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Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.  

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1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births...

Xu, X.; Ding, M.; Li, B.; Christiani, D. C.

1994-01-01

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Women's respiratory health in the cotton textile industry: an analysis of respiratory symptoms in 973 non-smoking female workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a 1992 survey of both environmental and occupational determinants of health, 973 non-smoking women aged 20-40 years who were employed in three comparable modern Chinese cotton textile mills were given a questionnaire that included questions on standard respiratory history and symptoms. All women had some potential exposure to cotton dust; mean employment was 8.7 years. Comparisons were made between those with lowest or no current exposure (job classification in administration, quality control, and testing, n = 112) and those in the more heavily exposed classifications (yarn production areas, n = 861). Association of symptoms with job was tested by logistic regression, adjusting for age, passive smoking at home, and the use of home coal burning stoves. Odds ratios for prevalence of current frequent symptoms in those working in production jobs, after adjustment for home exposure to passive tobacco smoke and coal heating, were frequent cough 2.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05-4.75), frequent phlegm 3.24 (1.54-6.84), shortness of breath 4.54 (1.40-14.72), and wheeze 2.96 (1.16-7.55). Nine cases with grade I byssinosis (chest tightness or shortness of breath on return to work after two days off) were found; all were in production jobs. In these non-smoking women textile workers, chronic respiratory symptoms were associated with job category after correction for domestic indoor air quality. These data support evidence for an increased prevalence of respiratory disease in populations exposed to cotton dust. PMID:8124456

Beckett, W S; Pope, C A; Xu, X P; Christiani, D C

1994-01-01

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MORTALITY FROM DIABETES AND ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE IN TEXTILE WORKERS  

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Background To explore possible explanations for elevated mortality from diabetes among male garment manufacturers and repairers in England and Wales during 1979-1990, we extended analysis by 10 years, looking also at other textile workers and at deaths from ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods We used data on some 3.5 million deaths to compute proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) for diabetes and IHD, standardised for age and social class, in 10 job groups concerned with manufacture of, or work with, textiles. For 1993-2000, we carried out additional analyses by place of birth. Results Among men, mortality from diabetes was elevated in nine of the 10 textile job groups, with overall PMRs of 147 (95%CI 131-165) during 1979-90 and 170 (95%CI 144-199) during 1991-2000. Proportional mortality from IHD was also consistently high, although to a lesser extent. In female textile workers, mortality from both diseases was close to that for other occupations. In both sexes, mortality from diabetes and IHD was increased among people born in the Indian sub-continent (PMRs 353 and 139 in men; 262 and 130 in women). In men, the proportion of deceased textile workers who had been born in the Indian sub-continent (11.4%) was much higher than for all occupations (1.8%), but there was no similar differential for women (1.1% v 0.7%). When PMRs for male textile workers were standardised for place of birth, they were lower, but still significantly elevated (133, 95% CI 110-159 for diabetes and 109, 95% CI 105-114 for IHD). Conclusions There is no obvious occupational hazard that could explain an increased risk across such a wide range of textile occupations that is specific to men. One possible explanation is uncontrolled residual confounding related to place of birth. This could be tested through suitably designed morbidity surveys. PMID:20798003

Zanardi, Francesca; Harris, E. Clare; Brown, Terry; Rice, Simon; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David

2011-01-01

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Immunological findings and respiratory function in cotton textile workers.  

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Immunological parameters were studied in a group of 24 cotton textile workers. These were volunteers from a cohort of 106 (83 women and 23 men) previously studied textile workers. A group of 30 employees from a bottle packing plant served as a control for the immunologic studies. The subgroup of volunteers undergoing immunologic testing did not differ from the original cohort of textile workers in age, sex, smoking history, or prevalence of most chronic respiratory symptoms, nor were there any significant differences in baseline lung function or across-shift changes. The 24 cotton worker volunteers underwent skin testing with extracts of cotton dust and cotton seed. Eight of these 24 (33.3%) had positive tests, and 5 of the 8 had elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Only one of the 8 skin-test-positive workers had symptoms of byssinosis. Only 1 of 30 control workers' skin tested with cotton extract reacted, and none had an increased serum IgE level (P less than 0.01). Both baseline lung function and across-shift changes did not differ between workers with positive and negative skin test reactions or between workers with normal and elevated IgE levels. Additionally, we studied the response in vitro of nonsensitized guinea pig trachea to cotton bract extract and demonstrated a dose-dependent contractile response. These data suggest that while immunological findings are frequent in textile workers, they correlate poorly with respiratory symptoms and function and may not be the basis for the airway obstruction seen in this disease. PMID:1399012

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J; Mustajbegovic, J; Maayani, S; Buck, M G; Rienzi, N

1992-01-01

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Byssinosis in cotton textile workers of Kishangarh.  

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Byssinosis is an occupational hazard for the workers exposed to cotton dust. In this study 616 cotton textile workers were studied; out of which 149 had byssinosis; 37 (24.7%) had grade-1/2, 78 (52.7%) grade-1, 25 (16.6%) grade-2 and 9 (6.0%) of grade-3 byssinosis. Majority of the byssinotics were of age group between 36-40 years and had developed disease after 16 years of exposure. Disease was more common among smokers and severe, in whom consumption was more than 15 cigarettes/bidis per day for more than 10 years. Ventilatory function tests were markedly abnormal compared with non-byssinotic. On clinical examination and laboratory investigation (specially eosinophilia) and, radiological investigation (x-ray chest) no positive finding was detected. The high prevalence rate of the disease in this study was apparently due to poor working conditions of the workers. PMID:2134233

Barjatiya, M K; Mathur, R N; Swaroop, A

1990-01-01

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Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania  

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Abstract Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogethe...

Stukonis Mecys; Kuzmickiene Irena

2007-01-01

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[Byssinosis--an occupational disease of textile workers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Byssinosis as a nonspecific chronic respiratory disease in textile workers exposed to cotton, hemp and flax is described. Pathogenesis and ethiologic factors responsible for bissynosis are listed. Clinical symptoms of byssinosis and differential diagnosis with occupational asthma are presented. Characteristic functional changes of ventilatory capacity in textile workers are described. Clinical and functional criteria for diagnosis of byssinosis are presented. Particular emphasis is given to preventive medical and technical measures in order to prevent the development of respiratory diseases in textile workers. PMID:9132525

Zuskin, E; Vali?, F; Kanceljak, B; Mustajbegovi?, J; Sari?, M

1996-10-01

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Long term respiratory health effects in textile workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of review Over 60 million people worldwide work in the textile or clothing industry. Recent studies have recognized the contribution of workplace exposures to chronic lung diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early studies in textile workers have focused on the relationship between hemp or cotton dust exposure and the development of a syndrome termed Byssinosis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of long term exposure to organic dust in textile workers on chronic respiratory disease in the broader context of disease classifications such as reversible or irreversible obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma or COPD), and restrictive lung disease. Recent findings Cessation of exposure to cotton dusts leads to improvement in lung function. Recent animal models have suggested a shift in the lung macrophage:dendritic cell population as a potential mechanistic explanation for persistent inflammation in the lung due to repeated cotton-dust related endotoxin exposure. Other types of textile dust, such as silk, may contribute to COPD in textile workers. Summary Textile dust related obstructive lung disease has characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of chronic lung disease due to organic dust exposure in textile workers. PMID:23361196

Lai, Peggy S.; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

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Gender relationship and political activism: textile workers and communism between 1936 and 1946  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we analyze one of the integration strategies Argentine Communist Party policy towards the workers in the textile industry: the women's organization. To analyze gender relations within the working class developed a specific methodology is to examine the intra-and intersexo-género/clase, which was used in this study. As a result of this investigation it was realized that this policy implemented by communism influenced the increase in female membership in the Textile Workers Union during the '30s and the first half of the '40s

Verónica Norando

2013-03-01

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Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19, for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25. The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73. The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers.

Stukonis Mecys

2007-11-01

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Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia. PMID:1998605

Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G

1991-02-01

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Write On! Business Writing for Textile Workers. Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum package presents a curriculum guide, the lesson plan, handouts, transparencies, tests, and evaluation forms for use by instructors in customizing a course on business writing for workers in the textile industry. The introduction describes how the curriculum is developed, the contents of this curriculum package, and how to involve…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

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Prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi, Pakistan.  

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The authors measured prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi, Pakistan, and examined association of the disease with demographic and environmental factors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 3 spinning and textile mills and 3 colonies inhabited by spinning and textile workers. A precoded questionnaire was administered to the workers and followed by physical and clinical examination. Among 362 textile workers, the authors found the prevalence of byssinosis to be 35.6%. Educational status of the workers and section of the mill were significantly associated with prevalence of the disease. The authors conclude that there is a high prevalence of byssinosis in spinning and textile workers of Karachi. Furthermore, low education level and work in the spinning section of the mill appear to contribute significantly to the high prevalence of the disease in Pakistan. PMID:18980877

Memon, Ismail; Panhwar, Amanullah; Rohra, Dileep K; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Khan, Nadir

2008-01-01

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Comparative analysis of gynaecological status of workers from textile and metal industry  

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Full Text Available Introduction Female workers in textile and metal industry are exposed to various physical and chemical hazards that can lead to the occurrence of gynaecological diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of gynaecological diseases among workers of textile and metal industries. METHOD The investigation comprised 197 female workers, 148 from textile and 49 from metal industry, aged from 26 to 57 years. All subjects were hospitalized based on non-gynaecological diagnoses. Gynaecological diagnoses included: tumours of the genital organs and breasts, cervical ectopy and lacerations, inflammatory diseases, disturbances of static of genital organs, cysts, and irregularities of menstrual cycle. Results Textile workers were significantly younger than metal workers, but the groups were comparable according to total and exposure work-time, qualifications and diagnosis on hospital admission. Gynaecological diseases were diagnosed among all investigated subjects. About 80% were diagnosed with tumours and inflammatory diseases. A highly statistically significant difference was observed among groups according to the presence of cervical ectopy and lacerations, which were more frequent among textile workers. Conclusion Comparison of gynaecological status of workers revealed that, among textile workers, cervical ectopy and lacerations were more frequent than among workers in metal industry. .

Milovanovi? Aleksandar

2008-01-01

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Long-term Effects of Work Cessation on Respiratory Health of Textile Workers  

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Rationale: The degree to which chronic respiratory health effects caused by exposures to cotton dust and endotoxin is reversible after cessation of textile work is unknown. Objectives: To investigate changes in lung function and respiratory symptoms after cessation of textile work and to determine whether past exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin or smoking history modify the associations. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study consisting of 447 cotton textile workers exposed to cotton dust and 472 unexposed silk textile workers, with a 25-year follow-up. Spirometry testing and respiratory questionnaires were conducted at 5-year intervals. Generalized estimated equations were used to model the average 5-year change in FEV1 and odds ratios of respiratory symptom prevalence. Measurements and Main Results: Years since cessation of textile work was positively associated with 11.3 ml/yr and 5.6 ml/yr gains in 5-year FEV1 change for cotton and silk workers, respectively. Among male cotton workers, smokers gained more FEV1 per year after cessation of exposure than did nonsmokers, and the risk of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and byssinosis was larger for smoking than for nonsmoking male cotton workers. Conclusions: Cessation of textile work was significantly associated with improvement in lung function and respiratory symptoms. The positive effect of work cessation was greater for cotton workers than for silk workers. For cotton workers, the improvement in lung function loss after cessation of textile work was greater among smokers, but no differences were observed for silk workers. PMID:20339150

Shi, Jing; Hang, Jing-qing; Mehta, Amar J.; Zhang, Hong-xi; Dai, He-lian; Su, Li; Eisen, Ellen A.; Christiani, David C.

2010-01-01

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Social Science Attitudes Toward Women Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women's work outside the home has always been a controversial and value laden area of research because such work has traditionally been seen to conflict with motherhood. Women workers have therefore become a distinct area of research. From its beginnings ...

D. C. Wertz

1977-01-01

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Women Workers as Users of Computer Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of expectations, trends, and implications of growth of computer technology and its effect on women workers argues that the experience of women is different from that of men in the nature of jobs in which women are found, their training and education, home-family conflict, and discrimination. The impact on women of increasing…

Larwood, Laurie

1992-01-01

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Pulmonary function and morbidity in textile mill workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted in a large cotton textile mill in Surat City. A selected number of 278 employees were evaluated for social, anthropological and pulmonary functions. No parameters except the period of exposure to dust reduced pulmonary function; it was statistically significant in the case of vital capacity and maximum breathing capacity. Out of 23.94% pulmonary morbidity observed, the byssinosis rate was 1.62. PMID:1589254

Ray, M D; Skandhan, K P; Mehta, Y B; Chokshi, R R; Mehta, N R

1992-01-01

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UV protective textile clothing for workers exposed to natural and artificial UV radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some amounts of ultraviolet radiation are beneficial for humans but excessive exposure can cause many negative health effects to the skin and eyes and also can affect the immune system. Exposed area of skin should be covered by working clothes with low UVR transmission. It concerns both exposure to natural UV or prolonged exposure to artificial UV. This article presents some aspects of UV protective textile clothing for workers exposed to natural and artificial UV radiation. This article presents results of selected textile samples transmittances and calculated UPF and new proposed AUPF, which describes protective properties against UV of textiles. The UPF and AUPF differs substantially between each other, what is related both to the weighting factors of erythema and actinic efficiency functions and spectral range of these functions. UV protection by clothing depends on a large variety of factors, such as type of fiber, color or moisture content. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. PMID:21097351

Wolska, A; Owczarek, G; Bartkowiak, G

2010-01-01

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Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.  

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A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non-government and international organizations as well as the UN agencies are working seriously to assist them and protect their rights. PMID:21218599

Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Training of Women Instructors in Workers' Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes development and implementation of a training program for women in workers' education. The three-course program focused on teaching methodology. Benefits gained by the participants included (1) cultural appreciation, (2) cultivation of the study habit, and (3) improved teaching competence. (CH)

Solorzano, Irene Brenes

1987-01-01

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A ten-year follow-up study of cotton textile workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A follow-up study of respiratory function in cotton textile workers was performed 10 yr after the original cross-sectional study (1975 to 1985). There were 35 nonsmoking female and 31 smoking male textile workers restudied from the original group of 116. The majority of those lost to follow-up had left the industry. The prevalence of byssinosis among the female workers at the time of follow-up was 15/35 (42.9%) compared with 8/35 (22.9%) at the time of the initial study (p = 0.063). For men the byssinosis prevalence at follow-up was 16/31 (51.6%) compared with 8/31 (22.9%) at the time of the initial study (p = 0.03). Similarly, the prevalence of almost all other respiratory symptoms was significantly higher at the follow-up than at the time of the initial study. Significant across-shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were documented at both surveys. The mean annual decline in ventilatory capacity was greater than expected for both female (FVC: -0.036 +/- 0.005 L/yr; FEV1: -0.059 +/- 0.009 L/yr) and male workers (FVC: -0.059 +/- 0.008 L/yr; FEV1: -0.068 +/- 0.006 L/yr) (Mean +/- SE). The mean total airborne dust concentration measured at the time of the follow-up study was 3.95 mg/m3 with an average respirable dust concentration of 0.97 mg/m3. We conclude that continued exposure to high dust concentrations in the cotton textile industry is associated with an increasing prevalence of respiratory symptoms and progressive impairment of lung function. The increase in respiratory impairment was seen both in smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:1990943

Zuskin, E; Ivankovic, D; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J

1991-02-01

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Byssinosis and other respiratory disorders among textile mill workers in Bahr Dar northwest Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms were studied among 433 workers who were occupationally exposed to cotton dust in Bahr Dar Textile Mill. One-hundred-one nonexposed workers living in the same geographical area were included as controls. All of the subjects completed the British Medical Research Council Questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were administered on a vitalograph spirometer before starting the shift for all subjects, and after at least four hours of exposure for exposed subjects. Among the cotton dust exposed workers, byssinotics behaved distinctly and showed the maximum acute and chronic changes in pulmonary functions. The overall prevalence of byssinosis was 45.5%. The highest prevalence was found in carding (57.9%) and in ring frame (57.1%) operatives and the lowest in weaving preparatory section (32.1%). Unlike bronchial asthma, chronic cough and chronic bronchitis were significantly higher (p byssinosis and other respiratory disorders. PMID:7895745

Abebe, Y; Seboxa, T

1995-01-01

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A study of the prevalence of acute respiratory disorders among workers in the textile industry.  

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An epidemiological study of 774 workers in seven eastern France cotton textile factories was conducted to determine the prevalence of acute respiratory disorders. From nine non-textile companies, 464 workers, stratified as to sex, age and tobacco consumption participated in the study as a control population. A questionnaire designed to elicit the respiratory symptoms (in particular the Monday tightness characterizing byssinosis) was administered to the 1238 workers. Peak-expiratory-flow (PEF) measurement was made for each subject, exposed and non-exposed, before the start of the shift on the day of the worker's return to work and repeated at the end of the shift. The PEF's variations during the workshift were studied. Present Monday tightness was mentioned by 48 cotton exposed workers (6.2%) and by 9 non-exposed (1.9%) (P less than 0.001). A 10% decrease in PEF during the shift was present in 63 cotton exposed workers (8.1%) and in 10 non-exposed (2.1%) (P less than 0.001). For the exposed population, Monday tightness was analysed using multiple logistic regression, showing an absence of a link with smoking, an increased occurrence after 20 years of exposure (OR = 7.3) and a link with current job (more frequent among those with the dustiest jobs) (OR = 4.9). The multiple logistic analysis of a 10% decrease in PEF showed effects of smoking habits (OR = 1.86). It also showed a link with "highly polluted job" history (OR = 2.7), but especially with present job (OR = 3.4). The absence of a constant link between Monday tightness and drop of the PEF was found. PMID:1856010

Massin, N; Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Meyer-Bisch, C; Mur, J M

1991-01-01

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WOMEN FACTORY WORKERS AND HOUSING CHOICE Case study: The experience of women factory workers in SIER Surabaya  

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Full Text Available This paper give the contribution to the characteristic of women factory workers in housing choice. The phenomena about women factory workers have low affordability in housing, was explored again by life story research approach. With qualitative methods, it was found that the cheap price is not the key factors that influincing them in housing choice. But their characteristic as young workers, migrant workers, and women workers showed the essential factors in housing choice.

Lilianny Sigit Arifin

2000-01-01

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Respiratory disorders and atopy in cotton, wool, and other textile mill workers in Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study of respiratory disorders and atopy in Danish textile industry workers was conducted to survey respiratory symptoms throughout the textile industry, to estimate the association of these disorders with atopy, and to study dose-response relationships within the cotton industry. Workers at cotton mills, a wool mill, and a man-made fiber (MMF) mill were examined. Four hundred nine (90%) of the 445 workers participated in this survey, i.e., 253, 62, and 94 workers at the cotton mills, the wool mill, and the MMF mill, respectively. An interview designed to assess the prevalence of common respiratory and allergic symptoms was given to all workers willing to participate, and blood samples were drawn. Lung function measurements determined a baseline FEV1, FVC and the change in FEV1 and FVC during work hours on a Monday. The working environment was examined for dust, bacteria, endotoxins, and molds, and the exposure was estimated for each participant. The mean personal samples of airborne respirable dust and respirable endotoxin were highest in the cotton industry, i.e., 0.17-0.50 mg/m3 and 9.0-126 ng/m3 respectively, whereas mold spores were found in the highest concentrations in the wool mill: 280-791 colony-forming units (cfu)/m3. Only small concentrations of microorganisms were found in the MMF mill. The mean change in FEV1% and FVC% was greatest among atopic individuals in both cotton and wool industry and other textile industries although the differences were not significant. FEV1% and FVC% in the cotton workers were significantly associated with the cumulative exposure to respirable endotoxin. Byssinosis was diagnosed only in the cotton industry. We found a dose-response relationship between endotoxin exposure and byssinosis, and a significant association between A-1-A serum concentrations less than or equal to 35 mumol/liter and byssinosis, a finding we are further evaluating in subsequent studies. PMID:1415284

Sigsgaard, T; Pedersen, O F; Juul, S; Gravesen, S

1992-01-01

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Longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in cotton textile workers. A 15-yr follow-up study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the chronic effects of exposure to cotton dust, a 15-yr follow-up study in cotton textile workers was performed in Shanghai, China from 1981 to 1996. Testing occurred four times during the 15-yr period. The achieved follow-up rates were 76-88% of the original 447 cotton textile workers, and 70-85% of the original 472 silk textile workers (as a control group). Identical questionnaires, equipment, and methods were used throughout the study. The prevalence of byssinosis increased over time in cotton workers, with 15.3% at the last survey versus 7.6% at the baseline, whereas no byssinosis was found in silk workers. More workers in the cotton group consistently reported symptoms than in the silk group, although symptom reporting varied considerably from survey to survey. Cotton workers had small, but significantly greater, adjusted annual declines in FEV(1) and FVC than did the silk workers. Years worked in cotton mills, high level of exposure to endotoxin, and across-shift drops in FEV(1) were found to be significant determinants for longitudinal change in FEV(1), after controlling for appropriate confounders. Furthermore, there were statistically significant associations between excessive loss of FEV(1) and byssinosis, chest tightness at work, and chronic bronchitis in cotton workers. Workers who consistently (three or four of the surveys) reported byssinosis or chest tightness at work had a significantly greater 15-yr loss of FEV(1). We conclude that long-term exposure to cotton dust is associated with chronic or permanent obstructive impairments. Consistent reporting of respiratory symptoms, including byssinosis and chest tightness at work, is of value to predict the magnitude and severity of chronic impairments in textile workers. PMID:11282755

Christiani, D C; Wang, X R; Pan, L D; Zhang, H X; Sun, B X; Dai, H; Eisen, E A; Wegman, D H; Olenchock, S A

2001-03-01

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A probabilistic approach to quantitatively assess the inhalation risk for airborne endotoxin in cotton textile workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is a proinflammatory agent that induces local and systemic inflammatory responses in normal subjects which can contribute to the risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive lung diseases. A probabilistic approach linking models of exposure, internal dosimetry, and health effects were carried out to quantitatively assess the potential inhalation risk of airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants. Combining empirical data and modeling results, we show that the half-maximum effects of the endotoxin dose (ED50) were estimated to be 3.3 x 10{sup 5} (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-14.7 x 10{sup 5}) endotoxin units (EU) for the blood C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, 1.1 x 10{sup 5} (95% CI: 0.6-1.7 x 10{sup 5}) EU for the blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count, and 1.5 x 10{sup 5} (95% CI: 0.4-2.5 x 10{sup 5}) EU for the sputum PMN count. Our study offers a risk-management framework for discussing future establishment of limits for respiratory exposure to airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants.

Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan, E-mail: vivianliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wei-Chun; Chio, Chia-Pin; Ju, Yun-Ru; Liao, Chung-Min [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2010-05-15

29

A probabilistic approach to quantitatively assess the inhalation risk for airborne endotoxin in cotton textile workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is a proinflammatory agent that induces local and systemic inflammatory responses in normal subjects which can contribute to the risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive lung diseases. A probabilistic approach linking models of exposure, internal dosimetry, and health effects were carried out to quantitatively assess the potential inhalation risk of airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants. Combining empirical data and modeling results, we show that the half-maximum effects of the endotoxin dose (ED50) were estimated to be 3.3 x 105 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-14.7 x 105) endotoxin units (EU) for the blood C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, 1.1 x 105 (95% CI: 0.6-1.7 x 105) EU for the blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count, and 1.5 x 105 (95% CI: 0.4-2.5 x 105) EU for the sputum PMN count. Our study offers a risk-management framework for discussing future establishment of limits for respiratory exposure to airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants.

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Cause-specific mortality in a Chinese chrysotile textile worker cohort.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chrysotile asbestos has continued to be mined and used in China, but its health effects on exposed workers have not been well documented. This study was conducted to give a complete picture about cause-specific mortality in Chinese asbestos workers. A cohort of 586 males and 279 females from a chrysotile textile factory were prospectively followed for 37 years. Their vital status was identified, and the date and underlying cause of death were verified from death registry. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios by gender were computed with nationwide gender- and cause-specific mortality rates as reference. Male workers were 11 years older, and had 6 years longer exposure duration than females; 79% in males and 1% in females smoked. In males, the mortality rate of all cancers doubled; both larynx and lung cancer were four-fold, and mesothelioma was 33-fold. In females, there was slightly excess mortality from lung cancer and all cancers, and significant increase in mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. Other significantly increased mortality was seen from cancers of thymus, small intestine and penis in males, and cancers of bone and bladder in females. In addition to asbestosis, mortality from pulmonary heart disease was significantly elevated in both genders. The data confirmed significantly excess mortality from mesothelioma in either gender, lung and larynx cancers in males, and ovarian cancer in females. A gender difference in mortality from lung cancer and all cancers could be mainly due to the discrepancies in age, exposure duration and smoking between the male and female workers. PMID:23121131

Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius; Qiu, Hong; Lan, Yajia; Yano, Eiji

2013-02-01

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Attitude of the healthcare workers to violence against women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Violence against women is a common social problem. Gender inequality is origin of the violence against women. Health workers have responsibilities in supplying medical care, support and counseling to the mistreated of the violence. This descriptive study was planned for the purpose to determine attitude of the healthcare workers to violence against women. Material and Methods: In this research, 94 healthcare workers from seven different types of hospital (4 public hospitals, 2 private hospitals, one university hospital in ?stanbul have been contacted. Data were collected with a 34 item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Percentage was used in the data analysis. Results: According to the research findings even 95.7% of the healthcare workers had indicated that the violence against the women is only “harmfull physical action against the women”. “What is the basis of violence against the women?” had been answered by 59.5% of the same healthcare workers as “This is due to the patriarchal society we live in.” Scary answer was that 61.7% of the same healthcare workers agreed that “to attempt to rape is women’s provocation” as is the general belief in society. Conclusion: It can be said that the approach of the healthcare workers is similar with the view and attitude related to women’s sexual role expectancy which is internalized by traditional cultures of Turks.

Rojin Mamuk

2010-01-01

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A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and awareness about mode of transmission of HIV. This cross-sectional study of 250 textile workers reveal that 76.4% worker know that HIV can be transmitted by unsafe sexual route while 43.2% of workers does not know that HIV can be spread through reused injections. 43 worker currently had extra marital or premarital sexual relations and among them 48.8% had used condom during last such intercourse.

Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara, Sarita Mangukiya, Vimalkumar Tailor

2010-12-01

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Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. AIM: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhiniti [...] s in workers exposed to cotton dust. METHOD: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. RESULTS: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. DISCUSSION: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

Ivan de Picoli, Dantas; Fabiana Cardoso Pereira, Valera; Carlos Eduardo Monteiro, Zappelini; Wilma Terezinha, Anselmo-Lim.

2013-03-01

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Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. AIM: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhiniti [...] s in workers exposed to cotton dust. METHOD: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. RESULTS: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. DISCUSSION: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

Ivan de Picoli, Dantas; Fabiana Cardoso Pereira, Valera; Carlos Eduardo Monteiro, Zappelini; Wilma Terezinha, Anselmo-Lim.

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Prevalence and burden of primary headache in Akaki textile mill workers, Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Headache disorders are the most common complaints worldwide. Migraine, tension-type and cluster headaches account for majority of primary headaches and impose a substantial burden on the individual, family or society at large. The burden is immense on workers, women and children in terms of missing work and school days. There are few studies that show relatively lower prevalence of primary headaches in Africa as compared to Europe and America. There might be many reasons for this lower preval...

Takele, Getahun Mengistu; Tekle Haimanot, Redda; Martelletti, Paolo

2008-01-01

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A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and...

Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara

2010-01-01

37

Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls). Self-reported data from workers and document review from factories clinics were used to ascertain occupational injury status within one-year period. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level significance. Results. Young age (job stress (AOR 2.25, 95% CI (1.15, 4.41)) were significant predictors of occupation injury. Conclusion. Lack of training, sleeping disturbance, and job stress increased the risk of occupational injury. So, providing basic health and safety training with special emphasis on younger and male workers, reducing stressors, and providing sleep health education were recommended. PMID:22174723

Aderaw, Zewdie; Engdaw, Dagnew; Tadesse, Takele

2011-01-01

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WOMEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN GULBARGA: A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women are playing significant role in agricultural work and processes and more than half of the working population in agriculture are women. But, they are facing many problems such as exploitation from employers, no security for work and job, seasonal employment, lower wages, wage discrimination, etc. A sample survey of 142 women agricultural workers working in Gulbarga taluka in Karnataka was made with interview technique. The social aspects to a greater extent depends on work life of the women agricultural workers. It was concluded that there is need for social security schemes for women agricultural workers and self-employment is also suggested for these workers during offseasons. It is also suggested to increase awareness among people on gender equality

Udayakumar. Rawoorkar

2014-03-01

39

Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile based cottage industries: an empirical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8< dB (A), which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems. (author)

40

Workplace Control: Women and Minority Workers in America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the effects of gender and race on American workers’ workplace control. Scholarship on gender, work, and occupation states that gender and race are important predictors of the extent of control workers exercise in workplaces. Literature also posits that job satisfaction and work-family conflict also contribute substantially to workers’ workplace control. However, there exists hardly any empirical study that explores the impacts of gender, race, job satisfaction and work-family conflict altogether on their workplace control. That is what we accomplished in this study. Obtaining data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW, we ask: 1 Do women and men workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? 2 Do non-white and white workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? And 3 Do gender and race of the workers influence their workplace control when job satisfaction and work-family conflict are considered? Analyses are based on quantitative methods. Results show that women perceive to have less control over their workplace as compared to men. Moreover, job satisfaction is a more significant predictor of their workplace control than work-family spillover.

Dina Banerjee

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Role of Women Workers at Dairy Farms in Banyumas District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dairy farm is one of promising to increase the household income. Dairy farm generally involve all the household members. The research was aimed to: 1 know contribution of work duration of women woker to the total duration of work in dairy farm; 2 identify contribution of women income to the total income of dairy farm; 3 determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income of dairy farm. Three sub districts were taken as area sample using purposive sampling method based on number of dairy farm that utilize women as worker in their farm activities. Sixty seven famers were taken as respondents is this research. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income. The result showed that: 1 contribution of working duration of women was 25,24 percent; 2 contribution of income of women was Rp 2,762,755.96: and 3 partially, contribution of income of women was influenced by farm scale and dependency ratio. In conclusion, women wokers have contribution on the total duration of work and income; and dairy farm scale and Dependency Ratio influencing contribution of women income. (Animal Production 11(1: 40-47 (2009 Key Words: dairy farm, duration of work, income, role of women

S Mastuti

2009-01-01

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Mesotheliomas and asbestos type in asbestos textile workers: a study of lung contents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The asbestos contents of the lungs of former employees of an asbestos textile factory were determined at necropsy using a transmission electron microscope. Those who had died of mesothelioma were compared with a matched sample of those who had died of other causes. The predominant fibre processed in the factory was chrysotile, but crocidolite had also been used. The lung content was consistent with the known exposure to chrysotile, but the crocidolite content was also high, being about 300 ti...

Wagner, J. C.; Berry, G.; Pooley, F. D.

1982-01-01

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Byssinosis and tuberculosis among textile mill workers in Bahar Dar, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1991 on 433 workers of a cotton mill in Bahar Dar, northern Ethiopia. The study consisted of symptom evaluation using a standardized questionnaire, lung function tests, chest x-ray, and measurement of dust concentration in the various work areas. A hundred non-exposed hospital workers were included as control group. The overall prevalence of byssinosis among the exposed subjects was 45.5%, being highest among carding (57.9%) and ring frame workers (57.1%). Lower prevalences were found in weavers (36.7%) and those working in the preparatory unit (32.1%). Chronic bronchitis occurred in 48.8% of workers in the carding section, and in none of the control group. Bronchial asthma occurred in 11.5% of workers in the carding and ring frame sections, and in 28.6% of the workers in the waste section. Twelve per cent of the control group had bronchial asthma. Tuberculosis was prevalent in 5.3% of the mill workers and in 2.1% of the control group. Ventilatory capacity (FEV1 and FVC) was significantly reduced in the exposed workers (p byssinosis and other respiratory disorders was extremely high among the cotton mill workers. In view of the above findings preventive measures deserve a high priority. PMID:7941012

Seboxa, T; Abebe, Y

1994-01-01

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Why Workers Switch Industry? The Case of Textile Industry of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify core reasons for employee’s turnover. The study is descriptive and cross-sectional. Twenty turnover intentions are identified from the literature and a questionnaire is designed on 5 point likert-scale for data collection. A sample of 160 respondents has been randomly selected from the textile industry of Pakistan. The data has been analyzed through one sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. The study reveals the most prominent factors responsible for employees’ intentions to leave and offer practitioners and researchers some practical recommendations to retain the workforce.

Madiha Rehman Farooqui

2013-01-01

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Women employed in textile sector in Turkey and their problems: (Istanbul-Adana-Denizli-Sivas and Tekirda? Province samples  

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Full Text Available Purpose of the study is to determine the problems of women working in textile factories as parallel to the characteristics of female labor in Turkey and the factors affecting these problems. With this purpose, 564 women working in textile factories in Istanbul, Adana, Denizli, Tekirda? and Sivas provinces were included in the study. It was determined according to the results obtained that factors affecting the problems women encounter in working life in a statistically significant way (P>0,25 are monthly income of the family, form of the family, number of members of the household, quality of the intra-family relationships, daily working hours, job satisfaction, relationships of the employee with managers and way of making decisions inside the family, respectively.

Sezer Ayan

2011-01-01

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La situacin de la mujer trabajadora en Tucumn en los aos setenta: el caso de las obreras de la industria textil / The situation of the woman worker in Tucumn in the seventies: the case of the workers of the textile industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La finalidad de este trabajo es analizar la situacin laboral de las trabajadoras de los sectores populares, haciendo hincapi en la industria textil, dentro de un marco de crisis ocupacional, en los aos setenta. Se busca saber como, a raz de diversos factores (familiares, emocionales y sociales), la [...] mujer tucumana sali a trabajar y en muchos casos lleg a ser el sostn y nica fuente de ingresos del grupo familiar. Este ser el punto de partida para esta investigacin que permitir un acercamiento al conocimiento de la situacin laboral femenina. Nuestro planteo surge de la afirmacin que la transformacin del mercado laboral impuls la incorporacin de mano de obra femenina en el sector industrial. Este nuevo rol de proveedoras del hogar, en algunos casos el nico, signific una transformacin en su subjetividad que en algunas no es aceptado como tal. Adems, se indagar sobre las estrategias intra y extra domsticas femeninas que caracteriza la doble jornada de trabajo. Cabe aclarar que este anlisis fue abordado desde la perspectiva de Gnero e Historia Oral. Las mujeres tienen una doble jornada de trabajo que para algunos autores esta denominacin es concebida como trabajo extra domestico e intra domestico. Partiendo de estos conceptos se indagar sobre las diversas estrategias realizadas por las trabajadoras de la industria textil. Estas mujeres de una u otra manera han buscado diferentes estrategias para lograr combinar el trabajo extra e intra domstico, siempre buscando el bienestar de su familia y sobre todo, en el caso de las casadas de sus hijos. Para la realizacin de este trabajo se utilizaron fuentes orales (entrevistas semistructuradas), datos estadsticos y material bibliogrfico pertinente al tema. Abstract in english The purpose of this work is to analyze the labor situation of the workers of the popular sectors, insisting on the textile industry, within a frame of occupational crisis, in the Seventies. One looks for to know like, as a result of diverse factors (familiar, emotional and social), the tucumana woma [...] n left to work and in many cases she got to be the support and only source of income of the familiar group. This it will be the departure point for this investigation that will allow an approach to the knowledge of the feminine labor situation. Ours I raise arises from the affirmation that the transformation of the labor market impelled the incorporation of feminine manual labor in the industrial sector. This new roll of suppliers of the home, in some cases the only one, meant a transformation in its subjectivity that in some is not accepted like so. In addition, one will investigate on the feminine domestic strategies intra and extra that the double day of work characterizes. It is possible to clarify that this analysis was boarded from the perspective of Gender and Oral History. The women have one double day of work that stops some authors this denomination is conceived like extra work domestic servant and intra domestic servant. Starting off of these concepts she will investigate herself on the diverse strategies made by the workers of the textile industry. These women of one or another way have looked for different strategies to manage to combine domestic the extra work and intra, always looking for the well-being of their family and mainly, in the case of the married ones of their children. For the accomplishment of this work oral sources were used (semistructuradas interviews), statistical data and pertinent bibliographical material to the subject.

Noem Liliana, Soraire.

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Mesotheliomas and asbestos type in asbestos textile workers: a study of lung contents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The asbestos contents of the lungs of former employees of an asbestos textile factory were determined at necropsy using a transmission electron microscope. Those who had died of mesothelioma were compared with a matched sample of those who had died of other causes. The predominant fibre processed in the factory was chrysotile, but crocidolite had also been used. The lung content was consistent with the known exposure to chrysotile, but the crocidolite content was also high, being about 300 times that of the general population of the United Kingdom. The lungs of those with mesothelioma did not contain more of either chrysotile or crocidolite than the lungs of the controls, so no particular type of asbestos could be implicated in causing the mesotheliomas. The evidence of substantial exposure to crocidolite means that the mesotheliomas that occurred in this factory could not be attributed with any certainty to the exposure to chrysotile.

Wagner, J.C.; Berry, G.; Pooley, F.D.

1982-08-28

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Additive effect of smoking and cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of cotton textile workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and sixty-nine and 175 cotton textile workers (CTWs) were enrolled in the first (1991) and second (1996) surveys to investigate the prevalence of byssinosis. The synergistic effect of smoking on cotton dust exposure was also evaluated. Although the difference in prevalence of abnormal pulmonary function between the first (38.5%) and second study (38.9%) was not statistically significant, smokers had significantly higher frequency than nonsmokers in both surveys. A significant trend existed between the cotton dust levels and the frequency of abnormal lung function. The significant trend was also noted in both smokers and nonsmokers. The frequency of respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of severe byssinosis in the second survey (14.9% and 12.6%, respectively) were significantly lower than that in the first survey (39.7% and 21.9%, respectively). The reduction of symptoms was due to remodeling of this old cotton mill. The prevalences of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis in smokers being significantly higher than in nonsmokers only found in the first survey, but not found in the second survey. These results indicate that smoking potentiates the effect of cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and byssinosis. The second study reveals high prevalence of byssinosis still existed in Taiwanese cotton mill, although the prevalence was declining. Smoking was found to show an additive effect on cotton dust exposure. Anti-smoking campaign, occupational health program to reduce the dust exposure, and periodical medical examination are measures to prevent from byssinosis. PMID:12725471

Su, Yih-Ming; Su, Jenn-Rong; Sheu, Jia-Yih; Loh, Ching-Hui; Liou, Saou-Hsing

2003-04-01

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The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective. PMID:12347718

Hale, A

1996-10-01

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Cotton dust and endotoxin exposure-response relationships in cotton textile workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endotoxin exposure has been implicated in the etiology of lung disease in cotton workers. We investigated this potential relationship in 443 cotton workers from 2 factories in Shanghai and 439 control subjects from a nearby silk mill. A respiratory questionnaire was administered and pre- and postshift forced expiratory volume (FVC) and flow in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker. Multiple area air samples were analyzed for total elutriated dust concentration (range: 0.15 to 2.5 mg/m3) and endotoxin (range: 0.002 to 0.55 microgram U.S. Reference Endotoxin/m3). The cotton worker population was stratified by current and cumulative dust or endotoxin exposure. Groups were compared for FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC%, % change in FEV1 over the shift (delta FEV1%), and prevalences of chronic bronchitis and byssinosis, and linear and logistic regression models were constructed. No dose-response relationships were demonstrated comparing dust concentration to any pulmonary function or symptom variable. A dose-response trend was seen with the current endotoxin level and FEV1, delta FEV1%, and the prevalence of byssinosis and chronic bronchitis, except for the highest exposure level group in which a reversal of the trend was seen. The regression coefficients for current endotoxin exposure were significant (p less than 0.05) in the models for FEV1 and chronic bronchitis but not in the models for delta FEV1% (i.e., acute change in FEV1) or byssinosis prevalence. The coefficient for dust level was never significant in the models.

Kennedy, S.M.; Christiani, D.C.; Eisen, E.A.; Wegman, D.H.; Greaves, I.A.; Olenchock, S.A.; Ye, T.T.; Lu, P.L.

1987-01-01

51

Garment workers in California: health outcomes of the Asian Immigrant Women Workers Clinic.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this cross sectional descriptive study, the demographics, risk factors, and health outcomes of a volunteer, symptomatic sample of monolingual Cantonese garment workers in the Oakland, California Chinatown area are documented. Methods included a questionnaire and clinical examination and treatment at the Asian Immigrant Women Workers Clinic, a free clinic providing culturally focused occupational health consultation and treatment for painful musculoskeletal disorders. Because garment work involves highly repetitious, sustained awkward postures, focused education on stretching and ergonomics also was provided. Results from the first 100 clients revealed a highly symptomatic sample, with an average age of 48.7 years. Sixty-six percent rated their health status as fair or poor. Sixteen percent of the sample had nerve entrapments, and 99% had a diagnosed strain or sprain of the spine or upper extremities. This population did not file workers' compensation claims because of a lack of knowledge and a fear of reprisal. This study documented the barriers to seeking care for this low wage, immigrant population. PMID:15587459

Burgel, Barbara J; Lashuay, Nan; Israel, Leslie; Harrison, Robert

2004-11-01

52

The Struggles of Women Industrial Workers To Improve Work Conditions in the Progressive Era.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offers a lesson plan that addresses the working conditions endured by women in the Progressive Era and their struggles for womens rights in the workplace. Strives to demonstrate the similarities between the plights of the Progressive Era women to those of women workers in the 1990s. (CMK)

Barrett, Nancy J.

1999-01-01

53

An Effective HIV Risk Reduction Protocol for Drug-Using Women Sex Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV prevention is an especially salient issue for women, given the ongoing feminization of the epidemic. Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who are drug-using and engage in street-based sex exchange. This paper examines risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using women sex workers in Miami, Florida, and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were r...

Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.

2010-01-01

54

Efeito da exposição prolongada a ruído ocupacional na função respiratória de trabalhadores da indústria têxtil / Effects of long term exposure to occupational noise on textile industry workers' lung function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo procurou detectar eventuais alterações da função respiratória em 28 operárias de uma fábrica de fiação, submetidas a uma exposição prolongada ao ruído (> 10 anos) com amplitude elevada e baixa frequência, susceptível de causar doença vibro-acústica (DVA). Foram realizados testes da [...] função respiratória, incluindo espirometria, oscilometria de impulso e estudo da Capacidade de difusão alvéolo-capilar pelo CO. Os resultados foram comparados com os de outra população de igual número de mulheres, do mesmo grupo etário, consideradas normais no aspecto respiratório, com cargos administrativos, não sujeitas a agressão acústica detectável. Realizou-se um estudo estatístico dos resultados obtidos comparando as duas populações, tendo sido calculado para cada um dos parâmetros, escolhidos a partir do estudo funcional respiratório, os valores médios, o desvio-padrão e o grau de significância (p Abstract in english Vibroacoustic disease is a pathology caused by long occupational exposure to large pressure amplitude and low frequency noise. It is a systemic disease, with evolvement of respiratory structures. The exposure workers to this noise of textile industry may favour alterations in lung function. We studi [...] ed 28 women working more than ten years in cotton-mill rooms to evaluate their lung function, including Spirometry, forced oscillation technique (I.O.S.) and Diffusion capacity. These results were compared with those of 30 women of similar ages not exposed to similar noise and not presenting respiratory disease. Statistical significance (p

António Paes, Cardoso; Maria João R., Oliveira; Álvaro Moreira da, Silva; Artur P., Águas; António Sousa, Pereira.

55

Leisure Activities, Worker Motivation, and Temperament in Men and Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a follow-up to studies by McKechnie (1974) and Marano (1976), the relation of self-report questionnaire measures of worker motivation and temperament to similar measures of participation in leisure activities was explored. One sample of 72 college students was given worker motivation and temperament questionnaires. A second sample of 126…

Jaynes, W. E.

56

Comparison of the effects of N-acetyl-cysteine and ginseng in prevention of noise induced hearing loss in male textile workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies revealed the role of antioxidant agents in prevention of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The aim of this study was to compare the protective effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and ginseng on protection of NIHL in textile workers exposed to continuous noise in daily working. In this study, 48 participants were randomly allocated to three groups; Group I received NAC 1200 mg/day, Group II received ginseng 200 mg/day, and Group III (control group) received no supplement. Pure tone audiometry and high frequency audiometry were performed preshift before and after 14 days (on day 15). Linear regression analysis results showed reduced noise-induced temporary threshold shift (TTS) for NAC and ginseng groups at 4, 6 and 16 kHz (P conservation programs. PMID:25033789

Doosti, Afsaneh; Lotfi, Yones; Moossavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Hoorzad, Ahmad

2014-01-01

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Problems Of Women Workers In Unorganized Sector: A Sociological Analysis In Gulbarga City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available :Unorganized sector constitute majority of working population in India and of the workers, women are playing significant role in unorganized sector work. The unorganized sector includes different occupations such as construction, domestic servants, sales women, agricultural labourers, etc. Compared to all other sectors, the problems and challenges faced by women in unorganized sector are many. Hence, a survey was made to study the problems and challenges of women working in unorganized sector. Interview schedule was used to collect the primary data from 200 women working in construction work, 200 women working as domestic servants and 100 women agricultural labourers in Gulbarga city. The study revealed that there is lower wage for these workers. Further, it was observed that considerable number of women workers have lower status in family and society. It was suggested to revise the wage rates and ensure job security by assuring at least three years of work under single employer. It is also suggested to increase awareness of the women in unorganized sector on the legislations and security measures formulated by the Government. Self-employment training and financial assistance are also suggested to empower the women working in unorganized sector.

Hanamanthappa B. Sedamkar

2013-12-01

58

Profile of the musculoskeletal pain suffered by textile tufting workers handling thread cones according to work, age and employment duration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the relationship between some socio-professional characteristics of workers (e.g. age, actual work done, experience in the job, overall time on job market, height) carrying out thread-cone handling tasks and their musculoskeletal pain profiles. Interviews were carried out with foremen and workers, and task analysis was performed. Self-administered questionnaires on work-related pain were filled out by 114 machine operators and creelers in four carpet-manufacturing companies. Statistics on nine individual and 25 pain-symptom characteristics were compiled. For data treatment, two statistical methods complemented one another: the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC) and the Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC). Four classes of workers showing large differences one to another regarding time of employment on the job market, age, seniority in the company, and job experience were portrayed. No remarkable differences were found between the classes in relation to the proportion of workers showing body pain symptoms; it is greater than 50% in all classes (12 months). Moreover, in all classes, for several workers, the first region of pain (out of three possible) was reported as one persisting over the weekend. The group of workers from 25 to 35 years of age appears to be the one most seriously affected by musculoskeletal pain. PMID:8851074

Montreuil, S; Laflamme, L; Tellier, C

1996-01-01

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IMPACT OF BEEDI WORK ON SELF DECISION EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN BEEDI WORKERS IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT  

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The purpose of the present study was to analyze the the impact of Beedi work on Self Decision Empowerment (SDE) of women beedi workers in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. To achieve the purpose of the study, 600 women beedi workers were identified as sample evenly from 19 blocks of the district by adopting the multistage random sampling technique. Causal research design was carried out as research design for this study. The five variables of family day-to-day expenditures, going outside of...

Devi, P.; Murugan Chettiar, K.

2013-01-01

60

Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Unskilled Indian Women Construction Workers  

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Methods: Nordic musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire was adopted to identify the musculoskeletal symptoms in nine anatomical body regions. Workers exposure to risk factors continuously for a period of more than two hours at a stretch and more than two such types of work spells in a work day was considered as risk factor. Results: The risk of WRMSDs is about 4 times more among workers with greater than 20 years of work experience than those with 11-20 years and is about 2 times more in those with 1-10 years of work experience respectively. Conclusions: Education programmes on ergonomic principles must be made mandatory for to reduce the rate of WRMSDs and to promote oc-cupational health.

Neeraja Telaprolu, Bhanwar Lal, Swarochish Chekuri

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Textile Wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

Talbot, R. S.

1978-01-01

62

Experiences of sexual harassment of women health workers in four hospitals in Kolkata, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997, the Supreme Court of India recognised sexual harassment in the workplace as a violation of human rights. However, little is known about the extent or persistence of sexual harassment. To obtain an understanding of women's experiences of sexual harassment in the health sector, an exploratory study was undertaken in 2005-2006 among 135 women health workers, including doctors, nurses, health care attendants, administrative and other non-medical staff working in two government and two private hospitals in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Four types of experiences were reported by the 77 women who had experienced 128 incidents of sexual harassment: verbal harassment (41), psychological harassment (45), sexual gestures and exposure (15), and unwanted touch (27). None of the women reported rape, attempted rape or forced sex but a number of them knew of other women health workers who had experienced these. The women who had experienced harassment were reluctant to complain, fearing for their jobs or being stigmatised, and most were not aware of formal channels for redress. Experiences of sexual harassment reflected the obstacles posed by power imbalances and gender norms in empowering women to make a formal complaint, on the one hand, and receive redress on the other. PMID:17938090

Chaudhuri, Paramita

2007-11-01

63

Textile Exchange  

Science.gov (United States)

From crochet machines to the uses of acrylic yarn, the Textile Exchange website has rather fine comprehensive coverage across the nooks and crannies of the textile industry. Visitors to the homepage will find a search engine and a very thorough products directory which includes topical headings like "Textile Products", "Fibers, Yarns & Threads", and "Textile Chemicals". After looking over a few of these areas, visitors will definitely want to peruse the "Knowledge Center". Here they can learn more about fiber and textile history, and the types of weaves. One section that should not be missed is the "Textile Personalities" area. For those individuals who've been pining to learn about giants of the textile industry such as John Mercer, John Kay (who patented the flying shuttle), and Richard Roberts, this area will be quite the eye-opener.

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Plasma treatment in textile industry  

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Plasma technology applied to textiles is a dry, environmentally- and worker-friendly method to achieve surface alteration without modifying the bulk properties of different materials. In particular, atmospheric non-thermal plasmas are suited because most textile materials are heat sensitive polymers and applicable in a continuous processes. In the last years plasma technology has become a very active, high growth research field, assuming a great importance among all avail...

Zille, Andrea; Oliveira, Fernando Ribeiro; Souto, A. Pedro

2014-01-01

65

Auxetic textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common materials have Poisson's ratio values ranging from 0.0 to 0.5. Auxetic materials exhibit negative Poisson's ratio. They expand laterally when stretched longitudinally and contract laterally when compressed. In recent years the use of textile technology to fabricate auxetic materials has attracted more and more attention. It is reflected in the extent of available research work exploring the auxetic potential of various textile structures and subsequent increase in the number of research papers published. Generally there are two approaches to producing auxetic textiles. The first one includes the use of auxetic fibers to produce an auxetic textile structure, whereas the other utilizes conventional fibres to produce a textile structure with auxetic properties. This review deals with auxetic materials in general and in the specific context of auxetic polymers, auxetic fibers, and auxetic textile structures made from conventional fibers and knitted structures with auxetic potential. PMID:24362973

Rant, Darja; Rijavec, Tatjana; Pavko-?uden, Alenka

2013-01-01

66

SOLAR TEXTILES  

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Diploma work deals with the practicability of usage flat textiles for storage and transformation of solar energy. In the frame of introduction the technology for transformation of solar energy directly into electric and also the conventional solar cells’ limitations are presented. The main part presents the stage of development of textiles for producing light, flexible solar cells. The conclusion reweaves the usage of various flat textile with photovoltaics system used for clothes, interior...

Skus?ek, Petra

2010-01-01

67

Respiratory symptoms and lung function in hemp workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory symptoms and abnormalities of lung function were studied in 84 female and 27 male hemp workers employed in two textile mills (A and B) processing soft hemp (C sativa). In mill A 46 women and 27 men were investigated and 38 female workers were studied in mill B. Forty nine women and 30 men from a non-dusty industry served as controls. A significantly higher prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was found in female hemp workers when compared to control workers. Among the men these differences were significant for nasal catarrh and sinusitis. A high prevalence of byssinosis was found among female hemp workers in both mills (group A, 47.8%; group B, 57.9%) as well as in the male workers (66.7%). Statistically significant across shift reductions in lung function were found for all ventilatory capacity measurements in female and male hemp workers varying from 7.1% for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to 15.1% for flow rates at 50% vital capacity (FEF50). Measured Monday baseline values before the work shift were significantly lower than expected for hemp workers, being particularly reduced for FEF25 and FEF50. The data suggest that occupational exposure to hemp dust is a significant risk factor for the development of acute and chronic lung disease in workers employed in this textile industry. PMID:2207034

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Pokrajac, D; Schachter, E N; Witek, T J

1990-09-01

68

Trichomonas vaginalis is highly prevalent in adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia  

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OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Trichomonas sp. infection among adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia. METHODS:: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 girls attending school, 307 pregnant women, and 197 commercial sex workers. Self-collected specimens from the vagina, rectum, and mouth were tested by polymerase chain amplification assays for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and T...

Crucitti, T.; Jespers, V.; Mulenga, C.; Khondowe, S.; Vandepitte, J.; Buve?, A.

2010-01-01

69

"He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370

Cash, K

1993-01-01

70

Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil / Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil / Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. [...] Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalho Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cin [...] co madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajo Abstract in english This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, fro [...] m a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work

Ana Márcia Bustamante de, Morais; Márcia Maria Tavares, Machado; Priscila de Souza, Aquino; Maria Irismar de, Almeida.

71

Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil / Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil / Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. [...] Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalho Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cin [...] co madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajo Abstract in english This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, fro [...] m a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work

Ana Márcia Bustamante de, Morais; Márcia Maria Tavares, Machado; Priscila de Souza, Aquino; Maria Irismar de, Almeida.

2011-02-01

72

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders at Two Textile Factories in Edirne, Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: “Work-related musculoskeletal disorders” (WMSDs) is a term used to describe a painful or disabling injury to the muscles, tendons or nerves caused or aggravated by work. WMSDs are preventable or at least can be delayed. The aim of this study to determine the work related musculo-skeletal disorders and risk levels of the these factory workers. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at two textile factories in Edirne, Turkey and it involved 381 workers. The questionnaire used for data collection consisted of two parts. The first part described some socio-demographic features, working conditions and health problems of workers in the previous four weeks. In the second part, a Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) Employer Assessment worksheet was used. Results: In the assessment of the upper limbs of the workers, the arm/wrist score (AWS) is 5.9±1.7 (3–11); neck, trunk, legs score (NTLS) is 5.3±2.5 (3–11); and total score (TS) is 5.5±1.3 (3–7). The ages of the workers are significantly associated with higher RULA scores (r=0.207, p=0.000). AWS, NTLS and TS of the women workers were found to be statistically significantly lower than for the men. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders are a common problem among textile workers. Employers can prevent WMSD hazards by properly designing the jobs or workstations and selecting the appropriate tools or equipment.

Berberoglu, Ufuk; Tokuc, Burcu

2013-01-01

73

Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect. PMID:22316902

Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

2012-01-01

74

Determinants of the Use of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women Workers in Urban Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThis case-control study aimed to determine critical factors influencing the use of clinical breast examination and mammography among women workers in Monterrey, Mexico.MethodsWe determined case and control status from survey results. Cases were defined in accordance with the guidelines of the Official Mexican Standard as lack of at least one clinical breast examination during the past year by surveyed women. For women older than 40 years, cases were further defined as lack of at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years and, for women older than 50, lack of a mammogram in the previous year. Controls were defined as adherence by surveyed women to these guidelines. Participants (N = 306 clerks aged 18–60 provided information about their practices, knowledge, and perceptions regarding breast cancer screening. Factors identified by odds ratio analysis as significantly different between cases and controls were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.ResultsSurvey participants’ knowledge about the utility of breast self-examination (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–33.9, perception that the health care system has enough equipment and personnel for clinical breast examination (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–13.2, and perception that they have enough time to wait for and receive clinical breast examinations (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–5.8 significantly predisposed women to use screening services independent of years of formal education, number of pregnancies, number of living children, hours worked per week, and monthly family income.ConclusionPerception of organizational and structural factors played a significant role in screening use. Our findings have implications for the general population, provider practices, community interventions, and future development of strategies to increase use of screening services in similar locales.

Sergio R. Sánchez-Peña, PhD

2008-04-01

75

Male and female employment in the textile industry in relation to miscarriage and preterm delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

To address potential reproductive hazards in textile manufacturing, we conducted a community-based case-control study in central North Carolina. Miscarriage cases were identified from medical records (280 interviewed cases): preterm delivery cases and term, normal birth weight controls (454 and 605, respectively) were identified from area hospitals. Exposures were based on job title, an interview concerning textile-related exposures, expert imputation of exposure based on job titles and interviews, and self-reported exposures by women. Relative to women and men working in nonhazardous occupations, workers in the textile industry were not at increased risk of miscarriage or preterm delivery, with the possible exception of preterm delivery among women and men employed in sectors other than knitting and yarn mills and men employed in yarn mills. Inferred exposures to specific agents were also not associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Subject to uncertainty in exposure assessment and nonresponse, these data indicate an absence of adverse effects of the textile workplace environment on these pregnancy outcomes. PMID:8876799

Savitz, D A; Brett, K M; Baird, N J; Tse, C K

1996-09-01

76

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

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Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers fro...

Shamsuddin K; Rashidah S; Hl, Chee; Intan O

2003-01-01

77

Puppets on a string: women's wage work and empowerment among female tea plantation workers of Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to resources and control of ones' income are key features of women's empowerment. The current development strategy is to create opportunities for poor women in developing countries. Because access to income alone does not ensure empowerment, this study examines sociopolitical factors among the Indian Tamil female tea plantation workers in Sri Lanka that impact women's ability to control their own income. 95% of the female Indian Tamil Plantation work force is devoted to the tea industry. Female labor force participation among the Indian Tamil was 54.3% in 1981 compared to total female labor force participation of 26%. The survey encompassed a sample of 420 female and 40 male unskilled workers of 22 large plantations in Nuwara Eliya district, which were managed by government corporations. Variables pertained to income levels, control of income within households, work schedules, household demographics, food habits and within household food allocation patterns, health status and health delivery system, and management structures. Results focused on control incomes, maternity benefits, the double burden for women, women's health and nutrition, female education, and trade unions and male dominance. Although women have increased their wage rate and work hours, there has not been a corresponding increase in women's ability to control their incomes. there remains a male dominated social and political system, which continues to entrap women as a productive resource. One way in which women's empowerment has been stalled has been through the control of women's income and labor, and male dominance both at work and home. Successful schemes for women's empowerment are demonstrated in the Self Employed Women's Association, Working Women's Forum of India, and the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh. PMID:12286574

Samarasinghe, V

1993-04-01

78

Work organization and health among immigrant women: latina manual workers in north Carolina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. We sought to describe work organization attributes for employed immigrant Latinas and determine associations of work organization with physical health, mental health, and health-related quality of life. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 319 employed Latinas in western North Carolina (2009-2011). Measures included job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, psychological demand), decision latitude (skill variety, job control), support (supervisor control, safety climate), musculoskeletal symptoms, mental health (depressive symptoms), and mental (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) health-related quality of life. Results. Three fifths reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean scores for depression, MCS, and PCS were 6.2 (SE?=?0.2), 38.3 (SE?=?0.5), and 42.8 (SE?=?0.3), respectively. Greater job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, greater psychological demand) were associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms and worse MCS. Less decision latitude (lower skill variety, job control) was associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms. Greater support (supervisor's power and safety climate) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better MCS. Conclusions. Work organization should be considered to improve occupational health of vulnerable women workers. Additional research should delineate the links between work organization and health among vulnerable workers. PMID:24432938

Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C; Quandt, Sara A

2014-12-01

79

Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

2009-01-01

80

EU ECOLABEL FOR TEXTILES  

EU ECOLABEL FOR TEXTILES AND BED MATTRESSES ...improvements have been made to the criteria proposed for textiles, taking into account some of the ...so that NGOs can endorse the proposals for textiles and bed mattresses.

 
 
 
 
81

Avaliação do risco ergonômico em trabalhadores da indústria têxtil por dois instrumentos: quick exposure check e job factors questionnaire / Ergonomic risk assessment in textile industry workers by two instruments: quick exposure check and job factors questionnaire / Evaluación del riesgo ergonómico en trabajadores de la industria textil con dos instrumentos: quick exposure check y job factors questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise dos fatores de risco ergonômicos presentes em indústrias têxteis auxilia no planejamento de estratégias que contribuem para a melhora das condições de trabalho e redução dos distúrbios osteomusculares. Este estudo se propôs a mensurar os níveis de exposição aos fatores de risco ergonômicos [...] em trabalhadores de dois setores de produção de uma indústria têxtil. Para tanto, os instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) e o Quick Exposure Check (QEC) foram aplicados em 107 trabalhadores. Os resultados foram analisados por estatística descritiva. O teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparação dos resultados obtidos entre os setores de produção. O diagnóstico do nível de exposição ao risco ergonômico, obtido por ambos os instrumentos, foi moderado. Os fatores de risco considerados pelo JFQ como mais criticos estão relacionados à temperatura ambiental; postura mantida em longos períodos de tempo; posturas inadequadas para coluna e continuar trabalhando quando está com alguma dor ou com alguma lesão. O QEC identificou as regiões de coluna lombar e punhos/mãos como expostas ao alto risco. Não houveram diferenças estatisticamente significante entre os setores. Abstract in spanish El análisis de los factores de riesgo ergonómicos presentes en industrias textiles ayuda al planeamiento de estrategias que contribuyen a la mejora de las condiciones de trabajo y reducción de los trastornos osteomusculares. Este estudio se propuso medir los niveles de exposición a los factores de r [...] iesgo ergonómicos en trabajadores de dos sectores de producción de una industria textil. Para ello, los instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) y el Quick Exposure Check (QEC) fueron aplicados en 107 trabajadores. Los resultados fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva. El test de Mann-Whitney fue utilizado para comparación de los resultados obtenidos entre los sectores de producción. El diagnóstico del nivel de exposición al riesgo ergonómico, obtenido por ambos instrumentos, fue moderado. Los factores de riesgo considerados por el JFQ como más críticos están relacionados a la temperatura ambiental; postura mantenida en largos períodos de tiempo; posturas inadecuadas para la columna y continuar trabajando cuando tiene algún dolor o con alguna lesión. El QEC identificó las regiones de columna lumbar y muñecas/manos como expuestas a alto riesgo. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los sectores. Abstract in english The analysis of ergonomic risk factors that are present in the textile industry helps to plan strategies that can contribute to the improvement of work conditions and the consequent reduction of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed at measuring levels of exposure to ergonomic risk factors amo [...] ng workers of two production sections in a textile factory. For this purpose, the instruments Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) and Quick Exposure Check (QEC) were applied in 107 workers. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare the results between the production sections. The level of exposure to ergonomic risks, obtained through both instruments, was moderate. The risk factors considered as being critical by the JFQ are related to environmental temperature, posture maintained over long periods of time, inadequate spinal posture, and to working even when the worker feels pain or sustains injuries. The QEC identified regions of the lumbar spine and wrists/hands as being exposed to high risk. There were no statistically significant differences between the sections.

Maria Luiza Caires, Comper; Rosimeire Simprini, Padula.

82

Avaliação do risco ergonômico em trabalhadores da indústria têxtil por dois instrumentos: quick exposure check e job factors questionnaire / Ergonomic risk assessment in textile industry workers by two instruments: quick exposure check and job factors questionnaire / Evaluación del riesgo ergonómico en trabajadores de la industria textil con dos instrumentos: quick exposure check y job factors questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise dos fatores de risco ergonômicos presentes em indústrias têxteis auxilia no planejamento de estratégias que contribuem para a melhora das condições de trabalho e redução dos distúrbios osteomusculares. Este estudo se propôs a mensurar os níveis de exposição aos fatores de risco ergonômicos [...] em trabalhadores de dois setores de produção de uma indústria têxtil. Para tanto, os instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) e o Quick Exposure Check (QEC) foram aplicados em 107 trabalhadores. Os resultados foram analisados por estatística descritiva. O teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparação dos resultados obtidos entre os setores de produção. O diagnóstico do nível de exposição ao risco ergonômico, obtido por ambos os instrumentos, foi moderado. Os fatores de risco considerados pelo JFQ como mais criticos estão relacionados à temperatura ambiental; postura mantida em longos períodos de tempo; posturas inadequadas para coluna e continuar trabalhando quando está com alguma dor ou com alguma lesão. O QEC identificou as regiões de coluna lombar e punhos/mãos como expostas ao alto risco. Não houveram diferenças estatisticamente significante entre os setores. Abstract in spanish El análisis de los factores de riesgo ergonómicos presentes en industrias textiles ayuda al planeamiento de estrategias que contribuyen a la mejora de las condiciones de trabajo y reducción de los trastornos osteomusculares. Este estudio se propuso medir los niveles de exposición a los factores de r [...] iesgo ergonómicos en trabajadores de dos sectores de producción de una industria textil. Para ello, los instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) y el Quick Exposure Check (QEC) fueron aplicados en 107 trabajadores. Los resultados fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva. El test de Mann-Whitney fue utilizado para comparación de los resultados obtenidos entre los sectores de producción. El diagnóstico del nivel de exposición al riesgo ergonómico, obtenido por ambos instrumentos, fue moderado. Los factores de riesgo considerados por el JFQ como más críticos están relacionados a la temperatura ambiental; postura mantenida en largos períodos de tiempo; posturas inadecuadas para la columna y continuar trabajando cuando tiene algún dolor o con alguna lesión. El QEC identificó las regiones de columna lumbar y muñecas/manos como expuestas a alto riesgo. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los sectores. Abstract in english The analysis of ergonomic risk factors that are present in the textile industry helps to plan strategies that can contribute to the improvement of work conditions and the consequent reduction of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed at measuring levels of exposure to ergonomic risk factors amo [...] ng workers of two production sections in a textile factory. For this purpose, the instruments Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) and Quick Exposure Check (QEC) were applied in 107 workers. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare the results between the production sections. The level of exposure to ergonomic risks, obtained through both instruments, was moderate. The risk factors considered as being critical by the JFQ are related to environmental temperature, posture maintained over long periods of time, inadequate spinal posture, and to working even when the worker feels pain or sustains injuries. The QEC identified regions of the lumbar spine and wrists/hands as being exposed to high risk. There were no statistically significant differences between the sections.

Maria Luiza Caires, Comper; Rosimeire Simprini, Padula.

2013-09-01

83

TEXTILE SALVAGE  

CERN Multimedia

Readers are reminded that Geneva's agency for salvaging used clothing, other textiles and old shoes (Coordination d'oeuvres d'entraide pour la récupération de vêtements, textiles et chaussures usagés dans le canton de Genève) has a container in the car park outside CERN's Meyrin site. In 2001, 1000 tonnes of such items were collected in the Canton of Geneva (as compared with 840 tonnes in 2000), of which 4460 kg came from the container outside the Meyrin site. The operation's organisers (Caritas, Centre Social Protestant, the Geneva Section of the Swiss Red Cross, Terre des Hommes, the Geneva branch of Terre des Hommes Suisse and Emmaüs, Geneva) would like to thank all those who have donated clothing or otherwise supported their campaign. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848 http://www.cern.ch/relations/

Relations with the Host States Service

2002-01-01

84

Relación entre el consumo de tabaco, salud mental y malestares físicos en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana / Relationship among current tobacco use, mental health and physical distress in male workers of a Mexican textile industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción El consumo de tabaco es considerado un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo debido a la cantidad de enfermedades y muertes relacionadas con su uso. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) reporta que 30% de los adultos son fumadores y, de éstos, aproximadamente cinco millones de [...] personas morirán en un año. También se estima que para 2020 habrá 8.4 millones de muertes anuales por enfermedades relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco, de las cuales siete de cada 10 ocurrirán en países en vías de desarrollo, como México, donde más de 53 mil personas fumadoras mueren al año por enfermedades asociadas al tabaquismo y al menos 147 personas mueren diariamente. Por otro lado, en la bibliografía se ha encontrado que el daño en el organismo por fumar comienza desde el primer cigarro, que a los 10 años se presentan síntomas sutiles en la función pulmonar y disminución de la tolerancia al ejercicio, y que es entre 20 y 30 años después cuando los síntomas hacen a un fumador tomar conciencia del daño a su salud. En cuanto a la relación entre el uso de tabaco y la salud mental, ésta se evidencia por las consecuencias emocionales que conlleva padecer una enfermedad crónica. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación de problemas emocionales y malestares físicos con el consumo de tabaco en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana. Método La muestra estuvo conformada por 279 sujetos que laboraban en una empresa textil, en su mayoría jóvenes entre 18 y 27 años (54.5%), con escolaridad de secundaria (59.3%) y casados o en unión libre (65.6%). El instrumento utilizado incluyó las escalas de salud mental (MHI-5), malestares físicos (SCL-90) y consumo de tabaco. La aplicación del instrumento se realizó de manera grupal dentro de la empresa textil en que laboraban los sujetos. Resultados No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a problemas de salud mental y síntomas físicos entre fumadores y no fumadores. Mediante un modelo de análisis de trayectorias, se analizó la relación existente entre síntomas físicos, problemas de salud mental e indicadores de consumo de tabaco. Se encontró así que el principal predictor de los síntomas físicos en fumadores es el tiempo que llevan consumiendo y que los síntomas físicos son un importante predictor de problemas de salud mental. Discusión Sin importar la cantidad de cigarrillos consumidos, la frecuencia de consumo ni otros indicadores de consumo elevado, el tiempo que se lleva consumiendo es un predictor importante del número de síntomas físicos que se manifiestan, lo que puede deberse a los efectos dañinos que tiene el consumo prolongado del tabaco. De este modo se confirma lo mencionado en otras investigaciones de que, después de los primeros 10 años de consumo, se presentan malestares físicos sutiles y que a lo largo de 20 o 30 años se presentaran malestares importantes. Si bien no se encontró una relación directa entre consumo de tabaco y salud mental, se puede sugerir una relación indirecta derivada de la influencia que tiene el consumo sobre el plano del bienestar físico. En este sentido es de esperarse que, a medida que se continúe consumiendo tabaco y los malestares físicos aumenten, también se incrementen los problemas de salud mental. Por otro lado, el modelo aquí presentado requiere ser completado incluyendo otras áreas que puedan influir sobre el bienestar físico y mental. Sin embargo, se logró evidenciar la importancia que tiene el consumo de tabaco sobre el malestar físico, a la vez que aumenta la probabilidad de que se presenten más problemas en la salud mental de la población consumidora. Abstract in english Introduction Tobacco use is considered a worldwide public health problem because of the amount of death and disease it causes. The WHO reports that 30% of the adult population in the world are cigarette smokers, and that nearly five million of these will die with

Ana Carolina, Rodríguez Machain; Nora Angélica, Martínez Vélez; Francisco, Juárez García; Elsa Karina, López Lugo; Silvia, Carreño García; María Elena, Medina-Mora.

2008-08-01

85

Relación entre el consumo de tabaco, salud mental y malestares físicos en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana / Relationship among current tobacco use, mental health and physical distress in male workers of a Mexican textile industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción El consumo de tabaco es considerado un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo debido a la cantidad de enfermedades y muertes relacionadas con su uso. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) reporta que 30% de los adultos son fumadores y, de éstos, aproximadamente cinco millones de [...] personas morirán en un año. También se estima que para 2020 habrá 8.4 millones de muertes anuales por enfermedades relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco, de las cuales siete de cada 10 ocurrirán en países en vías de desarrollo, como México, donde más de 53 mil personas fumadoras mueren al año por enfermedades asociadas al tabaquismo y al menos 147 personas mueren diariamente. Por otro lado, en la bibliografía se ha encontrado que el daño en el organismo por fumar comienza desde el primer cigarro, que a los 10 años se presentan síntomas sutiles en la función pulmonar y disminución de la tolerancia al ejercicio, y que es entre 20 y 30 años después cuando los síntomas hacen a un fumador tomar conciencia del daño a su salud. En cuanto a la relación entre el uso de tabaco y la salud mental, ésta se evidencia por las consecuencias emocionales que conlleva padecer una enfermedad crónica. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación de problemas emocionales y malestares físicos con el consumo de tabaco en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana. Método La muestra estuvo conformada por 279 sujetos que laboraban en una empresa textil, en su mayoría jóvenes entre 18 y 27 años (54.5%), con escolaridad de secundaria (59.3%) y casados o en unión libre (65.6%). El instrumento utilizado incluyó las escalas de salud mental (MHI-5), malestares físicos (SCL-90) y consumo de tabaco. La aplicación del instrumento se realizó de manera grupal dentro de la empresa textil en que laboraban los sujetos. Resultados No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a problemas de salud mental y síntomas físicos entre fumadores y no fumadores. Mediante un modelo de análisis de trayectorias, se analizó la relación existente entre síntomas físicos, problemas de salud mental e indicadores de consumo de tabaco. Se encontró así que el principal predictor de los síntomas físicos en fumadores es el tiempo que llevan consumiendo y que los síntomas físicos son un importante predictor de problemas de salud mental. Discusión Sin importar la cantidad de cigarrillos consumidos, la frecuencia de consumo ni otros indicadores de consumo elevado, el tiempo que se lleva consumiendo es un predictor importante del número de síntomas físicos que se manifiestan, lo que puede deberse a los efectos dañinos que tiene el consumo prolongado del tabaco. De este modo se confirma lo mencionado en otras investigaciones de que, después de los primeros 10 años de consumo, se presentan malestares físicos sutiles y que a lo largo de 20 o 30 años se presentaran malestares importantes. Si bien no se encontró una relación directa entre consumo de tabaco y salud mental, se puede sugerir una relación indirecta derivada de la influencia que tiene el consumo sobre el plano del bienestar físico. En este sentido es de esperarse que, a medida que se continúe consumiendo tabaco y los malestares físicos aumenten, también se incrementen los problemas de salud mental. Por otro lado, el modelo aquí presentado requiere ser completado incluyendo otras áreas que puedan influir sobre el bienestar físico y mental. Sin embargo, se logró evidenciar la importancia que tiene el consumo de tabaco sobre el malestar físico, a la vez que aumenta la probabilidad de que se presenten más problemas en la salud mental de la población consumidora. Abstract in english Introduction Tobacco use is considered a worldwide public health problem because of the amount of death and disease it causes. The WHO reports that 30% of the adult population in the world are cigarette smokers, and that nearly five million of these will die with

Ana Carolina, Rodríguez Machain; Nora Angélica, Martínez Vélez; Francisco, Juárez García; Elsa Karina, López Lugo; Silvia, Carreño García; María Elena, Medina-Mora.

86

Leituras de operárias / Lectures d´ouvrières / Women workers’ readings / Lecturas de obreras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Defensora de causas sociais, paladina poética contra injustiças e desigualdade, Ecléa Bosi em seu livro Cultura Popular e Cultura de Massa: Leituras de Operárias, pesquisa as leituras de cerca de 50 operárias, procurando ver que acesso têm ao imaginário, aos livros, quais as suas condições de vida, [...] como a sociedade industrial as privam da criação artística e literária, apesar de sua sede de conhecimento e de expressão. Abstract in spanish Defensora de causas sociales, paladina poética contra injusticias y desigualdades, Ecléa Bosi en su libro Cultura Popular e Cultura de Massa: Leituras de Operárias investiga las lecturas de cerca de 50 obreras, buscando ver qué acceso tienen al imaginario, a los libros, cuáles son sus condiciones de [...] vida, cómo la sociedad industrial las privan de la creación artística y literaria, a pesar de su sed de conocimiento y de expresión. Abstract in english A defender of social causes and a poetic paladin crusading against injustice and inequality, Ecléa Bosi’s research into the reading habits of circa 50 women workers led to her book, Cultura Popular e Cultura de Massa: Leituras de Operárias, where she explores their access to books and the imaginary, [...] their lives and how industrial society deprives them of artistic and literary creativity, despite their thirst for knowledge and self expression.

Betty, Mindlin.

87

Leituras de operárias / Lectures d´ouvrières / Women workers’ readings / Lecturas de obreras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Defensora de causas sociais, paladina poética contra injustiças e desigualdade, Ecléa Bosi em seu livro Cultura Popular e Cultura de Massa: Leituras de Operárias, pesquisa as leituras de cerca de 50 operárias, procurando ver que acesso têm ao imaginário, aos livros, quais as suas condições de vida, [...] como a sociedade industrial as privam da criação artística e literária, apesar de sua sede de conhecimento e de expressão. Abstract in spanish Defensora de causas sociales, paladina poética contra injusticias y desigualdades, Ecléa Bosi en su libro Cultura Popular e Cultura de Massa: Leituras de Operárias investiga las lecturas de cerca de 50 obreras, buscando ver qué acceso tienen al imaginario, a los libros, cuáles son sus condiciones de [...] vida, cómo la sociedad industrial las privan de la creación artística y literaria, a pesar de su sed de conocimiento y de expresión. Abstract in english A defender of social causes and a poetic paladin crusading against injustice and inequality, Ecléa Bosi’s research into the reading habits of circa 50 women workers led to her book, Cultura Popular e Cultura de Massa: Leituras de Operárias, where she explores their access to books and the imaginary, [...] their lives and how industrial society deprives them of artistic and literary creativity, despite their thirst for knowledge and self expression.

Betty, Mindlin.

2008-03-01

88

Yönetim Tarz? ve Çal??ma Ko?ullar?, Arkada?l?k Ortam? ve Takdir Edilme Duygusu ile ?? Tatmini Aras?ndaki ?li?kiler : Tekstil Sektöründe Bir Uygulama = The Relationship Between Supervision Style, Working Conditions, Co-Workers Behavior, Recognition and Job Satisfaction : A Field Research on Textile Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensive competition forces firms to work efficiently and effectively with all their resources including human resources. The need for satisfying employees on the job arises as a necessity for the firm success. Firms can achieve their objectives only by developing and maintaining policies and work environments which in turn will result in job satisfaction. In this study the factors which effect job satisfaction are analyzed on a sample of firms operating in the textile industry. Turkish textile firms are well known with their export ability as well as with their use of labor-intensive production technology. High level of job satisfaction of employees is needed for firm performance. The findings of the survey results indicate that supervisory behavior, working conditions, co-workers behavior and recognition are related to job satisfaction, co-workers behavior having the highest effect among all.

Salih Zeki ?MAMO?LU

2004-01-01

89

Respiratory disease in a textile factory in Nicaragua.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first epidemiologic study conducted in a textile mill in Nicaragua using techniques and diagnostic criteria similar to those used in the United States and England. The prevalence of byssinosis and nonspecific respiratory symptoms were studied in 194 workers in a cotton mill in Managua. Limited environmental sampling, performed using a vertical elutriator in yarn preparation and weaving areas, indicated that exposures were similar to those reported in other parts of the developing world. A modified translated version of the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was administered. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and after the Monday workshift to measure across-shift change in ventilatory function. The prevalence of byssinosis was 5.9% and all the cases occurred among exposed women. Nonspecific respiratory symptoms were also more prevalent among exposed workers. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking habit, and work tenure, the exposure odds ratios for usual cough and usual phlegm were 3.3 and 2.2, respectively. The association between exposure and across-shift decrement in FEV1 was not significant. Byssinotic workers, however, had greater decrements in FEV1% than those without byssinosis: 5.5% versus 1.8%. A consistent gender effect was observed in which both exposed and unexposed women were found to have greater across-shift decrements in FEV1 than men. The gender difference existed among long-term workers as well as workers who had been employed less than 2 years. Results are related to cotton dust exposure, as has been documented elsewhere. The poorer health status of the women in this study population deserves follow-up. PMID:1951367

Velazquez, A M; Christiani, D C; McConnell, R; Eisen, E A; Wilcox, M

1991-01-01

90

Enhanced care by community health workers in improving treatment adherence to antidepressant medication in rural women with major depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Background & objectives: Depression remains largely undiagnosed in women residing in rural India and consequently many do not seek help. Moreover, among those who are diagnosed, many do not complete treatment due to high rates of attrition. This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of enhanced care with usual care in improving treatment seeking and adherence to antidepressant medication in women with depression living in rural India. Methods: Six villages from rural Bangalore were randomized to either community health worker supported enhanced care or usual care. A total of 260 adult depressed women formed the final participants for the analysis. The outcome measures were number of women who sought and completed treatment, number of clinic visits, duration of treatment with antidepressant, changes in severity of depression (HDRS) and changes in quality of life [WHO-QOL (Brev) scale]. Results: A significantly greater number of women from the treatment intervention (TI) group completed the treatment and were on treatment for a longer duration compared to the treatment as usual (TAU) group. However, there were no significant differences in the severity of depression or quality of life between the TI and the TAU groups or between treatment completers and treatment dropouts at six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Enhanced care provided by the trained community health workers to rural women with major depression living in the community resulted in greater number of women seeking help and adhering to treatment with antidepressants. However, despite enhanced care a significant number of rural women diagnosed with depression either did not seek help or discontinued treatment prematurely. These findings have significant public health implications, as untreated depression is associated with considerable disability. PMID:24718398

Pradeep, Johnson; Isaacs, Anton; Shanbag, Deepthi; Selvan, Sumithra; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2014-01-01

91

Hospital Textiles, Are They a Possible Vehicle for Healthcare-Associated Infections?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Textiles are a common material in healthcare facilities; therefore it is important that they do not pose as a vehicle for the transfer of pathogens to patients or hospital workers. During the course of use hospital textiles become contaminated and laundering is necessary. Laundering of healthcare textiles is most commonly adequate, but in some instances, due to inappropriate disinfection or subsequent recontamination, the textiles may become a contaminated inanimate surface with the possibili...

Sabina Fijan; Sonja Šostar Turk

2012-01-01

92

Cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women, health care workers and persons with underlying illnesses in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk groups with increased vulnerability for influenza complications such as pregnant women, persons with underlying illnesses as well as persons who come into contact with them, such as health care workers, are currently given priority (along with other classic target groups) to receive seasonal influenza vaccination in Belgium. We aimed to evaluate this policy from a health care payer perspective by cost-effectiveness analysis in the three specific target groups above, while accounting for effects beyond the target group. Increasing the coverage of influenza vaccination is likely to be cost-effective for pregnant women (median €6589 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained [€4073-€10,249]) and health care workers (median €24,096/QALY gained [€16,442-€36,342]), if this can be achieved without incurring additional administration costs. Assuming an additional physician's consult is charged to administer each additional vaccine dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women depends strongly on the extent of its impact on the neonate's health. For health care workers, the assumed number of preventable secondary infections has a strong influence on the cost-effectiveness. Vaccinating people with underlying illnesses is likely highly cost-effective above 50 years of age and borderline cost-effective for younger persons, depending on relative life expectancy and vaccine efficacy in this risk group compared to the general population. The case-fatality ratios of the target group, of the secondary affected groups and vaccine efficacy are key sources of uncertainty. PMID:25239481

Blommaert, Adriaan; Bilcke, Joke; Vandendijck, Yannick; Hanquet, Germaine; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

2014-10-21

93

21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Textiles and textile fibers. 177.2800 Section 177.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD...textiles and textile fibers may include: ...recognized as safe in food. (2) Substances...Textile and textile fibers are used as articles...that contact dry food only. (f)...

2010-04-01

94

Bioplastics in Textiles / Bioplastics in Textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large quantities of available biomass that needs to be used are the main reason for bioplastics revival. In many cases it is an optimal solution for a particular purpose. The production of textile used for clothing, medicine, and the automotive industry being the main consumer of technical textile where textile constitutes almost 85% of the car interior follow this trend. The important reasons for application are functionality and biomass utilization. Permanent increase in bioplastic producti...

Grancaric?, Ana Marija; Jerkovic?, Ivona; Tarbuk, Anita

2013-01-01

95

Asbestos hazard in the reprocessed textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiologic studies have identified an excess risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers in the reprocessed textile industry in Prato, Italy. These studies suggested that there may have been asbestos hazard in this industry although exposure was not known to exist. An industrial hygiene investigation was conducted to determine whether there was previous or current asbestos exposure in the industry. Walk-through surveys, environmental sampling, process documentation, and management and worker interviews were conducted in 13 textile reprocessing establishments. Polypropylene bags that once contained asbestos were found in 2 of the 13. Asbestos bags were cut open and used to cover bales of rags which were then distributed throughout the world. Workers were exposed to asbestos while handling the bags which were contaminated with chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. Additional sources of asbestos exposure that may have existed in the past in the industry are also discussed.

Quinn, M.M.; Kriebel, D.; Buiatti, E.; Paci, E.; Sini, S.; Vannucchi, G.; Zappa, M.

1987-01-01

96

Tear secretion dysfunction among women workers engaged in light-on tests in the TFT-LCD industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display industry is rapidly growing in Taiwan and many other countries. A large number of workers, mainly women, are employed in the light-on test process to detect the defects of products. At the light-on test workstation, the operator is generally exposed to low humidity (in the clean room environment, flashing light, and low ambient illumination for long working hours. Many workers complained about eye discomfort, and therefore we conducted a study to evaluate the tear secretion function of light-on test workers of a TFT-LCD company. Methods We recruited workers engaged in light-on tests in the company during their periodical health examination. In addition to a questionnaire survey of demographic characteristics and ophthalmic symptoms, we evaluated the tear secretion function of both eyes of each participant using the Schirmer's lacrimal basal secretion test with anaesthesia. A participant with one or both eyes yielding abnormal test results was defined as a case of tear secretion dysfunction. Results During the study period, a total of 371 light-on test workers received the health examination at the clinic of the park, and 52 of them were excluded due to having ophthalmic diseases and other systemic diseases that may affect ophthalmic function. All the remaining 319 qualified workers agreed to participate in this study, and they were all females working by 4-shift rotations. The average age was 24.2 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8, and the average employment duration was 13.6 months (SD = 5.7. Among the 11 ophthalmic symptoms evaluated, eye dryness was the most prevalent (prevalence = 43.3%. In addition, the prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in at least one eye was 40.1% (128 cases, and contact lens users had an odds ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval = 1.02–2.94 in comparison with non-contact lens users. Comparing the Schirmer's test results of those who also participated in the screening in the previous year, we found 40 of the 156 participants (17.2% with normal test results in the previous year turned abnormal in 2001. In contrast, only 21 of the 76 participants (9.1% with abnormal test results in the previous year turned normal, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02 for McNemar's test. Conclusion The prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in woman workers engaged in light-on tests is high and increases with a one-year duration of employment. The use of contact lens may further increase the risk.

Sheen Jiunn-Woei

2006-12-01

97

Mama Benz in Trouble : Networks, the State, and Fashion Wars in the Beninese Textile Market  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article examines the impact of Chinese textile imports on the organization and politics of women’s textile trading networks in Benin. The incursion of cheap Chinese textiles into markets previously dominated by imported European fabrics has shifted the balance of power between networks of women traders in Benin’s apex textile market, reconfiguring relations between textile traders, state officials and international companies. Focusing on the political as well as the economic dimensions of trading networks that feed regional smuggling systems across West Africa, this article reveals how global linkages transform local economic networks, and how local actors structure networks for global economic partners. Far from bypassing state actors, this process is shown to incorporate state officials from above and from below, splintering established trading networks and weaving new ones from emerging configurations of textile traders, state officials and global textile exporters.

Prag, Ebbe

2013-01-01

98

Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

99

Dangerous women of Hong Kong? Media construction of stigma in female sex workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study used a cultural model analysis to examine the Hong Kong print media’s social construction of stigma in respect to female sex workers. An analysis was conducted on captions and main headlines of two newspaper (Chinese and English) median in Hong Kong, 2003-2006. A total of 591 articles on sex workers were recruited in the analysis with 422 located from the Ming Pao and 169 articles the SCMP. A total of Sixty seven articles on health issues were identified. In Hong Kong, as in else...

Fong, T.; Holroyd, Ea; Wong, Wcw

2012-01-01

100

Changing the Guard: Male Correctional Officers' Attitudes toward Women as Co-Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveyed male correctional officers at four correctional facilities concerning their attitudes toward their role as correctional officers and corrections in general. Respondents (n=178) gave their attitudes toward working with women as correctional officers. Significantly related to "pro-women" attitudes were quality of working relationship with…

Walters, Stephen

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Do Formal Mentoring Programs Matter?: A Longitudinal Randomized Experimental Study of Women Healthcare Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

We report results from a pretest-posttest randomized experimental study comparing the impact of high versus low facilitation of formal mentoring programs on female healthcare workers' performance and attitudes. Results indicated increases in job performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment for mentoring program participants from…

Marshall Egan, Toby; Rosser, Manda H.

2004-01-01

102

Operárias no Cariri cearense: fábrica, família e violência doméstica / Women workers in the Brazilian Northeast: factory, family and domestic violence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo discutimos as mudanças representadas pela entrada de mulheres no trabalho fabril numa região de industrialização recente, buscando verificar em que medida essa inserção, em um contexto de crise do emprego e em uma região marcada pela informalidade de parte significativa das atividades e [...] conômicas, tem influenciado a redefinição dos papéis familiares e acentuado conflitos geradores de violência doméstica. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 14 mulheres que denunciaram algum tipo de violência praticada por seus maridos ou companheiros na Delegacia Regional da Mulher, no município de Crato, CE. Os dados obtidos apontam, entre outros aspectos, que a entrada das mulheres na esfera pública e a autonomia financeira, propiciadas pelo trabalho fabril, tendem a provocar mudanças nos tradicionais papéis de gênero, cujas consequências tem se expressado no questionamento do lugar do homem como provedor, nos rompimentos do grupo familiar e violência doméstica contra as trabalhadoras. Abstract in english In this article, we will argue about the changes represented by the entrance of women in the factory work in a region of recent industrialization, aiming at verifying to which extent such insertion, in a context of employment crisis in a region marked by informal labor activities, has influenced the [...] redefinition of the family roles and increased conflicts that cause domestic violence. A group of 14 women workers that denounced the domestic violence in Crato City, Ceará State, was observed. We intend to recoup the changes perceived by these workers in its life of work and its ordinary life. The women entrance in the public sphere tends to pressure for changes in the traditional roles of gender with distinct gradations, since adjustments in the domestic life until disruption of the family group.

Iara Maria, Araújo; Jacob Carlos, Lima; Izabel Cristina Ferreira, Borsoi.

103

RISKY HEALTH ENVIRONMENTS:WOMEN SEX WORKERS' STRUGGLES TO FIND SAFE, SECURE AND NON-EXPLOITATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA'S POOREST POSTAL CODE  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women’s agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated ‘enabling environments’ where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public health interventions and safer supportive housing to account for the daily lived experiences of women sex workers. PMID:22018526

Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

2011-01-01

104

Baltic blues: for women workers in Estonia, new jobs are lacking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports employment discrimination faced by women in the transition economy of Estonia. Since the country regained its independence in 1991, the shrinking jobs market has hit women the hardest. About 38.3% of women compared with only 24.7% of men are unemployed or underemployed. In addition to unemployment, women also tend to hold the lowest-paid jobs even when they are more skilled, and often work in the low paid public sector rather than in private enterprise. In the 1999 Human Development Report on transition economies, it said that countries in transition experience a marked increase in gender inequality in political, economic and social spheres. Such experience is shared across the Soviet Union, Moscow, Russia, Poland, Latvia, and Croatia. Many of these countries have laws against gender discrimination in hiring, but are often unenforced. However, both the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Estonian government are working in assuring equality among working women. ILO's International Programme on More and Better Jobs for Women seek to reinforce ILO commitment to gender equality at work. PMID:12295603

Alyanak, L

1999-01-01

105

Textiles and Microbes  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbes can be carried by and even multiply on textiles. The first real, premeditated, microbiological warfare happened in 1763, during the Anglo-French wars in North America, when Native American emissaries were given blankets or handkerchiefs contaminated with smallpox. Thus, a small epidemic started and spread rapidly, causing considerable damage to the rank and file of the Native Americans. Nowadays, it could be said that textiles could be vectors of infections in hospitals or communities. The making of antimicrobial textiles could prevent them from becoming a reservoir of microbes in the transmission of infections and in cases of voluntary contamination in a terrorist threat for example. However, methods have to show that textiles are really active and do not attack the cutaneous flora they are in contact with. In this chapter, the role of textiles in the transmission of infections is summarized and the main characteristics of antimicrobial textiles are described.

Freney, Jean; Renaud, François N. R.

106

The Employment Challenge of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: Scenario and Strategies for Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In January 2005, the quota system for imports of textiles and clothing was phased out and gave way to more liberalized global trade in textiles and clothing. The T&C industry is Pakistan’s main export engine. It is also a major industrial employer, and one of the few sectors that provide paid employment to female workers. The policy paper highlights the potentially negative impact of the phase out of the textile quota regime on employment-intensive garment production...

Siegmann, K. A.

2005-01-01

107

Corantes têxteis Textile dyes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment technologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of synthetic organic dyes.

Cláudia C. I. Guaratini

2000-02-01

108

New Skills for Rural Women. Report of a Training Program for Twelve Malian Community Development Workers (Banjul, The Gambia, June 7-15, 1977).  

Science.gov (United States)

In June, 1977, a 2-week tie-dyeing and batik training program was undertaken for 12 Malian community development workers by a newly formed cooperative of urban dyers in Gambia. Need for income-producing activity for women in the Bambara regions of rural Mali led to a decision to promote cloth processing and in 1974 training sessions were held in…

Caughman, Susan L.

109

Why Privatizing Government Services Would Hurt Women Workers. Research-in-Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study used data from the 1998 Current Population Survey to document job growth in the public and private sectors and examine the quality of jobs in terms of wages and benefits. Findings indicated public sector employment declined for both women and men during the period from 1979-98 with a somewhat sharper decline among men. In 1998, median…

Bernhardt, Annette; Dresser, Laura; Hill, Catherine

110

21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...substance employed in the production of textiles or textile fibers...Substances employed in the production of or added to textiles and...may safely be used in the production of or as a component of textiles...sulfonated Titanium dioxide Triethanolamine Ultramarine blue...

2010-04-01

111

CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES  

CERN Multimedia

We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

Relation with the Host States

2001-01-01

112

[Ventilatory capacity and respiratory symptoms in hemp-processing workers].  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and changes in ventilatory capacity were studied in 84 female (mills A and B) and 27 male hemp workers employed in textile mills. Forty-nine women and 30 men from a non-dusty industry served as controls. A significantly higher prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was found in exposed female workers compared to controls. For men the differences were significant for nasal catarrh and sinusitis. A high prevalence of byssinosis was found among female workers in both mills (A = 47.8%); B = 57.9%) as well as in male workers (66.7%). Statistically significant acute across work shift reductions in ventilatory capacity were found for all measurements in female and male hemp workers (P greater than 0.01) varying from 7.1% for FEV1 to 15.1% for FEF50. Measured Monday baseline values before the work shift were significantly lower than expected for hemp workers being particularly reduced for FEF25 and FEF50. The data suggest that exposure to hemp dust is a major risk factor for the development of occupational lung disease. PMID:2281964

Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Kopjar, B; Godni?-Cvar, J; Tonkovi?-Lojovi?, M

1990-09-01

113

Sinonasal cancer and occupational exposure to textile dust.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from a case-control study conducted at 27 hospitals in France in 1986-88 were analyzed to examine the association between exposure to textile dust and sinonasal cancer. The study included 207 cases and 409 controls. Detailed information on occupational history and other potential risk factors for sinonasal cancer was collected. Exposure to textile dust (probability and level of exposure, type of textile fiber) was assessed by an expert in industrial hygiene. Among women, exposure to textile dust was associated with an elevated risk of squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR) = 2.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85-7.06, nine exposed cases) and adenocarcinoma (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 0.56-24.4, three exposed cases). For squamous cell carcinomas, the risk increased with the duration and the level of exposure (P textile dust (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 0.65-7.30, four exposed cases). Because of the strong association between wood-dust exposure and adenocarcinoma, an independent effect of textile dust on this type of cancer could not be studied among men. The risks associated with the different types of textile fibers (cotton, wool, and synthetic fibers) were similar and the results did not permit to incriminate a particular type of textile. PMID:9219648

Luce, D; Gérin, M; Morcet, J F; Leclerc, A

1997-09-01

114

Smart textiles: Challenges and opportunities  

Science.gov (United States)

Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. A key driver for smart textiles research is the fact that both textile and electronics fabrication processes are capable of functionalizing large-area surfaces at very high speeds. In this article we review the history of smart textiles development, introducing the main trends and technological challenges faced in this field. Then, we identify key challenges that are the focus of ongoing research. We then proceed to discuss fundamentals of smart textiles: textile fabrication methods and textile interconnect lines, textile sensor, and output device components and integration of commercial components into textile architectures. Next we discuss representative smart textile systems and finally provide our outlook over the field and a prediction for the future.

Cherenack, Kunigunde; van Pieterson, Liesbeth

2012-11-01

115

Bioplastics in Textiles / Bioplastics in Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of available biomass that needs to be used are the main reason for bioplastics revival. In many cases it is an optimal solution for a particular purpose. The production of textile used for clothing, medicine, and the automotive industry being the main consumer of technical textile where textile constitutes almost 85% of the car interior follow this trend. The important reasons for application are functionality and biomass utilization. Permanent increase in bioplastic production capacity is expected. The paper presents new achievements in textiles and the related areas. / Zbog velike koli?ine raspoložive biomase koju treba iskoristiti bioplastika doživljava renesansu. U nekim je slu?ajevima dobro rješenje za odre?enu namjenu. Takav trend slijedi i proizvodnja tekstila za potrebe odijevanja, medicine i automobilske industrije, glavnoga korisnika tehni?kog tekstila, gdje tekstil ?ini gotovo 85 % unutrašnjosti automobila. Važni razlozi primjene su funkcionalnost i iskoristivost otpadne biomase te se o?ekuje trajno pove?anje kapaciteta za proizvodnju bioplastike. U radu su prikazana nova dostignu?a u tekstilstvu i srodnim granama.

Ana Marija GRANCARI?

2013-07-01

116

Corantes têxteis / Textile dyes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment tec [...] hnologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of synthetic organic dyes.

Cláudia C. I., Guaratini; Maria Valnice B., Zanoni.

2000-02-01

117

Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhadores de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, condições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação, com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008, deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores.OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores RESULTS: No significant differences (p < 0.05 were found comparing results of fatigue, workability index, and most demographic characteristics obtained among workers from the two groups. The best working conditions in the group with highest CSR scores (p = 0.008 were in plants that provided meals for the workers. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation and development of CSR projects do not necessarily mean better working conditions, less fatigue or higher workability. However, as this was a cross-sectional study with a small population sample and as working capacity may decrease with ageing of workers, new longitudinal studies must be performed with a larger population.

Ricardo Jorge Metzner

2008-12-01

118

Hygiene monitoring of textiles used in the food industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Protective clothing is required in the food-processing industry, to protect workers from contamination by bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions etc. contained in the secretions and raw meat of slaughtered animals, and to protect the meat from being contaminated by microorganisms carried by the workers. It is well-understood that textiles are a control point (CP), and must be appropriately cleaned and disinfected in order to prevent biocontamination. Although the laundering procedure itself is impo...

Fijan, Sabina; Cencic?, Avrelija; S?ostar-turk, Sonja

2012-01-01

119

Weibliche Arbeitserfahrungen in der DDR Women’s Work experiences in the GDR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annegret Schüle kommt in ihrer Untersuchung zu dem Ergebnis, dass die DDR-Diktatur das Leben von Frauen mehr veränderte als das der Männer. Ihre auf Interviews basierende Untersuchung fokussiert den (Berufs-Alltag von Frauen in der Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei. Anhand der drei Kategorien „Generation“, „Frauenarbeit“ und „Vergemeinschaftung im Betrieb“ diskutiert sie die geführten Interviews , die Förderung weiblicher Erwerbstätiger einerseits und das Negativimage des Textilbetriebs andererseits. Die Autorin legt eine überzeugende Studie zur Erfahrungsgeschichte weiblicher Industriearbeit vor und zeigt am konkreten Beispiel, wie die DDR-Gesellschaft in einer von Frauen getragenen familiarisierten Betriebskultur nicht aufgebrochen, sondern in einer eigentümlichen Verbindung von Geborgenheit und Unterordnung reproduziert wurde.Schüle argues that the Eastern German dictatorship had a greater impact on the lives of women than on those of their male counterparts. Her research, based on interviews with female workers in a in a cotton-spinning factory in Leipzig, portrays women’s everyday-life and work, and offers a convincing study of the experience of female industrial workers. Using the three categories “cohort,” “women’s work,” and a discourse of “factory-as-community,” Schüle discusses her interviews with respect to the promotion of female textile workers on the one hand and the negative stereotypes associated with working in the textile industry on the other hand. Using concrete examples, Schüle demonstrates how a factory organised by women did not undermine the patriarchal frame in which it was embedded but how existing power differentials were reproduced as part of a discourse of family, security, and subordination.

Albrecht Wiesener

2001-11-01

120

Digital Textile Printing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapidly evolving technology of digital printing opens new opportunities on many markets. One of them is the printed fabric market where printing companies as well as clients benefit from new printing methods. This thesis focuses on the digital textile printing technology and its implementation for fabric-on-demand printing service in Finland. The purpose of this project was to study the technology behind digital textile printing, areas of application of this technology, the requirements ...

Moltchanova, Julia

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Rapid Manufactured Textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

2006-01-01

122

Aerodynamic properties of textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aerodynamic drag force acting on a circular cylinder clad with knitted wool and polyester textiles has been investigated in wind tunnel experiments in this study. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was utilized to determine the flow field, both around the separation point and a wake profile in the close wake. The drag forces and the characteristic CD curves were determined over a range of Reynolds numbers expected to contain flow transition, for a number of knitted textiles having dif...

Bardal, Lars Morten

2010-01-01

123

CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES  

CERN Multimedia

We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

Relations avec les Pays hôtes

2000-01-01

124

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

Shamsuddin K

2003-05-01

125

21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...repeated use. Rayon (ii) Adjuvant substances: Aluminum stearate Borax For use as preservative only. Butyl-acetyl ricinoleate...dioxide Triethanolamine Ultramarine blue Waxes, petroleum Zinc hydrosulfite (e) Textile and textile fibers are used...

2010-04-01

126

21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Styrene-butadiene copolymer Sulfated butyl, isobutyl and propyl oleate Tallow Tallow, sulfonated Titanium dioxide Triethanolamine Ultramarine blue Waxes, petroleum Zinc hydrosulfite (e) Textile and textile fibers are used as...

2010-04-01

127

Forecast and Analyzis Electricity Consumption in Textile Industry in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in textile Industry in Iran. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in textile industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. On the other hand, Iranian textile industries are facing numerous problems, such as lack of liquidity and lack of foreign exchange to import raw materials and spare parts; outdated and ageing machinery because of the impossibility of renovating production lines; rise in wages; and, finally, the inefficiency of the industry. This industry uses about 8.5% of electricity and 6.4% energy of Iran industrial sector and employs about 10.9 % of all workers in manufacturing. Textile industry provides about 5.4% of Iran industries added value. Energy consumption in Iran's textile industry is inefficient, with a huge possibility of improvement. This paper aims to analyze energy demand in the current condition and in the new government's plan. This paper has simulated these models with neural network. The comparison between results of these two models illustrates the effects of this plan on the electricity consumption in textile industry in Iran. Results show that with current electricity price, the most effective parameter on electricity consumption in Iran is added value.

Piltan, Mehdi; Farahani, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, S. Farid [University of Tehran, Faculty of Engineering (Iran)

2009-07-01

128

Functionalisation of textiles : future perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multifunctional effects are essential for producing higher value added textiles, important not only for new technical applications but also for more “traditional” uses such as clothing and home textiles with high product differentiation. Within the “European Technology Platform for the Future of Textiles and Clothing”, functional textiles are a clear priority. Surface modification by means of finishing is very versatile and allows a large number of effects. The developments of new fun...

Almeida, Lui?s

2006-01-01

129

Prevalence of byssinosis in textile mills at Ahmedabad, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an epidemiological study carried out in three textile mills at Ahmedabad, India, 929 workers were examined from the spinning departments. The mean prevalence of byssinosis in the blow section was 29.62%, whereas in the card section it was 37.83%. The concentrations of cotton dust (dust less fly) were high in the blow and card sections (4.00 mg/m3 in the blow and 3.06 mg/m3 in the card section). This study suggests that the prevalence of byssinosis is not low in the textile mills of India as reported in many earlier Indian studies. PMID:2590643

Parikh, J R; Bhagia, L J; Majumdar, P K; Shah, A R; Kashyap, S K

1989-11-01

130

Follow-up study of respiratory function in hemp workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 3-year follow-up study was performed on 38 women and 28 men from the originally studied textile workers employed in a soft hemp processing mill. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were recorded during the cross-sectional and the follow-up studies. Maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curves were obtained on these workers, and forced vital capacity (FVC), 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and flow rates at 50% and at 25% of the VC (FEF50, FEF25) were measured. High prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms persisted at the follow-up study. In particular, high prevalences of byssinosis were documented at both studies (women: 47.4% and 47.4%; men: 64.3% and 67.9%, respectively). Statistically significant mean across-shift reductions were recorded for all ventilatory capacity tests at the initial study. A large mean annual decline was calculated for FEV1 in women and for all ventilatory capacity parameters in men; these declines were greater for workers with symptoms of byssinosis than for those without. The accelerated decline in FEV1 noted in the women workers, who were predominantly nonsmokers, suggests an independent hemp effect. Exposures in the work environment were measured with Hexhlet filters and revealed very high dust concentrations (mean total: 21.4 mg/m3, 22.4 mg/m3; respirable: 8.4 mg/m3, 9.9 mg/m3) at both initial and follow-up studies. These levels are much higher than those found in mills processing organic materials in North America. Our data demonstrate that work in the hemp industry, particularly in small poorly regulated mills, continues to have deleterious effects on respiratory function. PMID:8074118

Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N

1994-07-01

131

Rechargeable electronic textile battery  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a simple fabrication process that produces polymeric charge storage devices directly onto a textile surface. By using a coating of poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT) as a solid electrolytic layer deposited between two woven silver coated polyamide yarns, we have created a simple polymeric textile battery. By studying the device's surface morphology and chemical composition, we determined that in the presence of an electric field, silver ions from the anode yarn migrate to the cathode yarn through the PEDOT. Despite this migration, the device could be charged and discharged five times without suffering degradation in electrical performance.

Bhattacharya, R.; de Kok, M. M.; Zhou, J.

2009-11-01

132

Prevalência da dor orofacial e seu impacto no desempenho diário em trabalhadores das indústrias têxteis do município de Laguna, SC / Prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life of textile industries workers of Laguna, SC, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram examinadas as tendências em saúde da população idosa brasileira utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998-2008). O estudo incluiu uma amostra probabilística de 105.254 pessoas com > 60 anos de idade. A média da idade foi de 69 anos e 56% eram mulheres. Houve um a [...] umento gradativo da boa autoavaliação da saúde (39,3%, 43,5% e 45,0% em 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente) e uma diminuição na prevalência de artrite, doença do coração e depressão autorreferidas. A prevalência da hipertensão (43.9%, 48.8% e 53.3%, respectivamente) e do diabetes autorreferidos (10.3%, 13.0% e 16.1% respectivamente) aumentou acentuadamente. A prevalência da incapacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária (alimentar-se, tomar banho ou ir ao banheiro) permaneceu estável (6.5%, 6.4% e 6.9%, respectivamente). A realização de três ou mais consultas médicas nos 12 meses precedentes aumentou 21% entre 1998 e 2008. As hospitalizações diminuíram 10% no mesmo período. Essas tendências foram independentes do sexo e da idade. Os resultados mostram melhora em algumas dimensões da saúde dos idosos, mas não em todas. As mudanças no uso de serviços de saúde ocorreram como esperado em decorrência da expansão das atividades de atenção primária no Brasil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the daily performance of workers in the textile industry in the municipality of Laguna, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving all workers (n= 267) of the five textile industries of the municipality in 2004 [...] was conducted. Data were obtained through the questionnaire proposed by Locker and Gruska to measure the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) indicator. Socio-demographic data such as gender, age, level of schooling, income, job function and absenteeism due to orofacial pain was collected. Data were descriptively analyzed and the prevalence ratios, confidence intervals and unconditional multiple logistic regression were calculated. The prevalence of orofacial pain was 32.2% and the oral impact on daily performance was 28.5%. The regression model indicated that orofacial pain was the only variable statistically associated with the oral impact on daily performance, increasing its prevalence by more than 22 times, compared to those without orofacial pain. It was concluded that the prevalence of orofacial pain was high among workers, representing a decisive factor on the oral impact on daily performance.

Josimari Telino de, Lacerda; Juliana Demétrio, Ribeiro; Dayane Machado, Ribeiro; Jefferson, Traebert.

133

Prevalência da dor orofacial e seu impacto no desempenho diário em trabalhadores das indústrias têxteis do município de Laguna, SC / Prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life of textile industries workers of Laguna, SC, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram examinadas as tendências em saúde da população idosa brasileira utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998-2008). O estudo incluiu uma amostra probabilística de 105.254 pessoas com > 60 anos de idade. A média da idade foi de 69 anos e 56% eram mulheres. Houve um a [...] umento gradativo da boa autoavaliação da saúde (39,3%, 43,5% e 45,0% em 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente) e uma diminuição na prevalência de artrite, doença do coração e depressão autorreferidas. A prevalência da hipertensão (43.9%, 48.8% e 53.3%, respectivamente) e do diabetes autorreferidos (10.3%, 13.0% e 16.1% respectivamente) aumentou acentuadamente. A prevalência da incapacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária (alimentar-se, tomar banho ou ir ao banheiro) permaneceu estável (6.5%, 6.4% e 6.9%, respectivamente). A realização de três ou mais consultas médicas nos 12 meses precedentes aumentou 21% entre 1998 e 2008. As hospitalizações diminuíram 10% no mesmo período. Essas tendências foram independentes do sexo e da idade. Os resultados mostram melhora em algumas dimensões da saúde dos idosos, mas não em todas. As mudanças no uso de serviços de saúde ocorreram como esperado em decorrência da expansão das atividades de atenção primária no Brasil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the daily performance of workers in the textile industry in the municipality of Laguna, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving all workers (n= 267) of the five textile industries of the municipality in 2004 [...] was conducted. Data were obtained through the questionnaire proposed by Locker and Gruska to measure the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) indicator. Socio-demographic data such as gender, age, level of schooling, income, job function and absenteeism due to orofacial pain was collected. Data were descriptively analyzed and the prevalence ratios, confidence intervals and unconditional multiple logistic regression were calculated. The prevalence of orofacial pain was 32.2% and the oral impact on daily performance was 28.5%. The regression model indicated that orofacial pain was the only variable statistically associated with the oral impact on daily performance, increasing its prevalence by more than 22 times, compared to those without orofacial pain. It was concluded that the prevalence of orofacial pain was high among workers, representing a decisive factor on the oral impact on daily performance.

Josimari Telino de, Lacerda; Juliana Demétrio, Ribeiro; Dayane Machado, Ribeiro; Jefferson, Traebert.

134

Textile Technology Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this report were to evaluate and select resin systems for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Powder Towpreg Material, to develop and evaluate advanced textile processes by comparing 2-D and 3-D braiding for fuselage frame applications and ...

1995-01-01

135

TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

136

Novel antimicrobial textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer (SAP) by copolymerization of hydantoin containing monomer and acrylic acid and coating of SAP onto filter fabrics, and (9) use of a hindered amine compound to treat fabrics for use as air filters. Some treated samples were subjected to laundry testing and aging testing for evaluating their durabilities. Bacterial testing was performed to determine the antimicrobial efficacies of the samples. The results demonstrated that many of the treated samples exhibited promising antibacterial effectiveness.

Cho, Unchin

2003-10-01

137

Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE). MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhador [...] es de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, condições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação), com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05) nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008), deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they [...] were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores) RESULTS: No significant differences (p

Ricardo Jorge, Metzner; Frida Marina, Fischer; Diogo Pupo, Nogueira.

2008-12-01

138

Hygiene monitoring systems for hospital textile laundering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main aim of washing laundry is to remove soils and microorganisms from infected and dirty textiles and achieve clean, fresh and disinfected textiles ready for use. Textiles undergo laundering processes, which include: soil removal with special laundering agents

Fijan, Sabina; S?ostar-turk, Sonja

2012-01-01

139

29 CFR 1910.262 - Textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Textiles. 1910.262 Section 1910.262... Special Industries § 1910.262 Textiles. (a) Application requirements ...The requirements of this subpart for textile safety apply to the design,...

2010-07-01

140

Health workers' views on quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and postnatal care for HIV-infected women and their children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been considered as not a simple intervention but a comprehensive set of interventions requiring capable health workers. Viet Nam's extensive health care system reaches the village level, but still HIV-infected mothers and children have received inadequate health care services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We report here the health workers' perceptions on factors that lead to their failure to give good quality prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. Methods Semistructured interviews with 53 health workers and unstructured observations in nine health facilities in Hanoi were conducted. Selection of respondents was based on their function, position and experience in the development or implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission policies/programmes. Results Factors that lead to health workers' failure to give good quality services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission include their own fear of HIV infection; lack of knowledge on HIV and counselling skills; or high workloads and lack of staff; unavailability of HIV testing at commune level; shortage of antiretroviral drugs; and lack of operational guidelines. A negative attitude during counselling and provision of care, treating in a separate area and avoidance of providing service at all were seen by health workers as the result of fear of being infected, as well as distrust towards almost all HIV-infected patients because of the prevailing association with antisocial behaviours. Additionally, the fragmentation of the health care system into specialized vertical pillars, including a vertical programme for HIV/AIDS, is a major obstacle to providing a continuum of care. Conclusion Many hospital staff were not being able to provide good care or were even unwilling to provide appropriate care for HIV-positive pregnant women The study suggests that the quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission service could be enhanced by improving communication and other skills of health workers, providing them with greater support and enhancing their motivation. Reduction of workload would also be important. Development of a practical strategy is needed to strengthen and adapt the referral system to meet the needs of patients.

Hardon Anita

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Las mujeres y los movimientos de defensa laboral entre México y Estados Unidos: un análisis de su influencia en comunidades no fronterizas / Women and Workers' Rights Movements between Mexico and the United States: An Analysis of their Influence on Non-Border Communities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde la década de los sesenta, cientos de fábricas ensambladoras se instalaron en la frontera norte de México con Estados Unidos. En la última década, miles de estas empresas conocidas como maquiladoras extendieron su presencia más allá de la frontera y se ubicaron en varias ciudades del país; lo q [...] ue expandió el área de acción de las organizaciones trasnacionales y nacionales de defensa laboral que habían actuado en la frontera. El propósito de este artículo es analizar la influencia de dichas formas de organización trasnacional y nacional de defensa laboral en comunidades alejadas de la frontera norte de México, lugar en donde se originaron las primeras formas de organización de defensa para las trabajadoras de la maquila, como lo ilustra el caso de las obreras de la empresa textil Kukdong -hoy Mexmode- en la ciudad de Atlixco, Puebla, al sur del país. Estas mujeres contaron con el apoyo de redes trasnacionales y nacionales de defensa laboral para mejorar sus condiciones de trabajo y conformar un sindicato independiente, lo que les permitió reconocer su potencial como gestoras de derechos laborales. Se parte del supuesto según el cual la participación política de las mujeres es indispensable en la construcción social de sus derechos laborales y que la presencia de organizaciones no gubernamentales ha sido un paso definitivo para generar su acción. Para ello se analiza el conflicto de la planta Kukdong mediante revisión hemerográfica, documentos internos de organizaciones y foros en los que participaron las mujeres. En un primer momento fue clara la importancia de las ONG, pero, al paso del tiempo, las mujeres tuvieron que enfrentar la ausencia de estas organizaciones en la continuación de sus luchas. Lo que muestra los límites de este tipo de organizaciones en proyectos de organización política de mayor alcance. Abstract in english Since the decade of the 1960s, hundreds of assembling factories have been installed on Mexico's northern border with United States. In the last decade, thousands of these businesses known as bonded assembly plants extended their presence beyond the border and they were located in several cities of t [...] he country (De la O, 2002), which expanded the area of action of both national and transnational organizations of labor defense that had acted along the border. The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of these forms of national and transnational labor defense organization in communities located far away from the northern border of Mexico (where the first defense organizations for maquiladora workers originated) as illustrated by of the case of female workers at the Kukdong -today Mexmode- textile company in the city of Atlixco, Puebla in the south of the country. These women enjoyed the support of national and transnational networks of labor defense to improve their working conditions and to create an independent union, which permitted them to recognize their potential as managers of labor rights. It is assumed that the political participation of women is indispensable in the social construction of their labor rights and that the presence of NGOs has been a definitive step in generating their action. It discusses the conflict in the Kukdong plant by review of library records, internal documents of organizations and forums in which women participated. At first, the importance of NGOs was clear, but, over time, women had to cope with the absence of these organizations in continuing their struggles. This shows the boundaries of such organizations in more far-reaching projects of political organization.

María Eugenia de la O, Martínez.

2008-06-01

142

Fixed textile shutters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with multifunctional properties, formed by the interwoven threads of a vigorous fixed formwork textile material (basalt, linen, silica and other glass yarns adhered by binding material. The innovative construction technology of production and installation of a new generation of textstone buildings has been registered as a brand TextStone. The fundamental difference between texstone and reinforced concrete and all known building materials is that the whole outer surface of solidified light binders is protected by strong, vigorous and fixed formwork made from inexpensive textile materials. Manufacturing textile shells allows using it as an internal finishing material, reducing or eliminating the cost of finishing work.The use of fixed textile construction shutters during the construction of buildings has obvious technical, economic, operational, sanitary and environmental benefits: short construction time (from 3 to 10 days, compact packaging and light weight of fabric shells, high fire resistance, frost resistance, ease of engineering services installation in the hollow communicating shells; minimal amount of finishing, roofing, heat and noise insulation works. Texstone is a durable solid monolithic construction that provides high viability and earthquakes, hurricanes wind, solar sultriness and frost resistance. Material complies with all sanitary and environmental requirements. Due to such physical, mechanical, operational, sanitary and ecological characteristics of the structure, long life and reduced assembly time textstone has great prospects for development and application in the future.

K.A. Chernova

2010-06-01

143

Dust exposure and mortality in an American chrysotile textile plant.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three parallel cohort studies of asbestos factory workers were undertaken to investigate the effects of mineral fibre type and industrial process on malignant mesothelioma, respiratory cancer, and asbestosis. This report describes the mortality of a cohort of 2543 men, defined as all those employed for at least a month from 1938 to 1958 in a textile plant in South Carolina in which chrysotile was the only type of asbestos used. Of these, 863 men (34%) had died before 31 December 1977, one fro...

Mcdonald, A. D.; Fry, J. S.; Woolley, A. J.; Mcdonald, J.

1983-01-01

144

A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras / Breastfeeding among children of women workers / El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Pira [...] cicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio [...] de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]). CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (South [...] eastern Brazil). Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination

Aline Alves, Brasileiro; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Sérgio Tadeu Martins, Marba; Rosana de Fátima, Possobon.

145

A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras / Breastfeeding among children of women workers / El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Pira [...] cicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio [...] de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]). CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (South [...] eastern Brazil). Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaig

Aline Alves, Brasileiro; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Sérgio Tadeu Martins, Marba; Rosana de Fátima, Possobon.

146

A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras Breastfeeding among children of women workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Piracicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno.OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil. Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify variables related to weaning in the fourth month of life. RES

Aline Alves Brasileiro

2012-08-01

147

Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years) In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs) of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility we...

Prabir Kumar Manna; De, Debasis; Debidas Ghosh

2012-01-01

148

The women of the Maghreb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women's status in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia is briefly summarized. It is based on a pamphlet produced by the Women's Committee of the Center for Arab Studies for Development, Canada. In Algeria, women's status has been severely restricted by fundamentalism. The independence of 1963 brought with it fundamentalist conditions: mosques became places for political sermons and schools were filled with Islamic zealots. The Family Code of 1984 was imposed. It considered women minors for life, polygamy and divorce freely available for men, and threats to women's right to vote. In 1990, women's organizations in a large rally protested abolition of the 1984 law. The 1991 elections reflected the differences in opinions on women's issues and a 3rd party may be formed with democratic tendencies and support for the Women's Liberation Movement. Morocco also has an antidemocratic regime. 78% of women in 1982 were illiterate. Many work as domestics (56.5%) or in the textile (62%), agricultural, and industrial sectors. Little girls also work as apprentices in exchange for food and clothing. 100% of women are untrained while 100% of men are trained. Rural seasonal workers are ignored. Female employment rose in public services from 16% to 28% in 1989. 53% are engaged in menial occupations; 36% are teachers, secretaries, or nurses. Prostitution thrived when oil merchants invaded. Most women are divorced or widowed, and consequently must work for subsistence because the family code does not permit these women economic independence. In the 1970s men and women protested the royal family's codes. Tunisian women have a more privileged position, due in part to the support from the male feminist leader, Tahar El Haddad, who wrote a book espousing the right of divorce and equal rights in education, and condemning polygamy, sex segregation, and the veil. In 1956, the code changed and forced marriage and polygamy were prohibited. Implementation lags behind the law. Islamic law still gives women 50% of the males' inheritance. Constraints are an economic crisis due to decreased exports to Europe, the Gulf war which ended tourism, the opening of eastern European markets to western Europe, and fundamentalist pressure. It has been proposed that Islamic Shari'a be more progressively interpreted, and state laws be secularized. The Tahar el Haddad Club is a strong feminist group. PMID:12317570

Ghurayyib, R

1992-01-01

149

Risk Points of Flame Retardant Textiles by Halogen and Halogen-Free Laminating Film  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was to develop the flame retardant (FR protective clothing which had multifunction such anti-bacterial, UV cut, FR function with water repellent and water vapor permeable laminating textiles for industrial workers. First of all, the FR yarn and FR textiles were developed for this purpose. Second, the comparison analysis between the halogen laminating textiles and halogen-free laminating textiles were tested to figure out the eco-friendly laminating method. Third, the flame retardant ability was compared the halogen laminated textiles to halogen-free laminated textiles. LOI, UV protection ratio, antibiosis after 50 laundry test, water proof pressure, and moisture permeability of developed textiles were tested. GC-HR-TOF-MS was used for analysis of laminating film (halogen and halogen-free. 4.1 wt% TiO2 yarn showed antibacterial function (Pneumococcus & Staphylococcus aureus: 99.9%, UV Protection (UVA: 90.8, UVB: 92.1, and LOI (33.6. The chosen optimal compounding ratio for PU compound of HRF and HFFR were as followed: PU resin 58.3%, DMF (Dimethyl formamide, ? = 12.2 8.3%, MEK (Methylethylketone 8.3% and FR (flame retardants 25.0%. Binder for laminating should not be included over 10% of FRs because of adhesion between textiles and FR laminating film. There were detected phosphorus compounds in the textiles treated by halogenated type flame retardants and halogenated-free type flame retardants. There were not any detected harmful compounds from all textile samples.

Yoon Jeong Baek

2014-09-01

150

Analysis of textile chemicals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different Chemical analysis methods have been practiced to determine and identify chemicals in textiles. Methods like HPLC, GC-MS, Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry are among the many. As for HPLC, it is a method involves a process of passing a liquid sample over a solid to hold material in a column by applying a flow liquid solvent. In GC-MS two methods are involved, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in order to identify a test sample. Colorimetric method uses human eyes capability o...

Lemma, Tsegaye Zegeye

2013-01-01

151

Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women: a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ?18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4% were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return; 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez. All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9% were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8% had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first intervention to attempt to simultaneously reduce injection and sexual risk behaviors among FSW-IDUs. The factorial design will permit analysis to determine whether the combination of the two interactive interventions and/or its respective components are effective in reducing injection and/or sexual risks, which will have direct, tangible policy implications for Mexico and potentially other resource-poor countries. Trial registration NCT00840658

Vera Alicia

2012-08-01

152

Textiles of the Phu Thai of Laos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis documents the hand-woven textiles that the Phu Thai ethnic group living in Savannakhet Province, Laos, produce. The various stages of textile production and the uses of textiles in Phu Thai society, especially as identity markers, are also examined. Textiles of neighboring groups are also investigated to how knowledge of textile technology, types, and aesthetics are transferred between the Phu Thai and other ethnicities, specifically the Lao and Katang. The study's field research ...

Mcintosh, Linda Susan

2009-01-01

153

Textiles in Transit. An Investigation of Contract Textiles in Airport Terminals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The selection of textiles for public spaces is an essential task for interior designers, as they must decide whether and where textiles are needed as well as to what extent. Due to the wide availability and variety of textiles, the choice of materials and qualities becomes a challenging task, requiring interdisciplinary dialogue between textile and interior professionals. The objective of this thesis is to describe the contract textile business, the relationship between textile designers ...

Fislage, Victoria

2012-01-01

154

Auxetic warp knit textile structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, manufacturing and characterization of warp knit textile structures with enhanced drapeability and energy absorption is reported in this paper. Four textile structures were produced, all based on a triangular or double arrowhead structure, which is known to lead to a negative Poisson's ratio {nu}. Mechanical testing has confirmed that textile structures can be produced which are auxetic at {+-} 45 to the warp direction, with {nu} of up to -0.22 {+-} 0.03. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Alderson, Kim; Alderson, Andrew; Anand, Subhash; Simkins, Virginia; Nazare, Shonali; Ravirala, Naveen [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, The University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15

155

Disruptores endocrinos utilizados en la industria textil-confección en España / Endocrine disruptors used in textile industry in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del [...] textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39). Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias. Abstract in english Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk preventi [...] on in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organizations agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39). Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.

Rafael, Gadea; Laura, Mundemurra; Tatiana, Santos; Ruth, Jiménez; Ana M., García.

156

Disruptores endocrinos utilizados en la industria textil-confección en España Endocrine disruptors used in textile industry in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39. Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias.Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk prevention in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organizations agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39. Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.

Rafael Gadea

2009-03-01

157

Crisis Workers' Attributions for Domestic Violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…

Madden, Margaret E.

158

Worker Entrepreneurship.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

Doucouliagos, Chris

1992-01-01

159

Wearable solar cells by stacking textile electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new and general method to produce flexible, wearable dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) textiles by the stacking of two textile electrodes has been developed. A metal-textile electrode that was made from micrometer-sized metal wires was used as a working electrode, while the textile counter electrode was woven from highly aligned carbon nanotube fibers with high mechanical strengths and electrical conductivities. The resulting DSC textile exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency that was well maintained under bending. Compared with the woven DSC textiles that are based on wire-shaped devices, this stacked DSC textile unexpectedly exhibited a unique deformation from a rectangle to a parallelogram, which is highly desired in portable electronics. This lightweight and wearable stacked DSC textile is superior to conventional planar DSCs because the energy conversion efficiency of the stacked DSC textile was independent of the angle of incident light. PMID:24789065

Pan, Shaowu; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Peining; Deng, Jue; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

2014-06-10

160

TEXTILE DYEBATH RECONSTITUTION AND REUSE  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the recent demonstration of the application of an important wastewater recycle technology (reconstitution and reuse of spent dyebath solutions) to the textile industry. After several months of bench and pilot testing, the technology was demonstrated under prod...

 
 
 
 
161

Nanotechnology in Fibres and Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are considered tobe the key technology for the recent era. Efforts are beingworldwide to create smart and intelligent textiles byincorporating various nano particles or by creatingnanostructured surfaces and nanofibres which lead tounprecedented level of textile performance such as stainresistant, self cleaning, antistatic, UV protective and variouschemical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paperis to examine the implications of nanotechnology for the fibreand textile industries in the world. The basics and impacts ofnanotechnology are discussed in terms of various advancedproducts by different manufactured along with the properties ofthe products. With an appreciation of what nanotechnologies areemerging globally in the fibre and textile areas, the localindustry will have the necessary background to ask the rightquestions and make informed decisions.

Mr. Subhankar Maity

2013-11-01

162

Patterns of Change: Transitions in Hmong Textile Language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In traditional Hmong life, women produced complex textiles as markers of clan identity and cultural values. Paj ntaub (flower cloth), created by embroidery, appliqué, reverse appliqué, and indigo batik (among the Blue or Green Hmong), were primary transmitters of Hmong culture from one generation to the next over centuries. Clothing, funeral and courtship cloths, baby carriers and hats were designed with traditionally geometric, abstract patterns Hmong could understand as a shared visual la...

Geraldine Craig

2010-01-01

163

Lover, mother or worker : women's multiple roles and the HIV/AIDS and reproductive health agenda in Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

International and national campaigns to prevent HIV/AIDS and efforts to promote reproductive health remain separate in terms of conceptualisation and implementation. Local negotiations around reproductive health issues similarly seem to lack explicit attention to HIV/AIDS. This paper argues that even in reproductive health clinics a gap exists between the extent of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and AIDS talk. There also appears to be a mismatch between collective knowledge of the behavioural and biomedical context of HIV/AIDS and the socio-economic context of AIDS as a lived experience. Using an ethnographic account, I explore how one woman's lived experience and her knowledge of AIDS can teach us to take HIV/AIDS into account when theorising, promoting or providing services for improving African women's reproductive health. The background for this ethnography comes from data collected during 25 months of fieldwork at 10 maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) clinic sites in the Morogoro, Ruvuma and Kilimanjaro regions of Tanzania. Rehema's story shows that AIDS, like other diseases, is significantly linked to host-susceptibility and economic vulnerability. Separate and competing vertical programmes on AIDS and MCH/FP, as commonly encountered throughout Africa, cannot meet the needs of women in countries like Tanzania. Yet, we still hear most often of abstinence, anti-retrovirals and condom use as the primary focus of HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention in Africa.

Richey, Lisa Ann

2005-01-01

164

Mulheres, migrantes, trabalhadoras: a segregação no mercado de trabalho / Women, migrants, workers: segregation in the labor market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho, ancorado em uma pesquisa desenvolvida no âmbito do Centro Scalabriniano de Estudos Migratórios, analisa a experiência vivida por mulheres migrantes em diversos países centrando a reflexão na dimensão do trabalho no contexto do processo migratório internacional. Tomando como pont [...] o de partida a perspectiva das próprias protagonistas - paraguaias no Brasil, brasileiras nos Estados Unidos, haitianas na República Dominicana, colombianas no Equador, filipinas na Itália e nicaraguenses na Costa Rica -, busca-se identificar dificuldades enfrentadas no que refere à vida profissional dessas mulheres. Parte-se do entendimento de que a migração pode ser vista como uma alternativa para escapar de situações de pobreza e exclusão do mercado de trabalho no país de origem. A pesquisa aponta a existência de segregação no mercado de trabalho. Abstract in english The present work, anchored on a research developed at CSEM, analyzes the lived experience of migrant women in several countries, focusing on the labor dimension in the context of the international migration process. Taking as a starting point the perspective of the protagonists themselves - Paraguay [...] ans in Brazil, Brazilians in the United States, Haitians in the Dominican Republic, Colombians in Ecuador, Filipinas in Italy, and Nicaraguans in Costa Rica -, the paper strives to identify difficulties related to the professional lives of these women. It is assumed that migration can be seen as an alternative to escape situations of poverty and exclusion in the labor market in their country of origin. The research indicates the existence of segregation in the labor market.

Delia, Dutra.

2013-06-01

165

Mulheres, migrantes, trabalhadoras: a segregação no mercado de trabalho / Women, migrants, workers: segregation in the labor market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho, ancorado em uma pesquisa desenvolvida no âmbito do Centro Scalabriniano de Estudos Migratórios, analisa a experiência vivida por mulheres migrantes em diversos países centrando a reflexão na dimensão do trabalho no contexto do processo migratório internacional. Tomando como pont [...] o de partida a perspectiva das próprias protagonistas - paraguaias no Brasil, brasileiras nos Estados Unidos, haitianas na República Dominicana, colombianas no Equador, filipinas na Itália e nicaraguenses na Costa Rica -, busca-se identificar dificuldades enfrentadas no que refere à vida profissional dessas mulheres. Parte-se do entendimento de que a migração pode ser vista como uma alternativa para escapar de situações de pobreza e exclusão do mercado de trabalho no país de origem. A pesquisa aponta a existência de segregação no mercado de trabalho. Abstract in english The present work, anchored on a research developed at CSEM, analyzes the lived experience of migrant women in several countries, focusing on the labor dimension in the context of the international migration process. Taking as a starting point the perspective of the protagonists themselves - Paraguay [...] ans in Brazil, Brazilians in the United States, Haitians in the Dominican Republic, Colombians in Ecuador, Filipinas in Italy, and Nicaraguans in Costa Rica -, the paper strives to identify difficulties related to the professional lives of these women. It is assumed that migration can be seen as an alternative to escape situations of poverty and exclusion in the labor market in their country of origin. The research indicates the existence of segregation in the labor market.

Delia, Dutra.

166

Mutagenicity assessment of effluents from textile/dye industries of Sanganer, Jaipur (India): a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sanganer town, district Jaipur (Rajasthan, India), is famous worldwide for its dyeing and printing industries. There are about 400 industries involved in textile printing processes, which discharge effluents into nearby ponds and drains, without any treatment. These effluents contain highly toxic dyes, bleaching agents, salts, acids, and alkalis. Heavy metals like cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, and iron are also found in the dye effluents. Textile workers are exposed to such waters with no control over the length and frequency of exposure. Further, as the untreated effluents are discharged into the environment they can cause severe contamination of surface and underground water. Environmental pollution caused by such textile effluents results in adverse effects on flora, fauna, and the general health of not only the textile workers, but also the residents of Sanganer town. Therefore, to assess the possible genotoxic health risk and environmental genotoxicity due to the textile industry effluents, this study was carried out using the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay. The results clearly indicate that the effluents and the surface water of Amani Shah drainage have high mutagenic activity. Further, the drainage water and the dry bed of the drainage (during summer months) are not fit for agricultural or other recreational purposes. A low level of mutagenicity in the underground water of Sanganer again emphasizes the grave pollution problem existing in the area. Multiple post hoc comparison tests (LSD, Tukey's) were used for comparison of sample site, dose, and length of exposure. Quadratic Model was found to adequately fit the observed data. PMID:15814316

Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Nagar, Pankaj; Bijarnia, Mahendra Kumar

2005-05-01

167

Supplement to the "Compendium of Occupational Profiles at the Skilled Blue- and White-collar Worker Level." Situations and Trends: Supply and Demand for Skilled Workers. CEDEFOP Panorama. Supplement.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the supply and demand for skilled workers in the following sectors throughout the member countries of the European Community: agriculture (including horticulture and forestry); food industry and trades; hotels, restaurants, and catering industry; tourism; transport; textile industry; textile clothing; leather; wood; building…

Sellin, Burkart

168

Enhancing benefits or increasing harms: community responses for HIV among men who have sex with men, transgender women, female sex workers, and people who inject drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies completed over the past 15 years have consistently demonstrated the importance of community-level determinants in potentiating or mitigating risks for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or mitigate HIV-related outcomes for key populations. The results of the review suggest that although health communication programs represent community-level strategies that have demonstrated the effectiveness in increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the experienced stigma among people living with HIV, there are limited studies focused on key populations in low- and middle-income settings. Moreover, interpretation from the 22 studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria reinforce the importance of the continued measurement of community-level determinants of HIV risks and of the innovation in tools to effectively address these risks as components of the next generation of the HIV response. Consequently, the next generation of effective HIV prevention science research must improve our understanding of the multiple levels of HIV risk factors, while programming for key populations must address each of these risk levels. Failure to do so will cost lives, harm communities, and undermine the gains of the HIV response. PMID:25007203

Baral, Stefan; Holland, Claire E; Shannon, Kate; Logie, Carmen; Semugoma, Paul; Sithole, Bhekie; Papworth, Erin; Drame, Fatou; Beyrer, Chris

2014-08-15

169

Illustrated glossary of textile terms for composites  

Science.gov (United States)

A glossary was developed to define textile terminology applicable to the manufacture of composites. Terms describing fabric structure were illustrated for clarity. Descriptive terms for defects from both textile and composites industry were included.

Pastore, Christopher M.

1993-01-01

170

A biological treatment technique for wool textile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biological treatment technique for wool textile was carried out by enzymes degradation coupled with H2O2 oxidation. The results demonstrated that the technique had ideal effects on wool textile such as better softness, plump and less loss of bursting stress. Because of mild reaction conditions, less textile damage and less environmental pollution, this technique for wool textile treatment could have promising prospect.

Yu Xiao-Wei

2005-09-01

171

Textiles para turistas: tejedoras y comerciantes en los Altos de Chiapas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work investigates the role played by indigenous women as producers and sellers of textile pieces, considered handworks and indigenous tradition, with high demand in the tourism market in the region to the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. The presence of tourism in the area has led to the consolidation of a complex local market of textiles in which intertwine weavers, distributors and traders, commercial chains and multiple retail spaces. Through this female agency and marketing of “indigenous”, the research studied a local context that allows indigenous women take new social positions while it integrates social global goods and imaginary aspects.

Eugenia Bayona Escat

2013-04-01

172

Plasma treatment advantages for textiles  

CERN Document Server

The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

Sparavigna, Amelia

2008-01-01

173

Electrical Conductivity in Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

2006-01-01

174

A indústria têxtil, suas trabalhadoras e os censos da população de Minas Gerais do século XIX: uma reavaliação / The textile industry, women's work, and the 19th century censuses of the population of Minas Gerais: a new appraisal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo é reavaliar as informações sobre as ocupações dos habitantes de Minas Gerais, de modo a retificar o lugar de destaque da indústria têxtil na economia da Província. As evidências aqui apresentadas são inéditas e resultaram de um novo esquema de classificação das ocupações orig [...] inárias de dois registros oficiais, a saber, as Listas Nominativas da População de Minas Gerais de 1831-32 e o Recenseamento Geral do Império de 1872. Com base nessa classifica- ção, pôde-se recompor a estrutura ocupacional da população e, então, confirmar e reabilitar a importância da indústria têxtil, e de suas mulheres trabalhadoras, na economia do período. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to reconsider the information about occupation of the population of Minas Gerais, in order to rectify the prominence of the textile industry in its economy. The evidence presented here is original and has been derived from a new classificatory scheme based on data provided b [...] y two official records, namely the Nominative Lists of the Population of Minas Gerais for the years 1831-32 and the 1872 General Census of the Empire. On the basis of such scheme, it was then possible to reconstruct the occupational structure of the population, and therefore reinforce as well as restore the importance of textiles, and of female labour, in the economy of the time.

Concessa Vaz de, Macedo.

175

A indústria têxtil, suas trabalhadoras e os censos da população de Minas Gerais do século XIX: uma reavaliação / The textile industry, women's work, and the 19th century censuses of the population of Minas Gerais: a new appraisal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo é reavaliar as informações sobre as ocupações dos habitantes de Minas Gerais, de modo a retificar o lugar de destaque da indústria têxtil na economia da Província. As evidências aqui apresentadas são inéditas e resultaram de um novo esquema de classificação das ocupações orig [...] inárias de dois registros oficiais, a saber, as Listas Nominativas da População de Minas Gerais de 1831-32 e o Recenseamento Geral do Império de 1872. Com base nessa classifica- ção, pôde-se recompor a estrutura ocupacional da população e, então, confirmar e reabilitar a importância da indústria têxtil, e de suas mulheres trabalhadoras, na economia do período. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to reconsider the information about occupation of the population of Minas Gerais, in order to rectify the prominence of the textile industry in its economy. The evidence presented here is original and has been derived from a new classificatory scheme based on data provided b [...] y two official records, namely the Nominative Lists of the Population of Minas Gerais for the years 1831-32 and the 1872 General Census of the Empire. On the basis of such scheme, it was then possible to reconstruct the occupational structure of the population, and therefore reinforce as well as restore the importance of textiles, and of female labour, in the economy of the time.

Concessa Vaz de, Macedo.

2006-06-01

176

Profesionales de atención primaria de Madrid y violencia de pareja hacia la mujer en el año 2012 / Workers in Primary Health Care and Partner Violence Against Women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: La morbilidad asociada a la violencia de pareja hacia la mujer (VPHM) justifica que sus víctimas acudan reiteradamente a los centros de salud. La accesibilidad y continuidad asistencial hacen de la atención primaria (AP) el lugar idóneo para su detección y primer abordaje. Sin embargo, [...] los datos reflejan las dificultades de los/as profesionales para lograr este fin. El objetivo es analizar el nivel de conocimientos, opiniones, barreras organizativas percibidas y propuestas de mejora de los profesionales de AP. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo realizado mediante una encuesta anónima y autoadministrada durante los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2010, dirigida a todos/as profesionales de AP del área 8 de Madrid. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables y la chi² para comparar las respuestas obtenidas. Resultados: Tasa de respuesta 170 (21,4%). 118 (70,7%) profesionales creen que este es un problema importante y 154 (91,7%) que habitualmente pasa desapercibido. 91 (55,2%) conocen las obligaciones legales que tienen cuando la detectan. 73 (51,8%) piensan que existen barreras organizativas. Entre ellas: presión asistencial 50(29%), fa de formación específica 40(23,5%), desconocimiento del procedimiento a seguir 20(11,8%) y de las competencias de cada profesional 12(7%). Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos medio para todas las categorías profesionales estudiadas, excepto para trabajo social que es alto. Los/as profesionales de AP consideran que la VPHM es un problema importante que pasa desapercibido. La mitad de ellos/as conocen las obligaciones legales que conlleva la detección. Existen barreras organizativas y estereotipos. Abstract in english Background: Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Heh Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to [...] achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of primary care. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi² to compare the answers. Results: Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). Conclusions: All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.

Ana Belén, Arredondo-Provecho; Manuel, Broco-Barredo; Teresa, Alcalá-Ponce de León; Araceli, Rivera-Álvarez; Isabel, Jiménez Trujillo; Carmen, Gallardo-Pino.

2012-02-01

177

Profesionales de atención primaria de Madrid y violencia de pareja hacia la mujer en el año 2012 / Workers in Primary Health Care and Partner Violence Against Women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: La morbilidad asociada a la violencia de pareja hacia la mujer (VPHM) justifica que sus víctimas acudan reiteradamente a los centros de salud. La accesibilidad y continuidad asistencial hacen de la atención primaria (AP) el lugar idóneo para su detección y primer abordaje. Sin embargo, [...] los datos reflejan las dificultades de los/as profesionales para lograr este fin. El objetivo es analizar el nivel de conocimientos, opiniones, barreras organizativas percibidas y propuestas de mejora de los profesionales de AP. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo realizado mediante una encuesta anónima y autoadministrada durante los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2010, dirigida a todos/as profesionales de AP del área 8 de Madrid. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables y la chi² para comparar las respuestas obtenidas. Resultados: Tasa de respuesta 170 (21,4%). 118 (70,7%) profesionales creen que este es un problema importante y 154 (91,7%) que habitualmente pasa desapercibido. 91 (55,2%) conocen las obligaciones legales que tienen cuando la detectan. 73 (51,8%) piensan que existen barreras organizativas. Entre ellas: presión asistencial 50(29%), fa de formación específica 40(23,5%), desconocimiento del procedimiento a seguir 20(11,8%) y de las competencias de cada profesional 12(7%). Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos medio para todas las categorías profesionales estudiadas, excepto para trabajo social que es alto. Los/as profesionales de AP consideran que la VPHM es un problema importante que pasa desapercibido. La mitad de ellos/as conocen las obligaciones legales que conlleva la detección. Existen barreras organizativas y estereotipos. Abstract in english Background: Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Heh Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to [...] achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of primary care. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi² to compare the answers. Results: Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). Conclusions: All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.

Ana Belén, Arredondo-Provecho; Manuel, Broco-Barredo; Teresa, Alcalá-Ponce de León; Araceli, Rivera-Álvarez; Isabel, Jiménez Trujillo; Carmen, Gallardo-Pino.

2012-02-01

178

TEXTILE STRUCTURES FOR AERONAUTICS (PART II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforcement for composites. This paper describes different tests done in our textile labs from unidirectional structures to woven, knitted or braided 3 D textile structures. Advantages and disadvantages of each textile structure are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with our know-how in the manufacturing and assessing of three-dimensional textile structures during this last five years in the field of textile structures for composites but also in the development of structures for other applications. In the field of composites for aeronautic sector we have developed textile structures using the main methods of textile production, that is to say, weaving, warp knitting, weft knitting and braiding. Comparing the advantages and disadvantages it could be said that braided fabrics, with a structure in the three space axes are the most suitable for fittings and frames.

SOLER Miquel

2014-05-01

179

Workers' Page  

Science.gov (United States)

... RSS Feeds Occupational Safety & Health Administration We Can Help What's New | Offices Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Menu Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & ...

180

Worker Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)

Shepherd, W. F.

1973-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Clothing and Textile Student Modules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-seven performance-based instructional modules on six major topics are provided for the home economics content area of clothing and textiles. The six topics are (1) planning basics (psychological, physical, social, and behavioral aspects of clothing; elements of design; principles of design; and style and fashion in clothing), (2) buyership…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

182

The Textile Form of Sound  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex three-dimensional geometries of interfering spheres are created. Textiles are generally a very good sound dampening material. To dampen the sound most effective it should be placed where the sound energy is highest. To find these invisible spots of energy and to reveal the geometry of them, two experiments were carried out. One experiment was done in a laboratory with a sound measure instrument andtextiles arranged in different positions and shapes. Here the high energy spots were located. The other experiment is ongoing and is an investigation of how textiles can take the shape of the sound goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form.

Bendixen, Cecilie

183

Quem sente é a gente, mas é preciso relevar: a lombalgia na vida das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau - Santa Catarina / One feels it but one must overlook it: low back pain in the life of women working in the textile sector of Blumenau - Santa Catarina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de compreender o enfrentamento da lombalgia no cotidiano de mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, Santa Catarina. Três mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil daquela cidade foram as informantes principais do estudo, desenvolvido em encontros [...] quinzenais e visitas a locais de trabalho. Foram utilizados como ferramentas de estudo um calendário com data e dias da semana para a marcação de dores relativas à lombalgia e uma Escala Análogo Visual (EAV). Além de relatos anotados em formulários de acompanhamento dos encontros quinzenais, utilizou-se um diário de campo para transcrição de fatos e relatos. Os dados coletados levaram à construção de duas categorias interpretativas: a dor lombar sob o aspecto da normalidade e a dor sentida. Os resultados da pesquisa levam à conclusão de que a lombalgia, sob o ponto de vista das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, apresenta-se como uma espécie de conflito entre a dor normal, sem importância social, e a dor sentida e limitante, que traz sofrimentos e angústias no âmbito privado. A dualidade da lombalgia é marcante, pois são mulheres que têm dor, real para elas, com um impacto importante para suas vidas, mas elas mesmas esforçam-se por negligenciá-la, seguindo a concepção socialmente aceita para esta questão no contexto cultural da região. O conceito de lombalgia construído é de algo inerente à vida e ao trabalho, o que não permite o direito de estar doente. Abstract in english This study was developed with the objective of understanding how women working in the textile sector of Blumenau, state of Santa Catarina, cope with low back pain. Three women who worked in the textile sector of that city were the main informants of the study, developed in biweekly meetings and visi [...] ts to workplaces. The study tools were a calendar with dates and week days, where the participants should mark the occurrence of low back pain, and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Besides accounts registered in forms during the meetings, a field diary for transcription of facts and accounts was used. The collected data led to the construction of two interpretative categories: low back pain under the aspect of normality and felt pain. In light of the results, it is possible to conclude that low back pain, in the point of view of the women from the textile sector of Blumenau, is expressed as a kind of conflict between normal pain, without social importance, and the felt pain, which is restrictive and brings suffering and anguish in the private scope. The duality of low back pain is outstanding, because these are women who feel pain, which is real for them and has an important impact on their lives, but they make an effort to neglect it, following the socially accepted conception for this issue in the region's cultural context. The constructed concept of low back pain is of something inherent in life and work, which does not give them the right to feel ill.

Karine Muniz, Polizelli; Silvana Nair, Leite.

2010-06-01

184

Quem sente é a gente, mas é preciso relevar: a lombalgia na vida das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau - Santa Catarina One feels it but one must overlook it: low back pain in the life of women working in the textile sector of Blumenau - Santa Catarina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de compreender o enfrentamento da lombalgia no cotidiano de mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, Santa Catarina. Três mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil daquela cidade foram as informantes principais do estudo, desenvolvido em encontros quinzenais e visitas a locais de trabalho. Foram utilizados como ferramentas de estudo um calendário com data e dias da semana para a marcação de dores relativas à lombalgia e uma Escala Análogo Visual (EAV. Além de relatos anotados em formulários de acompanhamento dos encontros quinzenais, utilizou-se um diário de campo para transcrição de fatos e relatos. Os dados coletados levaram à construção de duas categorias interpretativas: a dor lombar sob o aspecto da normalidade e a dor sentida. Os resultados da pesquisa levam à conclusão de que a lombalgia, sob o ponto de vista das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, apresenta-se como uma espécie de conflito entre a dor normal, sem importância social, e a dor sentida e limitante, que traz sofrimentos e angústias no âmbito privado. A dualidade da lombalgia é marcante, pois são mulheres que têm dor, real para elas, com um impacto importante para suas vidas, mas elas mesmas esforçam-se por negligenciá-la, seguindo a concepção socialmente aceita para esta questão no contexto cultural da região. O conceito de lombalgia construído é de algo inerente à vida e ao trabalho, o que não permite o direito de estar doente.This study was developed with the objective of understanding how women working in the textile sector of Blumenau, state of Santa Catarina, cope with low back pain. Three women who worked in the textile sector of that city were the main informants of the study, developed in biweekly meetings and visits to workplaces. The study tools were a calendar with dates and week days, where the participants should mark the occurrence of low back pain, and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Besides accounts registered in forms during the meetings, a field diary for transcription of facts and accounts was used. The collected data led to the construction of two interpretative categories: low back pain under the aspect of normality and felt pain. In light of the results, it is possible to conclude that low back pain, in the point of view of the women from the textile sector of Blumenau, is expressed as a kind of conflict between normal pain, without social importance, and the felt pain, which is restrictive and brings suffering and anguish in the private scope. The duality of low back pain is outstanding, because these are women who feel pain, which is real for them and has an important impact on their lives, but they make an effort to neglect it, following the socially accepted conception for this issue in the region's cultural context. The constructed concept of low back pain is of something inherent in life and work, which does not give them the right to feel ill.

Karine Muniz Polizelli

2010-06-01

185

EDIPTEX : Environmental assessment of textiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EDIPTEX project has three main deliverables. These are 1. Modelling of the lifecycle of six textile products and calculation of the connected environmental impact 2. Obtaining almost 500 textile unit processes following the EDIP unit process data format 3. Calculation of equivalency factors for a number of chemicals For each of the deliverables extensive documentation material exists, which is published in this report. In the EDIPTEX project, a number of lifecycle assessments (environmental assessments) were carried out on textile products. But an extensive and detailed lifecycle assessment case is not particularly information friendly - only to other lifecycle assessment experts and consultants. The Programme for Cleaner Products etc. has therefore supported a dissemination project "Information on EDIPTEX". In this dissemination project the six EDIPTEX environmental assessments were transformed into six leaflets which, on only four pages each and in a professional layout, outline the environmental profile of the six products. The six environmental assessments include: A T-shirt of 100% cotton /1/ A jogging suit of nylon microfibres with a cotton lining /2/ A work jacket of 65 per cent polyester and 35 per cent cotton /3/ A blouse of viscose, nylon and elastane /4/ A tablecloth of cotton /5/ A floor covering of nylon and polypropylene /6/ The present report informs in detail about methods and principles used in the environmental assessments of the six selected EDIPTEX textile products. The major part of the lifecycle is common for many textile products, e.g. energy production, production of raw materials (e.g. cultivation and harvesting cotton), certain production processes (such as dyeing polyester), washing and ironing in the use phase and incineration during disposal. Such basic data have been established during the EDIPTEX project. The EDIPTEX project has been based upon the nationally and internationally recognised environmental assessment method EDIP - "Environmental Design of Industrial Products". The project has obtained environmental data for several hundred processes "from cradle to grave" in the lifecycle of textiles. EDIPTEX environmental data and a PC tool provide the possibility for combining the lifecycle of a textile product from cradle to grave, process by process, on the computer screen through a modelling, and letting the computers calculate the equivalency impacts. EDIPTEX environmental data and the environmental assessments, which can be modelled on the basis of these data, thus represent a unique tool in connection with e.g. preparing and documenting lifecycle assessments and environmental declarations for goods. In connection with the project "Information on EDIPTEX" a leaflet has been prepared "EDIP environmental data for textiles - a survey" /7/, which gives an overview of the environmental data, so that others can use the data during environmental assessment of textiles. All data are now also available in the PC tool GaBi EDIP - the successor of the EDIP PC tool. For anumber of commonly occurring emissions (discharges) and for emissions which have been assessed in previous projects within EDIP, equivalency factors had already been established. But for a number emissions, no equivalency factors had been calculated. If these emissions were to be included in the calculations of the contribution of a product on the impact categories regarding toxicity, equivalency factors for the substances would have to be calculated, and they would have to be included in the PC tool. In the EDIPTEX case scenarios, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity for approx. 50 textile specific chemicals are used. Within the EDIPTEX project, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity have been calculated for approx. 35 different substances, which are part of the very often composite chemicals. Further, approx. 20 substances are assessed as unproblematic regarding ecotoxicity and human toxicity in discharges via wastewater treatment plants. Fate factors for the technosphere for the substances h

Laursen, SØren Ellebæk; Hansen, John

2007-01-01

186

Prevalence and causative agents of superficial mycoses in a textile factory in Adana, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out in a textile factory settled in the city center of Adana, Turkey. The workers were evaluated for the presence of superficial mycoses and the interaction of their working environment or working condition. A total of 431 textile workers were included in the study, with a male to female ratio of 378 (87.7%) to 53 (12.3%) and an age range of 19-52 (mean: 33.7 +/- 6.8). Direct examination and/or culture revealed superficial mycoses in 73 (16.9%) workers, among them 56 (76.7%) were classified as dermatophytoses, 8 (11.0%) as Pityriasis versicolor while in nine (12.3%) of the cases, no causative agent could be determined. Trichophyton rubrum (57.1%) and T. mentagrophytes (42.9%) were the two species isolated on culture. This study emphasized that textile workers should be admitted as a risk group for superficial mycoses, especially tinea pedis. PMID:12950903

Celik, E; Ilkit, M; Tanir, F

2003-09-01

187

Os melhores empregados: a inserção e a formação da mão-de-obra feminina em fábricas têxteis mineiras no final do século XIX / "The best employees": the insertion and training of the female workforce in textile factories in Minas Gerais State in the late 19th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute o processo de inserção e formação da mãode-obra feminina na indústria têxtil em Minas Gerais no final do século XIX, tomando para análise a Companhia de Fiação e Tecidos Cedro e Cachoeira. Como ocorrido em muitas outras fábricas têxteis, as mulheres foram durante muito tempo o ma [...] ior conjunto de trabalhadores desta Cia. Trabalhando como fiandeiras e tecelãs, as operárias ingressavam, muitas vezes, ainda jovens, passando boa parte da vida dentro das fábricas, inseridas em um tipo de relação que lhes ensinava a serem operárias e, ao mesmo tempo, as educava enquanto mulheres, a partir de determinados valores culturais, dentre os quais se destaca a religiosidade. Nesse sentido busca-se aqui refletir sobre como esse processo se materializava no cotidiano das fábricas, os aspectos aí envolvidos e suas principais implicações para a vida das trabalhadoras. Abstract in english This paper discusses the process of insertion and training of the female workforce in the textile industry in Minas Gerais State in the late nineteenth century, and for this purpose the Company of Textiles and Spinning Cedro e Cachoeira will be analyzed. As also happened in many other textile factor [...] ies, women have been for a long time the largest group of employees of that Company. Working as spinners and weavers, the women often started working at a young age, spending much of their life inside the factories, being part of a relationship that taught them to be workers and at the same time, educated them from certain cultural values, being the religion a relevant issue in this context. In this sense, reflections will be searched in order to understand how this process occurred in the daily life of plants, the aspects involved and their main implications for the lives of workers.

Junia de Souza, Lima.

188

Os melhores empregados: a inserção e a formação da mão-de-obra feminina em fábricas têxteis mineiras no final do século XIX "The best employees": the insertion and training of the female workforce in textile factories in Minas Gerais State in the late 19th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo discute o processo de inserção e formação da mãode-obra feminina na indústria têxtil em Minas Gerais no final do século XIX, tomando para análise a Companhia de Fiação e Tecidos Cedro e Cachoeira. Como ocorrido em muitas outras fábricas têxteis, as mulheres foram durante muito tempo o maior conjunto de trabalhadores desta Cia. Trabalhando como fiandeiras e tecelãs, as operárias ingressavam, muitas vezes, ainda jovens, passando boa parte da vida dentro das fábricas, inseridas em um tipo de relação que lhes ensinava a serem operárias e, ao mesmo tempo, as educava enquanto mulheres, a partir de determinados valores culturais, dentre os quais se destaca a religiosidade. Nesse sentido busca-se aqui refletir sobre como esse processo se materializava no cotidiano das fábricas, os aspectos aí envolvidos e suas principais implicações para a vida das trabalhadoras.This paper discusses the process of insertion and training of the female workforce in the textile industry in Minas Gerais State in the late nineteenth century, and for this purpose the Company of Textiles and Spinning Cedro e Cachoeira will be analyzed. As also happened in many other textile factories, women have been for a long time the largest group of employees of that Company. Working as spinners and weavers, the women often started working at a young age, spending much of their life inside the factories, being part of a relationship that taught them to be workers and at the same time, educated them from certain cultural values, being the religion a relevant issue in this context. In this sense, reflections will be searched in order to understand how this process occurred in the daily life of plants, the aspects involved and their main implications for the lives of workers.

Junia de Souza Lima

2011-06-01

189

Os melhores empregados: a inserção e a formação da mão-de-obra feminina em fábricas têxteis mineiras no final do século XIX / "The best employees": the insertion and training of the female workforce in textile factories in Minas Gerais State in the late 19th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute o processo de inserção e formação da mãode-obra feminina na indústria têxtil em Minas Gerais no final do século XIX, tomando para análise a Companhia de Fiação e Tecidos Cedro e Cachoeira. Como ocorrido em muitas outras fábricas têxteis, as mulheres foram durante muito tempo o ma [...] ior conjunto de trabalhadores desta Cia. Trabalhando como fiandeiras e tecelãs, as operárias ingressavam, muitas vezes, ainda jovens, passando boa parte da vida dentro das fábricas, inseridas em um tipo de relação que lhes ensinava a serem operárias e, ao mesmo tempo, as educava enquanto mulheres, a partir de determinados valores culturais, dentre os quais se destaca a religiosidade. Nesse sentido busca-se aqui refletir sobre como esse processo se materializava no cotidiano das fábricas, os aspectos aí envolvidos e suas principais implicações para a vida das trabalhadoras. Abstract in english This paper discusses the process of insertion and training of the female workforce in the textile industry in Minas Gerais State in the late nineteenth century, and for this purpose the Company of Textiles and Spinning Cedro e Cachoeira will be analyzed. As also happened in many other textile factor [...] ies, women have been for a long time the largest group of employees of that Company. Working as spinners and weavers, the women often started working at a young age, spending much of their life inside the factories, being part of a relationship that taught them to be workers and at the same time, educated them from certain cultural values, being the religion a relevant issue in this context. In this sense, reflections will be searched in order to understand how this process occurred in the daily life of plants, the aspects involved and their main implications for the lives of workers.

Junia de Souza, Lima.

2011-06-01

190

TEXTILE STRUCTURES FOR AERONAUTICS (PART I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforcement for composites. This paper describes different tests done in our textile labs from unidirectional structures to woven, knitted or braided 3 D textile structures. Advantages and disadvantages of each textile structure are summarized. The first part of this paper deals with the introduction of our Textile Research Centre in the field of composites and carbon fiber as a main material to produce three – dimensional textile structures. The use of composite materials in aerospace structures has increased over the past decades. Our contribution related to this field consists of the development of three- dimensional textile structures and even the adaptation and improvement of machinery to do it possible. Carbon fiber provides advantages as volumetric fraction and minimum fault occurrence. However carbon fiber has also disadvantages as uncomfortable handling delamination and high cost of material and processing.

SOLER Miquel

2014-05-01

191

Hygiene monitoring of textiles used in the food industry Monitoramento da higiene de têxteis usados na indústria de alimentos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Protective clothing is required in the food-processing industry, to protect workers from contamination by bacteria, fungi, viruses, prions etc. contained in the secretions and raw meat of slaughtered animals, and to protect the meat from being contaminated by microorganisms carried by the workers. It is well-understood that textiles are a control point (CP), and must be appropriately cleaned and disinfected in order to prevent biocontamination. Although the laundering procedure itself is impo...

Sabina Fijan; Avrelija Cencic; Sonja Šostar Turk

2006-01-01

192

16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Commercial...STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal...

2010-01-01

193

Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic branches increased. In the early 1960s the employment of foreign workers was concentrated in 3 branches -- the construction sector (32% of all foreign workers), metal industries (16%), and textile industries (10%). In 1982 only 1/3 of all foreign workers were still employed in these branches as an infiltration by foreign labor had taken place in all sectors. The services sector showed the greatest increase in foreign employment since 1975. There has never been as strong a concentration of 1 nationality in a particular economic branch as in Switzerland, Germany, or France. Case studies in Austria reveal that it was an explicit policy for firms (and also unions and entrepreneur representatives) not to depend on only 1 nationality of foreign workers. According to the case studies, about 1/3 of all foreign workers today occupy jobs which are in direct competition with indigenous labor. Another 1/3 fill jobs which are complementary to indigenous labor. For the remainder it is difficult to say to what extent they belong to one or the other segment of the labor market, because there is no information available on the occupational job structure. PMID:12159579

Biffl, G

1985-03-01

194

Interactive Inspirational Tool for Responsive Textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From we are born and until we die, we are surrounded by textiles that are directly in contact with our skin as clothing, part of the interior environment in our homes, at work, in hospitals, in cars and in public transportation, or part of the outdoor environment as geotextiles. Many of these textiles are designed from aesthetic and functional requirements; some are designed for only one of the two kinds of requirements. Compared to most other (stiff) materials, textiles ...

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

2010-01-01

195

Corporate Social Responsibility In Textile Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of social responsibility is a fairly recent one in the business world. Awareness about the social responsibility of business organizations is rapidly on the rise and firms are also accepting this concept. The textile industry is no exception. Textile producing and trading firms are also realizing their responsibility towards the society and the environment. This article aims at analyzing the concept of social responsibility and the common ways in which textile firms try to fulfill...

2012-01-01

196

Ultrahydrophobic Textiles Using Nanoparticles: Lotus Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well established that the water wettability of ma-terials is governed by both the chemical composition and the geometrical microstructure of the surface.1 Traditional textile wet processing treatments do in-deed rely fundamentally upon complete wetting out of a textile structure to achieve satisfactory perform-ance.2 However, the complexities introduced through the heterogeneous nature of the fiber surfaces, the nature of the fiber composition and the actual con-struction of the textile material create difficulties in attempting to predict the exact wettability of a par-ticular textile material. For many applications the ability of a finished fabric to exhibit water repellency (in other words low wettability is essential2 and po-tential applications of highly water repellent textile materials include rainwear, upholstery, protective clothing, sportswear, and automobile interior fabrics. Recent research indicates that such applications may benefit from a new generation of water repellent ma-terials that make use of the “lotus effect” to provide ultrahydrophobic textile materials.3,4 Ultrahydropho-bic surfaces are typically termed as the surfaces that show a water contact angle greater than 150°C with very low contact angle hysteresis.4 In the case of tex-tile materials, the level of hydrophobicity is often determined by measuring the static water contact angle only, since it is difficult to measure the contact angle hysteresis on a textile fabric because of the high levels of roughness inherent in textile structures.

Karthik Ramaratnam, Ph.D.

2008-12-01

197

Plasma treatment advantages for textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now exist...

Sparavigna, Amelia

2008-01-01

198

THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of production and outsourcing strategies using the "diamond" model of M. Porter, we can say that is one of the viable solutions for gaining competitive advantages necessary for proper European companies to face competition from countries outside Europe. As developing countries do not meet certain environmental standards or norms of European law, but in terms of product innovation and development of new materials, they do not have the necessity for technology. We conducted an analysis of the factors that play a key role in the production of textiles, representing how they are used in the favor of European companies such investments to be supplemented can be found in how these factors act on the total costs.

PRUNEA ANA

2014-05-01

199

Textile production in Quartier Mu  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The most common archaeological evidence for weaving in the Aegean is the presence of loom weights, which indicate the use of the warp-weighted loom.  A wide variety of loom weight shapes have been recorded. In the past, this diversity has generally been explained in terms of cultural, geographical and chronological factors.  In contrast, recent research has considered some aspects of shape as an expression of loom weight function. This new approach, which draws on experimental archaeology, has made it possible to render textile craft visible, even if the textiles themselves are not preserved (Mårtensson et al. 2009). It is this approach that has been adopted in the following analysis of the loom weights from Quartier Mu. The chapter divided into four parts. The first part gives an outline of general textile techniques and presents the methodology. The second part consists of an overview of the Quartier Mu loom weights, whilst the third part focuses on their contexts. The results of the analysis are discussed in the fourth and final part.

Cutler, Joanne; Andersson Strand, Eva Birgitta

2013-01-01

200

Adaptation of Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to the Problems Faced by the Power Loom Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. In this research Paper we study the socio economic problems faced by power loom workers in Avinashi in Tamilnadu, India, using Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (IFCMs). We have interviewed 50 households in the study area using a linguistic questionnaire. As the problems faced by them at large, involved so much of feelings and uncertainties. We felt it to fit to use fuzzy theory i...

Narayanamoorthy, S.; Kalaiselvan, S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Gender and respiratory findings in workers occupationally exposed to organic aerosols: A meta analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies. Methods Three thousand and eleven (3011 workers employed in "organic dust" industries (1379 female and 1632 male were studied. A control group of 806 workers not exposed to any kind of dust were also investigated (male = 419, female = 387. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were measured. The weighted average method and the Mantel-Haentszel method were used to calculate the odds ratios of symptoms. Hedge's unbiased estimations were used to measure lung function differences between men and women. Results There were high prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in all the "dusty" studied groups compared to controls. Significantly less chronic cough, chronic phlegm as well as chronic bronchitis were found among women than among men after the adjustments for smoking, age and duration of employment. Upper respiratory tract symptoms by contrast were more frequent in women than in men in these groups. Significant gender related lung function differences occurred in the textile industry but not in the food processing industry or among farmers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that in industries processing organic compounds there are gender differences in respiratory symptoms and lung function in exposed workers. Whether these findings represent true physiologic gender differences, gender specific workplace exposures or other undefined gender variables not defined in this study cannot be determined. These data do not suggest that special limitations for women are warranted for respiratory health reasons in these industries, but the issue of upper respiratory irritation and disease warrants further study.

Mustajbegovic Jadranka

2009-01-01

202

[Prevalence of respiratory diseases in the textile industry. Relation with dust levels].  

Science.gov (United States)

Many workers in the textile industry have respiratory symptoms that are related to their work environment. In this study we observed the dust level conditions of eleven textile industries of the North of Portugal. The dust levels determined were between 0.1 mg/m3 and 1.25 mg/m3, in many cases above the Portuguese standard levels of exposure (VLE). For these dust levels we found a prevalence of 23% of workers with respiratory symptoms with occupational characteristics in 10.8%, and 5.7% presenting byssinosis. Workers exposed to cotton fibres in spinning areas have the highest prevalence of symptoms, and reduction of the FEV1. These characteristics were related to dust levels and were higher in the initial phases of the spinning processes. We found no cases of byssinosis in workers exposed to synthetic fibres, or in workers from weaving areas. Smoking habits were related to the reduction of the FEV1, and severity of respiratory illness but not to the presence of byssinosis. PMID:9644840

Da Costa, J T; Barros, H; Macedo, J A; Ribeiro, H; Mayan, O; Pinto, A S

1998-04-01

203

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

204

Textile Antenna for 50 ohm Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new generation of textile materials have the capability to conduct electricity and at the same time be wearable. There are much more applications involved if an antenna is made from parts that are totally wearable. This new property of conductivity in textile materials is used to implement the wireless functions to clothing. In general, the antennas are made of highly conductive metal with is a solid structure, which results in stable output. The challenge with textile antenna is output stability which is given by pure textile material of the radiating element, dielectric material and also ground, which can be can be folded and twisted. The paper presents the design and fabricated output results of the textile antenna which is used for the 50 ohm system (as GPS or WLAN at 2,45 GHz.

Robi Dahal

2012-01-01

205

Dairy Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009 survey of the rapidly growing southern Idaho dairy industry found that the majority of workers were Hispanic, ... occupational risks and exposures vary greatly in the dairy industry, even with the same establishment. 17 © National Center ...

206

Environmental and medical study of byssinosis and other respiratory conditions in the cotton textile industry in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted in a typical Egyptian textile plant located in Alexandria. Male workers from all operations (N . 506) were examined and their dust exposures were assessed. Results showed that airborne dust concentrations were very high and that the plant fraction is mostly concentrated in respirable dust. Byssinosis prevailed in 21% of workers in opening and cleaning sections and in 13% in carding and combing rooms, but was found in none of the workers in drawing, twisting, and spinning operations, in only 1.1% in weaving, and in 3.1% of workers in other ''auxiliary'' occupations. The rare prevalence of byssinosis among the latter workers groups was attributed to the workers continuous exposure without fixed weekend interruption, the personal and family history of exposure to cotton, the low proportion of plant materials in dust evolved in related operations, the fine quality of Egyptian cotton, and/or the population characteristics of Egyptian workers. Reduction in FEV 1.0 at the end of the first work shift after absence from work occured more often than byssinosis, which indicates the importance of this test for the early detection of effects of cotton dust exposure. It is suggested that a nationwide study in the cotton textile industry is indicated.

Noweir, M.H.; Noweir, K.H.; Osman, H.A.; Moselhi, M.

1984-01-01

207

Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility were recorded for both the groups before and after delivering awareness. Results: We found that the mean height of the respondents in control (C and experimental (E group before delivery of awareness were 150.64 cm and 150.36 cm and after deliberation of awareness these were 150.68 cm and 150.44 cm, respectively. A significant increase was observed in weight of the subjects of the experimental group after the nutritional awareness. The percentages of severe, moderate and mild degree of chronic energy deficiency were decreased after awareness in the experimental group and the percentages of low weight normal and normal women were increased. The hemoglobin level of the subjects under experimental group was also increased significantly. The percentages of severe and moderate degree of anemia were decreased after awareness given and the percentage of mild anemia was increased. The women with normal hemoglobin level were increased after awareness in the experimental group. The levels of blood pressure of the control and experimental group were not changed significantly. Subjects under experimental group improved their cooking practices, diet pattern, food hygiene, sanitation and ultimately decreased disease susceptibility. Conclusion: We found that nutritional awareness has a great impact on the nutritional status of the women particularly on weight and hemoglobin level. Mothers gladly learned the values of different local vegetables and pulses and incorporated there in their diet and improved their health status. They also improved food hygiene and sanitation and changed cooking practices.

Prabir Kumar Manna

2012-06-01

208

Energy-Aware Routing for E-Textile Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the scale of electronic devices shrinks, "electronic textiles" (e-textiles) will make possible a wide variety of novel applications which are currently unfeasible. Due to the wearability concerns, low-power techniques are critical for e-textile applications. In this paper, we address the issue of the energy-aware routing for e-textile platforms and propose an efficient algorithm to solve it. The platform we consider consists of dedicated components for e-textiles, includi...

Kao, Jung-chun; Marculescu, Radu

2007-01-01

209

Análisis de la Morfología del Raquis Torácico y Lumbar en Mujeres Trabajadoras de una Cooperativa Hortofrutícola / Analysis of the Thoracic and Lumbar Morphology in Women Workers froma Fruit and Vegetable Company  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la disposición angular del raquis torácico y lumbar en bipedestación y sedentación relajada en mujeres trabajadoras de una empresa hortofrutícola. Un total de 50 mujeres (media de edad: 43,62±8,43 años) fueron evaluadas mediante un Spinal Mouse en bipede [...] stación y en sedentación relajada. Los valores angulares medios para el raquis torácico y lumbar fueron de 32,74±8,76 y -21,66±19,12 en bipedestación y de 36,32±10,55 y -1,08±18,14, en sedentación. En bipedestación, un elevado porcentaje de casos (86% y 68,3%) presentaban una cifosis torácica y lordosis lumbar dentro de los valores de normalidad. En sedentación, el 74% presentaban hipercifosis torácica y el 20% una inversión lumbar. En conclusión, aunque en bipedestación la mayoría de las mujeres presentaban una morfología del raquis dentro de los valores de normalidad, en sedentación se observó un elevado porcentaje de casos con hipercifosis torácica y el raquis lumbar en inversión. Debido a las consecuencias negativas que se asocian a dichas desalineaciones raquídeas, es recomendable aplicar programas de mejora de la actitud postural en estas trabajadoras, preferentemente en su contexto laboral. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the sagittal spinal morphology of thoracic and lumbar spine in standing and sitting in women workers from a cooperative in the production, handling and marketing business of vegetable and fruit products. A total of 50 women (mean age: 43.62±8.43 years old) were e [...] valuated. The Spinal Mouse system was used to mesasure the sagittal thoracic and lumbar curvatures in standing and relaxed sitting. The values for thoracic and lumbar curvatures were 32.74±8.76 and -21.66±19.12 in standing and 36.32±10.55 and -1.08±18.14 in sitting. A high frequency (86.0% and 68.3%) of normal thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were found in standing posture. While sitting the 74.0% and 20.0% presented thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar kyphosis. In conclusion, a high percentaje of women workers presented normality values in standing posture, although a high percentage of women were found with thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar flexed while sitting relaxed. It is recommended that these women carry out a program to improve their actitudinal postures in their work place.

José María, Muyor; Pedro A, López-Miñarro; Antonio J, Casimiro; Antonio J, Nievas; Tesifón, Parrón.

2012-06-01

210

Análisis de la Morfología del Raquis Torácico y Lumbar en Mujeres Trabajadoras de una Cooperativa Hortofrutícola / Analysis of the Thoracic and Lumbar Morphology in Women Workers froma Fruit and Vegetable Company  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la disposición angular del raquis torácico y lumbar en bipedestación y sedentación relajada en mujeres trabajadoras de una empresa hortofrutícola. Un total de 50 mujeres (media de edad: 43,62±8,43 años) fueron evaluadas mediante un Spinal Mouse en bipede [...] stación y en sedentación relajada. Los valores angulares medios para el raquis torácico y lumbar fueron de 32,74±8,76 y -21,66±19,12 en bipedestación y de 36,32±10,55 y -1,08±18,14, en sedentación. En bipedestación, un elevado porcentaje de casos (86% y 68,3%) presentaban una cifosis torácica y lordosis lumbar dentro de los valores de normalidad. En sedentación, el 74% presentaban hipercifosis torácica y el 20% una inversión lumbar. En conclusión, aunque en bipedestación la mayoría de las mujeres presentaban una morfología del raquis dentro de los valores de normalidad, en sedentación se observó un elevado porcentaje de casos con hipercifosis torácica y el raquis lumbar en inversión. Debido a las consecuencias negativas que se asocian a dichas desalineaciones raquídeas, es recomendable aplicar programas de mejora de la actitud postural en estas trabajadoras, preferentemente en su contexto laboral. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the sagittal spinal morphology of thoracic and lumbar spine in standing and sitting in women workers from a cooperative in the production, handling and marketing business of vegetable and fruit products. A total of 50 women (mean age: 43.62±8.43 years old) were e [...] valuated. The Spinal Mouse system was used to mesasure the sagittal thoracic and lumbar curvatures in standing and relaxed sitting. The values for thoracic and lumbar curvatures were 32.74±8.76 and -21.66±19.12 in standing and 36.32±10.55 and -1.08±18.14 in sitting. A high frequency (86.0% and 68.3%) of normal thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were found in standing posture. While sitting the 74.0% and 20.0% presented thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar kyphosis. In conclusion, a high percentaje of women workers presented normality values in standing posture, although a high percentage of women were found with thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar flexed while sitting relaxed. It is recommended that these women carry out a program to improve their actitudinal postures in their work place.

José María, Muyor; Pedro A, López-Miñarro; Antonio J, Casimiro; Antonio J, Nievas; Tesifón, Parrón.

211

Daily practices of health among sex workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which we...

Elouyse Fernandes Leitão; Lívia Louise Souto Costa; Mércia Zeviani Brêda; Maria Cícera dos Santos de Albuquerque; Jorgina Sales Jorge

2012-01-01

212

Viewpoints About Potential Stimulation And Possibilities Of Investments On Textile Industry Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uzbek light industry, in particular, the textile sector is one of the strategically  important  and dynamic  sectors of  the national economy. Textile industry of Uzbekistan possesses high  ranks in the sectors directed to exportation, therefore it contains wide specter of export ranging from thread up to ready­made product (made of stockinet, sewing, silk and carpet cloth.  Contemporarily textile industry gains the fifth rank in the gross domestic product contribution and a third of all the workers in the field of industry is occupied in textile. Uzbek light industry still has significant untapped investment potential, all the conditions for  the further rapid growth. Necessary to  increase the production of  goods for  the domestic market to meet the growing needs of the population. This requires investment in  projects for  the production of finished cotton fabrics, blended fabrics, silk fabrics, garments and knitwear for  the establishment of mobile industries with mandatory formation in their composition structures, responsible for design, marketing, quick  changeovers production with fashion and demand.In the foreseeable future for the light industry remains a key role  in  the development  of  industrial  production  in  the country. Experts believe that more needs to  be done to develop the significant potential that lies in the light industry of the country.

Shakhrukh Madjidov

2013-09-01

213

Resin transfer molding of textile composites  

Science.gov (United States)

The design and manufacture of textile composite panels, tubes, and angle sections that were provided to NASA for testing and evaluation are documented. The textile preform designs and requirements were established by NASA in collaboration with Boeing and several vendors of textile reinforcements. The following four types of preform architectures were used: stitched uniweave, 2D-braids, 3D-braids, and interlock weaves. The preforms consisted primarily of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber; Shell RSL-1895 resin was introduced using a resin transfer molding process. All the finished parts were inspected using ultrasonics.

Falcone, Anthony; Dursch, Harry; Nelson, Karl; Avery, William

1993-01-01

214

Indian textile industry: sea of potential opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India’s share of the global textile industry is expected to grow from 4% to 7% by 2011-12 and the share of apparel in the export basket is expected to increase from 48% to 60%. A Vision 2010 for textiles formulated by the government after exhaustive interaction with the industry and Export Promotion Councils to capitalize on the positive atmosphere aims to increase India's share in world's textile trade from the current 4% to 8% by 2010 and to achieve export value of US $ 50 billion in 201...

Nakkeeran, Senthilkumar; Pugalendhi, Subburethina Bharathi

2010-01-01

215

Textile Architecture : How to Dress Buildings Up  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles to create human habitation is not new. As Diether S. Hope phrases it, referring to tents: The history of development of humanity would be barely conceivable without free spanning textile membrane structures.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

216

Workers’ Conformism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.

Nikolay Ivantchev

2013-10-01

217

NGO field workers in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

2009-06-01

218

Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, Ulla

2012-01-01

219

29 CFR 1910.262 - Textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...may be used in other ways during the finishing of various fabrics. (23) Mule...textile opener lines shall be equipped with magnetic separators, tramp iron separators...or platforms shall be covered with an abrasive or nonslip material. (m)...

2010-07-01

220

Allergic contact dermatitis induced by textile necklace  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik HØjgrav

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

29 CFR 1910.262 - Textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...subpart for textile safety apply to the design, installation, processes...consists of two large rolls and a shallow open vat with several immersion...starch solution. (22) Mangle (water). A water mangle is a calender having...

2010-07-01

222

Electroflocculation for textile wastewater treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF process for chemical oxygen demand (COD, turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: current density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum; and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.

A. Cerqueira

2009-12-01

223

Total design for textile products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Product development is less than 20-30 years old and a relatively new area of research compared to the other classic academic disciplines. Integrated product development is a philosophy that systematically employs the teaming of functional disciplines to integrate and concurrently apple all the necessary processes to produce an effective and efficient product that satisfies customer needs. Product development might also be understood as a multidisciplinary field of research. The disciplines directly participating in product development include engineering design, innovation, manufacturing, marketing and management. A background contribution is also generated by disciplines such as psychology, social sciences and information technology. This article is an overview that introduces this philosophy to textile product development.

Zafirova Koleta

2004-01-01

224

Electroflocculation for textile wastewater treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF) process for chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: curren [...] t density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum); and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.

A., Cerqueira; C., Russo; M. R. C., Marques.

225

ZETA POTENTIAL OF FUNCTIONAL TEXTILE MATERIALS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electrokinetic properties describe the electrical potential adjacent to a solid surface, if it is moving in the surrounding liquid phase. It is described by zeta potential. Austrian company Anton Paar GmbH from Graz has developed the SurPASS elektrokinetic analyzer, which is based on a streaming potential/streaming current for determining the zeta potential. Many different apertures for application of micro capsulation technology on textile materials are used in textile industry. Streaming po...

Modlic, Urs?ka

2009-01-01

226

Composiciones textiles con hidrogeles de quitosano  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La presente invención se refiere a un nuevo procedimiento para conferir a sustratos textiles nuevas propiedades superficiales sensibles a estímulos externos de interés para distintas aplicaciones, preferiblemente en aplicaciones médicas y cosméticas. Ello implica la formación de un hidrogel y su posterior aplicación al material que puede ser en forma de tejido, hilo o fibra textil. Además se describe el procedimiento para la elaboración de la composición del ...

Esquena, Jordi; Vi?lchez, Susana; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Solans Marsa, Concepcio?n; Fages-santana, Eduardo; Ferrandiz-garci?a, Marcela; Girones-bernabe?, Sagrario; Cambra-sa?nchez, Vicente; Miras-herna?ndez, Jonathan

2010-01-01

227

DATABASE ON BIOCIDES FOR TEXTILE PROTECTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, the desire to control bacteria, fungi, mold, algae and eliminate some human healthproblems, damage, stains, smells, a number of materials that have been antimicrobially modified increasedconsiderably. Biocides are used to maintain textiles in good hygienic conditions to avoid formation of mold andtheir deterioration. This paper aims to provide an analysis tool for the most common biocides used in textile industry for the protection materials. We designed and developed a datab...

Claudia Roman; Rodica Diaconescu; Luminita Scripcariu; Aurelia Grigoriu

2011-01-01

228

Innovation in the Canadian textile industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the innovation and business strategies of Canadian textile firms. The results show that the textile industry is in a state of decline due mainly to competitive pressures resulting from economic and regulatory changes. The results also show that while the industry recognizes the need for innovation, the current strategies and practices do not seem to be aligned to their strategic goals of fostering innovation.

Sona Kollarova

2013-07-01

229

Research and development in the textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

None

1987-06-01

230

“ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILES: A NEED OF TODAY AND TOMMOROW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food, clothing and shelter are the primary needs of human being. Today in clothing ,textile industry is playing important role. Textile industry is second largest employer after agriculture. In modern world,consumer are now aware of many things especially eco-friendly textile. Their demand for eco-friendly textile is also related with quality, quantity ,price. For this Government ,Production dept of textile, Manager and also Consumers are playing important role .There are ill effects on health to overcome this problem some solutions are suggested ,also government role ,managerial role ,production department role are important factor to make India eco friendly textile.

AMRUTA.S.DUDHEDIA

2012-12-01

231

Patterns of Change: Transitions in Hmong Textile Language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional Hmong life, women produced complex textiles as markers of clan identity and cultural values. Paj ntaub (flower cloth, created by embroidery, appliqué, reverse appliqué, and indigo batik (among the Blue or Green Hmong, were primary transmitters of Hmong culture from one generation to the next over centuries. Clothing, funeral and courtship cloths, baby carriers and hats were designed with traditionally geometric, abstract patterns Hmong could understand as a shared visual language within an oral culture.This photo essay introduces the author’s twenty-five year fascination with paj ntaub and documents a trip to Laos and northern Thailand in November/December 2009 to discover whether story cloths were being produced in Hmong villages in Laos or if story cloths remain a product of refugees only. The researcher also hoped tolearn whether traditional Hmong clothing is still produced and worn in the Laos, to observe how Hmong textiles are made and consumed for a tourist market, and to discover possible sources for the dramatic shift in paj ntaub visual language from symbolic abstraction to pictorial representation.

Geraldine Craig

2010-01-01

232

Identificación de nichos de mercado para el sector textil. identification of niche markets for textiles.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se identifican de nichos de mercado para el sector textil a partir de una caracterización del sector textil a nivel internacional, específicamente en Canada y Venezuela en relación a las fibras sintéticas (poliéster y acrílicos), tejidos de sombra, hilos, cordeles y soga de sisal y propipropileno,  se identifican los precios de los productos y se caracterizan las empresas potenciales interesadas. La metodología utilizada incluyó:...

Silvio Leonel Curiel Lorenzo

2011-01-01

233

The lives of peasant and worker women and stories of documents in the central backwoods of Pernambuco / Vida de agricultoras e histórias de documentos no Sertão Central de Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O artigo enfoca como as mulheres agricultoras, ao terem acesso a direitos sociais, especialmente à Previdência Social, lidam com a normatização e a regulamentação dos processos de nascimento, envelhecimento e morte. O objetivo é analisar as dificuldades e as estratégias que as mulheres utilizam para [...] cumprirem as exigências legais de comprovação do trabalho na agricultura familiar através de documentos civis e profissionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde e Triunfo, situados no Sertão de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. A ausência de documentos é reveladora dos parâmetros de modernidade instaurados no país e deve ser entendida à luz das intersecções de gênero, classe, raça, etnia e critérios geopolíticos. Abstract in english The article focuses on how peasant and worker women deal with norms and rules about birth, ageing and death, in the process of getting access to social rights, especially to Social Security. Our aim is to analyze difficulties and strategies used by women in order to comply with the legal demands of [...] proof of work experience in family farming through civil and professional documents. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde and Triunfo, in the Pernambuco Sertão in Northeast Brazil. Informants' lack of documents is revealing of the ways in which the parameters of modernity have been established within the nation. Thus, we see that the issue is intrinsically related to gender, class, race, ethnicity and geopolitical criteria.

Rosineide de L. Meira, Cordeiro; Monique, Pfau.

234

Vida de agricultoras e histórias de documentos no Sertão Central de Pernambuco / Lives of peasant and worker women and stories of documents in the South Central Sertão of Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo enfoca como as mulheres agricultoras, ao terem acesso a direitos sociais, especialmente à Previdência Social, lidam com a normatização e a regulamentação dos processos de nascimento, envelhecimento e morte. O objetivo é analisar as dificuldades e as estratégias que as mulheres utilizam para [...] cumprirem as exigências legais de comprovação do trabalho na agricultura familiar através de documentos civis e profissionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde e Triunfo, situados no Sertão de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. A ausência de documentos é reveladora dos parâmetros de modernidade instaurados no país e deve ser entendida à luz das intersecções de gênero, classe, raça, etnia e critérios geopolíticos. Abstract in english The article focuses on how peasant and worker women deal with norms and rules about birth, ageing and death, in the process of getting access to social rights, especially to Social Security. The aim is to analyze difficulties and strategies used by women in order to comply with the legal demands of [...] proof of work experience in family farming by way of civil and professional documents. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde and Triunfo, in the Pernambuco Sertão in Northeast Brazil. The absence of documents reveals how parameters of modernity are installed in the nation, understanding them as necessarily related to gender, class, race, ethnicity and geopolitical criteria.

Rosineide de L. Meira, Cordeiro.

2007-08-01

235

Determination of some Nutritional Habits and Healthy Life- Style Behaviours of Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The lifestyle indicators that traditionally have been associated with a lesser quality of life a diet rich in fat and low in fruit and vegetables.Methods: This cross-sectional was conducted determining some nutritional habits and healthy life-style behaviours of workers working at a textile factory in the Southeastern Anatolia Region with 276 workers. A questionnaire form and Healthy Life-Style Behaviours Scale were used for collecting data. Analysis of the data was using percentag...

Gülendam Karadag; Hatice Serap Koçak; Neriman Aydin; Serap Parlar Kiliç; Seval Kul

2013-01-01

236

Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37?±?4.48, 1.15?±?0.13 and 565?±?4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94?±?0.05 to 166?±?3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166?±?3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field. PMID:25322918

Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

2014-12-01

237

Submicrometre particle filtration with a dc activated plasma textile  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma textiles are novel fabrics incorporating the advantages of cold plasma and low-cost non-woven or woven textile fabrics. In plasma textiles, electrodes are integrated into the fabric, and a corona discharge is activated within and on the surface of the fabric by applying high voltages above 10 kV between the electrodes. When the plasma textile is activated, submicrometre particles approaching the textile are charged by the deposition of ions and electrons produced by the corona, and then collected by the textile material. A stable plasma discharge was experimentally verified on the surface of the textile that was locally smooth but not rigid. A filtration efficiency close to 100% was observed in experiments conducted on salt particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 300 nm. Unlike conventional fibrous filters, the plasma textile provided uniform filtration in this range, without exhibiting a maximum particle penetration size.

Rasipuram, S. C.; Wu, M.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Levine, J. F.; Jasper, W. J.; Saveliev, A. V.

2014-01-01

238

Research on Textile Enterprises to Broaden the Financing Channels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile industry exposes many problems under financing crisis: lack of innovation, extensive growth, etc. To solve these problems, the textile industry must achieve industrial upgrading and enhance the core competence. However, the shortage of capital has restricted the development of textile industry. The paper, referring to some scholars’ recommendations, discussed how to broaden financing channels to solve the current financing problems for textile enterprises.

Minfang Gao

2009-12-01

239

Do Ghanaians Prefer Imported Textiles to Locally Manufactured Ones?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper ascertains whether consumers prefer locally made textile to imported ones or vice versa and what accounts for the choice. The study uses survey data of industry, traders and consumers to explain the issue. The results show that most consumers prefer locally-made textiles to imported ones. More than half of those who prefer locally-made textiles claimed local textile products are of a better quality. Others claimed they are more affordable and attractive while a few claimed local te...

Peter Quartey; Joshua Abor

2011-01-01

240

A Global History of Ottoman Cotton Textiles, 1600-1850  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper arises from the project on "Cotton textiles as a global industry, 1200-1800", carried out at the LSE and as part of the Global Economic History Network. The paper revisits and situates the historiography of Ottoman cotton textiles within current debates concerning the emergence of a world economy through the lens of the first global industry, cotton textiles. The period before mechanization saw the expansion of cotton textiles as a commodity partly as a response to E...

Gekas, Athanasios

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

EUROPEAN REGULATIONS REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE TEXTILE PRODUCTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, I present an overview of important regulations regarding the environmental impact of the textile products on the level of European Union.There is always an environmental impact of the textile products, across the entire lifecycle. The most important environmental hazards from textiles are: use of chemicals, use of water, use of energy, generation of waste water contaminated with hazardous substances, hazardous and toxic waste generation.The textiles and clothing sector is an im...

Mariana Ratiu

2013-01-01

242

Employment Security as Moderator on the Effect of Job Security on Worker’s Job Satisfaction and Well Being  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic instability around the world has resulted in many organizations having to lay off workers and also shut down to save their business. This economic strain and stress have impact on the worker’s job satisfaction and well being through job insecurity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effects of employment security on job security and job satisfaction and well being among workers in the banking sectors and manufacturing sectors who were most affected by the economic downturn. Participants were 600 workers of which 200 represented the workers who work in the bank, 200 in electronic industry and 200 in textile industry. They were randomly selected to participate in the research. A set of questionnaire comprising of Employment Security Scale, Job Security Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale and Well-Being Scale were used to measure the variables. Results from the multiple regression analysis showed that employment security did not moderate the relationship between job security and job satisfaction and well being of workers. However, job security had a direct relationship with job satisfaction and well being of workers. Thus, result from this study implicated that it was not the employment security that worried the workers but the security of their job that they were holding that impacted on their job satisfaction and well-being.

Fatimah O.

2012-06-01

243

The application of cyclodextrins in textile area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of Cyclodextrins for textiles was reviewed in this paper. Cyclodextrins are crystalline, water soluble, cyclic, non-reducing oligosaccharides consisting of six, seven, or eight glucopyranose units. Cyclodextrins are known as products which are able to form inclusion complexes. The ability of Cyclodextrins to form inclusion complexes can be used, e.g., to remove malodor from textile materials, etc. Furthermore, some modifications of the parent Cyclodextrins are possible. The derivatives can be reactive (e.g. cyclodextrin with a monochlorotriazinyl group, more hydrophilic (by means of hydrophilic side groups, such as hydroxypropyl and hydroxyethyl, less hydrophilic (by means of lipophilic side groups, such as ethylhexyl glycidyl or ionic (by means of ionic side groups, such as hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride.The methods for treating textiles are thus quite simple. The method using anchor-bearing Cyclodextrins is especially useful, since no fixation agent is needed, enabling they use of conventional textile treatment techniques and equipment. Furthermore, this method has virtually no limitations with respect to the textile materials that can be used.

?or?evi? Dragan

2006-01-01

244

Uzbekistan: Forming a cluster strategy for textile industry development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article confers urgency of establishing clusters in textile industry. Particular focus is given to resource interaction among compound elements of national textile cluster. Policy recommendations targeted to development of cluster in the textile sector of Uzbekistan are provided.

Dilyafruz Nasirkhodjaeva

2010-02-01

245

49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178.520...Standards § 178.520 Standards for textile bags. (a) The following are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or...

2010-10-01

246

Textile dyeing by dyestuffs of natural origin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry is one of the biggest industrial consumers of water especially dye houses which utilize synthetic dyes and other chemicals. Natural dyes are generally environmental friendly and have many advantages over synthetic dyes with respect to production and application. In recent years, there has been an interest in the application of these dyes due to their bio-degradability and higher compatibility with the environment. A review of previous work in the field of applying dyestuffs of natural source as possible textile dyes is given. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes by 'natural products' in textile dyeing may be feasible and may represent not only a strategy to reduce risks and pollutants, but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses which can develop from the inclusion of ecology in trade policy.

Šmelcerovi? Miodrag

2006-01-01

247

Smart Textiles for Soldier of the Future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile-based materials, equipped with nanotechnology and electronics, have a major role in the development of high-tech military uniforms and materials. Active intelligent textile systems, integrated to electronics, have the capacity of improving the combat soldiers performance by sensing, adopting themselves and responding to a situational combat need allowing the combat soldiers to continue their mission. Meantime, smart technologies aim to help soldiers do everything they need to do with a less number of equipment and a lighter load. In this study, recent developments on smart garments, especially designed for military usage owing to their electronic functions, and intelligent textile-based materials that can be used in battlefield, are introduced.

O. Sahin

2005-04-01

248

Wearable Textile Electrodes for ECG Measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG is one of the most important parameters for monitoring of the physiological state of a person. Currently available systems for ECG monitoring are both stationary and wearable, but the comfort of the monitored person is not at a satisfactory level because these systems are not part of standard clothing. This article is therefore devoted to the development and measurement of wearable textile electrodes for ECG measurement device with high comfort for the user. The electrode material is made of electrically conductive textile. This creates a textile composite that guarantees high comfort for the user while ensuring good quality of ECG measurements. The composite is implemented by a carrier (a T-shirt with flame retardant and sensing electrodes embroidered with yarn based on a mixture of polyester coated with silver nanoparticles and cotton. The electrodes not only provide great comfort but are also antibacterial and antiallergic due to silver nanoparticles.

Lukas Vojtech

2013-01-01

249

Physical Tools for Creativity with Textile Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper seeks to develop a better understanding of how physical objects can stimulate creativity, studying the case of textile material samples employed to inspire textile designers to use new responsive materials and technologies in their designs. I show: 1) how physical objects can act both as triggers for idea generation and as solution proposals in a design process; 2) how the correlation between the developed idea and the relevant inspirational material can be of different kinds and 3) how the complexity and level of generic character of material samples influence their inspirational qualities. I finish with a brief presentation of an ongoing project investigating how architects can be inspired to use textile materials.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

2010-01-01

250

Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

Alica Grilec Kauri?

2009-12-01

251

Caustic saving potentile in textile processing mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)

252

Grassroots expectations of the Fourth World Conference on Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four Thai women relate how they became grassroots leaders and what they expect from the NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women. Somboon Srikhumdokkhae's story began when her health began to fail at age 29 after 12 years of work in a textile factory. It took her four years of searching to find the proper diagnosis and treatment for her condition, which she learned was byssinosis, a lung disease caused by her occupation. Srikhumdokkhae soon found others suffering from byssinosis, and she joined with fellow employees to produce a newsletter telling other workers about the problem. This led to the formation of workers' groups and to demands for compensation. Srikhumdokkhae hopes that the WCW will contribute to national labor movement efforts to alleviate such problems. Ing Thawaisin's stance against a government relocation scheme that affected her village propelled her into grassroots environmental advocacy. The government wished to move low-income people dependent upon forests in order to plant eucalyptus trees. After successfully protesting the scheme, Thawaisin works with an organization dedicated to preserving and replanting the forest. Thawaisin believes that women have become involved in grassroots environmental advocacy because they look after their whole community as their family. Thawaisin hopes to exchange views with women from around the world and learn from their experiences during the NGO Forum of the WCW and to warn women in neighboring countries of the dangers of material development. Miya Hawa learned about the ecological value of sea grass and mangrove swamps from the Raindrop Association. By restoring the health of the sea, Hawa and her conservation group have attracted more fish to the area and have improved the quality of their lives. Hawa feels that attending the NGO Forum will empower her personally and will help her to understand the link between development and increased poverty. Dokmai Prueksamas, a dressmaker, suffered as a battered wife for seven years. Her association with a Women's Club led her to realize that she was not alone and that she could solve her problems without resorting to violence herself. Now she counsels other women. Prueksamas looks forward to the conference in Beijing as her first foray into the international arena. PMID:12290172

1995-06-01

253

Emotional Value of Applied Textiles : Dialogue-oriented and participatory approaches to textile design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present PhD thesis is conducted as an Industrial PhD project in collaboration with the Danish company Gabriel A/S (Gabriel), which designs and produces furniture textiles and ‘related products’ for manufacturers of furniture. A ‘related textile product’ is e.g. processing of piece goods, upholstery, mounting etc. This PhD project addresses the challenges of the textile industry, where the global knowledge economy increasingly forces companies to include user-participation and value innovation in their product development. My project revolves around the challenges which the textile designers at Gabriel face while trying to implement an innovative and process-oriented business strategy. The focal point has been the section of the strategy which aims at developing Blue Ocean products, which have a functional and an emotional value for the user. The thesis examines and explores emotional value of applied textiles. The objective is to operationalise the strategic term ‘emotional value’ as it relates to applied textiles. The procedure includes the development of user- and stakeholder-centred approaches, which are valuable for the textile designer in the design process. The research approach is application-oriented and practical. In chapter two, I explain the ‘programmatic approach’ to design research, in which design experiments are the core of the project. The research programme is dynamic; it is developing in the course of the project and in tandem with the knowledge generated. The outcome of the research is ‘exemplary’ and the research contributions are presented as ‘exemplars’, ‘frameworks’, ‘tools’ and ‘structures’, which are relevant for the design process or can be the subject of critique and further investigation by other researchers. The project is a contribution to the broad and multifaceted field of design research with a particular focus on textile design including the discourse and methodology used in the field of design. In addition the project relates to the Participatory Design approach and to the design research fields which focus on emotional aspects of design. Based on my experiences with the programmatic approach I propose a distinction between ’overall challenges’ and ’research questions’. I view this thesis as a research contribution which facilitates a programmatic approach to a project such as this one. The ‘overall challenges’ (challenges within the field of textile design) is a constant variable against which the programme (challenges which Gabriel’s textile designers face) can be benchmarked. Thus the ‘research questions’ (emotional value and user and stakeholder involvement) are ‘shapable’ and situation-specific, and they constantly interact with the experiments (procedures of user and stakeholder involvement). In the course of the thesis I explain and elaborate on four themes each of which contributes to the outcome of the project. 1) Creating a frame of reference for the textile design process and a systematic approach to applied textiles. In chapter three I compare a textile design process with Donald Schön’s definition of design as ‘a conversation with the materials of a situation’. Subsequently, through design experiments involving several participants, I develop the ‘Tripod Approach’– a structured and systematic approach to design and research of applied textiles. 2) Understanding and exploring emotional value related to design of applied textiles. In chapter four I argue – based on Jesse Prinz’s and Antonio Damasio’s emotion research – for a perception of emotional value of applied textiles which acknowledges bodily feedback as a core concept in the process which leads to ‘emotion’. This approach is used when exploring and adjusting Patrick Jordan’s framework of ‘the four pleasures’ to the study of emotional value of applied textiles as presented in this thesis. My experiments lead to the creation of a framework of four adjusted categories of ‘pleasure’ based on which a group of stakeholders can e

Bang, Anne Louise

2011-01-01

254

Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

2010-09-29

255

Work related asthma in the textile industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the world. In some countries the textile industry remains an important source of potential agents causing occupational asthma. In the textile industry several agents such as cotton dust and dyes may cause occupational asthma. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management and prevention specific to occupational asthma in the textile industry.Work-related asthma risk is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many textile agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination or reduction of exposure to the offending agent and early use of convenient therapy according to disease severity may play an important role in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Its prevention in the textile industry should be both technical and medical. It depends on the difficulties to reduce dust level, the limits in arranging work station or in occupational rehabilitation. These difficulties are increased in small textile industry companies. Persistent occupational asthma in this sector is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reduce the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. This review also outlines different patents on the diagnosis and treatment of asthma. PMID:21184667

Chaari, Neila; Amri, Charfeddine; Allagui, Irtyah; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed-Adnène; Bchir, Nouri; Akrout, Mohamed; Khalfallah, Taoufik

2011-01-01

256

Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The results also indicated that nanoscale silver and silver salts that achieve functionality with very low application rates offer clear potential benefits for textile use. The regular care of textiles consumes lots of resources (e.g. water, energy, chemicals) and antimicrobial treatments can play a role in reducing the frequency and/or intensity of laundering which can give potential for significant resource savings and associated impact on the environment. PMID:23347947

Windler, Lena; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

2013-03-01

257

Antioxidant cosmeto-textiles: skin assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resveratrol, a natural product, has been reported to have antioxidant activities such as the scavenging of free radicals. This compound could be used in the dermocosmetic field to protect the skin from oxidative stress. In this work, the percutaneous profile of resveratrol in ethanol solutions through pig skin was determinated by an in vitro methodology. The percutaneous absorption of resveratrol was measured and compared with trolox, an analogous of Vitamin E. Both antioxidants were found in all skin sections (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Besides, the free radical scavenging activity of resveratrol and trolox has been evaluated using DPPH method. The effective dose (ED??) of compounds and DPPH radical inhibition in each skin layer were evaluated. Under the conditions used for these experiments, it can be deduced that resveratrol is more efficient than trolox as an antioxidant, also in the inner skin layers. The cosmeto-textiles with an active substance incorporated into their structure are increasingly used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. The action of several cosmeto-textiles on the skin was assessed by in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Samples of these cosmeto-textiles were prepared with resveratrol incorporated into cotton and polyamide fabrics. An in vitro percutaneous absorption was used to demonstrate the delivery of the resveratrol from the textile to the different skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis). Additionally, these cosmeto-textiles containing the antioxidant were applied onto the forearms of volunteers to evaluate the textiles' efficacy in skin penetration. The antioxidant's antiradical capacity was evaluated using the DPPH method. Results showed that resveratrol could be detected in the dermis, epidermis, and stratum corneum (SC) by an in vitro percutaneous absorption method and was also detected in the outermost layers of the SC by an in vivo method (stripping). A smaller amount of resveratrol was penetrated through the skin layers when cosmeto-textiles were used compared to direct topical application of the antioxidant solution. The cosmeto-textiles investigated can act as a reservoir system capable of progressively deliver the active substance to the skin layers. From the skin penetration profiles and the antioxidant efficacy assessment of resveratrol, it is possible to ameliorate the inherent antioxidant capacity of skin. PMID:23262162

Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Martínez, Vanessa; Rubio, Laia; Parra, José L; Coderch, Luisa

2013-05-01

258

Sensor for Measuring Strain in Textile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80%) in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles): It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hy...

Gerhard Tröster; Frank Clemens; Corinne Mattmann

2008-01-01

259

Upholstery textile performance following exposure to daylight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research investigated the effects of exposure to daylight on upholstery textiles. Eleven fabrics preferred by consumers were exposed to daylight in outdoor test cabinets for six months. Exposed and unexposed specimens were tested for tensile strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, and colorfastness. Statistical analysis indicated highly significant fabric/exposure interactive effects; significant losses in warp and filling strength, warp and filling elongation, and the resistance to abrasion in most of the exposed upholstery textiles tested. Color change was also found in the majority of exposed fabrics. Results indicate that careful selection of upholstery fabrics is required by energy-conscious consumers and designers

260

NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research work is part of the FP7 No-Bug project (Novel release system and biobased utilities for insect repellent textiles). The main interest of the project is personal protective textiles against insects (mosquitoes) for application not only in tropical areas where vector borne diseases are a major threat to the public health but also in European countries where the presence of mosquitoes can be nuisance. Malaria and dengue fever are well known diseases that cause a lot of deaths in th...

Ciera, Lucy Wanjiru; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Clerck, Karen; Langenhove, Lieva

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C

262

Properties of textile grade ceramic fibers  

Science.gov (United States)

The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C.

Pudnos, Eric

1992-01-01

263

para aguas residuales coloreadas textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. En este artículo se presenta la experimentación que se tuvo con la degradación del colorante rojo Recoltive con dióxido de titanio, peróxido y fenton utilizando como medio la lámpara UV. Los ensayos realizados implicaron la variación de la cantidad de estos oxidantes. Objetivo. Comparar los tratamientos con dióxido de titanio y fenton para aguas residuales coloreadas. Materiales y métodos. El equipo usado consistió de una cubeta de vidrio de longitudes 41 cm x 25,5 cm x 20 cm que almacenaba 15 L de muestra, una lámpara de luz ultravioleta de marca MIGHTY PURE de 60 Hz y una bomba que maneja un flujo de 0,047 L/s. Se adicionó el colorante en el tanque quedando con una concentración de 100 mg/L. Se midió continuamente el pH para ajustarlo en 5,0 cuando se trabajo con fenton y con TiO2 los valores de pH fueron medidos sin requerir adicionar ácidos o bases, por ser mas estables. Resultados. La mejor combinación para tratar un agua de la industria textil con lámpara de luz UV y dióxido de titanio es 100 mg/L de TiO2 y 2% v/v de H2O2. El ensayo que presentó la degradación óptima del color fue con fenton 30 mg/L de FeCl3 y 1% de v/v de H2O2. Conclusiones. La utilización de procesos de oxidación avanzada como la fotocatálisis con TiO2 o fotofenton, produjeron diferentes resultados respecto a la reducción del porcentaje de degradación del colorante y mayores velocidades de reacción, siendo la reacción fotofenton la que produjo los mejores porcentajes y tiempos de reducción (E13 con 30 mg/L FeCl3 y 1% v/v de H2O2.

Lu\\u00EDs Fernando Garc\\u00E9s Giraldo

2006-01-01

264

Under the New Situation of the Textile Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China's entry into the WTO, all the textiles with the formal abolition of restrictions on Chinese textile and garment industry entered the free trade era, the increasingly fierce international competition, but also brought unprecedented opportunities to the Chinese textile and apparel industry. China's textile and garment industry required in this particular under the new situation to meet the challenges and seize the opportunity to be successful. Under the new situation China's textile and garment industry facing difficulties and the opportunities this article will do a specific analysis and put forward some feasible options for enterprises to adopt.

Wenzhuan Sun

2009-03-01

265

Instruídas e trabalhadeiras trabalho feminino no final do século XX Educated and earnest workers: women's work at the end of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com base em informações oficiais do IBGE/Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, do MTE/Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego e do MEC/Ministério da Educação e Cultura, o texto mostra a consolidação do acesso das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho na década de noventa e sua manutenção no mercado informal e formal, apesar das crises econômicas da década. Com ênfase na escolaridade, o artigo revela que a escolaridade feminina supera a masculina a partir do 2º grau, as jovens concluem os cursos técnicos e profissionais, assim como o ensino médio, em maior número do que os rapazes e constituem cerca de 60% dos que cursam o superior. Contudo, as moças concentram-se em algumas áreas do conhecimento - artes, humanas, biológicas e saúde - que as qualificam para ocupar posteriormente, no mercado de trabalho, os chamados guetos profissionais femininos.Based on official data provided by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, by the Ministry of Labor and Employment, and by the Ministry of Education and Culture, this text shows the consolidation of women's access to the labor market during the 90's. It also shows that their presence remained unchanged, both in the formal and in the informal market in spite of the economic crisis of that decade. Emphasizing the schooling level, the article reveals that after elementary school, girls tend to conclude technical and professional courses, as well as achieve high school degrees, in a higher number than boys. Young women account for 60% of college students. However, young girls concentrate their preference in some areas of knowledge such as Humanities, Social Sciences, Arts, Biological Sciences and Health. Therefore, they end up as skilled professionals in the so-called ghettos of female laborforce.

Cristina Bruschini

2002-01-01

266

Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2% or in public services (23.9%. Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years, men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p vs 13.4%; p vs 21.7%; p vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers.

Jermendy György

2012-02-01

267

Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications. PMID:21417413

Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

2011-04-01

268

Diversification into Technical Textiles: A Forward Momentum for Indian Textiles Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically, the Indian textiles and clothing industry has comparative advantage in production and exports which could not be fully utilized because of quantitative restrictions imposed by her major export markets such as USA and European Union. It was therefore, envisaged that with the implementation of WTO’s agreement on textile and clothing (ATC) in 2005 the country would become more successful in global markets. Although in the initial two years of phasing out of quotas, the industry p...

Chugan, Pawan Kumar

2011-01-01

269

Working Women, Marriage, and Retirement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women are at a disadvantage under both Social Security and private employee pension plans because the retirement systems were set up at a time when most women were non-working spouses of employed men, a condition that no longer exists. Today women workers, divorcees, and widows of retirees often find themselves with inadequate retirement benefits…

Lapkoff, Shelley; Fierst, Edith

270

Biodegradation of Textile Dyes Using Fungal Isolates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industries produces considerably high amount of aquatic toxicity which is discharged directly into the environment before treated properly. The waste generation volume and load produced is hazardous in nature. Thus, this study explores the role of fungal biomass against pollution due to textiles dyes as degrading agent. This study will be beneficial for treating water effluent from textile industry and will decrease the pollution form environment with advanced technology for future use. In this study the evaluation of fungal species for the decolourization and degradation of textile dye has been carried. Four potential fungal strains (NS-1, NS-2, NS-9 and NS-10 were exploited after screening for the decolourization of Rubine Toner-12 dye under aerobic condition. Growth associated decolorization studies were carried out in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB supplemented with Rubine Toner-12. About 99% percent decolorization was achieved on supplementation with 10 mg L-1 of dye. Comparative spectrophotometric analysis of control and fungus inoculated medium supplemented with rubine toner-12 showed almost 100% decolorization in inoculated flasks. The fungus was identified to be Aspergillus niger. Maximum decolorization of Rubine Toner-12 was observed at pH 6. It is a better technique to check environmental pollution.

Ashish Chauhan

2013-01-01

271

Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

2012-06-01

272

29 CFR 1910.262 - Textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for textile safety apply to the design, installation, processes...be construed according to the rules of construction set out in...jig is a machine for dyeing piece goods. The cloth, at full... (s) Mercerizing range (piece goods) —(1) Stopping...

2010-07-01

273

Masters and Apprentices of Textile Craft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes how the craftsmen at the workroom at Handarbetets vänner, Stockholm, learned their craft skills during the years 1948?2012. What this knowledge consisted of and how the apprentices’ knowledge grows into skillfulness. Interviews with 15 weavers and embroiderers who have worked during the time period form the empirical material. The period of time was chosen according to the informants´ times of employment.The strategies for learning are affected by dialogue between the craftsmen, both a verbal and a silent dialogue. The dialogue is an important part of the learning even though the making is central. The workroom forms its own way of making textile art, a way of doing that is learned from master to apprentice. In this situated knowledge, the different masters have their own ways of for instance mixing color and material, all corresponding with core values. The learning is also affected by the artistic leader and the artist.The learning within the workroom occurs in the making of objects, but never at the cost of the quality of the objects. The core values of the establishments, and the fact that there is a strive to be profitable, makes the circumstances. The collaboration with the artist in creating unique textile art is the primary goal; the learning is something that is taken for granted in order to withhold the competence in the establishment.Keywords: textile craft, master and apprentice, craftsmen, textile art, workroom

Annelie Holmberg

2013-10-01

274

Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique

275

Energy saving examples of Japanese textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It examines energy saving examples of Japanese textile industry. It describes electric power saving of utility facility in Fukusima factory of Ildong spinning company and mutual assisting electric power in synthetic process and reduction of heat load of YKK. 3 figs.

NONE

2000-08-01

276

Radium dial workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated

277

Coal Mine Workers' Compensation  

Science.gov (United States)

... About DOL | Contact Us | Español Office of Workers' Compensation Programs DOL Home > OWCP > DCMWC > DCMWC TOC Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation (DCMWC) Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Home ...

278

29 CFR 1910.262 - Textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the worker to moving parts, hot surfaces, or steam. (2) Enclosed hot air dryer —(i) Lever control...the worker to moving parts, hot surfaces, or steam. (i...1) Swiveled double-bar gates. Swiveled double-bar...

2010-07-01

279

Adaptation of Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to the Problems Faced by the Power Loom Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. In this research Paper we study the socio economic problems faced by power loom workers in Avinashi in Tamilnadu, India, using Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (IFCMs. We have interviewed 50 households in the study area using a linguistic questionnaire. As the problems faced by them at large, involved so much of feelings and uncertainties. We felt it to fit to use fuzzy theory in general and induced fuzzy cognitive maps in particular. For IFCMs is the best suited tool when the data is an unsupervised one.

S. Narayanamoorthy

2012-08-01

280

76 FR 22608 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of Acceptance...a request from certain members of the clothing textile industry to reduce unnecessary retesting of clothing textiles that have been tested...

2011-04-22

 
 
 
 
281

76 FR 16531 - Country of Origin of Textile and Apparel Products; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Formerly RIN 1505-AB60) Country of Origin of Textile and Apparel Products...regulatory provisions relating to the country of origin of textile and apparel products...FR 14575), concerning the country of origin of textile and apparel...

2011-03-24

282

Microencapsulated citronella oil for mosquito repellent finishing of cotton textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries. PMID:20673937

Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G

2010-10-01

283

Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK B188 Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature. This summary refers to work done in approximately the twelve months to the present in our contract ''Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature,'' which commenced in August, 1997. Our activities have consisted mainly of measurements of creep-controlled crack growth in ceramic matrix composites (CMCS) at high temperature; imaging of deformation fields in textile CMCS; the assessment of mechanisms of damage in textile composites, especially those with through-thickness reinforcement; the formulation of models of delamination crack growth under fatigue in textile composites; analytical models of the bridging traction law for creeping fibers in a CMC at high temperature; and an analytical model of a bridging fiber tow in a textile composite.

Cox, Brian

1999-03-01

284

Do Ghanaians Prefer Imported Textiles to Locally Manufactured Ones?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper ascertains whether consumers prefer locally made textile to imported ones or vice versa and what accounts for the choice. The study uses survey data of industry, traders and consumers to explain the issue. The results show that most consumers prefer locally-made textiles to imported ones. More than half of those who prefer locally-made textiles claimed local textile products are of a better quality. Others claimed they are more affordable and attractive while a few claimed local textiles are cheaper. This appears to contradict the country-of-origin effect and the results of previous studies in Africa and other developing countries. Im-plications for traders, governments and local manufacturers are also discussed. The study provides insights with respect to Ghanaians’ preference of locally-produced textiles to foreign-made ones.

Peter Quartey

2011-02-01

285

Analysis of the Restrictive Elements of China's Textile Industry in Upgrading Based on “Value Chain”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our country’s textile industry is in the producing and processing field in the global value chain, so textiles’ addedvalue is low and profit margins is narrow. Developed countries take up fields of high-grade fabrics productionand advanced textile machinery manufacture. Because textile fabrics, textile machinery and equipment ofChina's textile industry fall behind developed countries, product quality and product variety can not yet fullymeet the market demand, and ...

Tong Yang; Meilin He; Aixiang Zhang

2010-01-01

286

The Cost of EU Trade Protection in Textiles and Clothing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper estimates the costs of EU restraints on trade in textiles and clothing. After explaining the methods used, we examine the impact of an opening up of EU trade in textiles and clothing, inter alia to those economies where the textile and clothing (T&C) industries command sizeable shares of exports and output. The estimates are based, firstly, on a partial equilibrium analysis allowing us to directly cover the effects of liberalization on the importation, production and consumption of...

Spinanger, Dean; Francois, Joseph F.; Glismann, Hans H.

2000-01-01

287

Detection of formaldehyde in textiles by chromotropic acid method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: The common causes of textile dermatitis are formaldehyde resins and disperse dyes. There are various methods to detect the presence of formaldehyde in clothing. AIM: To detect the presence of formaldehyde in various types of textiles by the chromotropic acid method and to assess the effect of washing on the formaldehyde content. METHODS: Twenty randomly selected textiles from a local cloth store were tested for formaldehyde by the chromotropic acid method. A purple ring indicated ...

Rao Sanath; Shenoy Shruthakirthi; Davis Suraj; Nayak Sudhakar

2004-01-01

288

Sensor for Measuring Strain in Textile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80% in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles: It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hysteresis, no ageing effects and a small dependance on the strain velocity. The total mean error caused by all these effects was +/-5.5% in strain. Washing several times in a conventional washing machine did not influence the sensor properties. The paper finishes by showing an example application where 21 strain sensors were integrated into a catsuit. With this garment, 27 upper body postures could be recognized with an accuracy of 97%.

Gerhard Tröster

2008-06-01

289

Development of test methods for textile composites  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Program was initiated in 1990 with the purpose of developing less costly composite aircraft structures. A number of innovative materials and processes were evaluated as a part of this effort. Chief among them are composite materials reinforced with textile preforms. These new forms of composite materials bring with them potential testing problems. Methods currently in practice were developed over the years for composite materials made from prepreg tape or simple 2-D woven fabrics. A wide variety of 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit preforms were suggested for application in the ACT program. The applicability of existing test methods to the wide range of emerging materials bears investigation. The overriding concern is that the values measured are accurate representations of the true material response. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish a set of test methods to evaluate the textile composites developed for the ACT Program.

Masters, John E.; Ifju, Peter G.; Fedro, Mark J.

1993-01-01

290

Environmental impact of plasma application to textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma technology is currently implemented in a wide range of industrial processes due to high efficiency, low environmental impact and simplicity. Low-temperature plasma treatment can be an alternative to traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing, causing modification of the fibre surface, which is mainly responsible for the material end-use properties i.e. wettability, dyeability, printability, shrinking, pilling etc. Appropriate choice of gas and control of plasma operation conditions provide a variety of effects on textiles (improvement of dyeability, printability and colour fastness, improvement of adhesion properties of coated fabrics, increase in hydrophobicity and water resistance, etc.). However, in spite of extraordinary efficiency, multifunctionality and simplicity, low-temperature plasma treatments still cannot replace all wet finishing processes, though they can be viable pretreatments that offer plenty of environmental and economical benefits.

Radetic, M.; Jovancic, P.; Puac, N.; Petrovic, Z. Lj

2007-05-01

291

Environmental impact of plasma application to textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma technology is currently implemented in a wide range of industrial processes due to high efficiency, low environmental impact and simplicity. Low-temperature plasma treatment can be an alternative to traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing, causing modification of the fibre surface, which is mainly responsible for the material end-use properties i.e. wettability, dyeability, printability, shrinking, pilling etc. Appropriate choice of gas and control of plasma operation conditions provide a variety of effects on textiles (improvement of dyeability, printability and colour fastness, improvement of adhesion properties of coated fabrics, increase in hydrophobicity and water resistance, etc.). However, in spite of extraordinary efficiency, multifunctionality and simplicity, low-temperature plasma treatments still cannot replace all wet finishing processes, though they can be viable pretreatments that offer plenty of environmental and economical benefits

292

Environmental impact of plasma application to textiles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma technology is currently implemented in a wide range of industrial processes due to high efficiency, low environmental impact and simplicity. Low-temperature plasma treatment can be an alternative to traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing, causing modification of the fibre surface, which is mainly responsible for the material end-use properties i.e. wettability, dyeability, printability, shrinking, pilling etc. Appropriate choice of gas and control of plasma operation conditions provide a variety of effects on textiles (improvement of dyeability, printability and colour fastness, improvement of adhesion properties of coated fabrics, increase in hydrophobicity and water resistance, etc.). However, in spite of extraordinary efficiency, multifunctionality and simplicity, low-temperature plasma treatments still cannot replace all wet finishing processes, though they can be viable pretreatments that offer plenty of environmental and economical benefits.

Radetic, M [Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovancic, P [Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Puac, N [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Petrovic, Z Lj [Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

2007-05-15

293

Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (misinformation and marketing on the web. Textile artists, consumers, and the clothing and household textile industry need clear names and labels to identify the materials they are using.

Zawistoski, P. S.

2012-11-01

294

Textile terminology of Hittite Anatolia : Interdisciplinary research projects at the Centre for Textile Research. Project presentation and future perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish National Research Foundation’s Centre for Textile Research at the University of Copenhagen is a world recognized leading centre for ancient textile studies. In addition to the research programmes already in progress since 2005, the CTR has opened itself up to new interdisciplinary research frontiers in an intra-European perspective. The Marie-Sk?odowska Curie fellows recently employed at CTR are developing investigations in all aspects of textile research, also providing new evidence of different chronological periods. Linguists, archaeologists, historians and scientists share their academic backgrounds to join them with CTR expertise. TEXTHA (Textile terminology of Hittite Anatolia) is an innovative interdisciplinary project which aims to create a Hittite dictionary of textiles, the first of its kind, benefiting from the solid know-how of textile crafts of the CTR archaeologists. These new projects lay the foundations of new research platforms for future collaborations between different institutions.

Vigo, Matteo

2014-01-01

295

Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing regulatory aspects and sustainability standards of textiles and the clothing supply chain  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.

2015-01-01

296

Analysis of the Restrictive Elements of China's Textile Industry in Upgrading Based on “Value Chain”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our country’s textile industry is in the producing and processing field in the global value chain, so textiles’ addedvalue is low and profit margins is narrow. Developed countries take up fields of high-grade fabrics productionand advanced textile machinery manufacture. Because textile fabrics, textile machinery and equipment ofChina's textile industry fall behind developed countries, product quality and product variety can not yet fullymeet the market demand, and can not compete with developed countries. In order to quicken the upgrade pace oftextile industry, this paper brings forward some measures on the Chinese textile fabrics and textile machinerydeficiencies.

Tong Yang

2010-05-01

297

Transport Phenomena in Textile Finishing Equipment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The application of transport phenomena to textile finishing processes is emphasised. By combination of the predominant transfer processes (momentum, mass and heat/mass transfer) and the engineering objective (operation, design and innovation), three cases are selected dealing with (a) momentum transfer and operation of a rotating washing machine, (b) mass transfer and design of an open-width washing machine and (c) heat/mass transfer in connection with the innovation of porous roller dryers.

Groot Wassink, J.

1985-01-01

298

Mechanics Methodology for Textile Preform Composite Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA and its contractors have completed a program to develop a basic mechanics underpinning for textile composites. Three major deliverables were produced by the program: 1. A set of test methods for measuring material properties and design allowables; 2. Mechanics models to predict the effects of the fiber preform architecture and constituent properties on engineering moduli, strength, damage resistance, and fatigue life; and 3. An electronic data base of coupon type test data. This report describes these three deliverables.

Poe, Clarence C., Jr.

1996-01-01

299

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE EVOLUTIONS OF TEXTILE SECTOR ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complete liberalization of international trade led to important changes in financial performancesof the national enterprises. This paper has in view to present the consequences of these changes fromthe macroeconomic level to microeconomic level. Thus, indicators of the financial performance forthree enterprises at the textile sector from Galati are studied selectively. The scope of this study isboth to realize a financial performance hierarchy and to present of their evolution directions in thefuture.

Nicoleta BARBUTA MISU

2005-01-01

300

ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTION OF SEAWEED THREADS IN TEXTILES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solar radiation that we perceive has increased in recent times and especially during the last years. This is due largely to changing lifestyles and the decrease of the ozone layer. For this reason has increased social awareness about the need for protection against ultraviolet radiation. Since 20 years ago, and especially during the last years, the research of textiles protection has increased exponentially. The main areas under investigation are the structure of the fabric, the materials use...

Bou-belda, E.; Bonet, M.; Montava, I.; Di?az-garcia, P.; Campos, J.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

E-COMMERCE AREA FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents some management aspects concerning the e-commerce area for textile industry.Here it can have database management – customers, products and brand visualisation management. The databasemanagement can be doing by using a database management system. For database management it was use therelational model based on first-order predicate logic [1]. In this paper it was analyzed the relational databasemodel. The e-commerce area is born from need to simplify the buying and selling...

Aileni, R. M.; Farima, D.; Ciocoiu, M.

2011-01-01

302

Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing i...

Alica Grilec Kauri?

2009-01-01

303

Standard Test Methods for Textile Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard testing methods for composite laminates reinforced with continuous networks of braided, woven, or stitched fibers have been evaluated. The microstructure of these textile' composite materials differs significantly from that of tape laminates. Consequently, specimen dimensions and loading methods developed for tape type composites may not be applicable to textile composites. To this end, a series of evaluations were made comparing testing practices currently used in the composite industry. Information was gathered from a variety of sources and analyzed to establish a series of recommended test methods for textile composites. The current practices established for laminated composite materials by ASTM and the MIL-HDBK-17 Committee were considered. This document provides recommended test methods for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Specifically, test methods are suggested for: unnotched tension and compression; open and filled hole tension; open hole compression; bolt bearing; and interlaminar tension. A detailed description of the material architectures evaluated is also provided, as is a recommended instrumentation practice.

Masters, John E.; Portanova, Marc A.

1996-01-01

304

E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

2007-01-01

305

Monopsonistic discrimination, worker turnover, and the gender wage gap  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivated by models of worker flows, we argue in this paper that monopsonistic discrimination may be a substantial factor behind the overall gender wage gap. On matched employer-employee data from Norway, we estimate establishment-specific wage premiums separately for men and women, conditioning on fixed individual effects. Regressions of worker turnover on the wage premium identify less wage elastic labour supply facing each establishment of women than that of men. Workforce gender compositi...

Barth, Erling; Dale-olsen, Harald

2009-01-01

306

The Stuff That Matters. Textiles collected by Seth Siegelaub for the Centre for Social Research on Old Textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exhibition catalogue. The Stuff That Matters. Textiles collected by Seth Siegelaub for the Centre for Social Research on Old Textiles. Raven Row, London. 1 March to 6 May 2012. Curated by Sara Martinetti, Alice Motard and Alex Sainsbury. This publication complements the first exhibition of the csrot Historic Textile Collection by considering the biography of its founder, Seth Siegelaub, whose lifelong interests, besides conceptual art practice and the politics of communication, include the so...

Martinetti, Sara; Motard, Alice; Sainsbury, Alex

2012-01-01

307

To Study the Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Morbidities and Related Epidemiological Factors among Spinning Mill Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cotton and synthetic textile industry in India is the largest industry in the country accounting for 14 percent of industrial output and providing employment to around 35 million workers. The workers are at risk of suffering from various chronic respiratory illnesses like byssinosis, chronic bronchitis due to exposure to the cotton dust in the worksites. Even though quite a few studies have been conducted in textile mills in India enough emphasis has not been given on the epidemiological aspects of chronic respiratory illness among the workers in these mills. The present study was, therefore, undertaken with two fold objectives to determine prevalence of respiratory morbidities and to find out the epidemiological aspects of the respiratory morbidities in spinning mill workers. Methodology: A Cross sectional study was conducted among 462 cotton textile workers in Babashaheb Kedar Sut Girni Pvt. Ltd. of Central India. Interview technique was used to collect sociodemographic, anthropometric & addiction information on a predesigned proforma followed by detailed general and systemic examination.Results: Present study revealed that among 462 workers (25.3% workers had chronic respiratory morbidities. The morbidities included Byssinosis (11.7 %, chronic bronchitis (5.8%, Bronchial asthma (4.5%, Tuberculosis (1.5%, other obstructive pulmonary diseases (1.7 % All the workers were male and age ranged from 21 – 58 years. Majority of the study subjects i.e. 97.4 % were literate and 94.6% belonged to class III & IV according to modified Kuppu swamy’s classification. The spinning process was carried out in seven main sections. Majority of the workers belonged to ring frame section (47%. The present study showed that (32.7% had cotton dust exposure for more than 20 years. Only masks were provided as protective devices and (41.3% of the workers were using it. Total (34.7 % workers were smokers. Conclusion: Advancing age, sections, duration of exposure, non usage of protective devices and smoking were seen as major determinants of chronic respiratory morbidities in spinning mill workers. Key Words: Spinning Mill workers, smoking, Byssinosis, chronic respiratory morbidities

Ajeet Vasantrao Saoji

2010-09-01

308

Recent progress in NASA Langley textile reinforced composites program  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA LaRC is conducting and sponsoring research to explore the benefits of textile reinforced composites for civil transport aircraft primary structures. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the potential of affordable textile reinforced composite materials to meet design properties and damage tolerance requirements of advanced aircraft structural concepts. In addition to in-house research, the program was recently expanded to include major participation by the aircraft industry and aerospace textile companies. The major program elements include development of textile preforms, processing science, mechanics of materials, experimental characterization of materials, and development and evaluation of textile reinforced composite structural elements and subcomponents. The NASA Langley in-house focus is as follows: development of a science-based understanding of resin transfer molding (RTM), development of powder-coated towpreg processes, analysis methodology, and development of a performance database on textile reinforced composites. The focus of the textile industry participation is on development of multidirectional, damage-tolerant preforms, and the aircraft industry participation is in the areas of design, fabrication and testing of textile reinforced composite structural elements and subcomponents. Textile processes such as 3D weaving, 2D and 3D braiding, and knitting/stitching are being compared with conventional laminated tape processes for improved damage tolerance. Through-the-thickness reinforcements offer significant damage tolerance improvements. However, these gains must be weighed against potential loss in in-plane properties such as strength and stiffness. Analytical trade studies are underway to establish design guidelines for the application of textile material forms to meet specific loading requirements. Fabrication and testing of large structural components are required to establish the full potential of textile reinforced composite materials.

Dexter, H. Benson; Harris, Charles E.; Johnston, Norman J.

1992-01-01

309

A propos de quelques textiles jaïns du musée Guimet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L'art jaïn n'est encore que faiblement représenté dans les collections nationales. L'étude de quatre textiles provenant de la collection Riboud est l'occasion de préciser quelques points d'iconographie et de rappeler les liens esthétiques manifestes existant entre la production textile du Gujarat et la tradition picturale jaïne des XVe-XVIe siècles.

Lefe?vre, Vincent

2006-01-01

310

Application of Chicken Feathers inTechnical Textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nonwoven is manufactured by using chicken feathers which are available at very low cost, so the end product too. The advantage is that there is a wide range of application of chicken feathers in textile field. The nonwoven which is prepared by chicken feather has very versatile and a wide application in the field of technical textiles.

Chinta, S. K.; Landage, S. M.; YADAV KRATI

2013-01-01

311

Application of Chicken Feathers inTechnical Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nonwoven is manufactured by using chicken feathers which are available at very low cost, so the end product too. The advantage is that there is a wide range of application of chicken feathers in textile field. The nonwoven which is prepared by chicken feather has very versatile and a wide application in the field of technical textiles.

CHINTA S.K

2013-04-01

312

Energy analysis for the textile and clothing industry branch; Brancheenergianalyse for textil- og beklaedningsindustrien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy analysis and energy saving measures are proposed for the textile branch. Spinning, weaving, knitting and dye mills are analyzed as well as carpet production industry and clothing industry. Mechanical equipment, drying equipment, processing lines are investigated with regard to the possible energy savings. (EG) 19 refs.

Hansen, J.; Hart, M.; Moeller, J. [DTI, Beklaedning og Tekstil, Herning (Denmark)

1995-09-01

313

The Competitive Situation of Clothing and Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is up for discussing the composed competitive situation of Lithuanian clothing and textile industry. Author concisely proposes aspects of competitive ability conception, explores the main statistical information illustrating importance of clothing and textile industry in all manufacturing and economics. Willing to accomplish a statistical data analysis of trade clothing and textile industry competitors and advantages which they have and which influence Lithuanian clothing and textile enterprises competitive situation in the local and foreign markets are presented. This article deals with discussion about Lithuanian clothing and textile industry possibilities to improve competitive situation and what main problems of industry could be solved in order to make this market more competitive.Article in Lithuanian

Daina Jansevi?i?t?

2011-03-01

314

Treatment of air dried archaeological wool textiles from waterlogged environment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Air-dried, wet archaeological wool textiles can be flat and stiff with brittle fibers, but is this a permanent collapse or can they regain their size in water? Iron Age textiles were tested comparing the width of dry fibers with the width of fibers treated in water or 70% ethanol. Both liquids expanded the fibers and the yarn increased in size, resulting in more flexible and less brittle textiles. This property was kept when the textiles were dried by stepwise dehydration in ethanol, acetone, and white spirit with a final treatment in 5% lanolin. Preliminary tests on brittle textiles can be performed on small samples to investigate if they will gain in flexibility by this method.

Bruselius Scharff, Annemette

315

Design Management in the Textile Industry : A Network Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we explore textile design activities and textile design management from an industrial network perspective. The textile industry is probably one of the most globalized manufacturing industries in the world and thus one of the most dispersed industries on the globe. Most studies on design management are framed inside the organisational context of the firm. In this study the role and practice of textile design is addressed in perspective of the global textile production network. The empirical data stems from six case studies exploring how different types of enterprises are organised in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design management in order to maintain the relationships in their network of customers and suppliers.

Bang, Anne Louise

2013-01-01

316

Protecting Temporary Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... RSS Feeds Occupational Safety & Health Administration We Can Help What's New | Offices Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Menu Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & ...

317

MARITAL AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKERS, MARCH 1966. SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORT NUMBER 80.  

Science.gov (United States)

THE THRIVING ECONOMY'S DEMAND FOR WORKERS RESULTED IN DECREASED UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN 1966 FOR WHITE AND NEGRO WOMEN AND WHITE MEN. THE INCREASED NUMBER OF WOMEN WORKERS RESULTED NOT ONLY FROM THE EXPANDING JOB MARKET BUT ALSO FROM FEDERAL LEGISLATION OUTLAWING SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT. IN THIS DECADE, THE MOST SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN…

WALDMAN, ELIZABETH

318

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR / UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000 - 1350 DC), descendiente de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa, en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fase [...] s Maytas/San Miguel). La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. La imagen sobre el fondo de la red de algodón blanco está formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, quizás con su interior. Abstract in english One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD), a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel [...] phases). The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no precedent for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual organs, perhaps with the interior shown also.

Alfredo, Rosenzweig; Bat - ami, Artzi.

319

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD, a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel phases. The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no precedent for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual organs, perhaps with the interior shown also.La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000 - 1350 DC, descendiente de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa, en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fases Maytas/San Miguel. La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. La imagen sobre el fondo de la red de algodón blanco está formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, quizás con su interior.

Alfredo Rosenzweig

2011-01-01

320

Textile materials for the design of wearable antennas: a survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented. PMID:23202235

Salvado, Rita; Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pinho, Pedro

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented.

Pedro Pinho

2012-11-01

322

A comparison of reusable and disposable perioperative textiles: sustainability state-of-the-art 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary comparisons of reusable and single-use perioperative textiles (surgical gowns and drapes) reflect major changes in the technologies to produce and reuse these products. Reusable and disposable gowns and drapes meet new standards for medical workers and patient protection, use synthetic lightweight fabrics, and are competitively priced. In multiple science-based life cycle environmental studies, reusable surgical gowns and drapes demonstrate substantial sustainability benefits over the same disposable product in natural resource energy (200%-300%), water (250%-330%), carbon footprint (200%-300%), volatile organics, solid wastes (750%), and instrument recovery. Because all other factors (cost, protection, and comfort) are reasonably similar, the environmental benefits of reusable surgical gowns and drapes to health care sustainability programs are important for this industry. Thus, it is no longer valid to indicate that reusables are better in some environmental impacts and disposables are better in other environmental impacts. It is also important to recognize that large-scale studies of comfort, protection, or economics have not been actively pursued in the last 5 to 10 years, and thus the factors to improve both reusables and disposable systems are difficult to assess. In addition, the comparison related to jobs is not well studied, but may further support reusables. In summary, currently available perioperative textiles are similar in comfort, safety, and cost, but reusable textiles offer substantial opportunities for nurses, physicians, and hospitals to reduce environmental footprints when selected over disposable alternatives. Evidenced-based comparison of environmental factors supports the conclusion that reusable gowns and drapes offer important sustainability improvements. The benefit of reusable systems may be similar for other reusables in anesthesia, such as laryngeal mask airways or suction canisters, but life cycle studies are needed to substantiate these benefits. PMID:22492184

Overcash, Michael

2012-05-01

323

Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

2014-07-01

324

La industria textil uruguaya (1900-1960)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La industria textil uruguaya se inició a comienzos del siglo XX con la instalación de algunas fábricas de tejidos de lana y de una gran hilandería de lana peinada. Desde la crisis de 1929, sustentada en la protección cambiaría, se expandió en forma acelerada durante el periodo conocido como de indus [...] trialización por sustitución de importaciones. Alcanzó su apogeo entre fines de la segunda guerra mundial y comienzos de la década de los cincuenta, al instalar hilanderías de algodón y de fibras sintéticas y cuando las exportaciones industriales laneras adquirieron una importante dimensión. El progresivo agotamiento de la sustitución de importaciones, los frenos opuestos a las exportaciones, junto al estancamiento económico del país y el desmontaje de la protección estatal, la sumieron en una profunda crisis y en la pérdida creciente de significación en la industria y en la economía uruguaya. Abstract in english The Uruguayan textile industry started in the early xxth century based on the production of woven fabric and wool spinning mill (tops). From the years of the 1929's crisis onwards, it went through a great expansion due to a protectionist policy based on favourable exchange rates. Those were the time [...] s of the Import Substitutive Industrialization (ISI) in the country. After the Second World War and, particularly, during the fifties it reached its height with the production of cotton fabrics and synthetic fibers. Meanwhile, wool exports would grow strongly. However, in the late fifties, the ISI strategy was in trouble and the obstacles for export's growth and the economic stagnation together with the removal of the protectionist's policies, put an end to the textile industry development. As a consequence, it experienced a deep crisis and lost importance both for the industry and for the economy as a whole.

Magdalena, Bertino.

325

Decolorization of textile dyes by cyanobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cianobactérias estão amplamente distribuídas no ambiente e podem ser uma alternativa eficaz e econômica para a remoção de corantes de efluentes de indústrias têxteis. O presente trabalho investigou o potencial de seis linhagens de cianobactérias de descolorir onze tipos de corantes têxteis. A absorç [...] ão máxima de cada corante foi verificada usando um espectrofotômetro. Espectrometria de massas foi utilizada na verificação da degradação e possível remoção de corantes pelas cianobactérias. Os resultados mostraram que todas as linhagens avaliadas foram capazes de remover indigo, amarelo palanil, amarelo indantreno, azul indantreno, azul dispersol, vermelho indantreno e vermelho dispersol em mais de 50%. O isolado brasileiro Phormidium sp. CENA135 foi capaz de descolorir e remover completamente o índigo azul BANN 30. Este estudo confirmou a capacidade das cianobactérias de descolorir e, possivelmente, degradar corantes têxteis estruturalmente diferentes, sugerindo a possibilidade de sua aplicação em estudos de biorremediação. Abstract in english Cyanobacteria are widely distributed in the environment and may be an effective and economic alternative for removing dyes from textile industry effluents. The present work investigated the potential of six cyanobacterial strains in decolorizing eleven types of textile dyes. The maximum absorbance o [...] f each dye was verified using a spectrophotometer. Mass spectrometry was used to verify the removal and possible degradation of dyes by the cyanobacteria. The results showed that all of the evaluated cyanobacteria were able to remove indigo, palanil yellow, indanthrene yellow, indanthrene blue, dispersol blue, indanthrene red and dispersol red by more than 50%. The Brazilian isolate Phormidium sp. CENA135 was able to decolorize and completely remove indigo blue BANN 30. This study confirmed the capacity of cyanobacteria to decolorize and possibly to structurally degrade different textile dyes, suggesting the possibility of their application in bioremediation studies.

Maria Estela, Silva-Stenico; Felipe D. P., Vieira; Diego B., Genuário; Caroline S. P., Silva; Luiz Alberto B., Moraes; Marli Fátima, Fiore.

1863-18-01

326

Decolorization of textile dyes by cyanobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cianobactérias estão amplamente distribuídas no ambiente e podem ser uma alternativa eficaz e econômica para a remoção de corantes de efluentes de indústrias têxteis. O presente trabalho investigou o potencial de seis linhagens de cianobactérias de descolorir onze tipos de corantes têxteis. A absorç [...] ão máxima de cada corante foi verificada usando um espectrofotômetro. Espectrometria de massas foi utilizada na verificação da degradação e possível remoção de corantes pelas cianobactérias. Os resultados mostraram que todas as linhagens avaliadas foram capazes de remover indigo, amarelo palanil, amarelo indantreno, azul indantreno, azul dispersol, vermelho indantreno e vermelho dispersol em mais de 50%. O isolado brasileiro Phormidium sp. CENA135 foi capaz de descolorir e remover completamente o índigo azul BANN 30. Este estudo confirmou a capacidade das cianobactérias de descolorir e, possivelmente, degradar corantes têxteis estruturalmente diferentes, sugerindo a possibilidade de sua aplicação em estudos de biorremediação. Abstract in english Cyanobacteria are widely distributed in the environment and may be an effective and economic alternative for removing dyes from textile industry effluents. The present work investigated the potential of six cyanobacterial strains in decolorizing eleven types of textile dyes. The maximum absorbance o [...] f each dye was verified using a spectrophotometer. Mass spectrometry was used to verify the removal and possible degradation of dyes by the cyanobacteria. The results showed that all of the evaluated cyanobacteria were able to remove indigo, palanil yellow, indanthrene yellow, indanthrene blue, dispersol blue, indanthrene red and dispersol red by more than 50%. The Brazilian isolate Phormidium sp. CENA135 was able to decolorize and completely remove indigo blue BANN 30. This study confirmed the capacity of cyanobacteria to decolorize and possibly to structurally degrade different textile dyes, suggesting the possibility of their application in bioremediation studies.

Maria Estela, Silva-Stenico; Felipe D. P., Vieira; Diego B., Genuário; Caroline S. P., Silva; Luiz Alberto B., Moraes; Marli Fátima, Fiore.

327

Corporate Social Responsibility In Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of social responsibility is a fairly recent one in the business world. Awareness about the social responsibility of business organizations is rapidly on the rise and firms are also accepting this concept. The textile industry is no exception. Textile producing and trading firms are also realizing their responsibility towards the society and the environment. This article aims at analyzing the concept of social responsibility and the common ways in which textile firms try to fulfill it.When India is making a transformational progress, GDP is growing at the rate of 8-8.5 percent per annum, sensex is reaching new heights every day, world is looking at us as one of fastest emerging economies of world. Shall we assume that our society is also progressing at the same rate as the economy is growing or there is a gap between economic vs. social progress of the country. If society is progressing at the same pace as the economy is growing then it is a very healthy sign but if there is a mismatch between the two then it would be very grave situation since it may widen the gap between the different strata of society. When most societies are wrestling with an acceleration and intensification of social change, there is a revolution of rising expectations. But how this change will happen. There are various measures to bring about such changes in the form of war, revolution or planned way. But in India we believe in democracy, rationality and progress. But question arises whether the initiatives taken by government for social upliftment is sufficient or private players should also contribute or government, corporate

Neha Gupta

2012-10-01

328

GORE-TEX AND SYMPATEX TEXTILE WATERPROOFING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waterproofing is the treatment of reduction of water absorbing properties of materials. It is more of a coating than a finishing process because it uses polymer materials for covering spaces and pores. These textiles leaves no air or water vapor to pass through the material because the pores are completely coated . Thismaterial is impermeable to liquid water, and air and water vapor. It resists the water test with a pressure in the water column >1000mm, before the first drops of water start t...

Viorica Porav

2011-01-01

329

Soft capacitor fibers for electronic textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly flexible, conductive polymer-based fiber with high electric capacitance is reported. The fiber is fabricated using fiber drawing method, where a multimaterial macroscopic preform is drawn into a submillimeter capacitor microstructured fiber. A typical measured capacitance per unit length of our fibers is 60-100 nF/m which is about 3 orders magnitude higher than that of a coaxial cable of a comparable diameter. The fiber has a transverse resistivity of 5 k? m. Softness, lightweight, absence of liquid electrolyte, and ease of scalability to large production volumes make the fibers interesting for various smart textile applications.

Gu, Jian Feng; Gorgutsa, Stephan; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

2010-09-01

330

Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode. 5 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1995-10-10

331

Islamic Community Worker Training Program for the Management of Depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

To prepare Islamic background bilingual community workers to provide culture and gender appropriate support to women with depression, an education program was developed in consultation with Islamic community leaders. Participants indicated that they were able to apply the new knowledge and skills to provide appropriate support to women with…

Tse, Tina

2002-01-01

332

WOMEN AND WORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PROFILE OF WOMEN WORKERS Women form an important part of the Indian Workforce. According to the information provided by the Registrar General of India, the work participation rate for women was 25.68 per cent in 2001. This is an improvement from 22.73 per cent in 1991 and 19.67 per cent in 1981. The two important aspects that require mention are that while there has been an improvement in the work participation rate of women, it continues to be substantially less in comparison to the work participation rate of men. In 2001, the work participation rate for men was 51.93 per cent. Secondly, there seem to be a rural urban divide in so far as work participation of women is concerned. In 2001, work participation rate for women in rural areas was 30.98 per cent as compared to 11.55 per cent in the urban areas. In the rural areas, women are mainly involved as cultivators and agricultural labourers. In the urban areas, almost 80 per cent of the women workers are working in the unorganized sectors like household industries, petty trades and services, buildings and construction.

Hanamantharayya Baragali

2014-04-01

333

Cotton dust and gram-negative bacterial endotoxin correlations in two cotton textile mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to cotton dust is known to cause both acute and chronic respiratory illness. A specific pattern of symptoms called byssinosis is well described to occur among workers in the cotton processing (e.g., yarn preparation) industry. Recent studies have implicated Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin as one of the agents responsible for acute, and possibly chronic, respiratory illness. Laboratory experiments using a model cardroom have found poor correlations between airborne dust and associated endotoxin. This study reports the results of vertical elutriated dust and endotoxin levels in 11 work areas of 2 cotton textile mills in 1986 in Shanghai, China. The overall correlation between dust and endotoxin was strong, rs = 0.66 and 0.79 (p < 0.0001) for mills 1 and 2, respectively. The dust-endotoxin correlation was relatively poor in early yarn preparation in the workshops and improved in the later preparation areas. Our findings suggest that in these mill settings, dust and endotoxin levels may be well correlated in most work areas. Therefore, dust may be a useful index for monitoring populations employed in the cotton textile industry throughout the world. Additional field studies need to be performed which consider the various determinants of dust and endotoxin levels. PMID:8427261

Christiani, D C; Wegman, D H; Eisen, E A; Ye, T T; Lu, P L; Olenchock, S A

1993-02-01

334

Viscoelastic Behavior of Textile Artificial Ligaments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to describe and model viscoelastic behavior of textile anterior cruciate ligament prostheses. For this purpose, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of woven and braided artificial ligaments were studied. These structures were manufactured with the same braided yarn and the same number of yarns. The mechanical properties of the two structures, such as tensile strength, strain at break, work and stiffness were measured by using a constant speed gradient dynamometer. In order to determine the viscoelastic modulus of the two structures, a rheological model was proposed and the correlation between experimental and theoretical creep and relaxation curves were studied. The energy dissipation and the residual deformation were measured with an application developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic software. The obtained results showed that textile structure influences prosthesis viscoelastic and mechanical properties, material damping, hysteresis and residual deformation. The nonlinear viscoelastic model permitted to evaluate the elastic and the viscous modulus of the braided and woven structures and to describe its time-dependent deformation. This study may serve as a method for the selection of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Saber Marzougui

2009-01-01

335

Compression Testing of Textile Composite Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The applicability of existing test methods, which were developed primarily for laminates made of unidirectional prepreg tape, to textile composites is an area of concern. The issue is whether the values measured for the 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit materials are accurate representations of the true material response. This report provides a review of efforts to establish a compression test method for textile reinforced composite materials. Experimental data have been gathered from several sources and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of a variety of test methods. The effectiveness of the individual test methods to measure the material's modulus and strength is determined. Data are presented for 2-D triaxial braided, 3-D woven, and stitched graphite/epoxy material. However, the determination of a recommended test method and specimen dimensions is based, primarily, on experimental results obtained by the Boeing Defense and Space Group for 2-D triaxially braided materials. They evaluated seven test methods: NASA Short Block, Modified IITRI, Boeing Open Hole Compression, Zabora Compression, Boeing Compression after Impact, NASA ST-4, and a Sandwich Column Test.

Masters, John E.

1996-01-01

336

Development Strategy for a Textile Firm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The researched firm is a state-owned company of more than forty years of operation and is one of pioneer companies providing textile and garment to Vietnam market. Its vision is to be the sustainable multidisciplinary firm which operates in three main areas: textile and gament industry, travel – real estate and financial investment in global market. After more than forty years of operation in the market, company has obtained some recognized results but these are still low and do not meet company’s strategic goals and company’s shareholders expectation. A need of a development of strategy which will help company to take market positioning and to develop. This research will help to have an overview of company, its business environment, its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Business environment and SWOT analysis are used for alternatives of strategies. Each activity of the company is reviewed to find the real problem that company is facing and helps to find a solution. A strategy is finally given for company’s competitiveness anddevelopment.

Luu Trong Tuan

2012-05-01

337

Manufactura textil en México: Un enfoque sistémico / Textile Manufacturing in México: a Systemic Approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo es resultado de un trabajo de investigación, cuyo objetivo establece la determinación y análisis de los factores que inciden en la competitividad de la manufacturera textil y del vestido. Aplicando el modelo de competitividad sistémica, se profundizó en los distintos factores que influ [...] yen en los niveles sistémicos (micro, meso, macro y meta), con el fin de proponer las condiciones necesarias para generar el desarrollo del sector. La infraestructura productiva textil se integra en 99,5% de micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES), que revelan diferentes problemáticas y no logran interactuar debidamente con las instituciones de apoyo. Por su parte el Estado ha mantenido un entorno propicio para la competitividad y ha establecido políticas industriales dirigidas a un cambio en los tipos de organización industrial (clusters y empresas integradoras). Pero para participar con éxito en los nuevos sistemas de competencia internacional se deben lograr consensos entre actores sociales que permitan hacer los cambios necesarios para encauzarse hacia una competitividad sostenida en la industria textil. Abstract in english This article is a result of a research the objective of which is the determination and analysis of the factors that influence the competitiveness of the textile and garment industry in México. The systemic competitive methodology is applied in order to study the different factors that influence the [...] systemic levels (micro, meso, macro, goal) in order to propose the necessary conditions for the development of this industry. The textile productive infrastructure is 99.5% composed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSME’s), which present multiple types of problems of different kinds and which are unable to interact adequately with the supporting institutions. On the other hand, the government has maintained an adequate environment for competitiveness and has established industrial policies which pursue the change in industrial organization (“clusters” and “integrative companies”). However, in order to be successful in new systems of international competition, consensus among the social actors will have to be achieved in order to introduce the necessary changes to sustain competitiveness in the textile industry.

Carlos, Rodríguez Monroy; Lizbeth, Fernández Chalé.

338

Treatment of Textile Wastewater with Chlorine: An Effective Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the chlorination of textile wastewater achieves all the objectives of its treatment such as color removal and reduction of TDS, BOD and COD; and the treated effluents meet the standards set as per Schedule 12-B of the Environment Conservation Rules-1997 (ECR-97, Bangladesh, the treatment of textile wastewater with chlorine gas is a practical technological option for Bangladesh. If this process which is simple if adopted by the textile sector, the ETP operation would be widely practised for its low operating costs because of low price of chlorine produced by local chlor-alkali plants in the country. Satisfactory operation of the ETPs treating textile wastewater with chlorine at low costs has made this process affordable and attractive to the textile sector. Some of the perceived limitations of chlorination outweighs the greater benefits of textile wastewater treatment with chlorine gas leading to cleaner water bodies which receive these effluents otherwise.

Keywords:Textile wastewater, chlorination, ETP, wastewater treatment

DOI = 10.3329/cerb.v14i1.3206

Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin 14 (2010 59-63

 

A. K. M. Abdul Quader

2010-05-01

339

Verification of Surface Conductance Model of Textile Materials  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La superficie de la conductancia se encuentra dentro de los parámetros principales de materiales textiles específicos y describe sus características básicas. Estos materiales se usan por ejemplo en situaciones donde se requiere una protección electroestática para el hardware durante el proceso de pr [...] oducción. Los métodos de medida estándares publicados siguen métodos modelados que no alcanzan resultados satisfactorios. Por lo tanto, este informe se enfoca en modelar la superficie de la conductancia de materiales textiles. Los resultados muestran que la estructura de los materiales textiles pueden considerarse como conexiones de resistencias serie-paralelo. Se describe, además, una derivación de este modelo. Abstract in english Surface conductance is one of the main parameters which describes basic characteristics of specific textile materials. These textile materials are used, for example, in environments with higher requirements on hardware electrostatic protection during their production process. Published measurement s [...] tandardized methods are followed by modeling methods which do not reach satisfactory results. This paper is therefore focused on the modeling of surface conductance of textile materials. The results show that the structure of textile materials can be seen as serial-parallel connections of resistors. A derivation of this model is described.

M., Neruda; L., Vojtech.

2012-08-01

340

Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is first adopted to quantitatively describe texture semantics. Then texture features of textile images are extracted using Gabor decomposition. Finally, the mapping model between texture features and texture semantics in the semantic space is built using three different methods: linear regression, k-nearest neighbor (KNN and multi-layered perceptron (MLP. The performance of the proposed mapping model is evaluated with a dataset of 1352 textile images. The results confirm that the mapping model is effective and especially KNN and MLP reach the good performance. We further apply the mapping model to two applications: automatic textile image annotation with texture semantics and textile image search based on texture semantics. The subjective experimental results are consistent with human perception, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed mapping model. The proposed model and its applications can be applied to various automation systems in commercial textile industry.

Xiaohui Wang

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process

342

An overview of the NASA textile composites program  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Langley Research Center is conducting and sponsoring research to explore the benefits of textile reinforced composites for civil transport aircraft primary structures. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate the potential of affordable textile reinforced composite materials to meet design properties and damage tolerance requirements of advanced aircraft structures. In addition to in-house research, the program includes major participation by the aircraft industry and aerospace textile companies. The major program elements include development of textile preforms, processing science, mechanics of materials, experimental characterization of materials, and development and evaluation of textile reinforced composite structural elements and subcomponents. The NASA Langley in-house research is focused on science-based understanding of resin transfer molding (RTM), development of powder-coated towpreg processes, analysis methodology, and development of a performance database on textile reinforced composites. The focus of the textile industry participation is on development of multidirectional, damage-tolerant preforms, and the aircraft industry participation is in the areas of innovative design concepts, cost-effective fabrication, and testing of textile reinforced composite structural elements and subcomponents. Textile processes such as 3-D weaving, 2-D and 3-D braiding, and knitting/stitching are being compared with conventional laminated tape processes for improved damage tolerance. Through-the-thickness reinforcements offer significant damage tolerance improvements. However, these gains must be weighed against potential loss in in-plane properties such as strength and stiffness. Analytical trade studies are underway to establish design guidelines for the application of textile material forms to meet specific loading requirements. Fabrication and testing of large structural components are required to establish the full potential of textile reinforced composite materials. The goals of the NASA Langley-sponsored research program are to demonstrate technology readiness with subscale composite components by 1995 and to verify the performance of full-scale composite primary aircraft structural components by 1997. The status of textile reinforced composite structural elements under development by Boeing, Douglas, Lockheed, and Grumman are presented. Included are braided frames and woven/stitched wing and fuselage panels.

Dexter, H. Benson

1993-01-01

343

Finite element based micro-mechanics modeling of textile composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile composites have the advantage over laminated composites of a significantly greater damage tolerance and resistance to delamination. Currently, a disadvantage of textile composites is the inability to examine the details of the internal response of these materials under load. Traditional approaches to the study fo textile based composite materials neglect many of the geometric details that affect the performance of the material. The present three dimensional analysis, based on the representative volume element (RVE) of a plain weave, allows prediction of the internal details of displacement, strain, stress, and failure quantities. Through this analysis, the effect of geometric and material parameters on the aforementioned quantities are studied.

Glaessgen, E. H.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

1995-01-01

344

Application of nanotechnology in antimicrobial finishing of biomedical textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-toxic renewable biopolymers such as chitosan, alginate and starch. Moreover, a relationship among metal and metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) size, its concentration on the fabric, and the antimicrobial activity exists, allowing the optimization of antimicrobial functionality.

Zille, Andrea; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Fátima Esteves, Maria; Silva, Carla J.; Souto, António Pedro

2014-09-01

345

Radiometric determination of the amount of coating material on textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flow chart is shown of equipment for determining the amount of coating material on textiles. Measurements were conducted using a simplified model arrangement consisting of two measuring points for determining material surface density by radiography. The measuring points consisted of a collimation shield with a radiation source (85Kr) and a detection part. The textile material coating was simulated by a polyester foil. The measurement error was assessed comprising the effects of the statistical nature of nuclear decay and the fluctuation of the textile material surface density. (H.S.)

346

Study on the Features of Textile Industry Cluster in Guangzhong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xi'an and Xianyang is two famous textile towns in Guangzhong, it formed a cotton textile industry-orientedresearch, production systems and international market networks which have great influence throughout thecountry. The textile industry cluster in the region is now in cluster development infancy, being a free competitivemarket structure. According to the cluster features it explores the main form factors: Well-known localentrepreneurs, social networks and local government. Then it brings forward the corresponding developmentstrategies: 1 nurturing local entrepreneurs, building networks and strengthening local industry localgovernment's macro-control and service functions; 2 Selecting gathering space-based development model.

Tong Yang

2010-12-01

347

Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1--5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric. 5 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1998-09-22

348

Comunicación y productividad en pequeñas y medianas empresas de un cluster textil en Colombia / Communication and productivity in small and medium sized businesses of a textile cluster in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza la opinión que tienen los gerentes y obreros sobre la comunicación y su incidencia en la productividad. El estudio consiste en una encuesta aplicada a una muestra de 17 empresas de un cluster textil en Colombia. Estas empresas fueron seleccionadas por conveniencia de un listado d [...] e 36 empresas de la Asociación Colombiana de las Micros, Pequeñas y Medianas empresas (ACOPI, Antioquía). Como se muestra en el artículo, los gerentes y los obreros opinan que la comunicación directa, las conversaciones y las reuniones tienen una relación con el crecimiento de la productividad. Abstract in english The paper analyzes the view of managers and workers about communication and its influence in productivity. The study consists of an applied survey to a 17 companies sample from a textile business cluster in Colombia. These companies were selected from a list of 36 companies of the Asociación Colombi [...] ana de las Micros, Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (ACOPI, Antioquia). As shown in the paper, the managers and the workers believe that face to face communication, talks and meetings have a close relation to productivity's growth.

Mario Humberto, Muñoz Hernández.

349

Comunicación y productividad en pequeñas y medianas empresas de un cluster textil en Colombia / Communication and productivity in small and medium sized businesses of a textile cluster in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza la opinión que tienen los gerentes y obreros sobre la comunicación y su incidencia en la productividad. El estudio consiste en una encuesta aplicada a una muestra de 17 empresas de un cluster textil en Colombia. Estas empresas fueron seleccionadas por conveniencia de un listado d [...] e 36 empresas de la Asociación Colombiana de las Micros, Pequeñas y Medianas empresas (ACOPI, Antioquía). Como se muestra en el artículo, los gerentes y los obreros opinan que la comunicación directa, las conversaciones y las reuniones tienen una relación con el crecimiento de la productividad. Abstract in english The paper analyzes the view of managers and workers about communication and its influence in productivity. The study consists of an applied survey to a 17 companies sample from a textile business cluster in Colombia. These companies were selected from a list of 36 companies of the Asociación Colombi [...] ana de las Micros, Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (ACOPI, Antioquia). As shown in the paper, the managers and the workers believe that face to face communication, talks and meetings have a close relation to productivity's growth.

Mario Humberto, Muñoz Hernández.

2012-06-01

350

PLANTAS TEXTILES DE LOS GUARANÍES DE MISIONES, ARGENTINA Textile plants of the Guarani from Misiones, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Se presenta información sobre las especies de plantas textiles mencionadas o usadas en
comunidades guaraníes de la provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se brindan algunos detalles
sobre técnicas de recolección y aprovechamiento de dichas especies. Se especifican las
especies que se siguen usando con frecuencia, las que se usan raramente y las que han caído
en desuso. Se ilustra el trabajo mediante fotografías.
Information about textile plants used or mentioned in Guarani communities of Misiones Province, Argentina is here given. Methods of harvest and uses of same plants are detailed. The species are classified in three categories; used frequently at present, used occasionally and used at the past. The manuscript is illustrated by mean photographs

Héctor A. Keller

2010-07-01

351

Identificación de nichos de mercado para el sector textil. identification of niche markets for textiles.  

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Full Text Available Se identifican de nichos de mercado para el sector textil a partir de una caracterización del sector textil a nivel internacional, específicamente en Canada y Venezuela en relación a las fibras sintéticas (poliéster y acrílicos, tejidos de sombra, hilos, cordeles y soga de sisal y propipropileno,  se identifican los precios de los productos y se caracterizan las empresas potenciales interesadas. La metodología utilizada incluyó: analizar la solicitud, se identificó el problema del cliente a resolver, se enmarcó en un tipo de estudio,  se ejecutaron los procedimientos para solucionar el problema, se identificaron las fuentes de información, se seleccionó la estrategia de búsqueda y se realizó el respectivo análisis de información utilizando Excel y Endnote X4. También se tuvo en cuenta información sobre el acceso al mercado, las barreras arancelarias y no arancelarias, restricciones, tamaños del mercado, tendencias y crecimiento del mercado, segmentación y consumo, las importaciones, volumen, país de origen, fortalezas y debilidades del mercado y precios, nomenclatura de los productos como la ALADI, sistema de clasificación internacional y el sistema armonizado de designación y codificación de mercancía de Cuba. Como resultado se elabora un perfil de cada uno de los países, sus canales de distribución y se identifican los acuerdos internacionales sobre la industria textil.

Silvio Leonel Curiel Lorenzo

2011-12-01

352

Tecnologías de Información y Rentabilidad de las Pymes del Sector Textil / Information Technologies and the Profitability of SAMEs in the Textile Sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre el uso de las tecnologías de información y la rentabilidad de las pymes del sector textil ubicadas en el Municipio Maracaibo del Estado Zulia. La investigación se desarrolló a través de un estudio correlacional; para la recolección d [...] e datos se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado, bajo la modalidad de entrevista, a propietarios, presidentes, gerentes y administradores de 16 empresas. Los resultados evidencian que a pesar de los beneficios que brindan las tecnologías de información en la gestión empresarial, su uso, en el corto plazo, no contribuye al incremento de la rentabilidad en el sector estudiado; asimismo, factores como dificultad para acceder a mano de obra calificada, repuestos y soporte técnico adecuado, además de los altos costos de adquisición, limitan su uso. Se concluye que el incremento de la rentabilidad pudiera estar asociado a otros factores. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between the use of information technologies and the profitability of textile sector SAMEs located in the Maracaibo Municipality of the State of Zulia. The research developed through a correlational study. To collect data, a semi-structured q [...] uestionnaire was applied in the interview mode, to owners, presidents, managers and administrators from 16 companies. Results show that despite the benefits offered by information technologies for business management, in the short term, their use does not contribute to a profitability increase in the sector studied; likewise, factors such as difficulty in obtaining qualified workers, replacement parts and technical support, as well as high acquisition costs, limit their use. Conclusions were that a profitability increase could be associated with other factors.

Miraidy Elena, Leal Morantes.

2009-12-01

353

Tecnologías de Información y Rentabilidad de las Pymes del Sector Textil / Information Technologies and the Profitability of SAMEs in the Textile Sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre el uso de las tecnologías de información y la rentabilidad de las pymes del sector textil ubicadas en el Municipio Maracaibo del Estado Zulia. La investigación se desarrolló a través de un estudio correlacional; para la recolección d [...] e datos se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado, bajo la modalidad de entrevista, a propietarios, presidentes, gerentes y administradores de 16 empresas. Los resultados evidencian que a pesar de los beneficios que brindan las tecnologías de información en la gestión empresarial, su uso, en el corto plazo, no contribuye al incremento de la rentabilidad en el sector estudiado; asimismo, factores como dificultad para acceder a mano de obra calificada, repuestos y soporte técnico adecuado, además de los altos costos de adquisición, limitan su uso. Se concluye que el incremento de la rentabilidad pudiera estar asociado a otros factores. Abstract in english The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between the use of information technologies and the profitability of textile sector SAMEs located in the Maracaibo Municipality of the State of Zulia. The research developed through a correlational study. To collect data, a semi-structured q [...] uestionnaire was applied in the interview mode, to owners, presidents, managers and administrators from 16 companies. Results show that despite the benefits offered by information technologies for business management, in the short term, their use does not contribute to a profitability increase in the sector studied; likewise, factors such as difficulty in obtaining qualified workers, replacement parts and technical support, as well as high acquisition costs, limit their use. Conclusions were that a profitability increase could be associated with other factors.

Miraidy Elena, Leal Morantes.

354

Fair Trade & Worker Organizations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment. At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya.

Riisgaard, Lone

2014-01-01

355

3D textile reinforcements for high-performance rotors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Textile reinforced composites offer high potential for a load-adapted design of lightweight rotors in high-performance applications. Therefore, modified calculation methods have been applied to optimally exhaust the material anisotropy and tailorability of the rotor structure to fulfill the individual technical demands. The developed and experimentally verified calculation methods are an efficient tool for purposeful parameter studies within the design and optimization process of enhanced 3D-textile reinforced composite rotors. Using this tool, especially laminated uni- and bi-directionally reinforced rotors have been analyzed; additionally important differences in the mechanical behavior of laminated and wound rotors have been found. For a first model rotor, advanced stitching techniques were applied, to manufacture a 3D textile reinforcement, which was infiltrated with epoxy resin. Within the further research work novel forming tools have to be developed to fabricate complex-shaped rotor structures made from CF-PEEK textiles in the high-temperature autoclave. (orig.)

Hufenbach, W.; Archodoulakis, G.; Kroll, L.; Langkamp, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Leichtbau und Kunststofftechnik; Roedel, H.; Herzberg, C. [Inst. fuer Textil- und Bekleidungstechnik (ITB), Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

2000-07-01

356

COMBINED ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile manufacturing consumes a considerable amount of water in its manufacturing processes. The water is primarily utilized in the dyeing and finishing operations of the textile establishments. Considering both the volume generated and the effluent composition, the textile industry wastewater is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors. In this study a combined anaerobic-aerobic reactor was operated continuously for treatment of textile wastewater. Cosmo balls were used to function as growth media for microorganisms in anaerobic reactor. Effect of pH, dissolved oxygen, and organic changes in nitrification and denatrification process were investigated. The results indicated that over 84.62% ammonia nitrogen and about 98.9% volatile suspended solid (VSS removal efficiency could be obtained. Dissolved oxygen (DO, pH were shown to have only slight influences on the nitrification process; and for each 10% removal of nitrogen, only 3% of pH changes were achieved.

MAHDI AHMED

2007-04-01

357

Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.

Sanda VISAN

2010-06-01

358

Development of a luminous textile for reflective pulse oximetry measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a textile-based sensing principle for long term photopletysmography (PPG) monitoring is presented. Optical fibers were embroidered into textiles such that out-coupling and in-coupling of light was possible. The “light-in light-out” properties of the textile enabled the spectroscopic characterization of human tissue. For the optimization of the textile sensor, three different carrier fabrics and different fiber modifications were compared. The sample with best light coupling efficiency was successfully used to measure heart rate and SpO2 values of a subject. The latter was determined by using a modified Beer-Lambert law and measuring the light attenuation at two different wavelengths (632 nm and 894 nm). Moreover, the system was adapted to work in reflection mode which makes the sensor more versatile. The measurements were additionally compared with commercially available system and showed good correlation. PMID:25136484

Krehel, Marek; Wolf, Martin; Boesel, Luciano F.; Rossi, Rene M.; Bona, Gian-Luca; Scherer, Lukas J.

2014-01-01

359

Tectonics in Building Culture II: Textile Blocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international workshop "Tectonics and Building Culture II: Textile Blocks" was held as part of the Erasmus Intensive Programme between 19 and 30 August 2009 in Ireland, on the route between Dublin and Letterfrack. On the way from Dublin to Letterfrack, we visited some areas where dry-stone wall construction is part of the traditional architecture.At the end of a three-day trip, we arrived in the town of Letterfrack, where a practical workshop on safety and skills in processing stone and traditional techniques of stacking walls was held over the ensuing days. The results were three stone installations/sculptures at three different locations in Letterfrack and the village of Tully.

Igor Seljak

2012-01-01

360

Studies on textile sludge treatment options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of sludge samples of a textile processing factory revealed that the BOD and COD as well as the levels of total solids, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of sludge liquor were high needing treatment before disposal or reuse. Detention time of 60 days was established for aerobic treatment of the sludge. Optimum dosage for physicochemical methods were established at 4 g/l, using alum and iron III chloride each and 15.5 g/l and 550 mg/l, for lime and polyelectrolyte each. Solids were reduced by 67%, through aerobic and 61 % through anaerobic digestion, while the sludge treated by physicochemical method had higher solid content, recording the highest increase with lime. (author)

 
 
 
 
361

industria alimentaria y textil moda de España  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La integración y la coordinación entre empresas de la cadena de suministro, tanto interna como externamente, es uno de los puntos que suscita mayor interés entre directivos e investigadores por su potencial aportación a la mejora de la cadena de suministro y, más globalmente, a la mejora de competitividad. En este sentido, el objetivo de este artículo es identificar el nivel evolutivo de la organización adoptada para gestionar la cadena de suministro, en un contexto de adaptación a las necesidades planteadas por los mercados, que demandan, entre otros aspectos, una mayor eficiencia y flexibilidad. Para ello, se analizan comparativamente los casos de 25 empresas españolas del sector alimentario y del sector de textil moda.

Jes\\u00FAs Garc\\u00EDa-Arca

2011-01-01

362

Research and experimentation with technical textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper outlines the work being done by the Politecnico di Milano’s SPACE (Experimental process for architecture and life cycle of building products research unit on the theme of textile architecture. It describes the major research done by the unit, giving a glimpse of the strategies put in place by the university and the European Union for pure research, applied research and even experimental design. The essay also presents some thoughts on the impact of technological research on a project and on the ability of technologist to contribute to the design process with ‘constructive imagination’ and with ‘non-routine skills’, encouraging cooperation between specialized areas and the achievement of goals using non-conflicting methods.

Alessandra Zanelli

2011-11-01

363

Experimental study of outgassing from textile materials  

Science.gov (United States)

We have performed a careful analysis of the pumpdown curves measured in our vacuum reactors for radio frequency plasma treatment of materials at low pressure. The characterization of the device pumping behavior both in the viscous and in the molecular regimes makes it possible to study the outgassing flow rates of several textile materials. Estimates of the relevant flow rates in different pressure ranges and measurements of the flow composition have been obtained. Such data can be interpreted in the framework of simplified desorption models and could be used in order to design the pumping system needed for vacuum treatment of such materials, both in batch and in continuously fed-in processes. In particular direct application of existing cold plasma treatments, such as chemical vapor deposition, plasma etching, activation, and grafting, at an industrial scale can be foreseen in view of our data, which can be straightforwardly used to estimate the costs of the required vacuum technology.

Barni, R.; Riccardi, C.; Fontanesi, M.

2003-05-01

364

The US textile industry: An energy perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report investigates the state of the US textile industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. Specific objectives were: To update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1984; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1984), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2010); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. Results of this study concluded that in the year 2010, there is a potential to save between 34% and 53% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry in three categories: process modification, basic research, and improved housekeeping practices that reduce energy consumption. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.

Badin, J. S.; Lowitt, H. E.

1988-01-01

365

Roadmap Textile 2030; Routekaart Textiel 2030  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the Roadmap Textile the future market demand was chosen as a starting point Trends in the following five sectors are depicted: Care, Construction, Mobility, Sports and Entertainment, Safety. Opportunities are defined and translated into development targets. Based on 'technological readiness levels' and perceived market opportunities, five new or innovative product market combinations (PMCs) are assigned and calculated for potential savings in energy and raw materials [Dutch] Voor de Routekaart Textiel is de toekomstige marktvraag als vertrekpunt gekozen. Trends in de volgende vijf sectoren zijn in beeld gebracht: Zorg, Bouw, Mobiliteit, Sport en ontspanning, Veiligheid. Vanuit deze trends zijn kansen gedefinieerd, die vervolgens zijn doorvertaald naar ontwikkelingsdoelen. Op basis van de bijbehorende 'technological readiness levels' en de gepercipieerde marktkansen, zijn een vijftal nieuwe dan wel vernieuwende product markt combinaties (pmc's) benoemd en doorgerekend op besparingspotentieel in energie en grondstoffen.

Wintermans, J. [MODINT, Zeist (Netherlands); Van den Berg, F. [BECO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van Hooijdonk, G. [The Bridge, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Luiken, A. [Alcon Advies, Wierden (Netherlands); Brinks, G. [BMA Techne, Almelo (Netherlands); Op den Brouw, H. [Agentschap NL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2012-06-15

366

Paperness : expressive material in textile art from an artist's viewpoint  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although textile artists realise the importance of physical materials through their physical and expressive qualities, no explicit account has been made of how a material is important for them, for their creative processes and artworks. This study sets out to scrutinise the expressivity of paper string as a material in textile art, exploring the relationship between paper string and artistic expression. While paper string is touchable, artistic expression can be conceived as subjective, known...

Nimkulrat, Nithikul

2009-01-01

367

A RECAPITULATION OF SCM IN CONJUNCTION WITH TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is an endeavor to explore the supply chain management specifically in connection with textile/apparel industry of a developing country. A review of pertinent literature is conducted to explore the continuation of supply chain management and its existence in textile/apparel industry of a developing country. Databases such as: EBSCO Host, Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, and Science Direct are searched for the works concerned to supply chain management. The review of literature suggest...

Amer Rajput; Abdul Hamid Abu Bakar

2011-01-01

368

CRITICAL EVALUATION OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN TEXTILES AND LEATHER INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Performance results obtained in terms of entrepreneurial skills, professional skills and structured cross various specializations in the field of management, in textiles and leather industry, demonstrates the ability of permanent self-control skills on motivation for learning, in relation to their professional and personal development objectives. Article identifies and evaluates the performance of critical business managers working in textiles and leather industry, analyzing their competitive...

Stan Luciana Cristiana

2012-01-01

369

PRECONDITIONS OF SERBIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS AND PROSPERITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the present problems, the textile industry is of great importance in Serbian economy, and it has the perspective to become the one of the most important economy branches if it employs all advantages and successfully overcomes the key problems.Textile and clothing competition is possible only if the following factors are taken into account: price, as the factor that usually stands out, and non-price factors such as product quality, design, rich assortment, top-line standardisation, and...

Snežana Uroševi?

2012-01-01

370

Removal of textile dyes with biopolymers xanthan and alginic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile industry is an important activity that provides considerable benefits to people, but unfortunately dyeing of yarn and cloth produces pollution of water, a resource that is valuable and scarce. Dyeing of textiles fibers is an inefficient process, in view of the fact that approximately ten percent of total dye is thrown to municipal sewage. Although different treatment systems are applied to wastewater, dyes are resistant to physical, chemical and biological factors because of the way they are designed. (Author)

371

Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here we discuss two alternative approaches for building flexible batteries for applications in smart textiles. The first approach uses well-studied inorganic electrochemistry (Al-NaOCl galvanic cell) and innovative packaging in order to produce batteries in a slender and flexible fiber form that can be further weaved directly into the textiles. During fabrication process the battery electrodes are co-drawn within a microstructured polymer fiber, which is later filled with li...

Qu, Hang; Bourgeois, Jean-pierre; Rolland, Julien; Vlad, Alexandru; Gohy, Jean-franc?ois; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

2013-01-01

372

Advanced microgel-functionalized polyester textiles adaptive to ambient conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new approach toward textile-based multi-functional and stimuli-responsive materials is proposed. Polyelectrolyte microgel technology is combined with conventional functionalization methods of photo- and thermo-crosslinking to activate the surface of polyester textiles, making them interactive with their environment. The microgels consisted of pH/thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIAA) microparticles either alone or complexed with oppositely charged macromolecul...

Glampedaki, Pelagia

2011-01-01

373

El consumo de textiles en León (1700-1860)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En este artículo analizamos, basándonos sobre todo en inventarios post-mortem con los bienes tasados, las pautas de consumo de textiles en dos comarcas leonesas, La Bañeza y Astorga, muy conectadas con las rutas de comercio entre el noroeste peninsular y la Meseta castellana y en un escenario de larga duración: 1700-1860. De este modo, en las familias de campesinos y artesanos de estas zonas observamos: por una parte, un mayor consumo de textiles, sobre todo desde los...

Bartolome? Bartolome?, Juan Manuel

2003-01-01

374

Udvikling af spil, med henblik på implementering af smart textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dette projekt omhandler udviklingen af et spil. Spillets formål er at undersøge, hvordan smart textiles produkter implementeres hos en særlig målgruppe. Denne målgruppe er kvinder med interesse i design og innovation. Spillet udvikles gennem tre designiterationer. Anvendelsen finder sted under et fokusgruppeinterview på TEKO i Herning. Det belyses, at tilhørsforholdet til smart textiles produktet er en vigtig faktor i implementeringsfasen. Vigtigt er det, at forbrugeren kan opnå trygh...

Smed Møller, Louise

2011-01-01

375

Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations that can be well overcome by tertiary waste water treatment.

Manali Desai*1, Mehali Mehta2

2014-03-01

376

Strategic planning for the textile and clothing supply chain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The expansion of textile and clothing production to Asian regions has both, increased competition and created a need for integration with the global supply chain. Strategies are being designed to improve competitiveness and responsiveness of the chains by increasing the diversification of products and value addition. This study formulates and examines the potential of such strategies and their implementation for textile and clothing chains originating from Pakistan. The strategies were develo...

Deedar Hussain; Manuel Figueiredo; Anabela Tereso; Fernando Ferreira

2012-01-01

377

Removal of Heavy Metals from Textile Wastewater using Zeolite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) are widely used for production of colour pigments of textile dyes. Textile dyes pollutants are being released to the environment at various stages of operation therefore it is necessary that the pollutants are treated before discharge using zeolite with and without alum. A study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of treatment using zeolite with and without alum for the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr...

Normala Halimoon

2010-01-01

378

Preparation of activated carbon fibres from acrylic textiles fibres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acrylic textile fibres have been used to prepare activated carbon fibres (ACF). Characterisation by means of elemental analysis, XRD, SEM and low temperature nitrogen adsorption show that the properties of the acrylic ACF compare favourably with those of non-textile PAN, Kevlar and Nomex ACF. A particularly interesting, and never previously reported, feature was observed with fibres activated at 9008C. It was found, with one fibre in particular, that over a very limited range of b...

Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela

2001-01-01

379

Plasma Treatment of Thermoactive Membrane Textiles for Superhydrophobicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Expedition clothes have to fulfill high requirements, especially in terms of resistance, thermal comfort and moisture transport. Thermoactive membrane textile materials are commonly used to satisfy all these needs. To improve visual properties of these textiles, a modification to achieve self-clean superhydrophobic surface (known as “Lotus Effect”) can be used. As an implementation of this idea, glow discharge RF capacitively coupled plasma processing of industry materials with inert as w...

Tyczkowski, Jacek; Pietrowski, Piotr; Hrynyk, Rafa?; Ma?achowski, Adam; Makowski, Przemys?aw; Twardowski, Adam

2012-01-01

380

Potential applications of nanofiber textile covered by carbon coatings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Nanospider technology is modified electrospinning method for production nanofiber textile from polymer solutions. This material can be used as wound dressing and filter materials for example. Carbon coatings deposited onto surface of polymer nanofiber textiles are predicted to improve filtration effectivity of filters and bioactivity of wound dressings. Carbon coatings have been produced by Microwave Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW/RF PACVD) method.Desig...

Roz?ek, Z.; Kaczorowski, W.; Luka?s?, D.; Louda, P.; Mitura, S.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

75 FR 5578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Request--Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl Plastic Film AGENCY...Commission's flammability standards for clothing textiles and vinyl plastic film. DATES...requirements should be captioned ``Clothing Textiles and Film, Collection of...

2010-02-03

382

The Interaction of Noise Pollution and Blood Pressure in a Textile Factory in Ilam, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the industrial noise pollution and its effects on the blood pressure of workers during activities in textile factory in Ilam,which is situated in west of Iran. A cross-sectional study was performed on a group included 81 workers and 30 people as sample and control group, respectively. A questionnaire was filled out and then the other measurements including the total sound pressure level, weight, height, pulse, blood pressure and all the rest of medical examinations have been respectively done. The average sound pressure level measured for sample and control group was respectively (94.86 ±6.63 and (61.93 ± 4.56 dBA. The result also showed that by taking mean values for each quantitative variable, statistically only the age has significant difference between opposing groups. Sound frequency analysis in A and C networks over a frequency range between 125 to 16000 Hz revealed a significant differences in such away that sound pressure level for the sample group was higher than the limited threshold (85 dBA.  Moreover, the results from the survey of the total sound pressure level in A –and C – weighted according to blood pressure status, BMI and age indicate a significant statistical correlation between the mentioned variables. A highly significant correlation was found by    test between the level of sound pressure, blood pressure status, BMI and the age group in different octave band center frequencies. It is concluded that planning for working hours of workers to decrease the noise exposure and employment of young workers with appropriate BMI may reduce the adverse effects of noise.

Parvin Nassiri

2009-04-01

383