the integration into textile products. At the end of the chapter, we have demonstrated that by weaving a one dimensional array of capacitor fibers (in parallel to each other) a fully woven 2D touchpad sensor could be build. Performance of a touchpad sensor was then characterised and the absence of the inter-channel crosstalk was confirmed. We also note that a 2D touchpad has a partial multi-touch functionality. My second project involved assembly of flexible and stretchable Li-ion batteries, their integration into a textile, and their electric characterization in a view of smart textile applications. The chemistry for the battery was developed by my colleague Y. Liu who has combined the relatively conventional Li battery materials including LiFePO4 cathode, Li4Ti 5O12 anode and PEO solid electrolyte into a non-conventional soft electrochemical battery system. I have experimentally demonstrated that flexible batteries can be first cast as sheets, and then cut into thin strips, and finally integrated into textile using conventional weaving techniques. The electrochemical performance of the film batteries was extensively characterized and found to be poorer compared to the performance of batteries based on the powder electrodes and liquid electrolytes. At the same time, cycling performance of the solid film batteries was stable, and together with their soft leather-like feel and appearance, this makes such batteries well suitable for smart textile applications. Although operating voltage of a single flexible battery is relatively low (˜0.3V), nevertheless, when several of them are connected in series, the net voltage can be large enough for practical applications. Finally, as a demonstrator of the technology I have tested a textile battery comprising 8 flexible battery strips woven together and connectorized in series to power up a 3V LED over several hours.

Gorgutsa, Stepan

397

Plant bioassays to assess toxicity of textile sludge compost  

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Full Text Available Composting of industrial wastes is increasing because of recycling requirements set on organic wastes. The evaluation of toxicity of these wastes by biological testing is therefore extremely important for screening the suitability of waste for land application. The toxicity of a textile sludge compost was investigated using seed germination and plant growth bioassays using soybean and wheat. Compost samples were mixed with water (seed germination bioassay) or nutrient solution (plant growth bioassay) at concentrations of 0, 19, 38, 76 and 152 g L-1. No negative effects were observed after five days of compost water-extract in relation to soybean and wheat seed germination. After fifteen days, under a hydroponics system, plant growth had harmful effects of the compost at concentrations above 38 g L-1. Textile sludge compost presented great phytotoxicity under hydroponics condition and the soybean and wheat were sensitive for evaluation of organic wastes in plant growth bioassays.

Araújo Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Monteiro Regina Teresa Rosim

2005-01-01

398

STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TEXTILE REINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS  

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Full Text Available La relación entre la geometría del entramado de las fibras y los mecanismos de fractura bajo cargas de tensión ha sido evaluada para materiales compuestos reforzados con textiles de diferente arquitectura tales como colchoneta (fibras al azar) y petatillo (biaxial). Estos materiales están manufacturados empleando como matriz polimérica resina epóxica curada a altas temperaturas. El sistema elegido para este trabajo consiste en resina epóxica bifuncional diglicidil éter de bisfenol A (DGEBA) curada con una amina tetrafuncional diaminodifenil sulfona (DDS). Este sistema asegura la obtención de un material rígido transparente con excelentes propiedades mecánicas que permite observar, analizar e identificar el proceso y el progreso del daño generado así como los mecanismos de fractura que conllevan a la ruptura del material. Los resultados demostraron que la arquitectura/geometría de los textiles de refuerzo influye en la generación de sitios de concentración de esfuerzos donde se incrementa la posibilidad de iniciación de fallas y la propagación de grietas.

CARLOS ROLANDO RIOS-SOBERANIS; RICARDO HERBE CRUZ-ESTRADA; JOSE RODRIGUEZ-LAVIADA; EMILIO PEREZ-PACHECO

2012-01-01

399

Textiles Objective and Sensory Evaluation in Rapid Prototyping  

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Full Text Available Most consumer purchases nowadays are driven by sensory attraction and good feeling. From this standpoint textile and fashion industries need new methods to evaluate fabric quality and to respond to consumer expectations. Recently the implementation of sensory analysis in the process of material characterization has drawn much international attention. So, the aim of the research was to find dependencies between the results of sensory analysis and objective fabric behaviour evaluation performed using KES-F and Griff-Tester devices. The later method was developed at Kaunas University of Technology and is based on fabric extraction through a rounded hole, thus describing the behaviour of textile materials and their tactile properties by one complex criterion.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.778

Eugenija STRAZDIENE

2011-01-01

400

Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener  

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Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIEN?; Virginija DAUKANTIEN?

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Superhydrophobic chitosan-based coatings for textile processing  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method to design the superhydrophobic anti-bacterial textile for biomedical applications was developed. For the coating formulation the spraying of nanoparticles dispersion over the textile sample was applied, allowing the way to get multiscale textured layer on a top of cotton fabric. The anti-bacterial functionality of coating is supported by using chitosan-based nanoparticles. In our approach the fabrication of nanoparticles was based on electrostatic interaction between amine group of chitosan and negatively charged fluoroanion. It was demonstrated that the relative number of fluoroanions per elementary unit of chitosan plays the crucial role in the structure of aggregates in the coating and its wettability as well as in durability of coatings in contact with aqueous media.

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