WorldWideScience
1

Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.  

OpenAIRE

1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births...

Xu, X.; Ding, M.; Li, B.; Christiani, D. C.

1994-01-01

2

Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and breast cancer among women textile workers in Shanghai, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects' complete work histories were linked to a job-exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24043439

Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M; Thomas, David B; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E Dawn; Camp, Janice E; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J; Checkoway, Harvey

2013-10-01

3

An ergonomic study of women workers in a woolen textile factory for identification of health-related problems  

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Full Text Available The observational cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 100 women workers who volunteered, outlines their cardio-respiratory and musculo-skeletal profile before, during and at end of work. In addition, information on their health status in general was collected in advance. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant change in respiratory function. However, the musculo-skeletal problems were found to be abundantly present with pain in 91% of the subjects. Region-wise mapping of pain revealed that postural pain in low back was present in 47% while in neck was 19%. Scapular muscles on the right side were involved in stabilizing shoulder, which never went overhead. On the contrary, left shoulder was raised as high (>90 degrees in spinning action, while pulling thread. This muscle work involved trapezius, deltoid and triceps action concentrically in lifting and while coming to starting position slowly, eccentrically. There was no pause since the wheel continued to spin the thread continuously, unless a worker opted to stop the work. Accordingly, left wrist and hand were in holding contraction while the right wrist and hand holding the handle were also in a fixed position with wrist in flexion with supinated forearm. Though the overall job was light as per peak HR, there was pain due to fatigue and grip strength weakened by around 10%, at the end of the day?s work. In conclusion, pain and fatigue were found to be the main problems for women in the spinning section of the small-scale industry under this study. Women have to take up dual responsibility of a full-time job as well as the domestic work. It was considered that ergonomic factors such as provision of a backrest and frequent rest periods could remediate the musculo-skeletal symptoms.

Metgud D

2008-01-01

4

An ergonomic study of women workers in a woolen textile factory for identification of health-related problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The observational cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 100 women workers who volunteered, outlines their cardio-respiratory and musculo-skeletal profile before, during and at end of work. In addition, information on their health status in general was collected in advance.Contrary to expectation, there was no significant change in respiratory function. However, the musculo-skeletal problems were found to be abundantly present with pain in 91% of the subjects. Region-wise mapping of pain revealed that postural pain in low back was present in 47% while in neck was 19%. Scapular muscles on the right side were involved in stabilizing shoulder, which never went overhead. On the contrary, left shoulder was raised as high (>90 degrees) in spinning action, while pulling thread. This muscle work involved trapezius, deltoid and triceps action concentrically in lifting and while coming to starting position slowly, eccentrically. There was no pause since the wheel continued to spin the thread continuously, unless a worker opted to stop the work. Accordingly, left wrist and hand were in holding contraction while the right wrist and hand holding the handle were also in a fixed position with wrist in flexion with supinated forearm. Though the overall job was light as per peak HR, there was pain due to fatigue and grip strength weakened by around 10%, at the end of the day's work. In conclusion, pain and fatigue were found to be the main problems for women in the spinning section of the small-scale industry under this study. Women have to take up dual responsibility of a full-time job as well as the domestic work. It was considered that ergonomic factors such as provision of a backrest and frequent rest periods could remediate the musculo-skeletal symptoms. PMID:20040992

Metgud, D C; Khatri, Subhash; Mokashi, M G; Saha, P N

2008-04-01

5

Byssinosis and serum IgE concentrations in textile workers in an Italian cotton mill  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT The relationship between serum concentrations of total IgE and byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms was evaluated in 352 textile workers (90 men, 262 women) at a cotton mill in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy. The subjects were aged from 20 to 61 (mean 44) and the mean duration of employment was 20 years. One hundred and eight subjects (30·7%) were smokers. Only 2% had a positive history of atopy. A standardised questionnaire showed chronic bronchitis in 96 textile workers (27·3%...

Petronio, L.; Bovenzi, M.

1983-01-01

6

Long term respiratory health effects in textile workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of review Over 60 million people worldwide work in the textile or clothing industry. Recent studies have recognized the contribution of workplace exposures to chronic lung diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early studies in textile workers have focused on the relationship between hemp or cotton dust exposure and the development of a syndrome termed Byssinosis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of long term exposure to organic dust in textile workers on chronic respiratory disease in the broader context of disease classifications such as reversible or irreversible obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma or COPD), and restrictive lung disease. Recent findings Cessation of exposure to cotton dusts leads to improvement in lung function. Recent animal models have suggested a shift in the lung macrophage:dendritic cell population as a potential mechanistic explanation for persistent inflammation in the lung due to repeated cotton-dust related endotoxin exposure. Other types of textile dust, such as silk, may contribute to COPD in textile workers. Summary Textile dust related obstructive lung disease has characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of chronic lung disease due to organic dust exposure in textile workers. PMID:23361196

Lai, Peggy S.; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

7

Health and safety aspects of textile workers from Solapur (India textile industries  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Textile sector in India plays an important role in the country's economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. Objectives: This paper focuses on health and safety aspects of textile workers in Solapur City (one of the key textile cluster in the state of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A sample of 180 workers from the identified textile industries of Solapur city were assessed for their general physique, muscle tone, lung condition, and eyesight using different techniques. The study aimed at developing a framework for understanding risks to textile workers resulting from lack of health and safety standards in companies. Results: Findings showed that most of the workers have been affected by respiratory problems, increase in muscle tone, eye problems and musculoskeletal problem. It has been also observed that job security or regular work impacts positively to the worker’s long term body health. However, there is an immediate need to adopt and implement measures in accordance with Indian Factories Act (OHSAS 18001/ILO-OSH 2001 which includes directions and procedures in respect of industrial installations, work environment and occupational health and safety guidelines.

Rahul B Hiremath

2014-12-01

8

Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19, for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25. The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73. The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers.

Stukonis Mecys

2007-11-01

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Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia. PMID:1998605

Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G

1991-02-01

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Cotton Dust Exposure, Respiratory Symptoms and PEFR in Textile Workers  

OpenAIRE

The purposes of this study was to measurement cotton dust levels in air workplace, Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determine of changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) before and after during workday among textile workers. This study was done among 31 workers carding and blowing rooms. Using a short questionnaire for demographic characteristics, medical record were collected in a modified questionnaire of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and 12 air samples were ...

Ghasemkhani, M.; Firoozbakhsh, S.; Azam, K.; Ghardashi, F.

2006-01-01

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Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia.  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker...

Woldeyohannes, M.; Bergevin, Y.; Mgeni, A. Y.; Theriault, G.

1991-01-01

12

Exploitation or Empowerment? The Impact of Textile and Apparel Manufacturing on the Education of Women in Developing Countries.  

OpenAIRE

One of the most cited criticism for US fashion brands is their exploitation of workers in their overseas manufacturing facilities. This paper studies whether such textile and apparel production facilities (also known as “sweatshops”) lead to lower education and thus a lower socio-economic status for women working in them. Results suggest it is not as a clear-cut conclusion. Evidence suggests a higher ratio of women receive primary education as apparel and textile exports increase while a...

Ozsoz, Emre

2014-01-01

13

Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

1988-01-01

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[Risk of malignant disease among female textile workers in Lithuania].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk among the workers at two Lithuanian textile mills vis-a-vis occupational hazards and professional status. Our retrospective investigation included 12,602 females who had been followed up in 1978-2002. Cancer risk was evaluated using a standardized incidence ratio and a relative one - on the basis of confidential interviews. Overall cancer risk for textile workers in Lithuania was lower than that of the general population (SIR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81-0.99). However, excess risk of thyroid cancer was reported among females at the linen finishing unit (SIR 5.85; 95% CI 1.21-17.2) cotton one (SIR 3.24; 95% CI 1.19-7.06). An inverse correlation was shown between cumulative exposure to cotton dust and risk at all occupational sites (p=0.03). Our results point to a link between probability occupational factors in a variety of textile industry jobs and risk of cancer. Further research is required to better understand the potential of professional factor influence. PMID:19670734

Kuzmickiene, I H; Stukonis, M K

2009-01-01

15

Addressing Workers' Rights in the Textile and Apparel Industries: Consequences for the Bangladesh Economy  

OpenAIRE

This paper applies a CGE model to analyze the effects of better addressing worker¿s rights in Bangladesh¿s textile and apparel industries. Results show that an increased minimum wage for unskilled, low-, and medium-skilled workers has negative impacts for these workers in aggregate and also for the economy in terms of export, GDP, and welfare. This comes from the decrease in employment. However, labor productivity-increasing improvements in factory conditions and services to workers not onl...

Ahmed, N.; Peerlings, J. H. M.

2009-01-01

16

Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive respiratory conditions among textile industry workers in Zimbabwe, 2006  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: Workers in the cotton processing industries risk developing obstructive respiratory conditions due to prolonged exposure to cotton dust. We noted a tenfold increase in asthma among workers in a Textile Manufacturing Company. We determined the prevalence of respiratory obstructive conditions among workers in various sections. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional analytic study. Workers were randomly sampled and data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. ...

Gerald Shambira; Mufuta Tshimanga; Reginald Matchaba-Hove; Addmore Chadambuka; Notion Tafara Gombe; Joseph Mberikunashe; Sarah Banda

2010-01-01

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Ventilatory functions in cotton textile workers and the role of some inflammatory cytokines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to cotton dust in industrial environments causes inflammation in the airways of the exposed workers. This may manifest as respiratory complaints and changes in the respiratory functions after work shift and in the baseline of their ventilatory functions. The study aimed to investigate the effect of occupational exposure to cotton dust on respiratory symptoms, ventilatory functions and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1?). The study was conducted on 63 textile workers and 65 nonexposed subjects. Both groups were matched for age, socioeconomic status and smoking habit. The respirable dust measured in the workplace did not exceed the permissible values of the Egyptian law 1994. The bacterial counts detected were within the occupational exposure limits of the industrial settings. The results revealed that the percentage of respiratory symptoms was higher in textile workers. Respiratory complaints were chronic cough (33.2%), chronic bronchitis (39.7%) and dyspnea (23.8%) in textile workers compared to (6.2%, 6.2% and 1.5%), respectively, in controls. There was a marked reduction in the ventilatory functions (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in the textile workers compared to the controls. The additive effect of smoking on the ventilatory functions was not apparent. The ventilatory functions of the workers were significantly positively correlated with the duration of exposure. The cytokines were insignificantly higher in the textile workers compared to their controls. The textile workers with respiratory complaints showed significant decline in ventilatory functions and elevation in the cytokine levels compared to the nonsymtomatizing workers with significant difference in interleukin 1? and interleukin 6. In conclusion, the results supported the fact that exposure to cotton dust deteriorates ventilatory functions and elevates proinflammatory cytokine levels. Analysis of the release of cytokines can be used to evaluate the immune responses to organic dust-induced airway inflammation. PMID:22082822

Beshir, Safia; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Saad-Hussein, Amal

2013-03-01

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Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

Sanjay RODE

2009-06-01

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Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non-government and international organizations as well as the UN agencies are working seriously to assist them and protect their rights. PMID:21218599

Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

2004-10-01

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Exposure-related declines in the lung function of cotton textile workers. Relationship to current workplace standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effectiveness of the current workplace standards in preventing chronic health effects from cotton dust exposure, a 5-yr longitudinal study of a large multimill population of cotton textile and synthetic process workers, employed at a major U.S. textile company, was conducted. To control for and assess the effect of type of work area on annual change in lung function, we limited the analysis to those 1,817 subjects who, throughout their textile work history at the company, worked exclusively in cotton yarn manufacturing or slashing and weaving, or in synthetic textile mills. The expected effect of smoking on average annual change in lung function was demonstrated for both cotton and synthetic workers. Despite lower overall dust exposure, cotton yarn workers exhibited steeper annual declines in lung function than did workers in slashing and weaving; this difference persisted within each smoking category, indicating a dust potency effect. There were mill differences in annual change in lung function among cotton workers, potentially masking an exposure effect. A smoking-work area interaction persisted after adjusting for mill differences, with the largest annual declines observed in cotton yarn workers who smoke. A significant dose-response relationship was seen in cotton yarn manufacturing between annual declines in FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75 and average exposure by mill, and the larger declines were found in mills using the highest percentage and lowest grade of cotton. Synthetic textile workers had larger declines than did cotton textile workers, which were not explained by smoking or duration of employment. Unrecognized and unmeasured causative exposures or selection bias could explain this result.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1892310

Glindmeyer, H W; Lefante, J J; Jones, R N; Rando, R J; Abdel Kader, H M; Weill, H

1991-09-01

21

Byssinosis and other respiratory disorders among textile mill workers in Bahr Dar northwest Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms were studied among 433 workers who were occupationally exposed to cotton dust in Bahr Dar Textile Mill. One-hundred-one nonexposed workers living in the same geographical area were included as controls. All of the subjects completed the British Medical Research Council Questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were administered on a vitalograph spirometer before starting the shift for all subjects, and after at least four hours of exposure for exposed subjects. Among the cotton dust exposed workers, byssinotics behaved distinctly and showed the maximum acute and chronic changes in pulmonary functions. The overall prevalence of byssinosis was 45.5%. The highest prevalence was found in carding (57.9%) and in ring frame (57.1%) operatives and the lowest in weaving preparatory section (32.1%). Unlike bronchial asthma, chronic cough and chronic bronchitis were significantly higher (p importance in minimizing the prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory disorders. PMID:7895745

Abebe, Y; Seboxa, T

1995-01-01

22

Respiratory disorders and atopy in cotton, wool, and other textile mill workers in Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study of respiratory disorders and atopy in Danish textile industry workers was conducted to survey respiratory symptoms throughout the textile industry, to estimate the association of these disorders with atopy, and to study dose-response relationships within the cotton industry. Workers at cotton mills, a wool mill, and a man-made fiber (MMF) mill were examined. Four hundred nine (90%) of the 445 workers participated in this survey, i.e., 253, 62, and 94 workers at the cotton mills, the wool mill, and the MMF mill, respectively. An interview designed to assess the prevalence of common respiratory and allergic symptoms was given to all workers willing to participate, and blood samples were drawn. Lung function measurements determined a baseline FEV1, FVC and the change in FEV1 and FVC during work hours on a Monday. The working environment was examined for dust, bacteria, endotoxins, and molds, and the exposure was estimated for each participant. The mean personal samples of airborne respirable dust and respirable endotoxin were highest in the cotton industry, i.e., 0.17-0.50 mg/m3 and 9.0-126 ng/m3 respectively, whereas mold spores were found in the highest concentrations in the wool mill: 280-791 colony-forming units (cfu)/m3. Only small concentrations of microorganisms were found in the MMF mill. The mean change in FEV1% and FVC% was greatest among atopic individuals in both cotton and wool industry and other textile industries although the differences were not significant. FEV1% and FVC% in the cotton workers were significantly associated with the cumulative exposure to respirable endotoxin. Byssinosis was diagnosed only in the cotton industry. We found a dose-response relationship between endotoxin exposure and byssinosis, and a significant association between A-1-A serum concentrations less than or equal to 35 mumol/liter and byssinosis, a finding we are further evaluating in subsequent studies. PMID:1415284

Sigsgaard, T; Pedersen, O F; Juul, S; Gravesen, S

1992-01-01

23

Attitude of the healthcare workers to violence against women  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Violence against women is a common social problem. Gender inequality is origin of the violence against women. Health workers have responsibilities in supplying medical care, support and counseling to the mistreated of the violence. This descriptive study was planned for the purpose to determine attitude of the healthcare workers to violence against women. Material and Methods: In this research, 94 healthcare workers from seven different types of hospital (4 public hospitals, 2 priv...

Rojin Mamuk; Saadet Yaz?c?

2010-01-01

24

A probabilistic approach to quantitatively assess the inhalation risk for airborne endotoxin in cotton textile workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is a proinflammatory agent that induces local and systemic inflammatory responses in normal subjects which can contribute to the risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive lung diseases. A probabilistic approach linking models of exposure, internal dosimetry, and health effects were carried out to quantitatively assess the potential inhalation risk of airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants. Combining empirical data and modeling results, we show that the half-maximum effects of the endotoxin dose (ED50) were estimated to be 3.3 x 10{sup 5} (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-14.7 x 10{sup 5}) endotoxin units (EU) for the blood C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, 1.1 x 10{sup 5} (95% CI: 0.6-1.7 x 10{sup 5}) EU for the blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count, and 1.5 x 10{sup 5} (95% CI: 0.4-2.5 x 10{sup 5}) EU for the sputum PMN count. Our study offers a risk-management framework for discussing future establishment of limits for respiratory exposure to airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants.

Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan, E-mail: vivianliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wei-Chun; Chio, Chia-Pin; Ju, Yun-Ru; Liao, Chung-Min [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2010-05-15

25

Women employed in textile sector in Turkey and their problems: (Istanbul-Adana-Denizli-Sivas and Tekirda? Province samples)  

OpenAIRE

Purpose of the study is to determine the problems of women working in textile factories as parallel to the characteristics of female labor in Turkey and the factors affecting these problems. With this purpose, 564 women working in textile factories in Istanbul, Adana, Denizli, Tekirda? and Sivas provinces were included in the study. It was determined according to the results obtained that factors affecting the problems women encounter in working life in a statistically significant way (P>0,2...

Sezer Ayan

2011-01-01

26

Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. Method: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo, who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. Results: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. Discussion: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

Dantas, Ivan de Picoli

2013-01-01

27

A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City  

OpenAIRE

HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and...

Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara

2010-01-01

28

Female workers, female operatives and female employees. The women's work in Mar del Plata, between 1940 abd 1960  

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Full Text Available The study consists of reconstructing between the sixty and forties, of a period of economic and commercial expansion for the city of Mar del Plata, the insertion of the women and its behaviors in activities that mainly required feminine manual labor as it were the industry of the fish conserve and the textile and to a lesser extent, in the commerce. On the matter, we considered that the experiences of the workers in the different labor scopes contributed to possibly construct different social behaviors and, also different identities.

Irene Delfina Molinari

2008-04-01

29

Women, Work and Ethnic Identity: Personal Narratives and the Ethnic Enclave in the Textile City of Lowell, Massachusetts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many immigrant women from Europe settled in Lowell, Massachusetts and worked in textile mills. They lived in enclaves with little knowledge of others beyond their ethnic boundaries. Ethnic groups were in closer proximity in the work place, but the women were uneasy mingling with those outside of their culture. (VM)

Norkunas, Martha K.

1987-01-01

30

ABC of women workers' rights and gender equality  

CERN Document Server

This concise and easy to read guidebook assists the layperson in understanding the legal frameworks and socio-economic developments surrounding gender equality in the world of work. Completely updated and revised, this guide incorporates important information relevant to women workers such as women in development, gender mainstreaming, the glass ceiling and much more. Each entry in the guide provides a clear, succinct definition and directs the reader to relevant laws, ILO conventions, and other topics for further research.

International Labour Office. Geneva

2000-01-01

31

Colorectal cancer incidence among female textile workers in Shanghai, China: a case-cohort analysis of occupational exposures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested increased risks of colorectal cancers among textile industry workers, potentially related to synthetic fibers. To investigate risks of colon and rectum cancers in relation to these and other textile industry exposures, we conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort study of female employees from the Shanghai Textile Industry Bureau (STIB). Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for colon and rectum cancers associated with duration of employment (e.g., 0, >0 to or =20 years) in various jobs classified according to process type and exposures to specific agents. Our findings indicate that certain long term exposures may pose increased risk of colorectal cancers, especially dyes and dye intermediates with colon cancer (> or =20 years exposure versus never, HR=3.9; 95% CI: 1.4-10.6), and maintenance occupation (HR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.0-5.7) and metals exposure (HR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6) with rectum cancer. A decreased risk of rectum cancer was associated with exposure to natural fibers such as cotton (HR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and a trend of decreasing rectum cancer incidence was observed by category of cumulative quantitative cotton dust or endotoxin exposures, when exposures were lagged by 20 years. PMID:16215868

De Roos, A J; Ray, R M; Gao, D L; Wernli, K J; Fitzgibbons, E D; Ziding, F; Astrakianakis, G; Thomas, D B; Checkoway, H

2005-12-01

32

Workplace Control: Women and Minority Workers in America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the effects of gender and race on American workers’ workplace control. Scholarship on gender, work, and occupation states that gender and race are important predictors of the extent of control workers exercise in workplaces. Literature also posits that job satisfaction and work-family conflict also contribute substantially to workers’ workplace control. However, there exists hardly any empirical study that explores the impacts of gender, race, job satisfaction and work-family conflict altogether on their workplace control. That is what we accomplished in this study. Obtaining data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW, we ask: 1 Do women and men workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? 2 Do non-white and white workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? And 3 Do gender and race of the workers influence their workplace control when job satisfaction and work-family conflict are considered? Analyses are based on quantitative methods. Results show that women perceive to have less control over their workplace as compared to men. Moreover, job satisfaction is a more significant predictor of their workplace control than work-family spillover.

Dina Banerjee

2013-06-01

33

Factory Women Workers: Household life and quality of life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working quality of life must involve a set of factors such as safeness, comfort, leisure, employment and wage project, functional ascension possibilities, satisfaction, besides individual development and qualification guarantees. This study aimed at approaching the factory women workers’ quality of life in the threshold of everyday life and work. It was an ethnographic research with the follow-up of ten women workers from a shoe factory in Sobral – Ce, primarily identified in a public health service. Data were gathered by means of participative observations registered in a field diary and a semi-structured interview route, both accomplished during the domiciliary visits. Although submitted to tiring conditions, depriving themselves of time for dedicating to them or their families, it was verified that those women affirm liking their job at the factory. They consider being well paid, appraised, helpful and beneficiated by it, feelings that they do not find in the household work. The last considered to be an obligation, an invisible work that no one values and that does not bring rewards. It is concluded that these factors interfere in those women’s quality of life.

Maristela Inês Osawa Chagas

2005-09-01

34

Waiting time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among Danish workers in the textile, clothing, and footwear industries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion.

Schaumburg, Inger; Boldsen, J L

1992-01-01

35

Waiting time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among Danish workers in the textile, clothing, and footwear industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion. PMID:1496329

Schaumburg, I; Boldsen, J L

1992-06-01

36

Peer education reaches young women factory workers in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities. PMID:12288826

Cash, K

1993-12-01

37

Women employed in textile sector in Turkey and their problems: (Istanbul-Adana-Denizli-Sivas and Tekirda? Province samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose of the study is to determine the problems of women working in textile factories as parallel to the characteristics of female labor in Turkey and the factors affecting these problems. With this purpose, 564 women working in textile factories in Istanbul, Adana, Denizli, Tekirda? and Sivas provinces were included in the study. It was determined according to the results obtained that factors affecting the problems women encounter in working life in a statistically significant way (P>0,25 are monthly income of the family, form of the family, number of members of the household, quality of the intra-family relationships, daily working hours, job satisfaction, relationships of the employee with managers and way of making decisions inside the family, respectively.

Sezer Ayan

2011-01-01

38

Why Workers Switch Industry? The Case of Textile Industry of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify core reasons for employee’s turnover. The study is descriptive and cross-sectional. Twenty turnover intentions are identified from the literature and a questionnaire is designed on 5 point likert-scale for data collection. A sample of 160 respondents has been randomly selected from the textile industry of Pakistan. The data has been analyzed through one sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. The study reveals the most prominent factors responsible for employees’ intentions to leave and offer practitioners and researchers some practical recommendations to retain the workforce.

Madiha Rehman Farooqui

2013-01-01

39

Why Workers Switch Industry? The Case of Textile Industry of Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study is to identify core reasons for employee’s turnover. The study is descriptive and cross-sectional. Twenty turnover intentions are identified from the literature and a questionnaire is designed on 5 point likert-scale for data collection. A sample of 160 respondents has been randomly selected from the textile industry of Pakistan. The data has been analyzed through one sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. The study reveals the most prominent factors responsible f...

Madiha Rehman Farooqui; Mariam Ahmed

2013-01-01

40

SMEs in Their Own Right : The Views of Managers and Workers in Vietnamese Textiles, Garment, and Footwear Companies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article contributes to the limited literatures on small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using an institutional theoretical framework, we analyzed fieldwork interviews with twenty SMEs and perspectives of 165 SME managers and workers in textiles, garment, and footwear industries, the most important wage-earning sector in Vietnam. Having understood in the context of a developing “market economy with socialist orientation” (thus a “Southern perspective”), we find that socially responsible practices and expectations developed long before the arrival of CSR as a western concept and an MNC agenda. While identifying and contributing ideas concerning forms of “informal” CSR practices—influenced by social and cultural expectations—to the CSR/SME literature, we are conscious of the mixed effects of these practices and the ongoing nuanced negotiations between workers and managers in these SMEs. In our research, we found that it takes both domestic and international stakeholders to improve labor conditions in Vietnam under the banner of CSR.

Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, SØren

2015-01-01

41

HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

2015-01-17

42

La situacin de la mujer trabajadora en Tucumn en los aos setenta: el caso de las obreras de la industria textil / The situation of the woman worker in Tucumn in the seventies: the case of the workers of the textile industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La finalidad de este trabajo es analizar la situacin laboral de las trabajadoras de los sectores populares, haciendo hincapi en la industria textil, dentro de un marco de crisis ocupacional, en los aos setenta. Se busca saber como, a raz de diversos factores (familiares, emocionales y sociales), la [...] mujer tucumana sali a trabajar y en muchos casos lleg a ser el sostn y nica fuente de ingresos del grupo familiar. Este ser el punto de partida para esta investigacin que permitir un acercamiento al conocimiento de la situacin laboral femenina. Nuestro planteo surge de la afirmacin que la transformacin del mercado laboral impuls la incorporacin de mano de obra femenina en el sector industrial. Este nuevo rol de proveedoras del hogar, en algunos casos el nico, signific una transformacin en su subjetividad que en algunas no es aceptado como tal. Adems, se indagar sobre las estrategias intra y extra domsticas femeninas que caracteriza la doble jornada de trabajo. Cabe aclarar que este anlisis fue abordado desde la perspectiva de Gnero e Historia Oral. Las mujeres tienen una doble jornada de trabajo que para algunos autores esta denominacin es concebida como trabajo extra domestico e intra domestico. Partiendo de estos conceptos se indagar sobre las diversas estrategias realizadas por las trabajadoras de la industria textil. Estas mujeres de una u otra manera han buscado diferentes estrategias para lograr combinar el trabajo extra e intra domstico, siempre buscando el bienestar de su familia y sobre todo, en el caso de las casadas de sus hijos. Para la realizacin de este trabajo se utilizaron fuentes orales (entrevistas semistructuradas), datos estadsticos y material bibliogrfico pertinente al tema. Abstract in english The purpose of this work is to analyze the labor situation of the workers of the popular sectors, insisting on the textile industry, within a frame of occupational crisis, in the Seventies. One looks for to know like, as a result of diverse factors (familiar, emotional and social), the tucumana woma [...] n left to work and in many cases she got to be the support and only source of income of the familiar group. This it will be the departure point for this investigation that will allow an approach to the knowledge of the feminine labor situation. Ours I raise arises from the affirmation that the transformation of the labor market impelled the incorporation of feminine manual labor in the industrial sector. This new roll of suppliers of the home, in some cases the only one, meant a transformation in its subjectivity that in some is not accepted like so. In addition, one will investigate on the feminine domestic strategies intra and extra that the double day of work characterizes. It is possible to clarify that this analysis was boarded from the perspective of Gender and Oral History. The women have one double day of work that stops some authors this denomination is conceived like extra work domestic servant and intra domestic servant. Starting off of these concepts she will investigate herself on the diverse strategies made by the workers of the textile industry. These women of one or another way have looked for different strategies to manage to combine domestic the extra work and intra, always looking for the well-being of their family and mainly, in the case of the married ones of their children. For the accomplishment of this work oral sources were used (semistructuradas interviews), statistical data and pertinent bibliographical material to the subject.

Noem Liliana, Soraire.

2006-10-01

43

Smoking and cotton dust effects in cotton textile workers: an analysis of the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume curve.  

OpenAIRE

Cotton textile workers have an increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung function patterns when compared to control subjects. Similar abnormal lung function patterns may occur with other respiratory diseases, notably those associated with cigarette smoking. The shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve has been used to characterize patterns of lung function abnormality. We defined a new functional parameter (angle beta) related to the shape of the MEFV curve...

Schachter, E. N.; Kapp, M. C.; Maunder, L. R.; Beck, G.; Witek, T. J.

1986-01-01

44

Cotton dust and endotoxin exposure-response relationships in cotton textile workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endotoxin exposure has been implicated in the etiology of lung disease in cotton workers. We investigated this potential relationship in 443 cotton workers from 2 factories in Shanghai and 439 control subjects from a nearby silk mill. A respiratory questionnaire was administered and pre- and postshift forced expiratory volume (FVC) and flow in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker. Multiple area air samples were analyzed for total elutriated dust concentration (range: 0.15 to 2.5 mg/m3) and endotoxin (range: 0.002 to 0.55 microgram U.S. Reference Endotoxin/m3). The cotton worker population was stratified by current and cumulative dust or endotoxin exposure. Groups were compared for FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC%, % change in FEV1 over the shift (delta FEV1%), and prevalences of chronic bronchitis and byssinosis, and linear and logistic regression models were constructed. No dose-response relationships were demonstrated comparing dust concentration to any pulmonary function or symptom variable. A dose-response trend was seen with the current endotoxin level and FEV1, delta FEV1%, and the prevalence of byssinosis and chronic bronchitis, except for the highest exposure level group in which a reversal of the trend was seen. The regression coefficients for current endotoxin exposure were significant (p less than 0.05) in the models for FEV1 and chronic bronchitis but not in the models for delta FEV1% (i.e., acute change in FEV1) or byssinosis prevalence. The coefficient for dust level was never significant in the models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3800146

Kennedy, S M; Christiani, D C; Eisen, E A; Wegman, D H; Greaves, I A; Olenchock, S A; Ye, T T; Lu, P L

1987-01-01

45

Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening (±S.E.) of 1.8 ±0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of 226Ra + 228Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment

46

An Effective HIV Risk Reduction Protocol for Drug-Using Women Sex Workers  

OpenAIRE

HIV prevention is an especially salient issue for women, given the ongoing feminization of the epidemic. Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who are drug-using and engage in street-based sex exchange. This paper examines risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using women sex workers in Miami, Florida, and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were r...

Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.

2010-01-01

47

Problems Of Women Workers In Unorganized Sector: A Sociological Analysis In Gulbarga City  

OpenAIRE

:Unorganized sector constitute majority of working population in India and of the workers, women are playing significant role in unorganized sector work. The unorganized sector includes different occupations such as construction, domestic servants, sales women, agricultural labourers, etc. Compared to all other sectors, the problems and challenges faced by women in unorganized sector are many. Hence, a survey was made to study the problems and challenges of women working in unorganized sector...

Sedamkar, Hanamanthappa B.

2013-01-01

48

Auxiliary Women Workers in the Legal Sector: Traversing Subjectivities and "Self" to Learn through Work  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is about female auxiliary workers in the Australian legal sector. The purpose is to explore the impact of subjectivities on women workers and how they negotiate their positionality to participate in meaningful work and learning. The study is grounded in theories of identity and socio-cultural perspectives of subjectivity, agentic action…

Cavanagh, Jillian Maria

2012-01-01

49

Efeito da exposição prolongada a ruído ocupacional na função respiratória de trabalhadores da indústria têxtil / Effects of long term exposure to occupational noise on textile industry workers' lung function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente estudo procurou detectar eventuais alterações da função respiratória em 28 operárias de uma fábrica de fiação, submetidas a uma exposição prolongada ao ruído (> 10 anos) com amplitude elevada e baixa frequência, susceptível de causar doença vibro-acústica (DVA). Foram realizados testes da [...] função respiratória, incluindo espirometria, oscilometria de impulso e estudo da Capacidade de difusão alvéolo-capilar pelo CO. Os resultados foram comparados com os de outra população de igual número de mulheres, do mesmo grupo etário, consideradas normais no aspecto respiratório, com cargos administrativos, não sujeitas a agressão acústica detectável. Realizou-se um estudo estatístico dos resultados obtidos comparando as duas populações, tendo sido calculado para cada um dos parâmetros, escolhidos a partir do estudo funcional respiratório, os valores médios, o desvio-padrão e o grau de significância (p Abstract in english Vibroacoustic disease is a pathology caused by long occupational exposure to large pressure amplitude and low frequency noise. It is a systemic disease, with evolvement of respiratory structures. The exposure workers to this noise of textile industry may favour alterations in lung function. We studi [...] ed 28 women working more than ten years in cotton-mill rooms to evaluate their lung function, including Spirometry, forced oscillation technique (I.O.S.) and Diffusion capacity. These results were compared with those of 30 women of similar ages not exposed to similar noise and not presenting respiratory disease. Statistical significance (p

António Paes, Cardoso; Maria João R., Oliveira; Álvaro Moreira da, Silva; Artur P., Águas; António Sousa, Pereira.

2006-01-01

50

Problems Of Women Workers In Unorganized Sector: A Sociological Analysis In Gulbarga City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available :Unorganized sector constitute majority of working population in India and of the workers, women are playing significant role in unorganized sector work. The unorganized sector includes different occupations such as construction, domestic servants, sales women, agricultural labourers, etc. Compared to all other sectors, the problems and challenges faced by women in unorganized sector are many. Hence, a survey was made to study the problems and challenges of women working in unorganized sector. Interview schedule was used to collect the primary data from 200 women working in construction work, 200 women working as domestic servants and 100 women agricultural labourers in Gulbarga city. The study revealed that there is lower wage for these workers. Further, it was observed that considerable number of women workers have lower status in family and society. It was suggested to revise the wage rates and ensure job security by assuring at least three years of work under single employer. It is also suggested to increase awareness of the women in unorganized sector on the legislations and security measures formulated by the Government. Self-employment training and financial assistance are also suggested to empower the women working in unorganized sector.

Hanamanthappa B. Sedamkar

2013-12-01

51

Respiratory symptoms and lung function in hemp workers.  

OpenAIRE

Respiratory symptoms and abnormalities of lung function were studied in 84 female and 27 male hemp workers employed in two textile mills (A and B) processing soft hemp (C sativa). In mill A 46 women and 27 men were investigated and 38 female workers were studied in mill B. Forty nine women and 30 men from a non-dusty industry served as controls. A significantly higher prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was found in female hemp workers when compared to control workers. Among...

Zuskin, E.; Kanceljak, B.; Pokrajac, D.; Schachter, E. N.; Witek, T. J.

1990-01-01

52

Survival times of women radium dial workers first exposed before 1930  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Life table methods were applied to survival data on U.S. women radium dial workers in order to compare observed and expected deaths as a function of time after exposure to radium. The study population consisted of 1235 workers employed in the industry before 1930 for whom age and year of death, withdrawal, or loss from the study were known. Expected deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for U.S. white females

53

Women Workers: Subsistence in Eighteenth-century Buenos Aires  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In colonial society of eighteenth-century Buenos Aires, there was a series of women who Traditional historiography has not given their rightful place: working women.This study aims to analyze and re-evaluation of these females, there also arises a series of networks of “gender solidarity” among women in need of help, in which working women had a role. This is taken as the standard source that rose in the city of Buenos Aires in 1744; it throws a lot of information to understand this complex phenomenon.There will be a thorough analysis of all models of working women the pattern shows, from different perspectives. These ladies are a very heterogeneous group, as work motivations are very different: for aggregate found, being slaves, etc. But at the same time is to keep track of paper, which together with the work effort of these played the charity and solidarity and support for female survival at this time.

Mª Selina Gutiérrez Aguilera

2012-06-01

54

IMPACT OF BEEDI WORK ON SELF DECISION EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN BEEDI WORKERS IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present study was to analyze the the impact of Beedi work on Self Decision Empowerment (SDE) of women beedi workers in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. To achieve the purpose of the study, 600 women beedi workers were identified as sample evenly from 19 blocks of the district by adopting the multistage random sampling technique. Causal research design was carried out as research design for this study. The five variables of family day-to-day expenditures, going outside of...

Devi, P.; Murugan Chettiar, K.

2013-01-01

55

Performing global citizenship: women NGO workers' negotiations of complicities in their work practices  

OpenAIRE

The practices of NGOs and development agencies located in the global North have been criticised for displaying (post-)colonial continuities. Concurrently, western feminism has been critiqued for assuming universality in the experiences of white western women. Hence there is a need for reflection on operating within and resisting of these power structures. Using interview data, this thesis investigates the reflections of women NGO workers located in the global North working on gendered iss...

Jong, Sara

2010-01-01

56

Invisible work, unseen hazards: the health of women immigrant household service workers in Spain  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Household service work has been largely absent from occupational health studies. We examine the occupational hazards and health effects identified by immigrant women household service workers. METHODS: Exploratory, descriptive study of 46 documented and undocumented immigrant women in household services in Spain, using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected between September 2006 and May 2007 through focus groups and semi-structured individual interviews. Data were separ...

Ahonen, Emily Q.; Lo?pez Jacob, Mari?a Jose?; Va?zquez, Mari?a Luisa; Porthe?, Victoria; Gil Gonza?lez, Diana; Garci?a Garci?a, Ana Mari?a; Ruiz Frutos, Carlos; Benach Rovira, Joan; Garci?a Benavides, Fernando

2009-01-01

57

Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Unskilled Indian Women Construction Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Methods: Nordic musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire was adopted to identify the musculoskeletal symptoms in nine anatomical body regions. Workers exposure to risk factors continuously for a period of more than two hours at a stretch and more than two such types of work spells in a work day was considered as risk factor. Results: The risk of WRMSDs is about 4 times more among workers with greater than 20 years of work experience than those with 11-20 years and is about 2 times more in those with 1-10 years of work experience respectively. Conclusions: Education programmes on ergonomic principles must be made mandatory for to reduce the rate of WRMSDs and to promote oc-cupational health.

Neeraja Telaprolu, Bhanwar Lal, Swarochish Chekuri

2013-01-01

58

Employment and environmental hazard: women workers and strategies of resistance in northern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study explores women's awareness of health and environmental dangers associated with employment in electronics factories in export processing zones (EPZs) in Thailand. The author illustrates with two examples of alliances between women and two nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) the constraints of formal alliances. Data are obtained from participatory research conducted among women employed in the electronics industry in 1995 in the Northern Regional Industrial Estate (NRIE) in Lamphun in rural northern Thailand. This article discusses whether the emphasis on women's employment in EPZs really results in the greater good for women or whether it is exploitation. Women working in the NRIE were aware of the environmental hazards of their jobs. Many women workers migrated to EPZs from rural areas in order to create income to support a family or pay educational expenses. Another reason for seeking work at NRIE was to earn high wages for a limited period that could be used as capital to start their own business. Although women expressed interest in reducing the environmental hazards of their jobs, women put a stronger priority on not jeopardizing their employment status. Labor is in great supply, and women trouble-makers are likely to lose their jobs. The Center for the Advancement of Lanna Women (CALW) is an NGO that was set up by academics from Chiangmai University. CALW encourages women to speak out about health and working conditions, but workers did not know how far to go in protests before losing their jobs, and this undermined the alliance building and potential for change. It is urged that the Thai government acknowledge NGOs legally and open up dialogue. Civil participation can only be actualized, if there is formal recognition of the role of the state and its relationship to industry and industry's goals of profit. PMID:12347711

Theobald, S

1996-10-01

59

Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both. PMID:20879188

Werbner, Pnina

2010-01-01

60

Educated Immigrant Women Workers Doing Well with Change: Helping and Hindering Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors investigated the strategies that helped or hindered 10 immigrant women workers to do well with change that affected their work. A total of 182 incidents were extracted and grouped into 9 categories: personal beliefs/traits/values, taking action, skills/education, personal challenges, self-care, relationships/support,…

Koert, Emily; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

2011-01-01

61

Experiences of sexual harassment of women health workers in four hospitals in Kolkata, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997, the Supreme Court of India recognised sexual harassment in the workplace as a violation of human rights. However, little is known about the extent or persistence of sexual harassment. To obtain an understanding of women's experiences of sexual harassment in the health sector, an exploratory study was undertaken in 2005-2006 among 135 women health workers, including doctors, nurses, health care attendants, administrative and other non-medical staff working in two government and two private hospitals in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Four types of experiences were reported by the 77 women who had experienced 128 incidents of sexual harassment: verbal harassment (41), psychological harassment (45), sexual gestures and exposure (15), and unwanted touch (27). None of the women reported rape, attempted rape or forced sex but a number of them knew of other women health workers who had experienced these. The women who had experienced harassment were reluctant to complain, fearing for their jobs or being stigmatised, and most were not aware of formal channels for redress. Experiences of sexual harassment reflected the obstacles posed by power imbalances and gender norms in empowering women to make a formal complaint, on the one hand, and receive redress on the other. PMID:17938090

Chaudhuri, Paramita

2007-11-01

62

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATION, EARNINGS AND HEALTH STATUS OF TEXTILE WORKERS IN COIMBATORE OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health is a major area of concern for social planners across the world. In developing countries health economics has emerged as a key area of research due to the close linkage it has with welfare. In this study, occupation levels of the sample respondents, around 18 type of occupation in textiles like Spinning, Guarding, Mixing, Blue Grooming, Simplex and Others. Next Category of this Study the working hours to the respondents mentioned, mostly, 56.5 per cent of respondents worked only 8 hours in a day. The wage system of the sample respondents, Most of them 91.8 per cent of the sample respondents belonged to weekly wage which depicts only 0.4 percent of the sample respondents earned below 500 rupees and mostly 70.2 percent of the sample respondents earned about 500 to 1000 rupees. Nearly 29.4 percent of the sample respondents earned about 1000 to 1500 rupees. The monthly income of out of the 255 sample respondents, most of them 98.4 per cent of the sample respondents were earned below 3000 Rupees. Only 0.8 per cent of the sample respondents earned 3001 to 4000 rupees. Similarly 0.8 per cent of the sample respondent was earned 3001 to 4000 rupees in textile industry. Somebody had Low Wages that leads to find out reasons for getting low wages to work, Majority of them 91.5 per cent got low wage for insufficient work. Disease status of sample respondents, out of the 65 nearly 32.3 per cent were affected by Typhoid Fever. Respondent’s health affection by diseases (65 respondents total sample respondents 58.46 per cent were affected two days for the illness of the last one month.

M. Vadivel

2015-02-01

63

Transgressing the boarders of textile art  

OpenAIRE

Swedish textile art is often described as highly successful and as part of an appreciated tradition. But there are some interesting points to be made from looking at the subject as an Art Historian with a gender- and genre-perspective. First of all the textile material is closely linked to notions of femininity. The textile material is also persistently placed within the craft sphere. Secondly, the textile art scene also consists mainly of women artists. The connection with traditional cr...

Rosenqvist, Johanna

2003-01-01

64

Magdalena Pilot Project: motivational outreach to substance abusing women street sex workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Magdalena Pilot Project provided outreach to Albuquerque women sex workers who were also using illicit drugs, primarily cocaine and heroin. This initial uncontrolled trial evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of motivational interviewing (MI) on change in drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Twenty-seven women were enrolled and interviewed about their substance use, health risk behaviors, and plans for change, using the client-centered, directive method of MI. Four months later, 25 women (93%) were interviewed again to assess their drug use and health risk behaviors. Large reductions were reported in frequency (days) of drug use and sex work, with a corresponding increase in days of lawful employment. In identifying problems that most needed to be addressed in order to help them live healthier lives, the women prioritized (1) basic needs including decent housing, (2) mental health care, and (3) treatment for substance use disorders. PMID:12127468

Yahne, Carolina E; Miller, William R; Irvin-Vitela, Lilly; Tonigan, J Scott

2002-07-01

65

Disjunctures for Women and Frontline Workers: Implementation of the Family Violence Option  

Science.gov (United States)

This research uses analysis of qualitative interviews with 10 battered welfare clients and 15 frontline welfare workers to examine the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform. States adopting the FVO agree to screen for domestic violence, refer identified victims to community resources, and waive program requirements that would endanger the women or with which they are unable to comply. The analyses find that none of the 10 clients in this study received these services. This lack of services reflects four critical disjunctures between the formal policy and the policy experienced by the clients. It also reveals several more basic structural factors that provide conflicting mandates to frontline workers. Frontline workers’ discretionary behaviors enforce core rules related to welfare eligibility and reduce welfare caseloads but do not provide violencerelated services to victims. PMID:18270548

Lindhorst, Taryn; Padgett, Julianna D.

2007-01-01

66

[Pleural mesothelioma in women in the Veneto Region who used to work as rag sorters for textile recycling and paper production].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports 9 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed by means of histology or cytology that were observed among women resident in the Veneto Region, Northern Italy, whose only activity that could involve exposure to asbestos was as rag sorter. These cases are part of a group of about 260 subjects with mesothelioma whose entire working and residential history has been collected. The women worked as rag sorters between the 1940's and 1960's in textile recycling (8 cases) or (one case) at a paper mill where cotton was used for paper production. The work as rag sorter helps to explain the high proportion of mesotheliomas among women with an occupational exposure to asbestos. PMID:11515151

Merler, E; Gioffrè, F; Rozio, L; Bizzotto, R; Mion, M; Sarto, F

2001-01-01

67

"He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370

Cash, K

1993-01-01

68

Community Health Worker Hepatitis B Education for Cambodian American Men and Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Cambodian Americans have high rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer. There is very limited information about the utility of community health worker (CHW) approaches to cancer education for Asian American men. We have previously reported our positive findings from a trial of CHW education about HBV for Cambodian Americans who had never been tested for HBV. This report describes similarities and differences between the outcomes of our CHW HBV educational intervention among Cambodian American men and women. Methods The study group for this analysis included 87 individuals (39 men and 48 women) who were randomized to the experimental (HBV education) arm of our trial, participated in the CHW educational intervention, and provided follow-up data six months post-intervention. We examined HBV testing rates at follow-up, changes in HBV-related knowledge between baseline and follow-up, and barriers to HBV testing (that were reported to CHWs) by gender. Results At follow-up, 15% of men and 31% of women reported they had received a HBV test (p=0.09). HBV-related knowledge levels increased significantly among both men and women. With respect to HBV testing barriers, women were more likely than men to cite knowledge deficits, and men were more likely than women to cite logistic issues. Discussion Our study findings indicate that CHW interventions can positively impact knowledge among Cambodian American men, as well as women. They also suggest CHW interventions may be less effective in promoting the use of preventive procedures by Cambodian American men than women. Future CHW research initiatives should consider contextual factors that may differ by gender and, therefore, potentially influence the relative effectiveness of CHW interventions for men versus women. PMID:24083730

Taylor, Victoria M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Sos, Channdara; Do, H. Hoai; Liu, Qi; Yasui, Yutaka

2013-01-01

69

Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil / Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil / Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. [...] Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalho Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cin [...] co madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajo Abstract in english This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, fro [...] m a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work

Ana Márcia Bustamante de, Morais; Márcia Maria Tavares, Machado; Priscila de Souza, Aquino; Maria Irismar de, Almeida.

2011-02-01

70

WOMEN POST OFFICE WORKERS IN BRITAIN: THE LONG STRUGGLE FOR GENDER EQUALITY AND THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF WORLD WAR II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Britain during the Second World War, the Post Office constituted the single largest employer of women. Historically, the Post Office, like many other employers, had discriminated against women. During World War I, shortages of male labor had resulted in some opportunities for women at the Post Office, but the improvement had neither been comprehensive nor enduring. Unlike World War I, World War II, however, proved to a real turning point in the Post Office's personnel practices. By the end of the Second World War, while the Post Office still did not treat women workers completely equally (persisting, for instance, in gender-biased pay practices, management nevertheless had made strides in their treatment and perception of women workers. Post Office executives increasingly perceived women on the payroll not as temporary wartime employees, but as permanent employees, who would be just as essential peacetime as in war.

Mark James Crowley

2012-01-01

71

[Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces. PMID:22031197

Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

2011-10-01

72

Pernicious anaemia in the textile industry.  

OpenAIRE

The objective was to examine whether the observed excess mortality from anaemia in textile and clothing workers was associated with any specific anaemia type or occupational activity. The design was a death certificate based case-control study of textile and clothing workers who died in England and Wales in the years surrounding the decennial censuses of 1961, 1971, and 1981. The main outcome measures were type of anaemia, place of residence, place of birth, and occupation. The frequency of t...

Roman, E.; Beral, V.; Sanjose, S.; Schilling, R.; Watson, A.

1991-01-01

73

Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect. PMID:22316902

Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

2012-01-01

74

Decreased risk of lung cancer in the cotton textile industry of Shanghai.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between lung cancer risk and work in the cotton textile industry was investigated in a large population-based case-control study in urban Shanghai, where the industry is a major employer of men and women. Personal interviews obtained occupational, smoking, and other information from 1405 newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and 1495 controls. A significantly low risk of lung cancer was associated with cotton textile employment [odds ratio (OR) = 0.7,95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-0.9]. In men, the decreased risk was observed among both smokers (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-1.1) and nonsmokers (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-1.0). In women, the risk was also decreased regardless of smoking status (OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.4-1.6 among smokers; OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.6-1.2 among nonsmokers). In both sexes, the reductions in risk tended to be greater for lung cancer cell types other than adenocarcinoma. Low risks were found regardless of occupations within the cotton textile industry; the OR for workers in textile processing who potentially had greater dust exposure was 0.8 (95% CI = 0.6-1.2), whereas the OR for those in other industry jobs was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.4-1.0). There was little difference in risk according to self-reported exposure to textile dust, and no clear trend with duration of employment or dust exposure. Reasons for the reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers without a dose response are unclear, although several methodological explanations were considered. The findings, however, appear consistent with prior epidemiological studies and are interesting in light of speculation about tumor-inhibitory factors, such as bacterial endotoxins, that are found in dusts from cotton and other fiber crops. PMID:3664481

Levin, L I; Gao, Y T; Blot, W J; Zheng, W; Fraumeni, J F

1987-11-01

75

Training for Whom? For What? Reflection on the Lack of Training Opportunities for Immigrant Garment Workers. NALL Working Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike many recent immigrants who entered Canada as highly trained professionals in their countries of origin, most of Canada's immigrant garment workers are working-class women with little education. The Apparel Textile Action Committee (ATAC) and Homeworker's Association (HWA) are among the bodies that were established to assist immigrant…

Ng, Roxana

76

Tear secretion dysfunction among women workers engaged in light-on tests in the TFT-LCD industry  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display) industry is rapidly growing in Taiwan and many other countries. A large number of workers, mainly women, are employed in the light-on test process to detect the defects of products. At the light-on test workstation, the operator is generally exposed to low humidity (in the clean room environment), flashing light, and low ambient illumination for long working hours. Many workers complained about eye discomfort, and t...

Sheen Jiunn-Woei; Lu Chih-Wei; Su Shih-Bin; Kuo Shu-Chun; Guo How-Ran

2006-01-01

77

[Physiologic and hygienic evaluation of work and health status of women workers employed at institutions of the Culture Ministry].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors revealed substantial occupational hazards that are: unfavorable sanitary and hygienic environment (musicians, librarians, workers taking care of animals, and others), physical and psychoemotional stress (gymnasts, acrobats, and their assistants, actors, workers taking care of animals), unnatural and uncomfortable working posture (gymnasts, conjurers). Matching physiologic and hygienic results with evaluation of the workers' health state, the authors managed to disclose correlation between the occupational characteristics and functional state. The studies helped to form methodic recommendation on better health state for the occupations observed, on rational placement of pregnant women employed by Russian Culture Ministry. PMID:9064103

Mekhova, M M; Krasnikov, D G; Shakhme?ster, I Ia; Poliakova, M M; Strongina, O M

1996-01-01

78

[Women's organizations in India].  

Science.gov (United States)

Community development projects in India during the 1950s and 60s viewed women as beneficiaries, but in fact few women benefitted measurably. The realization among field motivators of the necessity of improving the status of women prompted formation of women's organizations based on the participation of women in development. Non-government organizations and militant organizations have had greater success than government sponsored organizations in creation of employment for women. Some employment-generating organizations directed by high caste women or by men merely continue the oppression of poor women, providing abysmal pay for long hours, but a women's cooperative serving textile workers in Bombay has been successful because of the large number of unaccompanied males migrating to the city who desire reasonably priced home-cooked food. Other organizations have attempted to mobilize women to allow them to benefit from development. Struggles of women in the electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, mining, clothing, and other small scale industries have been supported by women's organizatinns. Rural women's organizations have forced village authorities to provide drinkig water and have demanded creation of employment for unemployed rural workers. The "Self-Employed Women's Association" supports negotiations of such women in their respective professions, and others struggling for women's rights have also undertaken development projects in health, education, and employment with a view to increasing women's independence. Some organizations provide child care services and others assist women in obtaining credit. Numerous cooperatives for food and housework have been formed but their ultimate effect on the distribution of power between castes and classes remains uncertain. Government sponsored cooperatives and women's organizations have benefitted mainly the intermediaries and have tended to use women as a source of cheap labor. A strategic plan for the emancipation of women should be based on 3 crucial domains: education, employment, and health. It is also very important that the direction of enterprises to benefit women be in the hands of women, otherwise their interests will be neglected. The formation of women's sections in the labor unions should be undertaken as soon as possible. PMID:12340321

Patel, V

1985-01-01

79

Puppets on a string: women's wage work and empowerment among female tea plantation workers of Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to resources and control of ones' income are key features of women's empowerment. The current development strategy is to create opportunities for poor women in developing countries. Because access to income alone does not ensure empowerment, this study examines sociopolitical factors among the Indian Tamil female tea plantation workers in Sri Lanka that impact women's ability to control their own income. 95% of the female Indian Tamil Plantation work force is devoted to the tea industry. Female labor force participation among the Indian Tamil was 54.3% in 1981 compared to total female labor force participation of 26%. The survey encompassed a sample of 420 female and 40 male unskilled workers of 22 large plantations in Nuwara Eliya district, which were managed by government corporations. Variables pertained to income levels, control of income within households, work schedules, household demographics, food habits and within household food allocation patterns, health status and health delivery system, and management structures. Results focused on control incomes, maternity benefits, the double burden for women, women's health and nutrition, female education, and trade unions and male dominance. Although women have increased their wage rate and work hours, there has not been a corresponding increase in women's ability to control their incomes. there remains a male dominated social and political system, which continues to entrap women as a productive resource. One way in which women's empowerment has been stalled has been through the control of women's income and labor, and male dominance both at work and home. Successful schemes for women's empowerment are demonstrated in the Self Employed Women's Association, Working Women's Forum of India, and the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh. PMID:12286574

Samarasinghe, V

1993-04-01

80

21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009-04-01 true Textiles and textile fibers. 177.2800 Section 177.2800 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2800 Textiles and textile fibers. Textiles and textile fibers may safely be used as articles or...

2010-04-01

81

Occupational mortality among women in England and Wales.  

OpenAIRE

Occupational mortality in women who died in England and Wales from 1970 to 1972 was analysed. Many of the associations found were consistent with those that have been described for men, with high mortality ratios for cirrhosis in barmaids and publicans, for suicide in the medical and allied professions, and for respiratory disease in textile workers. Parity is a determinant of patterns of disease in working women, and the relative excess of cancer of the breast, ovary, and uterine body in pro...

Roman, E.; Beral, V.; Inskip, H.

1985-01-01

82

Body mass index and factors related to overweight among women workers in electronic factories in Peninsular Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors related to overweight were examined in a cross-sectional survey that included 1612 women workers from 10 large electronics assembly factories in Peninsular Malaysia. Respondents were Malaysian citizens, direct production workers below the supervisory level, and had worked at least a year in the factory where they were presently employed. Heights and weights were taken to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Weights and BMI increased with increasing age. After adjusting for age, odds ratios for overweight were significantly raised for married women in relation to not married women (OR 1.5, 95% CI=1.15-2.02), lower secondary education in relation to higher than upper secondary education (OR 1.8, 95% CI=1.06-3.14), monthly income RM800-999 (OR 1.7, 95% CI=1.21-2.45) and >/=RM1,000 (OR 1.8, 95% CI=1.23-2.72) in relation to mean BMI was 24.2+/-5.4 kg/m(2). Prevalence of overweight and mean BMI for younger age groups were similar to Malay women in the country-wide representative National Health and Morbidity Survey II, but the older age groups in this study had higher overweight prevalence and mean BMI than the national sample. Electronics women workers face a higher risk of overweight, and is an important group for nutrition intervention. PMID:15331336

Chee, Heng-Leng; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Khalid, Maimunah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Jamaluddin, Jamilah; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd; Shuib, Rashidah; Osman, Intan

2004-01-01

83

Textile Dictionary  

Science.gov (United States)

Are you tired of getting the same definitions for batiste, cambric, and lawn in your regular dictionary, when you're sure there must be a difference between them? You can now find detailed definitions to these and 179 other textile terms from the Textile Dictionary, produced by the Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design. The entries are arranged under four main categories: Standard Cotton Fabrics; Standard Silk and Silk Imitation Fabrics; Standard Worsted, Wool and Hair fabrics; and Other Cellulose Fabrics. Details on fiber, weave, characteristics, and uses are given for most entries. The dictionary does not currently have a search capability, which would greatly enhance its usefulness.

84

Avaliação do risco ergonômico em trabalhadores da indústria têxtil por dois instrumentos: quick exposure check e job factors questionnaire / Ergonomic risk assessment in textile industry workers by two instruments: quick exposure check and job factors questionnaire / Evaluación del riesgo ergonómico en trabajadores de la industria textil con dos instrumentos: quick exposure check y job factors questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A análise dos fatores de risco ergonômicos presentes em indústrias têxteis auxilia no planejamento de estratégias que contribuem para a melhora das condições de trabalho e redução dos distúrbios osteomusculares. Este estudo se propôs a mensurar os níveis de exposição aos fatores de risco ergonômicos [...] em trabalhadores de dois setores de produção de uma indústria têxtil. Para tanto, os instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) e o Quick Exposure Check (QEC) foram aplicados em 107 trabalhadores. Os resultados foram analisados por estatística descritiva. O teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparação dos resultados obtidos entre os setores de produção. O diagnóstico do nível de exposição ao risco ergonômico, obtido por ambos os instrumentos, foi moderado. Os fatores de risco considerados pelo JFQ como mais criticos estão relacionados à temperatura ambiental; postura mantida em longos períodos de tempo; posturas inadequadas para coluna e continuar trabalhando quando está com alguma dor ou com alguma lesão. O QEC identificou as regiões de coluna lombar e punhos/mãos como expostas ao alto risco. Não houveram diferenças estatisticamente significante entre os setores. Abstract in spanish El análisis de los factores de riesgo ergonómicos presentes en industrias textiles ayuda al planeamiento de estrategias que contribuyen a la mejora de las condiciones de trabajo y reducción de los trastornos osteomusculares. Este estudio se propuso medir los niveles de exposición a los factores de r [...] iesgo ergonómicos en trabajadores de dos sectores de producción de una industria textil. Para ello, los instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) y el Quick Exposure Check (QEC) fueron aplicados en 107 trabajadores. Los resultados fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva. El test de Mann-Whitney fue utilizado para comparación de los resultados obtenidos entre los sectores de producción. El diagnóstico del nivel de exposición al riesgo ergonómico, obtenido por ambos instrumentos, fue moderado. Los factores de riesgo considerados por el JFQ como más críticos están relacionados a la temperatura ambiental; postura mantenida en largos períodos de tiempo; posturas inadecuadas para la columna y continuar trabajando cuando tiene algún dolor o con alguna lesión. El QEC identificó las regiones de columna lumbar y muñecas/manos como expuestas a alto riesgo. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los sectores. Abstract in english The analysis of ergonomic risk factors that are present in the textile industry helps to plan strategies that can contribute to the improvement of work conditions and the consequent reduction of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed at measuring levels of exposure to ergonomic risk factors amo [...] ng workers of two production sections in a textile factory. For this purpose, the instruments Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) and Quick Exposure Check (QEC) were applied in 107 workers. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare the results between the production sections. The level of exposure to ergonomic risks, obtained through both instruments, was moderate. The risk factors considered as being critical by the JFQ are related to environmental temperature, posture maintained over long periods of time, inadequate spinal posture, and to working even when the worker feels pain or sustains injuries. The QEC identified regions of the lumbar spine and wrists/hands as being exposed to high risk. There were no statistically significant differences between the sections.

Maria Luiza Caires, Comper; Rosimeire Simprini, Padula.

2013-09-01

85

Living Up to the Ideal of Respectability : Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Implications for Unmarried Migrant Workers, Single Mothers, and Women in Prostitution in Sri Lanka  

OpenAIRE

This thesis aims to gain a deeper understanding of relationships and sexuality of women at risk of social exclusion in Sri Lanka and the risk of violations of their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) that they might face. Individual qualitative interviews with migrant women workers (n=18) and men (n=18) in the Free Trade Zone (FTZ), women facing single motherhood (n=28) and women formerly involved in prostitution (n=15) were conducted. Conceptual approaches included gender, soci...

Jordal, Malin

2014-01-01

86

Cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women, health care workers and persons with underlying illnesses in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk groups with increased vulnerability for influenza complications such as pregnant women, persons with underlying illnesses as well as persons who come into contact with them, such as health care workers, are currently given priority (along with other classic target groups) to receive seasonal influenza vaccination in Belgium. We aimed to evaluate this policy from a health care payer perspective by cost-effectiveness analysis in the three specific target groups above, while accounting for effects beyond the target group. Increasing the coverage of influenza vaccination is likely to be cost-effective for pregnant women (median €6589 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained [€4073-€10,249]) and health care workers (median €24,096/QALY gained [€16,442-€36,342]), if this can be achieved without incurring additional administration costs. Assuming an additional physician's consult is charged to administer each additional vaccine dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women depends strongly on the extent of its impact on the neonate's health. For health care workers, the assumed number of preventable secondary infections has a strong influence on the cost-effectiveness. Vaccinating people with underlying illnesses is likely highly cost-effective above 50 years of age and borderline cost-effective for younger persons, depending on relative life expectancy and vaccine efficacy in this risk group compared to the general population. The case-fatality ratios of the target group, of the secondary affected groups and vaccine efficacy are key sources of uncertainty. PMID:25239481

Blommaert, Adriaan; Bilcke, Joke; Vandendijck, Yannick; Hanquet, Germaine; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

2014-10-21

87

Electronic textiles  

OpenAIRE

In the context of Ambient Intelligence the integration of electronics into textiles has gained much interest recently. With the next generation of mobile devices it can be expected that there will be no more separation between local/mobile data processing and data exchange. Along with the improved infrastructure, the mobile devices, e.g., mobile phone, PDA, and MP3 player, have to change to meet the future requirements of mobile communication and computing. This will also lead to a significan...

Reichl, Herbert; Kallmayer, Christine; Linz, Torsten

2006-01-01

88

Relación entre el consumo de tabaco, salud mental y malestares físicos en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana / Relationship among current tobacco use, mental health and physical distress in male workers of a Mexican textile industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción El consumo de tabaco es considerado un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo debido a la cantidad de enfermedades y muertes relacionadas con su uso. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) reporta que 30% de los adultos son fumadores y, de éstos, aproximadamente cinco millones de [...] personas morirán en un año. También se estima que para 2020 habrá 8.4 millones de muertes anuales por enfermedades relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco, de las cuales siete de cada 10 ocurrirán en países en vías de desarrollo, como México, donde más de 53 mil personas fumadoras mueren al año por enfermedades asociadas al tabaquismo y al menos 147 personas mueren diariamente. Por otro lado, en la bibliografía se ha encontrado que el daño en el organismo por fumar comienza desde el primer cigarro, que a los 10 años se presentan síntomas sutiles en la función pulmonar y disminución de la tolerancia al ejercicio, y que es entre 20 y 30 años después cuando los síntomas hacen a un fumador tomar conciencia del daño a su salud. En cuanto a la relación entre el uso de tabaco y la salud mental, ésta se evidencia por las consecuencias emocionales que conlleva padecer una enfermedad crónica. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación de problemas emocionales y malestares físicos con el consumo de tabaco en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana. Método La muestra estuvo conformada por 279 sujetos que laboraban en una empresa textil, en su mayoría jóvenes entre 18 y 27 años (54.5%), con escolaridad de secundaria (59.3%) y casados o en unión libre (65.6%). El instrumento utilizado incluyó las escalas de salud mental (MHI-5), malestares físicos (SCL-90) y consumo de tabaco. La aplicación del instrumento se realizó de manera grupal dentro de la empresa textil en que laboraban los sujetos. Resultados No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a problemas de salud mental y síntomas físicos entre fumadores y no fumadores. Mediante un modelo de análisis de trayectorias, se analizó la relación existente entre síntomas físicos, problemas de salud mental e indicadores de consumo de tabaco. Se encontró así que el principal predictor de los síntomas físicos en fumadores es el tiempo que llevan consumiendo y que los síntomas físicos son un importante predictor de problemas de salud mental. Discusión Sin importar la cantidad de cigarrillos consumidos, la frecuencia de consumo ni otros indicadores de consumo elevado, el tiempo que se lleva consumiendo es un predictor importante del número de síntomas físicos que se manifiestan, lo que puede deberse a los efectos dañinos que tiene el consumo prolongado del tabaco. De este modo se confirma lo mencionado en otras investigaciones de que, después de los primeros 10 años de consumo, se presentan malestares físicos sutiles y que a lo largo de 20 o 30 años se presentaran malestares importantes. Si bien no se encontró una relación directa entre consumo de tabaco y salud mental, se puede sugerir una relación indirecta derivada de la influencia que tiene el consumo sobre el plano del bienestar físico. En este sentido es de esperarse que, a medida que se continúe consumiendo tabaco y los malestares físicos aumenten, también se incrementen los problemas de salud mental. Por otro lado, el modelo aquí presentado requiere ser completado incluyendo otras áreas que puedan influir sobre el bienestar físico y mental. Sin embargo, se logró evidenciar la importancia que tiene el consumo de tabaco sobre el malestar físico, a la vez que aumenta la probabilidad de que se presenten más problemas en la salud mental de la población consumidora. Abstract in english Introduction Tobacco use is considered a worldwide public health problem because of the amount of death and disease it causes. The WHO reports that 30% of the adult population in the world are cigarette smokers, and that nearly five million of these will die within one year. Prospective studies perf [...] ormed by t

Ana Carolina, Rodríguez Machain; Nora Angélica, Martínez Vélez; Francisco, Juárez García; Elsa Karina, López Lugo; Silvia, Carreño García; María Elena, Medina-Mora.

2008-08-01

89

Yönetim Tarz? ve Çal??ma Ko?ullar?, Arkada?l?k Ortam? ve Takdir Edilme Duygusu ile ?? Tatmini Aras?ndaki ?li?kiler : Tekstil Sektöründe Bir Uygulama = The Relationship Between Supervision Style, Working Conditions, Co-Workers Behavior, Recognition and Job Satisfaction : A Field Research on Textile Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensive competition forces firms to work efficiently and effectively with all their resources including human resources. The need for satisfying employees on the job arises as a necessity for the firm success. Firms can achieve their objectives only by developing and maintaining policies and work environments which in turn will result in job satisfaction. In this study the factors which effect job satisfaction are analyzed on a sample of firms operating in the textile industry. Turkish textile firms are well known with their export ability as well as with their use of labor-intensive production technology. High level of job satisfaction of employees is needed for firm performance. The findings of the survey results indicate that supervisory behavior, working conditions, co-workers behavior and recognition are related to job satisfaction, co-workers behavior having the highest effect among all.

Salih Zeki ?MAMO?LU

2004-01-01

90

Risk Points of Flame Retardant Textiles by Halogen and Halogen-Free Laminating Film  

OpenAIRE

This study was to develop the flame retardant (FR) protective clothing which had multifunction such anti-bacterial, UV cut, FR function with water repellent and water vapor permeable laminating textiles for industrial workers. First of all, the FR yarn and FR textiles were developed for this purpose. Second, the comparison analysis between the halogen laminating textiles and halogen-free laminating textiles were tested to figure out the eco-friendly laminating method. Third, the flame retarda...

Yoon Jeong Baek; Jeoung Hwa Shin

2014-01-01

91

The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.  

Science.gov (United States)

Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

1986-01-01

92

[Evaluation of health hazards of workers of the textile industry working in contact with latex substances on the acrylic compound base].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is aimed at quantitative and qualitative determination of acrylic compounds that may occur in air at the "Lentex" Plant in Lubliniec, along with microclimate parameters measurements. The initial method was that of the Polish Standard PN-78/z-04113, which was subsequently modified. Pursuant to this standard, acrylic compounds were determined by gas chromatography with new column pack and changed parameters of gas chromatograph. The conditions of acrylic esters and acrylonitrile separation on column with LAC-1R-296 phase were considered the best and were used for quantitative and qualitative estimation. The investigations were carried out at workstations, basing on the production stage. The obtained results of identified acrylates concentrations are indicative of a very little content of those compounds in workstations air, implying that those workstations are safe in respect of chemical risk to workers. Certain deviations from mandatory standards were exhibited by almost all microclimatic parameters which might result in workers' worse general feeling. PMID:6865737

Szczebara, M; Stach, R; Molenda, M; Szo?tysek, H

1983-01-01

93

Tear secretion dysfunction among women workers engaged in light-on tests in the TFT-LCD industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display industry is rapidly growing in Taiwan and many other countries. A large number of workers, mainly women, are employed in the light-on test process to detect the defects of products. At the light-on test workstation, the operator is generally exposed to low humidity (in the clean room environment, flashing light, and low ambient illumination for long working hours. Many workers complained about eye discomfort, and therefore we conducted a study to evaluate the tear secretion function of light-on test workers of a TFT-LCD company. Methods We recruited workers engaged in light-on tests in the company during their periodical health examination. In addition to a questionnaire survey of demographic characteristics and ophthalmic symptoms, we evaluated the tear secretion function of both eyes of each participant using the Schirmer's lacrimal basal secretion test with anaesthesia. A participant with one or both eyes yielding abnormal test results was defined as a case of tear secretion dysfunction. Results During the study period, a total of 371 light-on test workers received the health examination at the clinic of the park, and 52 of them were excluded due to having ophthalmic diseases and other systemic diseases that may affect ophthalmic function. All the remaining 319 qualified workers agreed to participate in this study, and they were all females working by 4-shift rotations. The average age was 24.2 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8, and the average employment duration was 13.6 months (SD = 5.7. Among the 11 ophthalmic symptoms evaluated, eye dryness was the most prevalent (prevalence = 43.3%. In addition, the prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in at least one eye was 40.1% (128 cases, and contact lens users had an odds ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval = 1.02–2.94 in comparison with non-contact lens users. Comparing the Schirmer's test results of those who also participated in the screening in the previous year, we found 40 of the 156 participants (17.2% with normal test results in the previous year turned abnormal in 2001. In contrast, only 21 of the 76 participants (9.1% with abnormal test results in the previous year turned normal, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02 for McNemar's test. Conclusion The prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in woman workers engaged in light-on tests is high and increases with a one-year duration of employment. The use of contact lens may further increase the risk.

Sheen Jiunn-Woei

2006-12-01

94

Mulheres enfrentando as violências: a voz dos operadores sociais Women facing violence: the voice of social workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de esclarecer a rota crítica de mulheres do município de São Leopoldo no enfrentamento da violência, por meio da análise das práticas discursivas de um grupo de trabalhadores de instituições sociais. Realizou-se uma seleção intencional de instituições dos setores saúde, educação, policial, jurídico-legal e comunitário e foram entrevistados dois representantes de cada setor. A partir das práticas discursivas dos operadores, percebemos que a violência praticada contra as mulheres é um problema de elevada frequência e baixa resolubilidade institucional. No processo da rota crítica - o caminho percorrido pelas mulheres para romper com a violência - muitas não recebem o acolhimento nos serviços. Apesar da criação do Centro de Referência para Mulheres, ainda há muito a ser feito para efetivar as políticas públicas. Os depoimentos dos trabalhadores sociais foram enunciados a partir da posição institucional que ocupam, e, nesses discursos, eles minimizaram os pedidos de ajuda das mulheres, culpabilizando-as. Os operadores ligados às organizações comunitárias foram os mais solidários e compreensivos. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que não há uma única rota ou itinerário ideal; pelo contrário, a rota percorrida pelas mulheres é longa, dolorosa e nem sempre eficiente. Nem todas as rotas empreendidas pelas mulheres em São Leopoldo puderam ser conhecidas, porém o fato de outros serviços estarem sendo disponibilizados na cidade, certamente possibilitará o traçado de outros caminhos.This article investigates the critical path followed by women facing violence in the city of São Leopoldo through the analysis of discursive practices of a group of workers from social institutions. An intentional selection of institutions was carried out, including the following areas: health, education, police force, law and community. Two representatives of each sector were interviewed. Based on the workers' discursive practices, we noticed that the violence that is perpetrated against women is a problem of high frequency and low institutional resolution. Throughout the Critical Path process - the way followed by women in order to break with violence - many users are not sheltered by the services and, despite the creation of a Reference Center for Women, there is still a lot to be done to enforce the public policies. The social workers' discourses were enunciated from the institutional position they occupy, and in these discourses they minimized the women's request for help, saying that they were guilty. Workers from community organizations were the most sympathetic ones. The results show that there is not a single path or an ideal itinerary; rather, the path followed by many women is long, painful and, sometimes, inefficient. Not all the paths followed by the women in São Leopoldo could be investigated; however, the fact that other services are becoming available in the city will certainly enable the design of other ways.

Adriana Dewes Presser

2008-09-01

95

Mulheres enfrentando as violências: a voz dos operadores sociais / Women facing violence: the voice of social workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de esclarecer a rota crítica de mulheres do município de São Leopoldo no enfrentamento da violência, por meio da análise das práticas discursivas de um grupo de trabalhadores de instituições sociais. Realizou-se uma seleção intencional de instituições dos setores saúde, ed [...] ucação, policial, jurídico-legal e comunitário e foram entrevistados dois representantes de cada setor. A partir das práticas discursivas dos operadores, percebemos que a violência praticada contra as mulheres é um problema de elevada frequência e baixa resolubilidade institucional. No processo da rota crítica - o caminho percorrido pelas mulheres para romper com a violência - muitas não recebem o acolhimento nos serviços. Apesar da criação do Centro de Referência para Mulheres, ainda há muito a ser feito para efetivar as políticas públicas. Os depoimentos dos trabalhadores sociais foram enunciados a partir da posição institucional que ocupam, e, nesses discursos, eles minimizaram os pedidos de ajuda das mulheres, culpabilizando-as. Os operadores ligados às organizações comunitárias foram os mais solidários e compreensivos. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que não há uma única rota ou itinerário ideal; pelo contrário, a rota percorrida pelas mulheres é longa, dolorosa e nem sempre eficiente. Nem todas as rotas empreendidas pelas mulheres em São Leopoldo puderam ser conhecidas, porém o fato de outros serviços estarem sendo disponibilizados na cidade, certamente possibilitará o traçado de outros caminhos. Abstract in english This article investigates the critical path followed by women facing violence in the city of São Leopoldo through the analysis of discursive practices of a group of workers from social institutions. An intentional selection of institutions was carried out, including the following areas: health, educ [...] ation, police force, law and community. Two representatives of each sector were interviewed. Based on the workers' discursive practices, we noticed that the violence that is perpetrated against women is a problem of high frequency and low institutional resolution. Throughout the Critical Path process - the way followed by women in order to break with violence - many users are not sheltered by the services and, despite the creation of a Reference Center for Women, there is still a lot to be done to enforce the public policies. The social workers' discourses were enunciated from the institutional position they occupy, and in these discourses they minimized the women's request for help, saying that they were guilty. Workers from community organizations were the most sympathetic ones. The results show that there is not a single path or an ideal itinerary; rather, the path followed by many women is long, painful and, sometimes, inefficient. Not all the paths followed by the women in São Leopoldo could be investigated; however, the fact that other services are becoming available in the city will certainly enable the design of other ways.

Adriana Dewes, Presser; Stela Nazareth, Meneghel; Élida Azevedo, Hennington.

2008-09-01

96

Operárias no Cariri cearense: fábrica, família e violência doméstica Women workers in the Brazilian Northeast: factory, family and domestic violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo discutimos as mudanças representadas pela entrada de mulheres no trabalho fabril numa região de industrialização recente, buscando verificar em que medida essa inserção, em um contexto de crise do emprego e em uma região marcada pela informalidade de parte significativa das atividades econômicas, tem influenciado a redefinição dos papéis familiares e acentuado conflitos geradores de violência doméstica. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 14 mulheres que denunciaram algum tipo de violência praticada por seus maridos ou companheiros na Delegacia Regional da Mulher, no município de Crato, CE. Os dados obtidos apontam, entre outros aspectos, que a entrada das mulheres na esfera pública e a autonomia financeira, propiciadas pelo trabalho fabril, tendem a provocar mudanças nos tradicionais papéis de gênero, cujas consequências tem se expressado no questionamento do lugar do homem como provedor, nos rompimentos do grupo familiar e violência doméstica contra as trabalhadoras.In this article, we will argue about the changes represented by the entrance of women in the factory work in a region of recent industrialization, aiming at verifying to which extent such insertion, in a context of employment crisis in a region marked by informal labor activities, has influenced the redefinition of the family roles and increased conflicts that cause domestic violence. A group of 14 women workers that denounced the domestic violence in Crato City, Ceará State, was observed. We intend to recoup the changes perceived by these workers in its life of work and its ordinary life. The women entrance in the public sphere tends to pressure for changes in the traditional roles of gender with distinct gradations, since adjustments in the domestic life until disruption of the family group.

Iara Maria Araújo

2011-12-01

97

75 FR 34175 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance  

Science.gov (United States)

...Zodiac Aerospace, Leased Workers from KRG, Lancaster, NY...Corporate & Textile Div., Leased Workers Access Employment of Rhode...TA-W-73,507: Inventurus Knowledge Solutions, Inc. (IKS...supplier to a firm whose workers are certified eligible to...

2010-06-16

98

Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compared to women whose partners did not. Women from the Mam and Kaqchikel ethnolinguistic groups reported higher rates of STI symptoms after adjustment for their partners' migration status. PMID:23963499

Ikeda, Janet M; Schaffer, Jessica R; Sac Ixcot, Maria L; Page, Kimberly; Hearst, Norman

2014-01-01

99

Satisficing and structured individuation: A study of women workers in Calcutta's IT sector  

OpenAIRE

It was initially believed that the rapid growth of the Information Technology (IT) industry in India would generate less exploitative avenues of employment for women. Further, economic empowerment would strengthen the bargaining power of women within the household and improve her self-esteem. However, recent studies argue that the IT sector has been unable to isolate itself from the social context, so that the organizational process continues to be shaped by the conflicting and asymmetrical g...

Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir

2010-01-01

100

Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

101

Women of courage: commercial sex workers mobilize for HIV / AIDS prevention in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Calabar Project in Nigeria, which seeks to reduce the vulnerability of prostitutes to HIV infection, began informally in 1987. By 1988, a formal, community-based intervention was created to promote condom use, provide health education as well as literacy and vocational training, and seek better working and living conditions for the prostitutes. The first task of the Calabar Project was to overcome the resistance of the hotel owners and managers where the prostitutes work and to win the confidence of the women. The owners and managers had to be convinced that it was in their best interest for the women to insist on condom use by their clients. The women had to be informed about the nature of HIV/AIDS and to be convinced that the project sought improvements in their general welfare. This was accomplished by helping the prostitutes improve both their relationship with the local police and their access to health services. Negotiations with hotel owners stabilized the prostitutes' rent for a year to enable the women to increase their charges for services and reduce the number of clients they needed so they could insist on condom use. Peer educators were trained to provide health education and to teach prostitutes techniques to get clients to use condoms. Clients were reached through the prostitutes and by providing information to small groups in hotel bars. Condoms were initially distributed for free and eventually were sold through a social marketing program. Peer educators also encouraged prostitutes and their clients to use a clinic the project established to diagnose and treat sexually transmitted diseases. In 1993, the Calabar Project helped create a vocational and literacy training center to improve the women's ability to understand the complex issues related to HIV/AIDS and to give the women a way to supplement their income and improve their self-esteem. By this time, more than 60% of the women reported using condoms for all sex acts. PMID:12345902

Williams, E E

1994-05-01

102

Impact of a physical activity promotion program in worker women from two companies in Bogotá (Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Active and healthy lifestyles have been associated with better quality of life in working women. Objective: To establish the effectiveness of a physical activity program to improve fitness componentsin working women from two Colombian companies. Materials and methods: A longitudinal,exploratory, descriptive study was conducted, previous and later measurements aboutthe quantitative aspects of fitness were taken. Women in the study were between 24-49 years old, without associated risk factors or physical activity practice restrictions according to PARQ & YOU questionnaire. 15 women (37,33 ±9,3 voluntarily decided to join for the intervention onphysical activity for a period of 12 weeks, 60 minutes per day.Statistical analysis was made with SPSS 17. Results: Statistical changes appeared after the intervention, body mass index (BMI (p= 0,023, abdominal strength (p = 0,004 and lower limbs strength (p= 0,001. There were no significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and flexibility. Conclusion: From these results, it was established that the implemented physical activity promotion protocol was effective to change fitness of women who completed the program, meaning that it can be replicated with effective results after its completition.

Mendoza D

2011-12-01

103

Images of Rosie: A Content Analysis of Women Workers in American Magazine Advertising, 1940-1946.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the relationship among the advertising industry, the actual "reality" of working women, and sociocultural constructions of female gender identity immediately before, during, and immediately following World War II. Finds that advertisers returned to prewar versions of social reality immediately after the war. (SR)

Lewis, Charles; Neville, John

1995-01-01

104

Minorities & Women in the Health Fields: Applicants, Students, and Workers. Health Manpower References.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive look at the current and future supply of women and minorities in the health professions and in health professions schools is provided in this statistical report. Its data are more extensive than those presented in either of two earlier reports, hence, it can prove useful in assisting analysis of the composition of the nation's…

Philpot, Wilbertine P.; Bernstein, Stuart

105

Validation of a Questionnaire for Heat Strain Evaluation in Women Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Physiological, anthropometrical and thermal perceptual are the most important factors affecting thermoregulation of men and women in workplaces. The purpose of this study was determining the validity of a questionnaire method for assessing women's heat strain in workplaces. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 96 healthy women. Data were continuously collected over a period of 3 months (July-September) in 2012. Mean ± (SD) of age was found to be 31.5 ± 7.48 years, of height 1.61 ± 0.05 m, of weight 61.55 ± 10.35 kg, and of body mass index 23.52 ± 3.75 kg/m2 in different workplaces. Heart rate and oral temperature were measured by heart rate monitoring and a medical digital thermometer, respectively. Subjects completed a draft questionnaire about the effective factors in the onset of heat strain. After collecting the questionnaires, the data were analyzed by applying Cronbach’sa calculation, factor analysis method, Pearson correlation and receiver operator characteristic curves using the SPSS 18 software. Results: The value for Cronbach's ? was found to be 0.68. The factor analysis method on items of draft questionnaire extracted three subscale (16 variables) which they explained 63.6% of the variance. According to the results of receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off questionnaire score for separating people with heat strain from people with no heat strain was obtained to be 17. Conclusions: The results of this research indicated that this quantitative questionnaire has an acceptable reliability and validity, and a cut-off point. Therefore it could be used in the preliminary screening of heat strain in women in warm workplaces, when other heat stress evaluation methods are not available. PMID:23930180

Dehghan, Habibollah; Habibi, Ehsanollah; Habibi, Peymaneh; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

106

Family Types, Authority Structure and Women Workers in Sindh Labor Force: Problems and Prospects  

OpenAIRE

The development of a society is virtually dependent upon the quality of human resources both male and female, the changing pattern of economic and social development of world societies irrespective of their level of development, necessitates and equal advancement of both the social segments. The numerical reality that women constitute about nearly half of the total population of Sindh ideally assigns to them equal participating role in the economic life of the province. However, like other ...

Wasim, Mohammad Pervez; Herani, Gobind M.; Farooqui, Wahid; Qureshi, M. A.

2008-01-01

107

The Employment Challenge of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: Scenario and Strategies for Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

Abstract In January 2005, the quota system for imports of textiles and clothing was phased out and gave way to more liberalized global trade in textiles and clothing. The T&C industry is Pakistan’s main export engine. It is also a major industrial employer, and one of the few sectors that provide paid employment to female workers. The policy paper highlights the potentially negative impact of the phase out of the textile quota regime on employment-intensive garment production...

Siegmann, K. A.

2005-01-01

108

Textiles and Microbes  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbes can be carried by and even multiply on textiles. The first real, premeditated, microbiological warfare happened in 1763, during the Anglo-French wars in North America, when Native American emissaries were given blankets or handkerchiefs contaminated with smallpox. Thus, a small epidemic started and spread rapidly, causing considerable damage to the rank and file of the Native Americans. Nowadays, it could be said that textiles could be vectors of infections in hospitals or communities. The making of antimicrobial textiles could prevent them from becoming a reservoir of microbes in the transmission of infections and in cases of voluntary contamination in a terrorist threat for example. However, methods have to show that textiles are really active and do not attack the cutaneous flora they are in contact with. In this chapter, the role of textiles in the transmission of infections is summarized and the main characteristics of antimicrobial textiles are described.

Freney, Jean; Renaud, François N. R.

109

Hearing loss in a textile factory.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To compare the prevalence rate of hearing loss at different levels of noise in a textile factory and to find out the levels of hearing loss according to duration (years) of employment in the factory. METHODS Seventy workers exposed to different levels of noise were matched with 70 persons in the community who were not exposed to occupational noise. Noise levels dB(A) were measured at different locations in the factory. Hearing was assessed in all participants. Few cases we...

Shakhatreh, F. M.; Abdul-baqi, K. J.; Turk, M. M.

2000-01-01

110

Sex workers self-organizing and empowerment : the experience of Women’s Network for Unity (WNU) in Cambodia : article produced as part of the KIC Project  

OpenAIRE

Many organizations that are working with sex workers have learned that it is ineffective to provide HIV and other health services to them if they do not consider – and address – sex workers’ work environments, where many cases of human rights violations can be found. Thus, they gradually move into rights-based activities. By reframing sex workers’ health as a rights issue, the focus of HIV prevention work with sex workers shifts from individual-level behaviour change communication to ...

Agenda For Change, Womyn S.; Women’s Network for Unity

2007-01-01

111

Weibliche Arbeitserfahrungen in der DDR Women’s Work experiences in the GDR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annegret Schüle kommt in ihrer Untersuchung zu dem Ergebnis, dass die DDR-Diktatur das Leben von Frauen mehr veränderte als das der Männer. Ihre auf Interviews basierende Untersuchung fokussiert den (Berufs-Alltag von Frauen in der Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei. Anhand der drei Kategorien „Generation“, „Frauenarbeit“ und „Vergemeinschaftung im Betrieb“ diskutiert sie die geführten Interviews , die Förderung weiblicher Erwerbstätiger einerseits und das Negativimage des Textilbetriebs andererseits. Die Autorin legt eine überzeugende Studie zur Erfahrungsgeschichte weiblicher Industriearbeit vor und zeigt am konkreten Beispiel, wie die DDR-Gesellschaft in einer von Frauen getragenen familiarisierten Betriebskultur nicht aufgebrochen, sondern in einer eigentümlichen Verbindung von Geborgenheit und Unterordnung reproduziert wurde.Schüle argues that the Eastern German dictatorship had a greater impact on the lives of women than on those of their male counterparts. Her research, based on interviews with female workers in a in a cotton-spinning factory in Leipzig, portrays women’s everyday-life and work, and offers a convincing study of the experience of female industrial workers. Using the three categories “cohort,” “women’s work,” and a discourse of “factory-as-community,” Schüle discusses her interviews with respect to the promotion of female textile workers on the one hand and the negative stereotypes associated with working in the textile industry on the other hand. Using concrete examples, Schüle demonstrates how a factory organised by women did not undermine the patriarchal frame in which it was embedded but how existing power differentials were reproduced as part of a discourse of family, security, and subordination.

Albrecht Wiesener

2001-11-01

112

Textile Museum of Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The Textile Museum of Canada contains more than 10,000 textiles and spans almost 2,000 years and 190 world regions. Visit this virtual exhibit to learn about fabric from all over the world. You can search exhibits or explore online projects.

Textile Museum of Canada

113

NIR Analysis for Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been found to be a useful technique to characterize raw materials and finished textile products, and NIR methods and techniques continue to find increasingly diverse and wide-ranging quantitative and qualitative applications in the textile industry. NIR methods ...

114

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

Shamsuddin K

2003-05-01

115

Bioplastics in Textiles / Bioplastics in Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of available biomass that needs to be used are the main reason for bioplastics revival. In many cases it is an optimal solution for a particular purpose. The production of textile used for clothing, medicine, and the automotive industry being the main consumer of technical textile where textile constitutes almost 85% of the car interior follow this trend. The important reasons for application are functionality and biomass utilization. Permanent increase in bioplastic production capacity is expected. The paper presents new achievements in textiles and the related areas. / Zbog velike koli?ine raspoložive biomase koju treba iskoristiti bioplastika doživljava renesansu. U nekim je slu?ajevima dobro rješenje za odre?enu namjenu. Takav trend slijedi i proizvodnja tekstila za potrebe odijevanja, medicine i automobilske industrije, glavnoga korisnika tehni?kog tekstila, gdje tekstil ?ini gotovo 85 % unutrašnjosti automobila. Važni razlozi primjene su funkcionalnost i iskoristivost otpadne biomase te se o?ekuje trajno pove?anje kapaciteta za proizvodnju bioplastike. U radu su prikazana nova dostignu?a u tekstilstvu i srodnim granama.

Ana Marija GRANCARI?

2013-07-01

116

Beetles in Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

This 1994 article by Victoria Rivers, Professor of Textiles at University of California (Davis), is about the fascinating and exquisite use of beetle parts, especially iridescent beetle wings, in textiles. Many entomologists will not be familiar with this aspect of the use of insects and will find the article delightful. The article explores how beetles have been used in textiles throughout history in India, New Guinea, Thailand, Burma, and Amazonia. The online article is about 6 standard text pages and includes photographs that, when clicked, provide a larger image.

0000-00-00

117

Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhadores de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, condições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação, com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008, deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores.OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores RESULTS: No significant differences (p < 0.05 were found comparing results of fatigue, workability index, and most demographic characteristics obtained among workers from the two groups. The best working conditions in the group with highest CSR scores (p = 0.008 were in plants that provided meals for the workers. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation and development of CSR projects do not necessarily mean better working conditions, less fatigue or higher workability. However, as this was a cross-sectional study with a small population sample and as working capacity may decrease with ageing of workers, new longitudinal studies must be performed with a larger population.

Ricardo Jorge Metzner

2008-12-01

118

E-Textiles Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to study the most challenging aspects faced during the production and integration of ubiquitous electronic and computational elements into fabric. In the near future, textile products including what one wears will transform from their present to multifunctional, adaptive and responsive systems. The functions may include communication, computation and entertainment, as well as health care. Textiles used in non-apparel applications may perform surveillance and detection functions. This paper presents three new techniques for attaching off-the-shelf electrical hardware to e-textiles: (a the design of fabric PCBs or iron-on circuits to attach electronics directly to a fabric substrate; (b the use of electronic sequins to create wearable displays and other artefacts; and(c the use of socket buttons to facilitate connecting pluggable devices to textiles

Dhaval Gandhi

2014-10-01

119

Digital Textile Printing  

OpenAIRE

Rapidly evolving technology of digital printing opens new opportunities on many markets. One of them is the printed fabric market where printing companies as well as clients benefit from new printing methods. This thesis focuses on the digital textile printing technology and its implementation for fabric-on-demand printing service in Finland. The purpose of this project was to study the technology behind digital textile printing, areas of application of this technology, the requirements ...

Moltchanova, Julia

2011-01-01

120

The Textile Space  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Textile has within the last decade increasingly been regarded as an architectural material. Many new textiles have been developed and this has increased its applications in architecture. But how do textile and space meet and which spatial qualities can arise in this meeting? The paper describes a series of practical studies of the spatial qualities that can be established through the design of three very different fabrics. The topic is part of an ongoing Ph.D. project at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. The main theme of the Ph.D. is the inter-play between textile, space and sound. Space, established with textile, differs in several ways from rooms built of conventional building materials. Textiles are flexible - it can both be folded and moved, it can be translucent and simultaneously provide a visual barrier, it is lightweight and at the same time very strong, it is sound absorbing and it has a special poetry which is not to be found in any other material. Which spatial qualities can be obtained with these textile properties? Contemporary conception of space in architecture can be said still to rely on the modernist conception. In practical experiments it is investigated how the textiles can be given shape in relation to modernist theories of space conception. In these theories a number of specific parameters which determine the formation of space are defined. Some of these parameters are the creation of distance between objects, structuring of the space in relation to platonic solids, transparency of materials and dissolution of space boundaries.

Bendixen, Cecilie

121

Rapid Manufactured Textiles  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Rapid Manufacturing (RM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that are achievable in the area of design complexity. Through the exploration of the design freedom afforded by RM, this paper introduces the concept and novel research area of RM textiles. The paper highlights the design and manufacturing possibilities applied to textiles when considering additive manufacturing techniques, the current limitations of conventional Com...

Bingham, Guy; Hague, Richard; Tuck, Christopher John; Long, Andrew; Crookston, Jonathan Josiah; Sherburn, Martin

2006-01-01

122

Organisational Pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of Academic and Non- Academic Women Workers in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

An approach to motivation in the contemporary world of work is the implementation of Quality-of-Worklife (QWL programmes, which is aimed at easing the pressures faced at work by employees. Quality-of-Worklife is a relatively new concept in human resource management. It is a philosophy of improving productivity by providing workers with the opportunities required to put in their best at work, without jeopardizing their personal self improvement and responsibilities at home. This study, investigated the organisational pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of academic and non - academic women in tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study was a survey of the ex-post facto type. 3,640 senior cadre women working in the four purposively selected degree awarding institutions in Lagos State (University of Lagos, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State University and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and their managers formed the population. Out of these, 250 women were selected as sample from each institution using the stratified random sampling technique. Three instruments were used for the study: Quality-of-Worklife survey of Women Workers (QWLSWW r= .815, Head of Department Check List (HODCL and Structured Interview Questions (SIQ. A research question and 3 research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level. Data were analysed using frequency counts, percentages, t-test. Significant differences were found between academic and non-academic female members of staff in their sources of pressure (t=2.43, P<0.05. The factors included: salary, health-care benefits, day-care services on workplace premises and workload. However, no significant differences were found between academic and non-academic female members of staff on sources of satisfaction which included, daily workload, salary, fairness in performance assessment, special recognition for high performance, internet facilities at work and health- care benefit and organisational pressure factors. Factors such as salary, health-care benefit, day-care services, recognition, workload and others influenced QWL of women. Government and management committees of the tertiary institutions should ensure the reduction of organisational pressure and promote high QWL. This would enable the women workers contribute to the productivity of their organisation.

 

Mobolaji Ogunsanya

2012-05-01

123

Forecast and Analyzis Electricity Consumption in Textile Industry in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in textile Industry in Iran. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in textile industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. On the other hand, Iranian textile industries are facing numerous problems, such as lack of liquidity and lack of foreign exchange to import raw materials and spare parts; outdated and ageing machinery because of the impossibility of renovating production lines; rise in wages; and, finally, the inefficiency of the industry. This industry uses about 8.5% of electricity and 6.4% energy of Iran industrial sector and employs about 10.9 % of all workers in manufacturing. Textile industry provides about 5.4% of Iran industries added value. Energy consumption in Iran's textile industry is inefficient, with a huge possibility of improvement. This paper aims to analyze energy demand in the current condition and in the new government's plan. This paper has simulated these models with neural network. The comparison between results of these two models illustrates the effects of this plan on the electricity consumption in textile industry in Iran. Results show that with current electricity price, the most effective parameter on electricity consumption in Iran is added value.

Piltan, Mehdi; Farahani, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, S. Farid [University of Tehran, Faculty of Engineering (Iran)

2009-07-01

124

Problems with textile wastewater discharge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

125

Prevalência da dor orofacial e seu impacto no desempenho diário em trabalhadores das indústrias têxteis do município de Laguna, SC / Prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life of textile industries workers of Laguna, SC, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Foram examinadas as tendências em saúde da população idosa brasileira utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998-2008). O estudo incluiu uma amostra probabilística de 105.254 pessoas com > 60 anos de idade. A média da idade foi de 69 anos e 56% eram mulheres. Houve um a [...] umento gradativo da boa autoavaliação da saúde (39,3%, 43,5% e 45,0% em 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente) e uma diminuição na prevalência de artrite, doença do coração e depressão autorreferidas. A prevalência da hipertensão (43.9%, 48.8% e 53.3%, respectivamente) e do diabetes autorreferidos (10.3%, 13.0% e 16.1% respectivamente) aumentou acentuadamente. A prevalência da incapacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária (alimentar-se, tomar banho ou ir ao banheiro) permaneceu estável (6.5%, 6.4% e 6.9%, respectivamente). A realização de três ou mais consultas médicas nos 12 meses precedentes aumentou 21% entre 1998 e 2008. As hospitalizações diminuíram 10% no mesmo período. Essas tendências foram independentes do sexo e da idade. Os resultados mostram melhora em algumas dimensões da saúde dos idosos, mas não em todas. As mudanças no uso de serviços de saúde ocorreram como esperado em decorrência da expansão das atividades de atenção primária no Brasil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the daily performance of workers in the textile industry in the municipality of Laguna, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving all workers (n= 267) of the five textile industries of the municipality in 2004 [...] was conducted. Data were obtained through the questionnaire proposed by Locker and Gruska to measure the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) indicator. Socio-demographic data such as gender, age, level of schooling, income, job function and absenteeism due to orofacial pain was collected. Data were descriptively analyzed and the prevalence ratios, confidence intervals and unconditional multiple logistic regression were calculated. The prevalence of orofacial pain was 32.2% and the oral impact on daily performance was 28.5%. The regression model indicated that orofacial pain was the only variable statistically associated with the oral impact on daily performance, increasing its prevalence by more than 22 times, compared to those without orofacial pain. It was concluded that the prevalence of orofacial pain was high among workers, representing a decisive factor on the oral impact on daily performance.

Josimari Telino de, Lacerda; Juliana Demétrio, Ribeiro; Dayane Machado, Ribeiro; Jefferson, Traebert.

2011-10-01

126

75 FR 34173 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance  

Science.gov (United States)

...workers' firm is a Supplier or Downstream Producer...workers' firm is a supplier and the component parts...Global Safety Textiles, Automotive Safety Division of International...Section 222(c) (supplier to a firm whose workers...that the eligibility criteria for worker...

2010-06-16

127

Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers  

OpenAIRE

Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depre...

Boyd, Rhonda C.; Marjie Mogul; Deena Newman; Coyne, James C.

2011-01-01

128

The Commoditization of Chinese Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

Gates, Hill

1989-01-01

129

Health workers' views on quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and postnatal care for HIV-infected women and their children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been considered as not a simple intervention but a comprehensive set of interventions requiring capable health workers. Viet Nam's extensive health care system reaches the village level, but still HIV-infected mothers and children have received inadequate health care services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We report here the health workers' perceptions on factors that lead to their failure to give good quality prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. Methods Semistructured interviews with 53 health workers and unstructured observations in nine health facilities in Hanoi were conducted. Selection of respondents was based on their function, position and experience in the development or implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission policies/programmes. Results Factors that lead to health workers' failure to give good quality services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission include their own fear of HIV infection; lack of knowledge on HIV and counselling skills; or high workloads and lack of staff; unavailability of HIV testing at commune level; shortage of antiretroviral drugs; and lack of operational guidelines. A negative attitude during counselling and provision of care, treating in a separate area and avoidance of providing service at all were seen by health workers as the result of fear of being infected, as well as distrust towards almost all HIV-infected patients because of the prevailing association with antisocial behaviours. Additionally, the fragmentation of the health care system into specialized vertical pillars, including a vertical programme for HIV/AIDS, is a major obstacle to providing a continuum of care. Conclusion Many hospital staff were not being able to provide good care or were even unwilling to provide appropriate care for HIV-positive pregnant women The study suggests that the quality of prevention of mother-to-child transmission service could be enhanced by improving communication and other skills of health workers, providing them with greater support and enhancing their motivation. Reduction of workload would also be important. Development of a practical strategy is needed to strengthen and adapt the referral system to meet the needs of patients.

Hardon Anita

2009-05-01

130

Learning with a Website for the Textile Industry in Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a locally initiated investigation into the suitability of the Internet in helping to meet the information needs of women in small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the textile industry in Botswana. The background is the stated government policy to encourage the development of SMMEs and the Internet infrastructure. The…

Mbambo, Buhle; Cronje, Johannes C.

2007-01-01

131

Textile dye dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature concerning textile dye dermatitis published during the last decade was reviewed. Sixty-one cases of dye-allergic contact dermatitis in which the presentation or course of the dermatitis was unusual or the dye allergen was one not previously reported have been described. The four new dye allergens discovered were Disperse Blue 106, Disperse Blue 85, Disperse Brown 1, and Basic Red 46. The incidence of dye dermatitis varied from 1% to 15.9% depending on the country, patient sample, and number of dyes in the patch test series. The 10 new dye allergens discovered in these studies were Disperse Blue 153, Disperse Orange 13, Basic Black 1, Basic Brown 1, the acid dyes Supramine Yellow and Supramine Red, the direct dye Diazol Orange, the basic dye Brilliant Green, Turquoise Reactive, and Neutrichrome Red. Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 were shown to be the strongest clothing dye sensitizers to date. Standard screening patch test series were found to be inadequate for the detection of textile dye sensitivity; therefore textile dye patch test series should be used. It is difficult to determine whether the incidence of dye dermatitis is increasing or decreasing because controlled epidemiologic studies are lacking, but data suggest that textile dye sensitivity is more common than previously believed. PMID:7896955

Hatch, K L; Maibach, H I

1995-04-01

132

Growing Backyard Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

Nelson, Eleanor Hall

1975-01-01

133

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT  

OpenAIRE

The problem of women‘s development, therefore calls for sincere and dedicated efforts from the whole society, planners, administrators, philanthropists, social and educational workers. All the governmental and non-governmental organizations and developmental agencies need to work towards the development of women.Development of women is directly and indirectly related to national development. The effective management and development of women such as abilities, skills and other potentialities...

GLADYS LILY

2012-01-01

134

Novel antimicrobial textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer (SAP) by copolymerization of hydantoin containing monomer and acrylic acid and coating of SAP onto filter fabrics, and (9) use of a hindered amine compound to treat fabrics for use as air filters. Some treated samples were subjected to laundry testing and aging testing for evaluating their durabilities. Bacterial testing was performed to determine the antimicrobial efficacies of the samples. The results demonstrated that many of the treated samples exhibited promising antibacterial effectiveness.

Cho, Unchin

2003-10-01

135

Las mujeres y los movimientos de defensa laboral entre México y Estados Unidos: un análisis de su influencia en comunidades no fronterizas / Women and Workers' Rights Movements between Mexico and the United States: An Analysis of their Influence on Non-Border Communities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde la década de los sesenta, cientos de fábricas ensambladoras se instalaron en la frontera norte de México con Estados Unidos. En la última década, miles de estas empresas conocidas como maquiladoras extendieron su presencia más allá de la frontera y se ubicaron en varias ciudades del país; lo q [...] ue expandió el área de acción de las organizaciones trasnacionales y nacionales de defensa laboral que habían actuado en la frontera. El propósito de este artículo es analizar la influencia de dichas formas de organización trasnacional y nacional de defensa laboral en comunidades alejadas de la frontera norte de México, lugar en donde se originaron las primeras formas de organización de defensa para las trabajadoras de la maquila, como lo ilustra el caso de las obreras de la empresa textil Kukdong -hoy Mexmode- en la ciudad de Atlixco, Puebla, al sur del país. Estas mujeres contaron con el apoyo de redes trasnacionales y nacionales de defensa laboral para mejorar sus condiciones de trabajo y conformar un sindicato independiente, lo que les permitió reconocer su potencial como gestoras de derechos laborales. Se parte del supuesto según el cual la participación política de las mujeres es indispensable en la construcción social de sus derechos laborales y que la presencia de organizaciones no gubernamentales ha sido un paso definitivo para generar su acción. Para ello se analiza el conflicto de la planta Kukdong mediante revisión hemerográfica, documentos internos de organizaciones y foros en los que participaron las mujeres. En un primer momento fue clara la importancia de las ONG, pero, al paso del tiempo, las mujeres tuvieron que enfrentar la ausencia de estas organizaciones en la continuación de sus luchas. Lo que muestra los límites de este tipo de organizaciones en proyectos de organización política de mayor alcance. Abstract in english Since the decade of the 1960s, hundreds of assembling factories have been installed on Mexico's northern border with United States. In the last decade, thousands of these businesses known as bonded assembly plants extended their presence beyond the border and they were located in several cities of t [...] he country (De la O, 2002), which expanded the area of action of both national and transnational organizations of labor defense that had acted along the border. The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of these forms of national and transnational labor defense organization in communities located far away from the northern border of Mexico (where the first defense organizations for maquiladora workers originated) as illustrated by of the case of female workers at the Kukdong -today Mexmode- textile company in the city of Atlixco, Puebla in the south of the country. These women enjoyed the support of national and transnational networks of labor defense to improve their working conditions and to create an independent union, which permitted them to recognize their potential as managers of labor rights. It is assumed that the political participation of women is indispensable in the social construction of their labor rights and that the presence of NGOs has been a definitive step in generating their action. It discusses the conflict in the Kukdong plant by review of library records, internal documents of organizations and forums in which women participated. At first, the importance of NGOs was clear, but, over time, women had to cope with the absence of these organizations in continuing their struggles. This shows the boundaries of such organizations in more far-reaching projects of political organization.

María Eugenia de la O, Martínez.

2008-06-01

136

Unravelling women’s stories of health :Female workers’ experiences of work, gender roles and empowerment relating to health in Katunyake export-processing zone, Sri Lanka  

OpenAIRE

The impact of globalization processes on women, such as the new economic division of labour and relocation of global production into Third World countries, is a frequently debated topic within the globalization and gender discourse. The opportunities for formal work for young women in export-processing industries and they have been able to earn an income and to contribute economically to the survival of their poor families are the main positive impacts of globalization. Further, they are able...

Attanapola, Chamila Thushari

2005-01-01

137

Unravelling women’s stories of health : Female workers’ experiences of work, gender roles and empowerment relating to health in Katunyake export-processing zone, Sri Lanka  

OpenAIRE

The impact of globalization processes on women, such as the new economic division of labour and relocation of global production into Third World countries, is a frequently debated topic within the globalization and gender discourse. The opportunities for formal work for young women in export-processing industries and they have been able to earn an income and to contribute economically to the survival of their poor families are the main positive impacts of globalization. Further, they are able...

Attanapola, Chamila Thushari

2005-01-01

138

Learning with a website for the textile industry in Botswana  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports on a locally initiated investigation into the suitability of the Internet in helping to meet the information needs of women in small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the textile industry in Botswana. The background is the stated government policy to encourage the development of SMMEs and the Internet infrastructure. The question is, how likely are women entrepreneurs to use a website as a resource? We considered two barriers to the use of technology by ...

Mbambo, Buhle; Cronje, Johannes C.

2007-01-01

139

Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE). MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhador [...] es de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, condições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação), com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05) nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008), deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they [...] were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores) RESULTS: No significant differences (p

Ricardo Jorge, Metzner; Frida Marina, Fischer; Diogo Pupo, Nogueira.

2008-12-01

140

Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years) In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs) of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility we...

Prabir Kumar Manna; Debasis De; Debidas Ghosh

2012-01-01

141

A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras Breastfeeding among children of women workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Piracicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno.OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil. Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify variables related to weaning in the fourth month of life. RES

Aline Alves Brasileiro

2012-08-01

142

Textiles gain intelligence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The term ‘smart dresser’ could soon acquire a new meaning. An unlikely alliance between textile manufacturers, materials scientists, and computer engineers has resulted in some truly clever clothing1–4. From self-illuminating handbag interiors to a gym kit that monitors workout intensity, the prototypes just keep coming. But researchers have yet to answer the million-dollar question, perhaps critical to consumer acceptance, will they go in the wash?

Paula Gould

2003-10-01

143

Fixed textile shutters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with multifunctional properties, formed by the interwoven threads of a vigorous fixed formwork textile material (basalt, linen, silica and other glass yarns adhered by binding material. The innovative construction technology of production and installation of a new generation of textstone buildings has been registered as a brand TextStone. The fundamental difference between texstone and reinforced concrete and all known building materials is that the whole outer surface of solidified light binders is protected by strong, vigorous and fixed formwork made from inexpensive textile materials. Manufacturing textile shells allows using it as an internal finishing material, reducing or eliminating the cost of finishing work.The use of fixed textile construction shutters during the construction of buildings has obvious technical, economic, operational, sanitary and environmental benefits: short construction time (from 3 to 10 days, compact packaging and light weight of fabric shells, high fire resistance, frost resistance, ease of engineering services installation in the hollow communicating shells; minimal amount of finishing, roofing, heat and noise insulation works. Texstone is a durable solid monolithic construction that provides high viability and earthquakes, hurricanes wind, solar sultriness and frost resistance. Material complies with all sanitary and environmental requirements. Due to such physical, mechanical, operational, sanitary and ecological characteristics of the structure, long life and reduced assembly time textstone has great prospects for development and application in the future.

K.A. Chernova

2010-06-01

144

Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women: a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ?18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4% were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return; 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez. All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9% were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8% had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first intervention to attempt to simultaneously reduce injection and sexual risk behaviors among FSW-IDUs. The factorial design will permit analysis to determine whether the combination of the two interactive interventions and/or its respective components are effective in reducing injection and/or sexual risks, which will have direct, tangible policy implications for Mexico and potentially other resource-poor countries. Trial registration NCT00840658

Vera Alicia

2012-08-01

145

Physical tools for textile creativity and invention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts. The first research project (completed) concerns how textile designers use new responsive materials and technologies, whereas the second (ongoing) concerns how architects and design engineers can use textile materials. In both projects, the developed inspirational tool is tested through workshops with the mentioned stakeholders. In these workshops, new ways of disseminating the results from research in textiles and textile design are experimented with. The submitted contribution therefore mainly addresses the role of interdisciplinarity in textile design research as well as the impact of new materials and technologies on directions and approaches in textile design research. It presents one example of what textile design research is.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

2010-01-01

146

Integrating Literacy and Workplace Skills for Worker Advancement. Worker Education Program Final Report, May 1, 1992 - March 31, 1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

Final evaluation of the Workplace Education Program, funded by the National Workplace Literacy Program to provide workplace literacy education programs to 425 members of Chicago (Illinois) area clothing and textile workers union members, is presented. The program's goal was to enhance workers' basic literacy skills for present job stabilization…

Boyter-Escalona, Margaret

147

Risk Points of Flame Retardant Textiles by Halogen and Halogen-Free Laminating Film  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was to develop the flame retardant (FR protective clothing which had multifunction such anti-bacterial, UV cut, FR function with water repellent and water vapor permeable laminating textiles for industrial workers. First of all, the FR yarn and FR textiles were developed for this purpose. Second, the comparison analysis between the halogen laminating textiles and halogen-free laminating textiles were tested to figure out the eco-friendly laminating method. Third, the flame retardant ability was compared the halogen laminated textiles to halogen-free laminated textiles. LOI, UV protection ratio, antibiosis after 50 laundry test, water proof pressure, and moisture permeability of developed textiles were tested. GC-HR-TOF-MS was used for analysis of laminating film (halogen and halogen-free. 4.1 wt% TiO2 yarn showed antibacterial function (Pneumococcus & Staphylococcus aureus: 99.9%, UV Protection (UVA: 90.8, UVB: 92.1, and LOI (33.6. The chosen optimal compounding ratio for PU compound of HRF and HFFR were as followed: PU resin 58.3%, DMF (Dimethyl formamide, ? = 12.2 8.3%, MEK (Methylethylketone 8.3% and FR (flame retardants 25.0%. Binder for laminating should not be included over 10% of FRs because of adhesion between textiles and FR laminating film. There were detected phosphorus compounds in the textiles treated by halogenated type flame retardants and halogenated-free type flame retardants. There were not any detected harmful compounds from all textile samples.

Yoon Jeong Baek

2014-09-01

148

"Lamyai" teaches young Thai women about AIDS and STDs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The young women 13-21 years of age who migrate in large numbers from villages in Northern Thailand to obtain employment in urban factories comprise a group at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To encourage these women to protect themselves from infection, workplace projects were developed in textile factories in Chiang Mai. Pre-project research conducted among 250 female factory workers revealed good awareness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) coupled with a perception of personal invulnerability and a reluctance to request that partners use condoms due to fears of being considered promiscuous. To address these issues, a romantic illustrated novel about a factory worker who is infected with the AIDS virus by her fiance and a humorous comic book featuring "Brother Protector Condom" were prepared. The materials were introduced to groups of 10 or more women led by either trained peer educators or health promoters. Participants overcame initial shyness about the explicit pictures and reported the group meetings gave them confidence to talk to their sexual partners about condom use. Post-intervention evaluation showed that peer-led groups were most effective in improving self-esteem, communication skills, and commitment to AIDS prevention. Although the health promoters had more in-depth knowledge of AIDS and human reproduction, they tended to lecture rather than facilitate discussion. Moreover, the age and educational differences between the factory workers and health promoters impeded the trust and open discussion that developed in peer-led groups. PMID:12287664

Cash, K; Anasuchatkul, B; Busayawong, W

1994-01-01

149

Research of archaeological and historical textiles.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2013. s. 22. ISBN 978-80-7372-989-9. [Textile Science /8./. 23.09.2013-25.09.2013, Liberec] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological textiles * historical textiles * textile technology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

B?ezinová, Helena; Bravermanová, M.

150

sector textil español  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De la situación crítica que actualmente viven los denominados sectores manufactureros tradicionales surgen importantes interrogantes en torno a sus posibilidades de supervivencia. El objetivo de este artículo será analizar la nueva situación a la que se enfrentan las empresas de estos sectores para proponer posibles alternativas estratégicas que permitan hacer frente a esta situación adversa. Nuestra propuesta surge a partir de un estudio empírico realizado sobre una muestra de 201 empresas pertenecientes al sector textil; uno de los principales sectores afectado por las nuevas condiciones del entorno global

Jos\\u00E9 Pla Barber

2007-01-01

151

Multispectral Textile Analysis  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes how the use of a patented camera from Videometer A/S, can be the foundation for a range of quality control measures on textiles. An algorithm for segmenting the threads from denim will be tested on different fabrics, where abrasion and backstaining will be measured and compared to proven measuring methods done with a chromameter. New features for denim will also be presented such as speckle and graininess, which will give an objective measure of the global contrast in th...

Petersen, Anders

2008-01-01

152

Applying NISHIJIN historical textile technique for e-Textile.  

Science.gov (United States)

The e-Textile is the key technology for continuous ambient health monitoring to increase quality of life of patients with chronic diseases. The authors introduce techniques of Japanese historical textile, NISHIJIN, which illustrate almost any pattern from one continuous yarn within the machine weaving process, which is suitable for mixed flow production. Thus, NISHIJIN is suitable for e-Textile production, which requires rapid prototyping and mass production of very complicated patterns. The authors prototyped and evaluated a few vests to take twelve-lead electrocardiogram. The result tells that the prototypes obtains electrocardiogram, which is good enough for diagnosis. PMID:24109915

Kuroda, Tomohiro; Hirano, Kikuo; Sugimura, Kazushige; Adachi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Hidetsugu; Ueshima, Kazuo; Nakamura, Hideo; Nambu, Masayuki; Doi, Takahiro

2013-01-01

153

Textiles of the Phu Thai of Laos  

OpenAIRE

This thesis documents the hand-woven textiles that the Phu Thai ethnic group living in Savannakhet Province, Laos, produce. The various stages of textile production and the uses of textiles in Phu Thai society, especially as identity markers, are also examined. Textiles of neighboring groups are also investigated to how knowledge of textile technology, types, and aesthetics are transferred between the Phu Thai and other ethnicities, specifically the Lao and Katang. The study's field research ...

Mcintosh, Linda Susan

2009-01-01

154

Lover, mother or worker : women's multiple roles and the HIV/AIDS and reproductive health agenda in Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

International and national campaigns to prevent HIV/AIDS and efforts to promote reproductive health remain separate in terms of conceptualisation and implementation. Local negotiations around reproductive health issues similarly seem to lack explicit attention to HIV/AIDS. This paper argues that even in reproductive health clinics a gap exists between the extent of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and AIDS talk. There also appears to be a mismatch between collective knowledge of the behavioural and biomedical context of HIV/AIDS and the socio-economic context of AIDS as a lived experience. Using an ethnographic account, I explore how one woman's lived experience and her knowledge of AIDS can teach us to take HIV/AIDS into account when theorising, promoting or providing services for improving African women's reproductive health. The background for this ethnography comes from data collected during 25 months of fieldwork at 10 maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) clinic sites in the Morogoro, Ruvuma and Kilimanjaro regions of Tanzania. Rehema's story shows that AIDS, like other diseases, is significantly linked to host-susceptibility and economic vulnerability. Separate and competing vertical programmes on AIDS and MCH/FP, as commonly encountered throughout Africa, cannot meet the needs of women in countries like Tanzania. Yet, we still hear most often of abstinence, anti-retrovirals and condom use as the primary focus of HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention in Africa.

Richey, Lisa Ann

2005-01-01

155

Disruptores endocrinos utilizados en la industria textil-confección en España / Endocrine disruptors used in textile industry in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del [...] textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39). Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias. Abstract in english Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk preventi [...] on in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organizations agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39). Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.

Rafael, Gadea; Laura, Mundemurra; Tatiana, Santos; Ruth, Jiménez; Ana M., García.

2009-03-01

156

Competition, group identity, and social networks in the workplace: Evidence from a Chinese textile firm  

OpenAIRE

Using data on team assignment and weekly output for all weavers in an urban Chinese textile firm between April 2003 and March 2004, this paper studies a) how randomly assigned teammates affect an individual worker's behavior under a tournament-style incentive scheme, and b) how such effects interact with exogenously formed social networks in the manufacturing workplace. First, we find that a worker's performance improves when the average ability of her teammates increases. Second, we exploit ...

Kato, Takao; Shu, Pian

2011-01-01

157

Mulheres, migrantes, trabalhadoras: a segregação no mercado de trabalho / Women, migrants, workers: segregation in the labor market  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho, ancorado em uma pesquisa desenvolvida no âmbito do Centro Scalabriniano de Estudos Migratórios, analisa a experiência vivida por mulheres migrantes em diversos países centrando a reflexão na dimensão do trabalho no contexto do processo migratório internacional. Tomando como pont [...] o de partida a perspectiva das próprias protagonistas - paraguaias no Brasil, brasileiras nos Estados Unidos, haitianas na República Dominicana, colombianas no Equador, filipinas na Itália e nicaraguenses na Costa Rica -, busca-se identificar dificuldades enfrentadas no que refere à vida profissional dessas mulheres. Parte-se do entendimento de que a migração pode ser vista como uma alternativa para escapar de situações de pobreza e exclusão do mercado de trabalho no país de origem. A pesquisa aponta a existência de segregação no mercado de trabalho. Abstract in english The present work, anchored on a research developed at CSEM, analyzes the lived experience of migrant women in several countries, focusing on the labor dimension in the context of the international migration process. Taking as a starting point the perspective of the protagonists themselves - Paraguay [...] ans in Brazil, Brazilians in the United States, Haitians in the Dominican Republic, Colombians in Ecuador, Filipinas in Italy, and Nicaraguans in Costa Rica -, the paper strives to identify difficulties related to the professional lives of these women. It is assumed that migration can be seen as an alternative to escape situations of poverty and exclusion in the labor market in their country of origin. The research indicates the existence of segregation in the labor market.

Delia, Dutra.

2013-06-01

158

Patterns of Change: Transitions in Hmong Textile Language  

OpenAIRE

In traditional Hmong life, women produced complex textiles as markers of clan identity and cultural values. Paj ntaub (flower cloth), created by embroidery, appliqué, reverse appliqué, and indigo batik (among the Blue or Green Hmong), were primary transmitters of Hmong culture from one generation to the next over centuries. Clothing, funeral and courtship cloths, baby carriers and hats were designed with traditionally geometric, abstract patterns Hmong could understand as a shared visual la...

Geraldine Craig

2010-01-01

159

Cyborgs and Knowledge Workers? Gendered Constructions of Workers in Vocational Education and Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussions of knowledge workers are gender blind and ignore or devalue women's work. A more useful conception of the worker as cyborg illuminates questions of ownership of skills and knowledge and the blurring of boundaries between humans and technologies. (SK)

Connole, Helen

1996-01-01

160

Nanotechnology in Fibres and Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are considered tobe the key technology for the recent era. Efforts are beingworldwide to create smart and intelligent textiles byincorporating various nano particles or by creatingnanostructured surfaces and nanofibres which lead tounprecedented level of textile performance such as stainresistant, self cleaning, antistatic, UV protective and variouschemical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paperis to examine the implications of nanotechnology for the fibreand textile industries in the world. The basics and impacts ofnanotechnology are discussed in terms of various advancedproducts by different manufactured along with the properties ofthe products. With an appreciation of what nanotechnologies areemerging globally in the fibre and textile areas, the localindustry will have the necessary background to ask the rightquestions and make informed decisions.

Mr. Subhankar Maity

2013-11-01

161

Antimicrobial Agents Used on Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

The featured molecules of this month come from the article "Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles" by Gang Sun and S. Dave Worley on the history and chemistry of biocidal textiles for use in the health care industry. All of these molecules can be bound to cellulose in a fabric through chemical modification, illustrating yet again the importance of such polymer-bound substrates in a wide-range of chemistries.

162

THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of producti...

PRUNEA ANA

2014-01-01

163

Narrative: Textiles Transmission and Translations  

OpenAIRE

Textile Transmissions and Translations is a research project that will take advantage of the ability of fabric to impart meaning through material and electronic languages, by combining a creative approach to the textile arts with technical innovations in circuitry and wireless transmissions; exploring ubiquitous computing, mobility and interactivity through the introduction of electronic devices into fabric structures; creating animated displays on the surface of cloth, in order to extend the...

Jefferies, Janis K.

2007-01-01

164

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TEXTILE DYES: A BIOREMEDIAL ASPECT OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Presence of huge amount of salts in the wastewater of textile dyeing industry is one of the major limiting factors in the development of an effective biotreatment system for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Large number of textile industries are located on the coastal areas due to ease of transport to the various places in world and help in building nations economy, but on the contrary the effluents released from these industries are proving a great problem for the marine life. Therefore, industrial effluents containing dyes must be treated before their safe discharge into the environment. There are various physiochemical methods are conventionally used. These methods are effective but quite expensive leading to the production of solid sludge. Bacterial spp. capable of thriving under high salt conditions could be employed for the treatment of saline dye-contaminated textile wastewaters. Most of the Scientists used chemical coagulation, Flocculation and Precipitation techniques for the removal of dye colors from waste waters. But this method is not cost beneficial as it generates huge amount of Sludge and to dispose the sludge is major problem. The physical methods are also not cost effective. So only biological treatment using acclimatized microorganisms could remove 99-100% dye colour from wastewater. Hence now a day most of the workers concentrated on biotransformation of textile azo dyes by adapted organisms. The use of co substrates also slightly increased the decolorization of dye solution. Some scientists showed that the products of dye degradation are not toxic to biological system. Products formed can be determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS technique, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR etc.

R. S. Shertate

2014-01-01

165

Supplement to the "Compendium of Occupational Profiles at the Skilled Blue- and White-collar Worker Level." Situations and Trends: Supply and Demand for Skilled Workers. CEDEFOP Panorama. Supplement.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the supply and demand for skilled workers in the following sectors throughout the member countries of the European Community: agriculture (including horticulture and forestry); food industry and trades; hotels, restaurants, and catering industry; tourism; transport; textile industry; textile clothing; leather; wood; building…

Sellin, Burkart

166

Profesionales de atención primaria de Madrid y violencia de pareja hacia la mujer en el año 2012 / Workers in Primary Health Care and Partner Violence Against Women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: La morbilidad asociada a la violencia de pareja hacia la mujer (VPHM) justifica que sus víctimas acudan reiteradamente a los centros de salud. La accesibilidad y continuidad asistencial hacen de la atención primaria (AP) el lugar idóneo para su detección y primer abordaje. Sin embargo, [...] los datos reflejan las dificultades de los/as profesionales para lograr este fin. El objetivo es analizar el nivel de conocimientos, opiniones, barreras organizativas percibidas y propuestas de mejora de los profesionales de AP. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo realizado mediante una encuesta anónima y autoadministrada durante los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2010, dirigida a todos/as profesionales de AP del área 8 de Madrid. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables y la chi² para comparar las respuestas obtenidas. Resultados: Tasa de respuesta 170 (21,4%). 118 (70,7%) profesionales creen que este es un problema importante y 154 (91,7%) que habitualmente pasa desapercibido. 91 (55,2%) conocen las obligaciones legales que tienen cuando la detectan. 73 (51,8%) piensan que existen barreras organizativas. Entre ellas: presión asistencial 50(29%), fa de formación específica 40(23,5%), desconocimiento del procedimiento a seguir 20(11,8%) y de las competencias de cada profesional 12(7%). Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos medio para todas las categorías profesionales estudiadas, excepto para trabajo social que es alto. Los/as profesionales de AP consideran que la VPHM es un problema importante que pasa desapercibido. La mitad de ellos/as conocen las obligaciones legales que conlleva la detección. Existen barreras organizativas y estereotipos. Abstract in english Background: Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Heh Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to [...] achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of primary care. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi² to compare the answers. Results: Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). Conclusions: All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.

Ana Belén, Arredondo-Provecho; Manuel, Broco-Barredo; Teresa, Alcalá-Ponce de León; Araceli, Rivera-Álvarez; Isabel, Jiménez Trujillo; Carmen, Gallardo-Pino.

2012-02-01

167

Profesionales de atención primaria de Madrid y violencia de pareja hacia la mujer en el año 2012 / Workers in Primary Health Care and Partner Violence Against Women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: La morbilidad asociada a la violencia de pareja hacia la mujer (VPHM) justifica que sus víctimas acudan reiteradamente a los centros de salud. La accesibilidad y continuidad asistencial hacen de la atención primaria (AP) el lugar idóneo para su detección y primer abordaje. Sin embargo, [...] los datos reflejan las dificultades de los/as profesionales para lograr este fin. El objetivo es analizar el nivel de conocimientos, opiniones, barreras organizativas percibidas y propuestas de mejora de los profesionales de AP. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo realizado mediante una encuesta anónima y autoadministrada durante los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2010, dirigida a todos/as profesionales de AP del área 8 de Madrid. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables y la chi² para comparar las respuestas obtenidas. Resultados: Tasa de respuesta 170 (21,4%). 118 (70,7%) profesionales creen que este es un problema importante y 154 (91,7%) que habitualmente pasa desapercibido. 91 (55,2%) conocen las obligaciones legales que tienen cuando la detectan. 73 (51,8%) piensan que existen barreras organizativas. Entre ellas: presión asistencial 50(29%), fa de formación específica 40(23,5%), desconocimiento del procedimiento a seguir 20(11,8%) y de las competencias de cada profesional 12(7%). Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos medio para todas las categorías profesionales estudiadas, excepto para trabajo social que es alto. Los/as profesionales de AP consideran que la VPHM es un problema importante que pasa desapercibido. La mitad de ellos/as conocen las obligaciones legales que conlleva la detección. Existen barreras organizativas y estereotipos. Abstract in english Background: Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Heh Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to [...] achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of primary care. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi² to compare the answers. Results: Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). Conclusions: All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.

Ana Belén, Arredondo-Provecho; Manuel, Broco-Barredo; Teresa, Alcalá-Ponce de León; Araceli, Rivera-Álvarez; Isabel, Jiménez Trujillo; Carmen, Gallardo-Pino.

2012-02-01

168

Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

169

A biological treatment technique for wool textile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A biological treatment technique for wool textile was carried out by enzymes degradation coupled with H2O2 oxidation. The results demonstrated that the technique had ideal effects on wool textile such as better softness, plump and less loss of bursting stress. Because of mild reaction conditions, le [...] ss textile damage and less environmental pollution, this technique for wool textile treatment could have promising prospect.

Yu, Xiao-Wei; Wen-Jun, Guan; Li, Yong-Quan; Guo, Ting-Jing; Zhou, Ji-Dong.

2005-09-01

170

Development of Textile Industrial Clusters in Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

This research investigates the textile industry clusters in Pakistan. A cross sectional data were collected from 30 textile industries by using simple random technique and data were analysis by using E-Views software. Structural questionnaire was the basic tool for measures the performance of textile clusters in Pakistan. It was revealed that the industry is in urgent need of financial and technological investments. However, according to recent official figures, the Pakistan textile industry ...

Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal; Shaikh, Faiz M.; Babak Mahmood; Kamran Shafiq

2010-01-01

171

Integral Textile Ceramic Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

A new paradigm for ceramic composite structural components enables functionality in heat exchange, transpiration, detailed shape, and thermal strain management that significantly exceeds the prior art. The paradigm is based on the use of three-dimensional fiber reinforcement that is tailored to the specific shape, stress, and thermal requirements of a structural application and therefore generally requires innovative textile methods for each realization. Key features include the attainment of thin skins (less than 1 mm) that are nevertheless structurally robust, transpiration holes formed without cutting fibers, double curvature, compliant integral attachment to other structures that avoids thermal stress buildup, and microcomposite ceramic matrices that minimize spalling and allow the formation of smooth surfaces. All these features can be combined into structures of very varied gross shape and function, using a wide range of materials such as all-oxide systems and SiC and carbon fibers in SiC matrices. Illustrations are drawn from rocket nozzles, thermal protection systems, and gas turbine engines. The new design challenges that arise for such material/structure systems are being met by specialized computational modeling that departs significantly in the representation of materials behavior from that used in conventional finite element methods.

Marshall, David B.; Cox, Brian N.

2008-08-01

172

Effect of dust exposure in Ontario cotton textile mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute effect of cotton dust on respiratory function was assessed. Respiratory questionnaires, preshift and postshift pulmonary function testing and air sampling were completed for 176 cotton textile workers and 33 controls. The results showed a dose-response relationship between vertical elutriator dust measurements and change in forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1) over the work shift. Dust levels of 0.2 mg/m3 or less were not associated with significant acute falls in FEV1. PMID:6827386

Holness, D L; Taraschuk, I G; Pelmear, P L

1983-01-01

173

Plasma treatment advantages for textiles  

CERN Document Server

The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

Sparavigna, Amelia

2008-01-01

174

Quem sente é a gente, mas é preciso relevar: a lombalgia na vida das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau - Santa Catarina One feels it but one must overlook it: low back pain in the life of women working in the textile sector of Blumenau - Santa Catarina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de compreender o enfrentamento da lombalgia no cotidiano de mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, Santa Catarina. Três mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil daquela cidade foram as informantes principais do estudo, desenvolvido em encontros quinzenais e visitas a locais de trabalho. Foram utilizados como ferramentas de estudo um calendário com data e dias da semana para a marcação de dores relativas à lombalgia e uma Escala Análogo Visual (EAV. Além de relatos anotados em formulários de acompanhamento dos encontros quinzenais, utilizou-se um diário de campo para transcrição de fatos e relatos. Os dados coletados levaram à construção de duas categorias interpretativas: a dor lombar sob o aspecto da normalidade e a dor sentida. Os resultados da pesquisa levam à conclusão de que a lombalgia, sob o ponto de vista das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, apresenta-se como uma espécie de conflito entre a dor normal, sem importância social, e a dor sentida e limitante, que traz sofrimentos e angústias no âmbito privado. A dualidade da lombalgia é marcante, pois são mulheres que têm dor, real para elas, com um impacto importante para suas vidas, mas elas mesmas esforçam-se por negligenciá-la, seguindo a concepção socialmente aceita para esta questão no contexto cultural da região. O conceito de lombalgia construído é de algo inerente à vida e ao trabalho, o que não permite o direito de estar doente.This study was developed with the objective of understanding how women working in the textile sector of Blumenau, state of Santa Catarina, cope with low back pain. Three women who worked in the textile sector of that city were the main informants of the study, developed in biweekly meetings and visits to workplaces. The study tools were a calendar with dates and week days, where the participants should mark the occurrence of low back pain, and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Besides accounts registered in forms during the meetings, a field diary for transcription of facts and accounts was used. The collected data led to the construction of two interpretative categories: low back pain under the aspect of normality and felt pain. In light of the results, it is possible to conclude that low back pain, in the point of view of the women from the textile sector of Blumenau, is expressed as a kind of conflict between normal pain, without social importance, and the felt pain, which is restrictive and brings suffering and anguish in the private scope. The duality of low back pain is outstanding, because these are women who feel pain, which is real for them and has an important impact on their lives, but they make an effort to neglect it, following the socially accepted conception for this issue in the region's cultural context. The constructed concept of low back pain is of something inherent in life and work, which does not give them the right to feel ill.

Karine Muniz Polizelli

2010-06-01

175

Electrical Conductivity in Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

2006-01-01

176

Os melhores empregados: a inserção e a formação da mão-de-obra feminina em fábricas têxteis mineiras no final do século XIX / "The best employees": the insertion and training of the female workforce in textile factories in Minas Gerais State in the late 19th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute o processo de inserção e formação da mãode-obra feminina na indústria têxtil em Minas Gerais no final do século XIX, tomando para análise a Companhia de Fiação e Tecidos Cedro e Cachoeira. Como ocorrido em muitas outras fábricas têxteis, as mulheres foram durante muito tempo o ma [...] ior conjunto de trabalhadores desta Cia. Trabalhando como fiandeiras e tecelãs, as operárias ingressavam, muitas vezes, ainda jovens, passando boa parte da vida dentro das fábricas, inseridas em um tipo de relação que lhes ensinava a serem operárias e, ao mesmo tempo, as educava enquanto mulheres, a partir de determinados valores culturais, dentre os quais se destaca a religiosidade. Nesse sentido busca-se aqui refletir sobre como esse processo se materializava no cotidiano das fábricas, os aspectos aí envolvidos e suas principais implicações para a vida das trabalhadoras. Abstract in english This paper discusses the process of insertion and training of the female workforce in the textile industry in Minas Gerais State in the late nineteenth century, and for this purpose the Company of Textiles and Spinning Cedro e Cachoeira will be analyzed. As also happened in many other textile factor [...] ies, women have been for a long time the largest group of employees of that Company. Working as spinners and weavers, the women often started working at a young age, spending much of their life inside the factories, being part of a relationship that taught them to be workers and at the same time, educated them from certain cultural values, being the religion a relevant issue in this context. In this sense, reflections will be searched in order to understand how this process occurred in the daily life of plants, the aspects involved and their main implications for the lives of workers.

Junia de Souza, Lima.

2011-06-01

177

The Textile Form of Sound  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex three-dimensional geometries of interfering spheres are created. Textiles are generally a very good sound dampening material. To dampen the sound most effective it should be placed where the sound energy is highest. To find these invisible spots of energy and to reveal the geometry of them, two experiments were carried out. One experiment was done in a laboratory with a sound measure instrument andtextiles arranged in different positions and shapes. Here the high energy spots were located. The other experiment is ongoing and is an investigation of how textiles can take the shape of the sound goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form.

Bendixen, Cecilie

178

EDIPTEX : Environmental assessment of textiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EDIPTEX project has three main deliverables. These are 1. Modelling of the lifecycle of six textile products and calculation of the connected environmental impact 2. Obtaining almost 500 textile unit processes following the EDIP unit process data format 3. Calculation of equivalency factors for a number of chemicals For each of the deliverables extensive documentation material exists, which is published in this report. In the EDIPTEX project, a number of lifecycle assessments (environmental assessments) were carried out on textile products. But an extensive and detailed lifecycle assessment case is not particularly information friendly - only to other lifecycle assessment experts and consultants. The Programme for Cleaner Products etc. has therefore supported a dissemination project "Information on EDIPTEX". In this dissemination project the six EDIPTEX environmental assessments were transformed into six leaflets which, on only four pages each and in a professional layout, outline the environmental profile of the six products. The six environmental assessments include: A T-shirt of 100% cotton /1/ A jogging suit of nylon microfibres with a cotton lining /2/ A work jacket of 65 per cent polyester and 35 per cent cotton /3/ A blouse of viscose, nylon and elastane /4/ A tablecloth of cotton /5/ A floor covering of nylon and polypropylene /6/ The present report informs in detail about methods and principles used in the environmental assessments of the six selected EDIPTEX textile products. The major part of the lifecycle is common for many textile products, e.g. energy production, production of raw materials (e.g. cultivation and harvesting cotton), certain production processes (such as dyeing polyester), washing and ironing in the use phase and incineration during disposal. Such basic data have been established during the EDIPTEX project. The EDIPTEX project has been based upon the nationally and internationally recognised environmental assessment method EDIP - "Environmental Design of Industrial Products". The project has obtained environmental data for several hundred processes "from cradle to grave" in the lifecycle of textiles. EDIPTEX environmental data and a PC tool provide the possibility for combining the lifecycle of a textile product from cradle to grave, process by process, on the computer screen through a modelling, and letting the computers calculate the equivalency impacts. EDIPTEX environmental data and the environmental assessments, which can be modelled on the basis of these data, thus represent a unique tool in connection with e.g. preparing and documenting lifecycle assessments and environmental declarations for goods. In connection with the project "Information on EDIPTEX" a leaflet has been prepared "EDIP environmental data for textiles - a survey" /7/, which gives an overview of the environmental data, so that others can use the data during environmental assessment of textiles. All data are now also available in the PC tool GaBi EDIP - the successor of the EDIP PC tool. For anumber of commonly occurring emissions (discharges) and for emissions which have been assessed in previous projects within EDIP, equivalency factors had already been established. But for a number emissions, no equivalency factors had been calculated. If these emissions were to be included in the calculations of the contribution of a product on the impact categories regarding toxicity, equivalency factors for the substances would have to be calculated, and they would have to be included in the PC tool. In the EDIPTEX case scenarios, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity for approx. 50 textile specific chemicals are used. Within the EDIPTEX project, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity have been calculated for approx. 35 different substances, which are part of the very often composite chemicals. Further, approx. 20 substances are assessed as unproblematic regarding ecotoxicity and human toxicity in discharges via wastewater treatment plants. Fate factors for the technosphere for the substances h

Laursen, SØren Ellebæk; Hansen, John

2007-01-01

179

Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.

Ramdayal

2013-05-01

180

Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.331-339, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2756

Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian

2013-05-01

181

Job Satisfaction and Work Values for Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of the reasons women give for working. Statistics show that two out of five workers will be women in 1980. Women noted reasons for working as financial, fulfillment of social needs, and achievement goals. (EK)

Blai, Boris, Jr.

1974-01-01

182

Workers' Page  

Science.gov (United States)

... Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation For ...

183

Forming and consolidation of textile composites  

OpenAIRE

Textile composite materials are of increasing interest not only in the automotive and aerospace industries, but also in other fields such as in the sporting and the marine sectors. However, textile composite materials are not always easy to form and consolidate, and defects such as voids, fibre displacements or wrinkling can inhibit the mechanical performance of the final component. Current tendencies in the textile composite industry focus on predicting such problems through the use of soft...

Garcia-gil, Rafael

2003-01-01

184

Corporate Social Responsibility In Textile Industry  

OpenAIRE

The concept of social responsibility is a fairly recent one in the business world. Awareness about the social responsibility of business organizations is rapidly on the rise and firms are also accepting this concept. The textile industry is no exception. Textile producing and trading firms are also realizing their responsibility towards the society and the environment. This article aims at analyzing the concept of social responsibility and the common ways in which textile firms try to fulfill...

Neha Gupta,

2012-01-01

185

Application of enzymes for textile fibres processing  

OpenAIRE

This review highlights the use of enzymes in the textile industry, covering both current commercial processes and research in this field. Amylases have been used for desizing since the middle of the last century. Enzymes used in detergent formulations have also been successfully used over the past 40 years. The application of cellulases for denim finishing and laccases for decolourization of textile effluents and textile bleaching are the most recent commercial advances. New developments rely...

Arau?jo, Rita; Casal, Margarida; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

2008-01-01

186

DESIGNING TIMELESS PATTERNS FOR INTERIOR TEXTILE INDUSTRIES  

OpenAIRE

This project was conducted in collaboration with a Helsinki based design studio, Saara Renvall Design. The task was to design patterns for interior textiles. This thesis describes about the processes that took place during creating the ideas for three different textile patterns. The whole thesis can be divided into two parts. The thesis first describes about a material research which was conducted to gather the information about textile patterns from different periods and ethnic groups. The...

Bashyal, Anita

2012-01-01

187

Changing Pattern in World Textile Trade  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to forecast the future trade patterns and to identify the determinants of exports of textile and clothing. We included top 18 leading exporting countries and zones from the textile and clothing sector. Those countries cover more than 70 percent of global exports and 60 percent of imports in textile and clothing sector. They cover 81 percent of the Gross World Product (GWP). To quantify the impacts of causal factors on imports and exports, we developed an econome...

Ayub, Mehar

2002-01-01

188

Biodegradation of Textile Dyes Using Fungal Isolates  

OpenAIRE

The textile industries produces considerably high amount of aquatic toxicity which is discharged directly into the environment before treated properly. The waste generation volume and load produced is hazardous in nature. Thus, this study explores the role of fungal biomass against pollution due to textiles dyes as degrading agent. This study will be beneficial for treating water effluent from textile industry and will decrease the pollution form environment with advanced technology for futur...

Ashish Chauhan; Bharti Mittu; Noorpreet Inder Kaur Dhanjal; Saurabh Gupta

2013-01-01

189

Ultrahydrophobic Textiles Using Nanoparticles: Lotus Approach  

OpenAIRE

It is well established that the water wettability of ma-terials is governed by both the chemical composition and the geometrical microstructure of the surface.1 Traditional textile wet processing treatments do in-deed rely fundamentally upon complete wetting out of a textile structure to achieve satisfactory perform-ance.2 However, the complexities introduced through the heterogeneous nature of the fiber surfaces, the nature of the fiber composition and the actual con-struction of the textile...

Karthik Ramaratnam, Ph D.; Swaminatha K Iyer, Ph D.; Kinnan, Mark K.; George Chumanov, Ph D.; Phillip J Brown, Ph D.; Igor Luminov, Ph D.

2008-01-01

190

STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation on the waste management, have determined the diversification and increasing the number and the capacity of recovery and disposal of waste in Romania. We found the most textile waste in Romania was deposited in deposits onto or into land, in the proportion of 18.51%. This proportion is under the EU average of 34.03%, but is much higher than in other European country. Also, has been an increase in the number of incinerators, in the last years. With all of this, the interest in textile waste management in Romania is far from being to the level of European, where are associations who dealing with the collection and recycling of textiles and is achieved a selective collection of textile waste in the points especially designed for this thing. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the EUROSTAT database and INSSE database analysis and by Internet.

TRIPA Simona

2014-05-01

191

Ultrahydrophobic Textiles Using Nanoparticles: Lotus Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well established that the water wettability of ma-terials is governed by both the chemical composition and the geometrical microstructure of the surface.1 Traditional textile wet processing treatments do in-deed rely fundamentally upon complete wetting out of a textile structure to achieve satisfactory perform-ance.2 However, the complexities introduced through the heterogeneous nature of the fiber surfaces, the nature of the fiber composition and the actual con-struction of the textile material create difficulties in attempting to predict the exact wettability of a par-ticular textile material. For many applications the ability of a finished fabric to exhibit water repellency (in other words low wettability is essential2 and po-tential applications of highly water repellent textile materials include rainwear, upholstery, protective clothing, sportswear, and automobile interior fabrics. Recent research indicates that such applications may benefit from a new generation of water repellent ma-terials that make use of the “lotus effect” to provide ultrahydrophobic textile materials.3,4 Ultrahydropho-bic surfaces are typically termed as the surfaces that show a water contact angle greater than 150°C with very low contact angle hysteresis.4 In the case of tex-tile materials, the level of hydrophobicity is often determined by measuring the static water contact angle only, since it is difficult to measure the contact angle hysteresis on a textile fabric because of the high levels of roughness inherent in textile structures.

Karthik Ramaratnam, Ph.D.

2008-12-01

192

Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace  

OpenAIRE

Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed st...

Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

2013-01-01

193

Plasma treatment advantages for textiles  

OpenAIRE

The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now exist...

Sparavigna, Amelia

2008-01-01

194

LACTOSE TO NATURALIZE TEXTILE DYES  

OpenAIRE

Many natural dyes, for example carminic acid, are soluble in water. We present a simple strategy to naturalize synthetic azadyes through their linkage with lactose to induce their water solubility. The dyeing process of textile fibres then becomes possible in water without additives such as surfactants and mordants, which result in products that are difficult to eliminate. Glyco-azadyes (GADs) we are presenting here are obtained through a diether linker to bond the azadye and the sugar. Tinct...

Jalal Isaad; Elena Frino; Giorgio Catelani; Roberto Bianchini; Massimo Rolla

2007-01-01

195

Textile forwork for concrete shell  

OpenAIRE

Fabric formwork is a new application for textile membranes that provides numerous advantages and new opportunities for architecture and engineering compared to well known traditional formworks. The installation of fabric formwork requires less manual labor and has reduced material, storage, and transportation costs. But the most significant advantage of fabric moulds is the form freedom and structural performance they offer to shell design. This paper presents the state of the art of t...

Adriaenssens, Sigrid; Termmerman, Niels; Laet, Lars; Guldentops, Laurent; Mollaert, Marijke

2009-01-01

196

THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of production and outsourcing strategies using the "diamond" model of M. Porter, we can say that is one of the viable solutions for gaining competitive advantages necessary for proper European companies to face competition from countries outside Europe. As developing countries do not meet certain environmental standards or norms of European law, but in terms of product innovation and development of new materials, they do not have the necessity for technology. We conducted an analysis of the factors that play a key role in the production of textiles, representing how they are used in the favor of European companies such investments to be supplemented can be found in how these factors act on the total costs.

PRUNEA ANA

2014-05-01

197

Na costura do sapato, o desmanche das operárias: estudo das condições de trabalho e saúde das pespontadeiras da indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil / Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo é fundamentado em pesquisa que teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre as condições de trabalho na indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil, e os problemas de saúde relatados pelas trabalhadoras especializadas na atividade de pesponto (costura mecânica). A pesquisa de car [...] áter qualitativo foi embasada teórica e metodologicamente no materialismo histórico-dialético e combinou técnicas de pesquisas sociológicas e etnográficas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevistas gravadas, focadas na história de vida e trabalho, na observação sistematizada do processo de trabalho, na consulta a documentos históricos e na produção imagética. A análise dos dados permitiu compreender os efeitos do trabalho na saúde das trabalhadoras empregadas nas fábricas e no domicílio, que vivenciam processos laborais precários que se objetivam na intensificação e ampliação da jornada de trabalho, na cobrança por metas de produção, na insegurança do emprego e nos ambientes de trabalho insalubres. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical mate [...] rialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

Taísa Junqueira, Prazeres; Vera Lucia, Navarro.

1930-19-01

198

Na costura do sapato, o desmanche das operárias: estudo das condições de trabalho e saúde das pespontadeiras da indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo é fundamentado em pesquisa que teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre as condições de trabalho na indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil, e os problemas de saúde relatados pelas trabalhadoras especializadas na atividade de pesponto (costura mecânica. A pesquisa de caráter qualitativo foi embasada teórica e metodologicamente no materialismo histórico-dialético e combinou técnicas de pesquisas sociológicas e etnográficas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevistas gravadas, focadas na história de vida e trabalho, na observação sistematizada do processo de trabalho, na consulta a documentos históricos e na produção imagética. A análise dos dados permitiu compreender os efeitos do trabalho na saúde das trabalhadoras empregadas nas fábricas e no domicílio, que vivenciam processos laborais precários que se objetivam na intensificação e ampliação da jornada de trabalho, na cobrança por metas de produção, na insegurança do emprego e nos ambientes de trabalho insalubres.This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

Taísa Junqueira Prazeres

2011-10-01

199

The Interaction of Noise Pollution and Blood Pressure in a Textile Factory in Ilam, Iran  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to assess the industrial noise pollution and its effects on the blood pressure of workers during activities in textile factory in Ilam,which is situated in west of Iran. A cross-sectional study was performed on a group included 81 workers and 30 people as sample and control group, respectively. A questionnaire was filled out and then the other measurements including the total sound pressure level, weight, height, pulse, blood pressure and all the rest of medic...

Parvin Nassiri; Ali Mohammad Abbasi

2009-01-01

200

Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness  

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Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility were recorded for both the groups before and after delivering awareness. Results: We found that the mean height of the respondents in control (C and experimental (E group before delivery of awareness were 150.64 cm and 150.36 cm and after deliberation of awareness these were 150.68 cm and 150.44 cm, respectively. A significant increase was observed in weight of the subjects of the experimental group after the nutritional awareness. The percentages of severe, moderate and mild degree of chronic energy deficiency were decreased after awareness in the experimental group and the percentages of low weight normal and normal women were increased. The hemoglobin level of the subjects under experimental group was also increased significantly. The percentages of severe and moderate degree of anemia were decreased after awareness given and the percentage of mild anemia was increased. The women with normal hemoglobin level were increased after awareness in the experimental group. The levels of blood pressure of the control and experimental group were not changed significantly. Subjects under experimental group improved their cooking practices, diet pattern, food hygiene, sanitation and ultimately decreased disease susceptibility. Conclusion: We found that nutritional awareness has a great impact on the nutritional status of the women particularly on weight and hemoglobin level. Mothers gladly learned the values of different local vegetables and pulses and incorporated there in their diet and improved their health status. They also improved food hygiene and sanitation and changed cooking practices.

Prabir Kumar Manna

2012-06-01

201

Análisis de la Morfología del Raquis Torácico y Lumbar en Mujeres Trabajadoras de una Cooperativa Hortofrutícola Analysis of the Thoracic and Lumbar Morphology in Women Workers froma Fruit and Vegetable Company  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la disposición angular del raquis torácico y lumbar en bipedestación y sedentación relajada en mujeres trabajadoras de una empresa hortofrutícola. Un total de 50 mujeres (media de edad: 43,62±8,43 años fueron evaluadas mediante un Spinal Mouse en bipedestación y en sedentación relajada. Los valores angulares medios para el raquis torácico y lumbar fueron de 32,74±8,76 y -21,66±19,12 en bipedestación y de 36,32±10,55 y -1,08±18,14, en sedentación. En bipedestación, un elevado porcentaje de casos (86% y 68,3% presentaban una cifosis torácica y lordosis lumbar dentro de los valores de normalidad. En sedentación, el 74% presentaban hipercifosis torácica y el 20% una inversión lumbar. En conclusión, aunque en bipedestación la mayoría de las mujeres presentaban una morfología del raquis dentro de los valores de normalidad, en sedentación se observó un elevado porcentaje de casos con hipercifosis torácica y el raquis lumbar en inversión. Debido a las consecuencias negativas que se asocian a dichas desalineaciones raquídeas, es recomendable aplicar programas de mejora de la actitud postural en estas trabajadoras, preferentemente en su contexto laboral.The aim of this study was to analyze the sagittal spinal morphology of thoracic and lumbar spine in standing and sitting in women workers from a cooperative in the production, handling and marketing business of vegetable and fruit products. A total of 50 women (mean age: 43.62±8.43 years old were evaluated. The Spinal Mouse system was used to mesasure the sagittal thoracic and lumbar curvatures in standing and relaxed sitting. The values for thoracic and lumbar curvatures were 32.74±8.76 and -21.66±19.12 in standing and 36.32±10.55 and -1.08±18.14 in sitting. A high frequency (86.0% and 68.3% of normal thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were found in standing posture. While sitting the 74.0% and 20.0% presented thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar kyphosis. In conclusion, a high percentaje of women workers presented normality values in standing posture, although a high percentage of women were found with thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar flexed while sitting relaxed. It is recommended that these women carry out a program to improve their actitudinal postures in their work place.

José María Muyor

2012-06-01

202

Calidad de vida profesional de trabajadoras de una escuela de estudiantes con discapacidades múltiples / Professional quality of life of women workers in a school for students with multiple disabilities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El propósito del siguiente estudio consistió en explorar la salud física, mental y calidad de vida en el trabajo de profesoras, profesionales y asistentes de educación que atienden a escolares con discapacidades múltiples. A través de un método cualitativo de estudio de caso, se entrevistaron a 15 t [...] rabajadoras de una escuela especial para niños con discapacidades múltiples. También se aplicó el Cuestionario de Salud General abreviado (GHQ-12), el Inventario de Burnout de Maslach (MBI) y el Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida Profesional (CVP-35). Los resultados de los cuestionarios indicaron que cerca de la mitad de las trabajadoras (40%) presentaron riesgo en su salud mental y cansancio emocional. Más de 90% poseía una baja despersonalización, alta realización personal y una buena calidad de vida global en el trabajo. Por otro lado, se percibe en las entrevistas cansancio físico, agresiones de parte de los escolares, lesiones musculares por fuerza mal realizada y sensación de existir una carga de trabajo mal distribuida que generan en las trabajadoras un malestar encubierto. El buen clima laboral y liderazgo participativo de parte de la dirección puede facilitar el desarrollo de una intervención efectiva que permita mejorar la calidad del trabajo y el estado de salud física de las trabajadoras. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to explore the physical and mental health, and quality of life among teachers, education professionals and paraprofessionals serving students with multiple disabilities. Using a qualitative case study-based approach, 15 women workers were interviewed in a school for chi [...] ldren with multiple disabilities. In addition, they completed the short version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ- 12), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Quality of Professional Life Questionnaire (CVP-35). Results indicated that about half of the workers (40%) presented an increased risk of poor mental health and emotional exhaustion. More than 90% had a low level of depersonalization, but high sense of personal accomplishment and a good overall quality of life at work. However, the interviews uncovered evidence of physical fatigue, aggression by pupils, musculoskeletal injury due to by sudden heavy lifting and sensation of a poorly distributed workload that generates undisclosed discomfort in the workers. The presence of a good working environment and participative leadership from upper management could conceivably facilitate the development of an effective intervention to improve the quality of work and physical health of women workers.

María Teresa, Muñoz Quezada; Boris Andrés, Lucero Mondaca.

2013-12-01

203

A study of complaints of fatigue by workers employed in Vietnamese factories with newly imported technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to study the actual situation of subjective fatigue among the Vietnamese workers in factories with newly imported technology. A cross-sectional study concerning working conditions and the fatigue complaints of 389 workers who are employed in 10 Vietnamese factories with newly imported technology, was conducted from August to September 1994. About 60% of the workers were satisfied with their current working conditions. Regarding occupational risks at the workplace, heat, dust and noise were identified as the three most dangerous risks. About 46% of the workers complained about the incompatibility of the machines and equipment they were using, which are too large for Vietnamese workers. One third of all workers felt that the work pace is too rapid. Seventeen percent of the workers considered their working conditions monotonous. Finally, among 150 female workers under 40 years old, 45 workers (30.0%) complained of irregularity of menstruation. Generally these problems were more common among workers in textile factories. The prevalence rate of subjective fatigue complaints was significantly increased after work in all 30 items. The fatigue level were substantially high among workers in textile factories. Female workers in this sector had a high prevalence rate of irregularity of menstruation. There were many problems observed in the Vietnamese factories with newly imported technology. Special consideration is required to improve the working conditions of female workers in the textile industry. Both the Vietnamese government and donor countries have to give special attention to the transfer of worker-friendly technology to Vietnam, in order to achieve sound economic development. PMID:9009497

Matsuda, S; Luong, N A; Hoai, N V; Thung, D H; Trinh, L V; Cong, N T; Hien, H M; Dat, P H; Tri, D D

1997-01-01

204

Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile

Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

2001-01-01

205

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

206

The importance of gender ideology and identity: the shift to factory production and its effect on work and wages in the English textile industries, 1760-1850  

OpenAIRE

Textile manufacture in England had always employed a high proportion of women and this continued to be the case during the period 1760-1850. However, these industries underwent dramatic changes in both the nature and location of production, and women’s employment opportunities altered. Whilst in some cases technological advances reduced the strength required to perform a given process, making women more attractive to employers, this was not always the case. Urbanisation and factory producti...

Minoletti, Paul; Humphries, Jane

2011-01-01

207

Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?  

Science.gov (United States)

Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

2001-01-01

208

Wastewater effluent characteristics from Moroccan textile industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this work were to carry out a complete characterization of textile wastewater, resulting from a textile unit located in the Marrakesh region. A physico-chemical characterization has been performed, focused on organic and toxicological aspects. The cladoceran Daphnia magna was used as the sensor organism and lethal concentration as a criterion to measure the toxicity of textile wastewater. The physico-chemical and toxicological status of a local textile effluent showed considerable values limitation, when compared to the European Union standard limit and Moroccan guide level and other studies. In view of those characteristics, the wastewater effluent from the textile industry should be considered to be treated before discharge to the environment. PMID:23787319

Mountassir, Y; Benyaich, A; Rezrazi, M; Berçot, P; Gebrati, L

2013-01-01

209

Older workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the population ages, there is increasing attention to the occupational health of older workers and the relationship between work and aging. There are both positive and negative factors that characterize differences between older and younger workers. Some of these are well documented, but many are based on stereotypes about competence, knowledge, and work capacity. Workers meet the demands of work through the use of a combination of resources, including physical, mental, and social capacities as well as motivation and experience. While older workers do have decreased physical capacities and somewhat slower mental processing, motivation and expertise can provide important balance. Factors that make advancing age into a handicap are mostly related to working conditions that impose constraints that outstrip actual human capabilities and work organization that denies employees growth in their jobs. PMID:10378975

Wegman, D H

1999-01-01

210

Organisational Pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of Academic and Non- Academic Women Workers in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

An approach to motivation in the contemporary world of work is the implementation of Quality-of-Worklife (QWL) programmes, which is aimed at easing the pressures faced at work by employees. Quality-of-Worklife is a relatively new concept in human resource management. It is a philosophy of improving productivity by providing workers with the opportunities required to put in their best at work, without jeopardizing their personal self improvement and responsibilities at home. This stud...

Mobolaji Ogunsanya; Adebisi Olorunfemi

2012-01-01

211

LACTOSE TO NATURALIZE TEXTILE DYES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many natural dyes, for example carminic acid, are soluble in water. We present a simple strategy to naturalize synthetic azadyes through their linkage with lactose to induce their water solubility. The dyeing process of textile fibres then becomes possible in water without additives such as surfactants and mordants, which result in products that are difficult to eliminate. Glyco-azadyes (GADs we are presenting here are obtained through a diether linker to bond the azadye and the sugar. Tinctorial tests were carried out with fabrics containing wool, polyester, cotton, nylon, and acetate. GADs were found to be multipurpose and capable of dyeing many fabrics efficiently under mild conditions.

Jalal Isaad

2007-11-01

212

Environmental and medical study of byssinosis and other respiratory conditions in the cotton textile industry in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted in a typical Egyptian textile plant located in Alexandria. Male workers from all operations (N . 506) were examined and their dust exposures were assessed. Results showed that airborne dust concentrations were very high and that the plant fraction is mostly concentrated in respirable dust. Byssinosis prevailed in 21% of workers in opening and cleaning sections and in 13% in carding and combing rooms, but was found in none of the workers in drawing, twisting, and spinning operations, in only 1.1% in weaving, and in 3.1% of workers in other ''auxiliary'' occupations. The rare prevalence of byssinosis among the latter workers groups was attributed to the workers continuous exposure without fixed weekend interruption, the personal and family history of exposure to cotton, the low proportion of plant materials in dust evolved in related operations, the fine quality of Egyptian cotton, and/or the population characteristics of Egyptian workers. Reduction in FEV 1.0 at the end of the first work shift after absence from work occured more often than byssinosis, which indicates the importance of this test for the early detection of effects of cotton dust exposure. It is suggested that a nationwide study in the cotton textile industry is indicated.

Noweir, M.H.; Noweir, K.H.; Osman, H.A.; Moselhi, M.

1984-01-01

213

Under the New Situation of the Textile Economy  

OpenAIRE

China's entry into the WTO, all the textiles with the formal abolition of restrictions on Chinese textile and garment industry entered the free trade era, the increasingly fierce international competition, but also brought unprecedented opportunities to the Chinese textile and apparel industry. China's textile and garment industry required in this particular under the new situation to meet the challenges and seize the opportunity to be successful. Under the new situation China's textile and g...

Wenzhuan Sun; Junying Tian

2009-01-01

214

Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant  

OpenAIRE

It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area wh...

Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, U.; Frei, K. M.; Gleba, M.; Scharff, A. B.; Skals, I.; Heinemeier, J.; -l Nosch, M.; Holst, B.

2012-01-01

215

NGO field workers in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

2009-06-01

216

Viewpoints About Potential Stimulation And Possibilities Of Investments On Textile Industry Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uzbek light industry, in particular, the textile sector is one of the strategically  important  and dynamic  sectors of  the national economy. Textile industry of Uzbekistan possesses high  ranks in the sectors directed to exportation, therefore it contains wide specter of export ranging from thread up to ready­made product (made of stockinet, sewing, silk and carpet cloth.  Contemporarily textile industry gains the fifth rank in the gross domestic product contribution and a third of all the workers in the field of industry is occupied in textile. Uzbek light industry still has significant untapped investment potential, all the conditions for  the further rapid growth. Necessary to  increase the production of  goods for  the domestic market to meet the growing needs of the population. This requires investment in  projects for  the production of finished cotton fabrics, blended fabrics, silk fabrics, garments and knitwear for  the establishment of mobile industries with mandatory formation in their composition structures, responsible for design, marketing, quick  changeovers production with fashion and demand.In the foreseeable future for the light industry remains a key role  in  the development  of  industrial  production  in  the country. Experts believe that more needs to  be done to develop the significant potential that lies in the light industry of the country.

Shakhrukh Madjidov

2013-09-01

217

Stretchable, porous, and conductive energy textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently there is strong interest in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronics to meet the technological demands of modern society. Integrated energy storage devices of this type are a key area that is still significantly underdeveloped. Here, we describe wearable power devices using everyday textiles as the platform. With an extremely simple "dipping and drying" process using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ink, we produced highly conductive textiles with conductivity of 125 S cm(-1) and sheet resistance less than 1 Omega/sq. Such conductive textiles show outstanding flexibility and stretchability and demonstrate strong adhesion between the SWNTs and the textiles of interest. Supercapacitors made from these conductive textiles show high areal capacitance, up to 0.48F/cm(2), and high specific energy. We demonstrate the loading of pseudocapacitor materials into these conductive textiles that leads to a 24-fold increase of the areal capacitance of the device. These highly conductive textiles can provide new design opportunities for wearable electronics and energy storage applications. PMID:20050691

Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Mantia, Fabio La; Cui, Lifeng; Jeong, Sangmoo; Deshazer, Heather Dawn; Choi, Jang Wook; Han, Seung Min; Cui, Yi

2010-02-10

218

Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development for women workers and the broader workers' movement.

BROADBENT, Kaye

2005-10-01

219

STRATEGIES FOR SHAOXING TEXTILE COMPANIES IN ECONOMIC CRISIS. CASE STUDY: BOLA TEXTILE COMPANY  

OpenAIRE

During the last decades, China witnesses the fastest growth in World’s economy, and has played the significant role, but in 2008, because of the global crisis, international market shrank dramatically. In this crisis, Shaoxing, located in the Yangtze River delta and the main area dealing with textile manufacturing and processing, got severe influence in the textile industry. Because of that, the recession on the international market results in the heavy burden to Shaoxing textile and garmen...

Hu, Qing

2010-01-01

220

Textile Architecture : How to Dress Buildings Up  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles to create human habitation is not new. As Diether S. Hope phrases it, referring to tents: The history of development of humanity would be barely conceivable without free spanning textile membrane structures.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

221

Indian textile industry: sea of potential opportunities  

OpenAIRE

India’s share of the global textile industry is expected to grow from 4% to 7% by 2011-12 and the share of apparel in the export basket is expected to increase from 48% to 60%. A Vision 2010 for textiles formulated by the government after exhaustive interaction with the industry and Export Promotion Councils to capitalize on the positive atmosphere aims to increase India's share in world's textile trade from the current 4% to 8% by 2010 and to achieve export value of US $ 50 billion in 201...

Nakkeeran, Senthilkumar; Pugalendhi, Subburethina Bharathi

2010-01-01

222

The lives of peasant and worker women and stories of documents in the central backwoods of Pernambuco / Vida de agricultoras e histórias de documentos no Sertão Central de Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O artigo enfoca como as mulheres agricultoras, ao terem acesso a direitos sociais, especialmente à Previdência Social, lidam com a normatização e a regulamentação dos processos de nascimento, envelhecimento e morte. O objetivo é analisar as dificuldades e as estratégias que as mulheres utilizam para [...] cumprirem as exigências legais de comprovação do trabalho na agricultura familiar através de documentos civis e profissionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde e Triunfo, situados no Sertão de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. A ausência de documentos é reveladora dos parâmetros de modernidade instaurados no país e deve ser entendida à luz das intersecções de gênero, classe, raça, etnia e critérios geopolíticos. Abstract in english The article focuses on how peasant and worker women deal with norms and rules about birth, ageing and death, in the process of getting access to social rights, especially to Social Security. Our aim is to analyze difficulties and strategies used by women in order to comply with the legal demands of [...] proof of work experience in family farming through civil and professional documents. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde and Triunfo, in the Pernambuco Sertão in Northeast Brazil. Informants' lack of documents is revealing of the ways in which the parameters of modernity have been established within the nation. Thus, we see that the issue is intrinsically related to gender, class, race, ethnicity and geopolitical criteria.

Rosineide de L. Meira, Cordeiro; Monique, Pfau.

223

Vida de agricultoras e histórias de documentos no Sertão Central de Pernambuco Lives of peasant and worker women and stories of documents in the South Central Sertão of Pernambuco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo enfoca como as mulheres agricultoras, ao terem acesso a direitos sociais, especialmente à Previdência Social, lidam com a normatização e a regulamentação dos processos de nascimento, envelhecimento e morte. O objetivo é analisar as dificuldades e as estratégias que as mulheres utilizam para cumprirem as exigências legais de comprovação do trabalho na agricultura familiar através de documentos civis e profissionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde e Triunfo, situados no Sertão de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. A ausência de documentos é reveladora dos parâmetros de modernidade instaurados no país e deve ser entendida à luz das intersecções de gênero, classe, raça, etnia e critérios geopolíticos.The article focuses on how peasant and worker women deal with norms and rules about birth, ageing and death, in the process of getting access to social rights, especially to Social Security. The aim is to analyze difficulties and strategies used by women in order to comply with the legal demands of proof of work experience in family farming by way of civil and professional documents. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde and Triunfo, in the Pernambuco Sertão in Northeast Brazil. The absence of documents reveals how parameters of modernity are installed in the nation, understanding them as necessarily related to gender, class, race, ethnicity and geopolitical criteria.

Rosineide de L. Meira Cordeiro

2007-08-01

224

Vida de agricultoras e histórias de documentos no Sertão Central de Pernambuco / Lives of peasant and worker women and stories of documents in the South Central Sertão of Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo enfoca como as mulheres agricultoras, ao terem acesso a direitos sociais, especialmente à Previdência Social, lidam com a normatização e a regulamentação dos processos de nascimento, envelhecimento e morte. O objetivo é analisar as dificuldades e as estratégias que as mulheres utilizam para [...] cumprirem as exigências legais de comprovação do trabalho na agricultura familiar através de documentos civis e profissionais. A pesquisa foi realizada nos municípios de Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde e Triunfo, situados no Sertão de Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. A ausência de documentos é reveladora dos parâmetros de modernidade instaurados no país e deve ser entendida à luz das intersecções de gênero, classe, raça, etnia e critérios geopolíticos. Abstract in english The article focuses on how peasant and worker women deal with norms and rules about birth, ageing and death, in the process of getting access to social rights, especially to Social Security. The aim is to analyze difficulties and strategies used by women in order to comply with the legal demands of [...] proof of work experience in family farming by way of civil and professional documents. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde and Triunfo, in the Pernambuco Sertão in Northeast Brazil. The absence of documents reveals how parameters of modernity are installed in the nation, understanding them as necessarily related to gender, class, race, ethnicity and geopolitical criteria.

Rosineide de L. Meira, Cordeiro.

2007-08-01

225

Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe. PMID:23024858

Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B

2012-01-01

226

Radiation-induced aftertreatment of textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques to improve the properties of textiles by graft polymerization of acrylic acid, metacrylic acid, etc. on natural and synthetic fibers by irradiation of electron beam or ? ray were developed and put into practical use. Such graft polymerization by irradiation is effective technique to give synthetic fibers hydrophilic property, heat-shrinkage resistance, dye affinity, static electricity prevention, combustion resistance, etc.. Irradiation is also applied for adhesion of nonwoven fabric, coating processing of textiles, and printing processing of fabrics. Thus, the processing of textiles by radiation, especially electron beam, is effective to give new properties to textiles, but its importance has been also recognized as energy saving and public nuisance-avoiding processes. A great deal of energy reduction can be expected by electron beam irradiation method. (Kobatake, H.)

227

Total design for textile products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Product development is less than 20-30 years old and a relatively new area of research compared to the other classic academic disciplines. Integrated product development is a philosophy that systematically employs the teaming of functional disciplines to integrate and concurrently apple all the necessary processes to produce an effective and efficient product that satisfies customer needs. Product development might also be understood as a multidisciplinary field of research. The disciplines directly participating in product development include engineering design, innovation, manufacturing, marketing and management. A background contribution is also generated by disciplines such as psychology, social sciences and information technology. This article is an overview that introduces this philosophy to textile product development.

Zafirova Koleta

2004-01-01

228

Electroflocculation for textile wastewater treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF) process for chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: curren [...] t density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum); and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.

A., Cerqueira; C., Russo; M. R. C., Marques.

2009-12-01

229

Innovation in the Canadian textile industry  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the innovation and business strategies of Canadian textile firms. The results show that the textile industry is in a state of decline due mainly to competitive pressures resulting from economic and regulatory changes. The results also show that while the industry recognizes the need for innovation, the current strategies and practices do not seem to be aligned to their strategic goals of fostering innovation.

Sona Kollarova; Ajax Persaud

2013-01-01

230

Search for benzidine and its metabolites in urine of workers weighing benzidine-derived dyes.  

OpenAIRE

Urinary benzidine and conjugates have been used to assess the extent of occupational exposure to benzidine-based azo dyes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of benzidine and its conjugates in the urine of workers exposed to benzidine-derived dyes. Urine samples were collected from 29 workers in three textile dyehouses, two tanneries, and two dyestuff quality control laboratories in West Yorkshire and Lancashire. In 200 samples, obtained over a period of 15 months an...

Meal, P. F.; Cocker, J.; Wilson, H. K.; Gilmour, J. M.

1981-01-01

231

A generic approach to haptic modeling of textile artifacts  

Science.gov (United States)

Haptic Modeling of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. In spite of extensive research, no generic system has been proposed. The previous work mainly assumes that textile has a 2D planar structure. They also require time-consuming measurement of textile properties in construction of the mechanical model. A novel approach for haptic modeling of textile is proposed to overcome the existing shortcomings. The method is generic, assumes a 3D structure for the textile, and deploys computational intelligence to estimate the mechanical properties of textile. The approach is designed primarily for display of textile artifacts in museums. The haptic model is constructed by superimposing the mechanical model of textile over its geometrical model. Digital image processing is applied to the still image of textile to identify its pattern and structure through a fuzzy rule-base algorithm. The 3D geometric model of the artifact is automatically generated in VRML based on the identified pattern and structure obtained from the textile image. Selected mechanical properties of the textile are estimated by an artificial neural network; deploying the textile geometric characteristics and yarn properties as inputs. The estimated mechanical properties are then deployed in the construction of the textile mechanical model. The proposed system is introduced and the developed algorithms are described. The validation of method indicates the feasibility of the approach and its superiority to other haptic modeling algorithms.

Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Wood Conroy, D.

2009-08-01

232

Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction workers are known to have occupational dermatoses. The prevalence of such dermatoses was unknown in Taiwanese construction workers. The objective of this study was to determine the work exposure, prevalence of skin manifestations, and sensitivity to common contact allergens in cement workers of southern Taiwan. A total of 1147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high % of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. A high % of dermatitis was noted in the 166 workers examined, which correlated with reported skin problems. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. Sensitivity to chromate or cobalt was associated with reported skin problems, or dorsal hand dermatitis on examination. These workers' dermatitis was under-diagnosed and inadequately managed. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Protective measures, work practice, and physician education should be improved to prevent or manage such problems. PMID:9928797

Guo, Y L; Wang, B J; Yeh, K C; Wang, J C; Kao, H H; Wang, M T; Shih, H C; Chen, C J

1999-01-01

233

Instruídas e trabalhadeiras trabalho feminino no final do século XX / Educated and earnest workers: women's work at the end of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Com base em informações oficiais do IBGE/Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, do MTE/Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego e do MEC/Ministério da Educação e Cultura, o texto mostra a consolidação do acesso das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho na década de noventa e sua manutenção no mercado in [...] formal e formal, apesar das crises econômicas da década. Com ênfase na escolaridade, o artigo revela que a escolaridade feminina supera a masculina a partir do 2º grau, as jovens concluem os cursos técnicos e profissionais, assim como o ensino médio, em maior número do que os rapazes e constituem cerca de 60% dos que cursam o superior. Contudo, as moças concentram-se em algumas áreas do conhecimento - artes, humanas, biológicas e saúde - que as qualificam para ocupar posteriormente, no mercado de trabalho, os chamados guetos profissionais femininos. Abstract in english Based on official data provided by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), by the Ministry of Labor and Employment, and by the Ministry of Education and Culture, this text shows the consolidation of women's access to the labor market during the 90's. It also shows that their pres [...] ence remained unchanged, both in the formal and in the informal market in spite of the economic crisis of that decade. Emphasizing the schooling level, the article reveals that after elementary school, girls tend to conclude technical and professional courses, as well as achieve high school degrees, in a higher number than boys. Young women account for 60% of college students. However, young girls concentrate their preference in some areas of knowledge such as Humanities, Social Sciences, Arts, Biological Sciences and Health. Therefore, they end up as skilled professionals in the so-called ghettos of female laborforce.

Cristina, Bruschini; Maria Rosa, Lombardi.

234

Submicrometre particle filtration with a dc activated plasma textile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma textiles are novel fabrics incorporating the advantages of cold plasma and low-cost non-woven or woven textile fabrics. In plasma textiles, electrodes are integrated into the fabric, and a corona discharge is activated within and on the surface of the fabric by applying high voltages above 10 kV between the electrodes. When the plasma textile is activated, submicrometre particles approaching the textile are charged by the deposition of ions and electrons produced by the corona, and then collected by the textile material. A stable plasma discharge was experimentally verified on the surface of the textile that was locally smooth but not rigid. A filtration efficiency close to 100% was observed in experiments conducted on salt particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 300 nm. Unlike conventional fibrous filters, the plasma textile provided uniform filtration in this range, without exhibiting a maximum particle penetration size. (paper)

235

The use of isotope techniques in the textile industy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General principles of the use of isotop systems are discussed with chances of their application in the textile industry. Detailed characteristics of isotop meters used in textile production are given. (MZ). (author)

236

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303...PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of...

2010-01-01

237

EUROPEAN REGULATIONS REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE TEXTILE PRODUCTS  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, I present an overview of important regulations regarding the environmental impact of the textile products on the level of European Union.There is always an environmental impact of the textile products, across the entire lifecycle. The most important environmental hazards from textiles are: use of chemicals, use of water, use of energy, generation of waste water contaminated with hazardous substances, hazardous and toxic waste generation.The textiles and clothing sector is an im...

Mariana Ratiu

2013-01-01

238

Research on Textile Enterprises to Broaden the Financing Channels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile industry exposes many problems under financing crisis: lack of innovation, extensive growth, etc. To solve these problems, the textile industry must achieve industrial upgrading and enhance the core competence. However, the shortage of capital has restricted the development of textile industry. The paper, referring to some scholars’ recommendations, discussed how to broaden financing channels to solve the current financing problems for textile enterprises.

Minfang Gao

2009-12-01

239

Optimum Conditions for the Synthesis of Dimethylol Urea Textile Fixer  

OpenAIRE

Being a major textile exporting country, Pakistan exports textile products and earns a lot of money. On the other hand it spends huge amount of foreign exchange on importing textile auxiliaries like dye intermediates, dye fixing agents, fluorescent brighteners etc. formaldehyde precondensates with amino compounds and this forms an important class of polymers like Phenol-formaldehyde, Melamine-formaldehyde etc. used largely and effectively in textile industry as dye fixing agents. At present D...

Fiyyaz Ahmad Chughtai; Khalid Pervez Bhatti; Muhammad Zuber; Sofia Nosheen

2003-01-01

240

49 CFR 178.520 - Standards for textile bags.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Standards for textile bags. 178.520 Section 178.520 Transportation...Standards § 178.520 Standards for textile bags. (a) The following are identification codes for textile bags: (1) 5L1 for an unlined or...

2010-10-01

241

Mortality in a cohort of tannery workers.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the mortality of a group of tannery workers. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 1244 workers (870 men and 374 women) employed at a chrome tannery between 1955 and 1988. A total of 36414 person-years of follow up was calculated (369 people had died). National and regional mortalities were used to estimate the expected numbers. RESULTS: All cause mortality was similar to that of the general population. The most remarkable excess was for bladder cancer (observed 10, standar...

Montanaro, F.; Ceppi, M.; Demers, P. A.; Puntoni, R.; Bonassi, S.

1997-01-01

242

Physical Tools for Creativity with Textile Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper seeks to develop a better understanding of how physical objects can stimulate creativity, studying the case of textile material samples employed to inspire textile designers to use new responsive materials and technologies in their designs. I show: 1) how physical objects can act both as triggers for idea generation and as solution proposals in a design process; 2) how the correlation between the developed idea and the relevant inspirational material can be of different kinds and 3) how the complexity and level of generic character of material samples influence their inspirational qualities. I finish with a brief presentation of an ongoing project investigating how architects can be inspired to use textile materials.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

2010-01-01

243

Wearable Textile Electrodes for ECG Measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG is one of the most important parameters for monitoring of the physiological state of a person. Currently available systems for ECG monitoring are both stationary and wearable, but the comfort of the monitored person is not at a satisfactory level because these systems are not part of standard clothing. This article is therefore devoted to the development and measurement of wearable textile electrodes for ECG measurement device with high comfort for the user. The electrode material is made of electrically conductive textile. This creates a textile composite that guarantees high comfort for the user while ensuring good quality of ECG measurements. The composite is implemented by a carrier (a T-shirt with flame retardant and sensing electrodes embroidered with yarn based on a mixture of polyester coated with silver nanoparticles and cotton. The electrodes not only provide great comfort but are also antibacterial and antiallergic due to silver nanoparticles.

Lukas Vojtech

2013-01-01

244

Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

Alica Grilec Kauri?

2009-12-01

245

Textiles and Costumes: Henry Art Gallery  

Science.gov (United States)

Costumes and Textiles is the first in a series of Digital Interactive Galleries (DIG) presented by the Henry Art Gallery at the University of Washington. These galleries are "experimental, web-based introductions to specific mediums, subjects, and issues in art and design, all illustrated with images of objects in the Henry's collection." The Costumes and Textiles series provides several ways to explore this area of museum collecting. For example, view images of garments worn for specific occasions, such as a strapless evening gown with a full skirt, designed by Norman Norell, seen in the pages of the February 1950 issue of Vogue magazine and once worn by Lauren Bacall. In the textile section, view examples by structure or by type of embellishment. Finally, explore the global connections of Henry Art Gallery objects using Google Earth.

246

A Classroom on the Mall: Indigenous Women and the Culture of Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

When rural women do not participate in relevant decision making, development projects risk diminished effectiveness and may increase already onerous workloads. Consisting of 139 Mapuche women textile artisans in Chile, the Casa de la Mujer Mapuche provides its members with income, role models, and a platform to express women's needs and…

Farmelo, Martha

1995-01-01

247

Radiation protection and the female worker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An influx of young women into industrial occupations has resulted in a reexamination of policy regarding fetal protection. Each of the Environmental Protection Agency's four alternatives, as listed in Federal Radiation Protection Guidance for Occupational Exposures, is examined and given a critique: voluntary limitation of radiation exposure to the unborn, voluntary sterilization by women, exclusion of child-bearing-age women from occupational tasks resulting in possible fetal exposure, and limiting the mandatory exposure limit for all workers. The author lists employers and women employees responsibilities in considering occupations with radiation risks. 1 reference

248

Protein interactions in enzymatic processes in textiles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Enzymes are the catalysts of all reactions in living systems. These reactions are catalysed in the active sites of globular proteins. The proteins are composed by amino acids with a variety of side chains ranging from non-polar aliphatic and aromatic to acidic, basic and neutral polar. This fact all [...] ows to a globular 3D protein to create in the active site all ranges of microenvironments for catalysis. Major advances in microbial technology and genetics allow recently the broad range of enzymatic applications in the industry. Enzymatic processes have been increasingly incorporated in textiles over the last years. Cotton, wool, flax or starches are natural materials used in textiles that can be processed with enzymes. Enzymes have been used for desizing, scouring, polishing, washing, degumming, peroxide degradation in bleaching baths as well as for decolourisation of dyehouse wastewaters, bleaching of released dyestuff and inhibiting dye transfer. Furthermore many new applications are under development such as natural and synthetic fibres modification, enzymatic dyeing, finishing etc. Most of the textile processes are heterogeneous where an auxiliary as a dye, enzyme, softener or oxidant have to be taken from the solution to the fibre. These processes require the presence of surface-active agents, ionic force "balancers", buffers, stabilisers and others, and are characterized with high turbulence and mechanical agitation in the textile baths. In this paper it is intended to understand and discuss the major protein interactions within textile processes and to try to anticipate troubleshooting possibilities when enzymes are used. It can be expected that an enzyme protein can interact with all chemical agents in solution due to the large variety of side chains of the outer-amino-acids in the large 3D structure of the protein. Without the aim of being exhaustive various points will be discussed where protein interactions are important for textile processing.

Tzanko, Tzanov; Jürgen, Andreaus; Georg, Guebitz; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo.

2003-12-15

249

Work related asthma in the textile industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the world. In some countries the textile industry remains an important source of potential agents causing occupational asthma. In the textile industry several agents such as cotton dust and dyes may cause occupational asthma. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management and prevention specific to occupational asthma in the textile industry.Work-related asthma risk is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many textile agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination or reduction of exposure to the offending agent and early use of convenient therapy according to disease severity may play an important role in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Its prevention in the textile industry should be both technical and medical. It depends on the difficulties to reduce dust level, the limits in arranging work station or in occupational rehabilitation. These difficulties are increased in small textile industry companies. Persistent occupational asthma in this sector is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reduce the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. This review also outlines different patents on the diagnosis and treatment of asthma. PMID:21184667

Chaari, Neila; Amri, Charfeddine; Allagui, Irtyah; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed-Adnène; Bchir, Nouri; Akrout, Mohamed; Khalfallah, Taoufik

2011-01-01

250

Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

2010-09-29

251

Sensor for Measuring Strain in Textile  

OpenAIRE

In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80%) in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles): It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hy...

Gerhard Tröster; Frank Clemens; Corinne Mattmann

2008-01-01

252

Under the New Situation of the Textile Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China's entry into the WTO, all the textiles with the formal abolition of restrictions on Chinese textile and garment industry entered the free trade era, the increasingly fierce international competition, but also brought unprecedented opportunities to the Chinese textile and apparel industry. China's textile and garment industry required in this particular under the new situation to meet the challenges and seize the opportunity to be successful. Under the new situation China's textile and garment industry facing difficulties and the opportunities this article will do a specific analysis and put forward some feasible options for enterprises to adopt.

Wenzhuan Sun

2009-03-01

253

Industrial Agglomerations and Clusters. The Textile and Textile Products Industry from Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this article is to identify the formal clusters and potential clusters from the textile and the textile products from Romania. The statistical method has been used to delimit the potential clusters. In addition, there have been studied all the available works and internal and international reports on Romania, having as topic this type of industrial organization. The research conclusions are the following: (1 there are two young formal clusters, holding the premises of a “triple helix”: Astrico North-East and TMV South-East; (2 the spreading of the textile organizations, next to the structure of formal clusters, suggests the possibility of the natural building of three clusters: a common one for the North Eastern and Eastern regions, another one for the Central region and the third for the North-Western and Western regions. With reference to the professional literature, this work brings the picture of the spatial distribution of the textile industry in Romania.

Liliana CR?CIUN

2011-06-01

254

Diversification into Technical Textiles: A Forward Momentum for Indian Textiles Industry  

OpenAIRE

Historically, the Indian textiles and clothing industry has comparative advantage in production and exports which could not be fully utilized because of quantitative restrictions imposed by her major export markets such as USA and European Union. It was therefore, envisaged that with the implementation of WTO’s agreement on textile and clothing (ATC) in 2005 the country would become more successful in global markets. Although in the initial two years of phasing out of quotas, the industry p...

Chugan, Pawan Kumar

2011-01-01

255

Adaptation of Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to the Problems Faced by the Power Loom Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. In this research Paper we study the socio economic problems faced by power loom workers in Avinashi in Tamilnadu, India, using Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (IFCMs. We have interviewed 50 households in the study area using a linguistic questionnaire. As the problems faced by them at large, involved so much of feelings and uncertainties. We felt it to fit to use fuzzy theory in general and induced fuzzy cognitive maps in particular. For IFCMs is the best suited tool when the data is an unsupervised one.

S. Narayanamoorthy

2012-08-01

256

3D textiles for composite reinforcements  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an overview on the last developments on 3D textile structures for composite reinforcements. The application of innovative 3D shaped weft-knitted preforms in GFRP tube joints is presented and discussed. Moreover, the mechanical behaviour of 3D hybrid basalt fiber reinforced composite material sis also presented and discussed.

Fangueiro, Rau?l; Mingxing, Z.; Hong, H.; Soutinho, F.; Gonc?alves, P.; Arau?jo, Ma?rio Duarte

2010-01-01

257

Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

2012-06-01

258

Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique

259

Contactless EMG sensors embroidered into textile  

OpenAIRE

To obtain maximum unobtrusiveness with sensors for monitoring health parameters on the human body, two technical solutions are combined. First we propose contactless sensors for capacitive electromyography measurements. Secondly, the sensors are integrated into textile, so complete fusion with a wearable garment is enabled. We are presenting the first successful measurements with such sensors.

Linz, Torsten; Gourmelon, L.; Langereis, G.

2007-01-01

260

HYPERFILTRATION FOR TEXTILE PREPARATION CAUSTIC DISCHARGE REDUCTION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study, joining a hyperfiltration (HF) system with an operating caustic scour and preparation range in an integrated textile dye and finishing plant. (HF is a membrane separation technique widely used in desalination of natural water and in some indus...

261

Enzymatic decolorization of textile dyeing effluents  

OpenAIRE

Commercial azo, triarylmethane, antraquinonic, and indigoid textile dyes are efficiently decolorized with enzyme preparations from Pleuratus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, Neurospora crassa, Polvporus sp., Sclerotium rolfsii, Trametes villosa, and Myceliophtora thermophila. The nature of substituents on the dyes' benzene rings influences enzyme activity, and hydroxyl and amino groups enhance decolorization. The presence of lignin peroxidase and/or manganese peroxidase in addition to Iaccas...

Abadulla, Ellias; Silva, Lui?sa M.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Robra, K. H.; Gu?bitz, Georg M.

2000-01-01

262

Biodegradation of Textile Dyes Using Fungal Isolates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industries produces considerably high amount of aquatic toxicity which is discharged directly into the environment before treated properly. The waste generation volume and load produced is hazardous in nature. Thus, this study explores the role of fungal biomass against pollution due to textiles dyes as degrading agent. This study will be beneficial for treating water effluent from textile industry and will decrease the pollution form environment with advanced technology for future use. In this study the evaluation of fungal species for the decolourization and degradation of textile dye has been carried. Four potential fungal strains (NS-1, NS-2, NS-9 and NS-10 were exploited after screening for the decolourization of Rubine Toner-12 dye under aerobic condition. Growth associated decolorization studies were carried out in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB supplemented with Rubine Toner-12. About 99% percent decolorization was achieved on supplementation with 10 mg L-1 of dye. Comparative spectrophotometric analysis of control and fungus inoculated medium supplemented with rubine toner-12 showed almost 100% decolorization in inoculated flasks. The fungus was identified to be Aspergillus niger. Maximum decolorization of Rubine Toner-12 was observed at pH 6. It is a better technique to check environmental pollution.

Ashish Chauhan

2013-01-01

263

Smart technical textiles with integrated POF sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Fiber optic sensors based on polymer optical fibers (POF) take advantage of the high elasticity and high break-down strain of POF. Because of their outstanding elastic properties, POF are well suited for integration into technical textiles like geotextiles and medical textiles. Smart textiles with incorporated POF sensors, able to sense various mechanical and physical quantities, can be realized. The integration of POF as a sensor into geotextiles for monitoring of displacement of soil is very attractive since POF can be used for distributed strain measurement of strain values of more than 40 %. An online monitoring of critical mechanical deformations of geotechnical structures like dikes, dams, slopes, embankments as well as of masonry structures can be ensured. Medical textiles that incorporate POF sensors can control vital physiological parameters like respiratory movement and can be used for wearable health monitoring of patients requiring a continuous medical assistance and treatment. The biocompatibility of POF is an important criterion for selecting POF as a medical sensor. The paper shows selected examples of using POF sensors for the mentioned monitoring purposes.

Krebber, Katerina; Lenke, Philipp; Liehr, Sascha; Witt, Jens; Schukar, Marcus

2008-03-01

264

State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

265

Respiratory hazards in hard metal workers: a cross sectional study.  

OpenAIRE

A cross sectional study was conducted on 513 employees at three hard metal plants: 425 exposed workers (351 men, 74 women) and 88 controls (69 men, 19 women). Cough and sputum were more frequent in workers engaged in "soft powder" and presintering workshops compared with controls (12.5% and 16.5% v 3.5%). Spirometric abnormalities were more frequent among women in sintering and finishing workshops compared with control women (56.8% v 23.8%) and abnormalities of carbon monoxide test were more ...

Meyer-bisch, C.; Pham, Q. T.; Mur, J. M.; Massin, N.; Moulin, J. J.; Teculescu, D.; Carton, B.; Pierre, F.; Baruthio, F.

1989-01-01

266

SIMPLE METHODS FOR INCREASING THE PRODUCTIVITY IN A WORKSHOP OF TEXTILE GARMENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is based mainly on experience and is the result of optimization analysis of work operations in departments that make clothing products, with maximum 200 workers and financially unable to invest in expensive technical equipment. The analysis takes the problem of increasing productivity for some work operations, such as the operation of the realization of loops, cutting them to the required size, forming packages, for their application to the top of the pants. The analysis performed was concerned not only with increasing productivity but also to create better working conditions for workers. Of course, through a thorough analysis can be improved and other working methods. Ergonomic workplace organization, centralization of operations or handling study due to their repetitiveness, can result in significant savings of time working. Equally it may affect the operations times for making garments and methods of employment with cut marks and accessories needed, or how to discharge processed workpiece. This paper outlines some options for improving the performance of companies producing textiles, in idea of increasing labor productivity and product quality. Even if a firm producing textiles, has sufficient financial resources for modern equipment, the studies conducted by experts, can brings improvements in working time and this without high costs.

PORAV Viorica

2014-05-01

267

Monopsonistic discrimination, worker turnover, and the gender wage gap  

OpenAIRE

Motivated by models of worker flows, we argue in this paper that monopsonistic discrimination may be a substantial factor behind the overall gender wage gap. On matched employer-employee data from Norway, we estimate establishment-specific wage premiums separately for men and women, conditioning on fixed individual effects. Regressions of worker turnover on the wage premium identify less wage elastic labour supply facing each establishment of women than that of men. Workforce gender compositi...

Barth, Erling; Dale-olsen, Harald

2009-01-01

268

A posição das mulheres trabalhadoras num mundo em evolução: Uma jornalista Portuguesa na Conferência Internacional do Trabalho / Les femmes travailleuses dans un monde en mutation: Une journaliste portugaise à la Conférence Internationale du Travail / Women workers in a changing world: A Portuguese journalist at the International Labour Conference  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo faz parte de uma investigação mais vasta que está a ser realizada no quadro das relações Portugal - Organização Internacional do Trabalho. Nesta investigação centramo-nos sobre a integração de mulheres nas delegações tripartidas à Conferência Internacional do Trabalho (CIT). Este artigo [...] refere-se à participação da primeira portuguesa a integrar a delegação sindical, em 1964 num tempo em que os sindicatos não eram livres e cuja pressão internacional sobre Portugal era cada vez mais acentuada. Na CIT de 1964, um dos temas da agenda foi as «mulheres trabalhadoras num mundo em mudança». As principais questões aí debatidas são tratadas neste artigo. Abstract in english This article is part of a broader research which is being carried out regarding the relationship between Portugal and the International Labour Organization, with a focus on Portuguese female in the tripartite delegations to the International Labour Conference (ILC). This article refers the participa [...] tion of the first Portuguese woman in the workers adviser group in 1964, a time when the Portuguese trade unions were not free and in a period at which the international pressure over the country was growing. In 1964, one of the items in ILC agenda was «women workers in a changing world». The main subjects debated during the specialized committee regarding women workers are discussed here.

Albertina, Jordão.

2014-12-01

269

Spontaneous abortions among dental assistants, factory workers, painters, and gardening workers: a follow up study.  

OpenAIRE

This investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that exposure of pregnant women to chemicals increases the risk of spontaneous abortion. The chemical risk factors under study to which dental assistants, factory workers, painters, and gardening workers were exposed were nitrous oxide, inorganic mercury, organic solvents, and pesticides. The study was carried out within the Danish county of Funen. It included all dental assistants employed in private or public dentistry. A comparable re...

Heidam, L. Z.

1984-01-01

270

Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan  

OpenAIRE

Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development ...

Broadbent, Kaye

2005-01-01

271

Understanding Learning Styles of Older Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the learning styles of British older workers (predominantly women) in service occupations used the Adult Learning Styles Inventory by Rundle and Dunn, which is based on preferred environmental conditions. Respondents recognized their own learning profiles and understood possible causes of past learning difficulties. A simpler…

Withnall, Alexandra

2001-01-01

272

77 FR 234 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act  

Science.gov (United States)

...The Commission issued the Textile Rules to implement the Textile Fiber Products Identification...Retail Federation, the Retail Industry Leaders Association, and the...Association of Importers of Textiles and Apparel requested...

2012-01-04

273

19 CFR 102.24 - Entry of textile or apparel products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Entry of textile or apparel products. 102.24 Section 102...Origin § 102.24 Entry of textile or apparel products. (a) General. Separate shipments of textile or apparel products, including samples,...

2010-04-01

274

78 FR 17642 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican Republic-Central...INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3651....

2013-03-22

275

76 FR 78249 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican Republic-Central...INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3651....

2011-12-16

276

75 FR 65609 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican Republic-Central...INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3651....

2010-10-26

277

75 FR 48931 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican Republic-Central...INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3651....

2010-08-12

278

78 FR 52907 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican Republic-Central...INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3651....

2013-08-27

279

76 FR 52640 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the...Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202...c)(3)(iii)(A), textile and apparel articles containing the subject...

2011-08-23

280

78 FR 18561 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the United...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the United States-Colombia...INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3651....

2013-03-27

281

76 FR 67424 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican Republic-Central...INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3651....

2011-11-01

282

75 FR 75664 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican Republic-Central...INFORMATION CONTACT: Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202) 482-3651....

2010-12-06

283

76 FR 79166 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the...Maria Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce, (202...for the Implementation of Textile and Apparel. [FR Doc. 2011-32639 Filed...

2011-12-21

284

40 CFR 427.80 - Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles subcategory...ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory...80 Applicability; description of the coating or finishing of asbestos textiles...

2010-07-01

285

Analysis of the Restrictive Elements of China's Textile Industry in Upgrading Based on “Value Chain”  

OpenAIRE

Our country’s textile industry is in the producing and processing field in the global value chain, so textiles’ addedvalue is low and profit margins is narrow. Developed countries take up fields of high-grade fabrics productionand advanced textile machinery manufacture. Because textile fabrics, textile machinery and equipment ofChina's textile industry fall behind developed countries, product quality and product variety can not yet fullymeet the market demand, and can not compete with dev...

Tong Yang; Meilin He; Aixiang Zhang

2010-01-01

286

Deposition of conductive materials on textile and polymeric flexible substrates  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the study, analysis and selection of textile and similar materials to be used as flexible substrates for thin conductive film deposition, in the context of integrating electronics into textiles. Kapton® polyimide was chosen as reference substrate material, was characterized regarding mechanical and electrical properties and was used as a basis for a comparison with several textile substrates. Samples were fabricated using physical vapour deposition (thermal evaporation) ...

Silva, Nuno Lacerda; Gonc?alves, L. M.; Carvalho, Helder

2013-01-01

287

CREATIVE RECYCLING – A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR ROMANIAN SMALL TEXTILE COMPANIES  

OpenAIRE

Every year, more than 5 million tons of textiles are generated in the European Union, and only a small amount (25%) is recycled, that is why there are strongly encouraged strategies, programs and business plans based on recycling of pre-consumer and post-consumer textile waste [2].This paper presents in short a few projects made by the students from the Faculty of Textiles, Leatherwork &Industrial Management. They did intense research work and then they gave practical solutions for creative r...

Leon, Ana Lacramioara

2012-01-01

288

Wearable Electronics and Smart Textiles: A Critical Review  

OpenAIRE

Electronic Textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirement...

Matteo Stoppa; Alessandro Chiolerio

2014-01-01

289

Electrochemical techniques in textile processes and wastewater treatment  

OpenAIRE

The textile industry uses the electrochemical techniques both in textile processes (such as manufacturing fibers, dyeing processes, and decolorizing fabrics) and in wastewaters treatments (color removal). Electrochemical reduction reactions are mostly used in sulfur and vat dyeing, but in some cases, they are applied to effluents discoloration. However, the main applications of electrochemical treatments in the textile sector are based on oxidation reactions. Most of electrochemical oxidation...

Mireia Sala; M. Carmen Gutiérrez-Bouzán

2012-01-01

290

Structural Timber Fabric: Applying Textile Principles on Building Scale  

OpenAIRE

Textiles are interesting from both a structural and an architectural point of view. Their patterns and textures, created by the interworking of yarn elements, are not only highly appealing on an aestetical level, they also possess load bearing qualities. The research project: Structural Timber Fabric: Applying Textile Principles on Building Scale sets out to investigate this potential and proposes to develop a new family of timber constructions based on the logic and principles of textile tec...

Hudert, Markus; Sistaninia, Masoud; Weinand, Yves

2010-01-01

291

Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Berg River Textiles, Mr. Juan Laubscher, and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project, Mr. Zsig Schneider and Mr. Henrik Wenzel. This team of people collected information on recipes and flow schematics on the various wet treatment operations in the dyehouse, and water and energy balances were made to the extent data allowed. A number of options for saving water, energy and chemicals were identified. The potentials monetary savings and necessary investments were estimated, and a list of priority projects including milestone plans for their implementation was made. A saving potential of around 3 mill. R was identified with a pay-back period of around 0.2 years as average of the identified options. The company implemented a large number of the options right away.

Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

2003-01-01

292

Image processing and pattern recognition in textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Image processing and pattern recognition have been successfully applied in many textile related areas. For example, they have been used in defect detection of cotton fibers and various fabrics. In this work, the application of image processing into animal fiber classification is discussed. Integrated into/with artificial neural networks, the image processing technique has provided a useful tool to solve complex problems in textile technology. Three different approaches are used in this work for fiber classification and pattern recognition: feature extraction with image process, pattern recognition and classification with artificial neural networks, and feature recognition and classification with artificial neural network. All of them yields satisfactory results by giving a high level of accuracy in classification.

Kong, Lingxue; She, F. H.

2001-09-01

293

Sensor for Measuring Strain in Textile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80% in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles: It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hysteresis, no ageing effects and a small dependance on the strain velocity. The total mean error caused by all these effects was +/-5.5% in strain. Washing several times in a conventional washing machine did not influence the sensor properties. The paper finishes by showing an example application where 21 strain sensors were integrated into a catsuit. With this garment, 27 upper body postures could be recognized with an accuracy of 97%.

Gerhard Tröster

2008-06-01

294

Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (misinformation and marketing on the web. Textile artists, consumers, and the clothing and household textile industry need clear names and labels to identify the materials they are using.

Zawistoski, P. S.

2012-11-01

295

Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing regulatory aspects and sustainability standards of textiles and the clothing supply chain  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.

2015-01-01

296

Textile terminology of Hittite Anatolia : Interdisciplinary research projects at the Centre for Textile Research. Project presentation and future perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Danish National Research Foundation’s Centre for Textile Research at the University of Copenhagen is a world recognized leading centre for ancient textile studies. In addition to the research programmes already in progress since 2005, the CTR has opened itself up to new interdisciplinary research frontiers in an intra-European perspective. The Marie-Sk?odowska Curie fellows recently employed at CTR are developing investigations in all aspects of textile research, also providing new evidence of different chronological periods. Linguists, archaeologists, historians and scientists share their academic backgrounds to join them with CTR expertise. TEXTHA (Textile terminology of Hittite Anatolia) is an innovative interdisciplinary project which aims to create a Hittite dictionary of textiles, the first of its kind, benefiting from the solid know-how of textile crafts of the CTR archaeologists. These new projects lay the foundations of new research platforms for future collaborations between different institutions.

Vigo, Matteo

2014-01-01

297

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG WOMEN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a labour surplus and capital hungry country like India jobs are very important to individuals. They help to determine standards of living, places of residence, status and even one's sense of self worth. Jobs are important to organizations because they are the means of accomplishing organizational objectives. Technological advances and competitive pressures may often force an organization to put more emphasis on characteristics of successful performance rather than on standard jobs duties and tasks etc. When negative stress is high it reduces job satisfaction. When a job does not correspond with employee's personal life, or is the source of anxiety and confusion, it's stressful. Work places must be in normal conditions allowing employee to do their job properly

K. SHOBHA

2012-11-01

298

Bacterial Influence on Textile Wastewater Decolorization  

OpenAIRE

The study aims to isolate and optimize bacterial strains having the ability to degrade and decolorize azo dyes produced in the final effluent of textile dying industries. In this regard, ten bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater treatment plants, and most of them were subjected to the colored effluents resulting from dilapidated houses. The ability of these bacterial isolations to use a wide range of azo dyes to determine the sole carbon source was determined. According to these scr...

Cuiling Jiang; Aamr Alalewi

2012-01-01

299

China Apparel in Textiles World Values Chains  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses the expansion of China's clothing industry in world textile value chains. Using data from interviews and observations throughout factory visits in China and other countries we show how private Guangdong entrepreneurs started China's clothing manufacturing. Lacking experience in consumer markets and designing, original equipment manufacturing was the route Chinese firms took to expand into garment manufacturing. Low wages and low margins of profits became their original sou...

Ruffier, Jean

2012-01-01

300

Energy saving examples of foreign textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It introduces the following energy saving cases in foreign textile industry: measuring and monitoring of energy needed for fiber processing, filtering and recycling of fiber processing exhaustion gas, dyeing and drying of wool material using electric high frequency energy, energy efficiency in carpet factory, drying of heavy fabrics, inhaling slot dehydrating of fabric processing, fabric drying using a radio beam in North Carolina, and producing hot water for a work process through fuel optimization.

NONE

2000-08-01

301

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE EVOLUTIONS OF TEXTILE SECTOR ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complete liberalization of international trade led to important changes in financial performancesof the national enterprises. This paper has in view to present the consequences of these changes fromthe macroeconomic level to microeconomic level. Thus, indicators of the financial performance forthree enterprises at the textile sector from Galati are studied selectively. The scope of this study isboth to realize a financial performance hierarchy and to present of their evolution directions in thefuture.

Nicoleta BARBUTA MISU

2005-01-01

302

ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTION OF SEAWEED THREADS IN TEXTILES  

OpenAIRE

Solar radiation that we perceive has increased in recent times and especially during the last years. This is due largely to changing lifestyles and the decrease of the ozone layer. For this reason has increased social awareness about the need for protection against ultraviolet radiation. Since 20 years ago, and especially during the last years, the research of textiles protection has increased exponentially. The main areas under investigation are the structure of the fabric, the materials use...

Bou-belda, E.; Bonet, M.; Montava, I.; Di?az-garcia, P.; Campos, J.

2013-01-01

303

Interactive educational software of textile desing  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a novel educational software package which develops an Interactive Didactic Application (IDA) created in the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), and which contains the essentials of Textile Design. It is an open application which uses a database in ASCII format. The principal elements of this database are lists of whole numbers structured according to indexed colors in standard RGB format. This generates a rational system of indexes of numerical lists, which a...

Herna?ndez Abad, Francisco; Rojas Sola, Jose? Ignacio; Herna?ndez Abad, Vicente; Ochoa Vives, Manuel; Font Andreu, Jorge; Herna?ndez Di?az, David; Villar Ribera, Ricardo Alberto

2010-01-01

304

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE EVOLUTIONS OF TEXTILE SECTOR ENTERPRISES  

OpenAIRE

The complete liberalization of international trade led to important changes in financial performancesof the national enterprises. This paper has in view to present the consequences of these changes fromthe macroeconomic level to microeconomic level. Thus, indicators of the financial performance forthree enterprises at the textile sector from Galati are studied selectively. The scope of this study isboth to realize a financial performance hierarchy and to present of their evolution directions ...

Barbuta Misu, Nicoleta

2005-01-01

305

E-COMMERCE AREA FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents some management aspects concerning the e-commerce area for textile industry.Here it can have database management – customers, products and brand visualisation management. The databasemanagement can be doing by using a database management system. For database management it was use therelational model based on first-order predicate logic [1]. In this paper it was analyzed the relational databasemodel. The e-commerce area is born from need to simplify the buying and selling...

Aileni, R. M.; Farima, D.; Ciocoiu, M.

2011-01-01

306

Viscoelastic Behavior of Textile Artificial Ligaments  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study is to describe and model viscoelastic behavior of textile anterior cruciate ligament prostheses. For this purpose, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of woven and braided artificial ligaments were studied. These structures were manufactured with the same braided yarn and the same number of yarns. The mechanical properties of the two structures, such as tensile strength, strain at break, work and stiffness were measured by using a constant speed gradient dy...

Saber Marzougui; Saber Ben Abdessalem; Faouzi Sakli

2009-01-01

307

Modeling embroidered contacts for electronics in textiles  

OpenAIRE

For over a decade, textile circuits have been realized by embroidering conductive yarns onto fabric. Even machine embroidery has been applied. The standard method for connecting these circuits with electronic components has been hand sewing. However, volume production requires the integration of the connection process into the machine embroidery process. For end-user satisfaction and market acceptance, reliability of the contacts is vital. This publication, for the first time, develops a comp...

Linz, Torsten; Simon, Erik; Walter, Hans

2012-01-01

308

Analysis of the Restrictive Elements of China's Textile Industry in Upgrading Based on “Value Chain”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our country’s textile industry is in the producing and processing field in the global value chain, so textiles’ addedvalue is low and profit margins is narrow. Developed countries take up fields of high-grade fabrics productionand advanced textile machinery manufacture. Because textile fabrics, textile machinery and equipment ofChina's textile industry fall behind developed countries, product quality and product variety can not yet fullymeet the market demand, and can not compete with developed countries. In order to quicken the upgrade pace oftextile industry, this paper brings forward some measures on the Chinese textile fabrics and textile machinerydeficiencies.

Tong Yang

2010-05-01

309

E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

2007-01-01

310

Superhydrophobic and ultraviolet-blocking cotton textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotton textile was coated with ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods in order to obtain superhydrophobic and ultraviolet (UV)-blocking properties. The coating process was conducted in mild conditions, which involved the low-temperature preparation of ZnO seeds, hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods, bioinspired layer-by-layer deposition of a SiO(2) shell on the surface of ZnO nanorods, and hydrophobic modification of ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods with octadecyltrimethoxysilane. Despite the highly curved morphology of cotton fibers, the ZnO@SiO(2) nanorods coated the textile densely and uniformly. The treated cotton textile was found to have a large UV protection factor (UPF = 101.51) together with UV-durable superhydrophobicity, as determined by contact-angle measurement under long-term UV irradiation. The good UV-blocking property can be ascribed to the high UV absorbance and scattering properties of ZnO nanorods, and the UV-durable superhydrophobicity is a result of suppression of the photoactivity of ZnO nanorods by a SiO(2) shell. PMID:21438599

Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Sun, Panpan; Yang, Jikai; Xu, Haiyang; Liu, Yichun

2011-04-01

311

Typology of older female sex workers and sexual risks for HIV infection in China: a qualitative study  

OpenAIRE

The HIV epidemic continues to develop among older adults in China, including older female sex workers. Yet, few studies have been conducted among this relatively hidden population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the reasons for women's entry into sex work during their thirties and to develop typology of older women sex workers. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixty-three older women sex workers and six focus groups interviews with stakeholders were conducted in thre...

Hao, Chun; Liu, Hongjie; Sherman, Susan G.; Jiang, Baofa; Li, Xiaojing; Xu, Yongfang; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zang, Chunpeng

2013-01-01

312

Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins in surgical uniforms and nonwoven textile masks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a trend for reduction in the concentration of free formaldehyde in textiles, formaldehyde textile resin (FTR) allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains an important clinical issue and is likely underdiagnosed. Patients with FTR ACD may react to formaldehyde released from the resin or to the resin itself. Screening with formaldehyde and ethyleneurea/melamine formaldehyde resin will uncover most cases. Patch testing with the suspected offending fabric most often leads to false-negative results. We present a case of a 49-year-old pediatrician who developed a severe widespread dermatitis caused by contact with FTRs from her hospital "greens" ("scrubs") and mask. PMID:17303043

Donovan, Jeff; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy

2007-03-01

313

Radiation exposure and the woman worker: biological and legal parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interpretation of federal and state legislation and regulations concerning the radiation protection of women in the workplace has not been a clear and straightforward procedure. On one hand, the safety of all workers, independent of sex, imposes a specific directive for the enforcement of working standards in general. On the other hand, must allowance be made in setting radiation standards for the particular biological characteristics of workers, some of whom are women. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act provides equal employment opportunity for women and is now being enforced. All legal questions aside, men and women are decidedly different in one aspect; only women can conceive and carry a fetus and studies have shown that, in humans, the most radiosensitive stage of the fetus is during the first trimester of pregnancy. Possible legal and socio-economic aspects of questions posed by the employment of women by the nuclear industry are considered

314

Discouraged Workers and Unemployment  

Science.gov (United States)

Older workers appear more sensitive to labor market conditions in discouragement trms as well as on regular measures of labor force participation. Thus, the age-mismatch group is especially important in the interpretation of discouraged worker patterns. (Author)

Rosenblum, Marc

1974-01-01

315

Labour market adjustment to economic downturns in the Catalan textile industry, 1880-1910: did employers breach implicit contracts?  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies the way workers and firms behaved in a highly cyclical sector such as the cotton textile industry, which encompassed 1/5 of the Catalan industrial workforce in the early 20th century. Using firm level evidence from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the paper shows that, in spite of weak unionisation and the lack of regional or local collective bargaining institutions, piece rates in cotton spinning and weaving were not subject to competitive rate cuts and remained fix...

Domenech, Jordi

2005-01-01

316

Color tunable photonic textiles for wearable display applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Integration of optical functionalities such as light emission, processing and collection into flexible woven matrices of fabric have grabbed a lot of attention in the last few years. Photonic textiles frequently involve optical fibers as they can be easily processed together with supporting fabric fibers. This technology finds uses in various fields of application such as interactive clothing, signage, wearable health monitoring sensors and mechanical strain and deformation detectors. Recent development in the field of Photonic Band Gap optical fibers (PBG) could potentially lead to novel photonic textiles applications and techniques. Particularly, plastic PBG Bragg fibers fabricated in our group have strong potential in the field of photonic textiles as they offer many advantages over standard silica fibers at the same low cost. Among many unusual properties of PBG textiles we mention that they are highly reflective, PBG textiles are colored without using any colorants, PBG textiles can change their color by controlling the relative intensities of guided and reflected light, and finally, PBG textiles can change their colors when stretched. Some of the many experimental realization of photonic bandgap fiber textiles and their potential applications in wearable displays are discussed.

Sayed, I.; Berzowska, J.; Skorobogatiy, M.

2010-04-01

317

Identification and Characterization of Textile Fibers by Thermal Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile fibers are ubiquitous in the sense that they are present in the fabric of clothing, furniture, and floor and wall coverings. A remarkable variety of textile fibers with different chemical compositions are produced for many different commercial applications. As fibers are readily transferred, they are frequently recovered from crime scenes…

Gray, Fiona M.; Smith, Michael J.; Silva, Magda B.

2011-01-01

318

Apparel and Textiles Production, Management, and Services. Reference Book.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements a matching curriculum guide for a course on the textiles and apparel industries. The book emphasizes job skills and the attitudes and interpersonal skills needed for successful employment in the textiles/apparel industry. Each of the 22 chapters of the book…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

319

Sustainability Knowledge and Behaviors of Apparel and Textile Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze changes in undergraduate student knowledge of issues of sustainability relevant to the apparel and textiles industry. Assessment occurred prior to and upon completion of a course that addressed topics specific to the global production and distribution of apparel and textile goods. The study also…

Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; Kozar, Joy M.

2012-01-01

320

Biodegradation of textile azo dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

OpenAIRE

Azo dyes are used extensively in the textile and dyestuff industries and effluents from these industrial processes are usually resistant to biological treatment. Textile azo dyes with bioaccessible groups such as guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, for lignin-degrading fungus as P. chrysosporium were synthesised.

Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Santos, Isabel M.; Queiroz, Maria Joa?o R. P.; Lima, Nelson

1998-01-01

321

Vocational Home Economics Curriculum Guide for Occupational Clothing and Textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The training program outlined in this guide focuses upon the development of students for gainful employment through a two-year course of study in clothing and textiles. Instructional topics are provided in six areas: clothing and textiles careers; alterationist; custom dressmaker; industrial sewing; getting, keeping, and using the paycheck; and…

Dewald, Margaret R.

322

Menstrual function in workers exposed to toluene.  

OpenAIRE

Rates of menstrual disorders were studied in 231 female production workers with high exposure to toluene (mean 88 (range 50-150 ppm) in a factory manufacturing audio speakers and compared with a control group of 58 female production workers in other departments in the same factory who had little or no exposure to toluene (0-25 ppm). An external community control group of 187 working class women under routine care at public maternal and child health centres were also studied. Detailed menstrua...

Ng, T. P.; Foo, S. C.; Yoong, T.

1992-01-01

323

Bone resorption is affected by follicular phase length in female rotating shift workers.  

OpenAIRE

Stressors as subtle as night work or shift work can lead to irregular menstrual cycles, and changes in reproductive hormone profiles can adversely affect bone health. This study was conducted to determine if stresses associated with the disruption of regular work schedule can induce alterations in ovarian function which, in turn, are associated with transient bone resorption. Urine samples from 12 rotating shift workers from a textile mill in Anqing, China, were collected in 1996-1998 during ...

Lohstroh, Pete N.; Chen, Jiangang; Ba, Jianming; Ryan, Louise M.; Xu, Xiping; Overstreet, James W.; Lasley, Bill L.

2003-01-01

324

Treatment of air dried archaeological wool textiles from waterlogged environment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Air-dried, wet archaeological wool textiles can be flat and stiff with brittle fibers, but is this a permanent collapse or can they regain their size in water? Iron Age textiles were tested comparing the width of dry fibers with the width of fibers treated in water or 70% ethanol. Both liquids expanded the fibers and the yarn increased in size, resulting in more flexible and less brittle textiles. This property was kept when the textiles were dried by stepwise dehydration in ethanol, acetone, and white spirit with a final treatment in 5% lanolin. Preliminary tests on brittle textiles can be performed on small samples to investigate if they will gain in flexibility by this method.

Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

325

Textiles with gallic acid microspheres: in vitro release characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The aim of this study was to demonstrate the skin penetration of an antioxidant, gallic acid (GA), encapsulated in poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) microspheres and applied onto textile fabrics, by a specific in vitro percutaneous absorption methodology. Two techniques (particle size distribution and FTIR) were used to characterise the microspheres obtained. The amount of GA-loaded microspheres present in the biofunctional textiles was established before their use as a textile drug delivery system. More absorption and desorption of microspheres with GA for the polyamide fabric were found in comparison with cotton fabric. The percutaneous absorption results indicated that the skin penetration of GA released from PCL-microspheres that were applied directly to the skin was higher than when GA was embedded within biofunctional textiles, in conclusion, an interesting reservoir effect may be promoted when biofunctional textiles were used. PMID:24697181

Martí, Meritxell; Martínez, Vanessa; Carreras, Núria; Alonso, Cristina; Lis, Manuel José; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

2014-01-01

326

Energy-Aware Routing for E-Textile Applications  

CERN Document Server

As the scale of electronic devices shrinks, "electronic textiles" (e-textiles) will make possible a wide variety of novel applications which are currently unfeasible. Due to the wearability concerns, low-power techniques are critical for e-textile applications. In this paper, we address the issue of the energy-aware routing for e-textile platforms and propose an efficient algorithm to solve it. The platform we consider consists of dedicated components for e-textiles, including computational modules, dedicated transmission lines and thin-film batteries on fiber substrates. Furthermore, we derive an analytical upper bound for the achievable number of jobs completed over all possible routing strategies. From a practical standpoint, for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher, the routing technique we propose achieves about fifty percent of this analytical upper bound. Moreover, compared to the non-energy-aware counterpart, our routing technique increases the number of encryption jobs completed by one order...

Kao, Jung-Chun

2011-01-01

327

A comparison of reusable and disposable perioperative textiles: sustainability state-of-the-art 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary comparisons of reusable and single-use perioperative textiles (surgical gowns and drapes) reflect major changes in the technologies to produce and reuse these products. Reusable and disposable gowns and drapes meet new standards for medical workers and patient protection, use synthetic lightweight fabrics, and are competitively priced. In multiple science-based life cycle environmental studies, reusable surgical gowns and drapes demonstrate substantial sustainability benefits over the same disposable product in natural resource energy (200%-300%), water (250%-330%), carbon footprint (200%-300%), volatile organics, solid wastes (750%), and instrument recovery. Because all other factors (cost, protection, and comfort) are reasonably similar, the environmental benefits of reusable surgical gowns and drapes to health care sustainability programs are important for this industry. Thus, it is no longer valid to indicate that reusables are better in some environmental impacts and disposables are better in other environmental impacts. It is also important to recognize that large-scale studies of comfort, protection, or economics have not been actively pursued in the last 5 to 10 years, and thus the factors to improve both reusables and disposable systems are difficult to assess. In addition, the comparison related to jobs is not well studied, but may further support reusables. In summary, currently available perioperative textiles are similar in comfort, safety, and cost, but reusable textiles offer substantial opportunities for nurses, physicians, and hospitals to reduce environmental footprints when selected over disposable alternatives. Evidenced-based comparison of environmental factors supports the conclusion that reusable gowns and drapes offer important sustainability improvements. The benefit of reusable systems may be similar for other reusables in anesthesia, such as laryngeal mask airways or suction canisters, but life cycle studies are needed to substantiate these benefits. PMID:22492184

Overcash, Michael

2012-05-01

328

ROLE OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SCENARIO  

OpenAIRE

Women are participating in large number in almost all the spheres of economic activity. From village to city, a large number of women workers and entrepreneurs contributing towards the national income of the country can be observed. Now it has been accepted that the women's movement is for the welfare development and empowerment of women. The development of Indian women will be the biggest source of enrichment for our country's development. Economic empowerment of women can ...

Udmale, K. R.

2014-01-01

329

Burnout in Greek Medical and Mental Health Care Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractJob Burnout affects job performance ability. Studies show a higher level of burnout in health professionals. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible differences in professional burnout subscales between health workers in medical and mental health sector. The sample constituted of randomly selected 240 workers in medical health sector and 217 in mental health sector, aged 39.8± 7.9 years old. Health workers from University and General Hospitals from all over Greece   participated in the study.  Maslach’s burnout inventory was used. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistics. The majority of health professionals were women. Over 50 % of workers in mental health sector showed low emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, while one third of them gave a high personal accomplishment score.  Mental health professionals showed statistically significantly lower scores in  emotional exhaustion and depersonalization , in comparison with medical sector workers. Different working environments influence the development of health care workers’ burnout

Ioanna Papathanasiou

2011-09-01

330

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR / UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000 - 1350 DC), descendiente de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa, en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fase [...] s Maytas/San Miguel). La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. La imagen sobre el fondo de la red de algodón blanco está formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, quizás con su interior. Abstract in english One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD), a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel [...] phases). The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no precedent for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual organs, perhaps with the interior shown also.

Alfredo, Rosenzweig; Bat - ami, Artzi.

331

Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented.

Pedro Pinho

2012-11-01

332

Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented. PMID:23202235

Salvado, Rita; Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pinho, Pedro

2012-01-01

333

Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

2014-07-01

334

Voices of women.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this address to the 12th World AIDS Conference, a young HIV- infected mother from South Africa recounted how her baby died after receiving AZT therapy because she was not told the baby could be infected through breast feeding. This experience clarified the absolute necessity of women being given all available information before and during clinical trials and of health workers gathering appropriate information about women patients in order to help them make informed choices. Women have many questions about clinical trials that have not been addressed, including what efforts are made to prolong the lives of mothers in trials that seek to save the lives of infants and what factors influence a mother's decision to breast feed. Recommendations of actions to incorporate the voices of women themselves into clinical interventions and into health worker-client relationships include the following: 1) provide funding for counselor training in perinatal trials; 2) consult social scientists about the social context of the subjects of clinical trials; 3) conduct local studies on breast feeding practices and preferences; 4) investigate women's decision-making process and their experiences in clinical trials; 5) collaborate with community advocacy groups in the design and conduct of trials and the implementation of results into clinical practice; 6) support women in their selection of breast or bottle feeding; and 7) include the effect on mother's health and economic activities in cost-benefit analyses of interventions to prevent maternal-child transmission. PMID:12294631

Maklehemena, M

1998-01-01

335

Corporate Social Responsibility In Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of social responsibility is a fairly recent one in the business world. Awareness about the social responsibility of business organizations is rapidly on the rise and firms are also accepting this concept. The textile industry is no exception. Textile producing and trading firms are also realizing their responsibility towards the society and the environment. This article aims at analyzing the concept of social responsibility and the common ways in which textile firms try to fulfill it.When India is making a transformational progress, GDP is growing at the rate of 8-8.5 percent per annum, sensex is reaching new heights every day, world is looking at us as one of fastest emerging economies of world. Shall we assume that our society is also progressing at the same rate as the economy is growing or there is a gap between economic vs. social progress of the country. If society is progressing at the same pace as the economy is growing then it is a very healthy sign but if there is a mismatch between the two then it would be very grave situation since it may widen the gap between the different strata of society. When most societies are wrestling with an acceleration and intensification of social change, there is a revolution of rising expectations. But how this change will happen. There are various measures to bring about such changes in the form of war, revolution or planned way. But in India we believe in democracy, rationality and progress. But question arises whether the initiatives taken by government for social upliftment is sufficient or private players should also contribute or government, corporate

Neha Gupta

2012-10-01

336

Interfacial microfluidic transport on micropatterned superhydrophobic textile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile-enabled interfacial microfluidics, utilizing fibrous hydrophilic yarns (e.g., cotton) to guide biological reagent flows, has been extended to various biochemical analyses recently. The restricted capillary-driving mechanism, however, persists as a major challenge for continuous and facilitated biofluidic transport. In this paper, we have first introduced a novel interfacial microfluidic transport principle to drive three-dimensional liquid flows on a micropatterned superhydrophobic textile (MST) platform in a more autonomous and controllable manner. Specifically, the MST system utilizes the surface tension-induced Laplace pressure to facilitate the liquid motion along the hydrophilic yarn, in addition to the capillarity present in the fibrous structure. The fabrication of MST is simply accomplished by stitching hydrophilic cotton yarn into a superhydrophobic fabric substrate (contact angle 140 ± 3°), from which well-controlled wetting patterns are established for interfacial microfluidic operations. The geometric configurations of the stitched micropatterns, e.g., the lengths and diameters of the yarn and bundled arrangement, can all influence the transport process, which is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Two operation modes, discrete and continuous transport, are also presented in detail. In addition, the gravitational effect as well as the droplet removal process have been also considered and quantitatively analysed during the transport process. As a demonstration, an MST design has been implemented on an artificial skin surface to collect and remove sweat in a highly efficient and facilitated means. The results have illustrated that the novel interfacial transport on the textile platform can be potentially extended to a variety of biofluidic collection and removal applications. PMID:23536189

Xing, Siyuan; Jiang, Jia; Pan, Tingrui

2013-05-21

337

La industria textil uruguaya (1900-1960)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La industria textil uruguaya se inició a comienzos del siglo XX con la instalación de algunas fábricas de tejidos de lana y de una gran hilandería de lana peinada. Desde la crisis de 1929, sustentada en la protección cambiaría, se expandió en forma acelerada durante el periodo conocido como de indus [...] trialización por sustitución de importaciones. Alcanzó su apogeo entre fines de la segunda guerra mundial y comienzos de la década de los cincuenta, al instalar hilanderías de algodón y de fibras sintéticas y cuando las exportaciones industriales laneras adquirieron una importante dimensión. El progresivo agotamiento de la sustitución de importaciones, los frenos opuestos a las exportaciones, junto al estancamiento económico del país y el desmontaje de la protección estatal, la sumieron en una profunda crisis y en la pérdida creciente de significación en la industria y en la economía uruguaya. Abstract in english The Uruguayan textile industry started in the early xxth century based on the production of woven fabric and wool spinning mill (tops). From the years of the 1929's crisis onwards, it went through a great expansion due to a protectionist policy based on favourable exchange rates. Those were the time [...] s of the Import Substitutive Industrialization (ISI) in the country. After the Second World War and, particularly, during the fifties it reached its height with the production of cotton fabrics and synthetic fibers. Meanwhile, wool exports would grow strongly. However, in the late fifties, the ISI strategy was in trouble and the obstacles for export's growth and the economic stagnation together with the removal of the protectionist's policies, put an end to the textile industry development. As a consequence, it experienced a deep crisis and lost importance both for the industry and for the economy as a whole.

Magdalena, Bertino.

2009-06-01

338

Rural Women Empowerment through Entrepreneurship Development  

OpenAIRE

Empowerment of women has emerged as an important issue these days as a Sinequo-non of progress for the national economy and is of paramount importance topolitical thinkers, social scientists and reformers. Women constitute 90 percent oftotal marginal workers of the country. Rural women engaged in agricultureconstitutes 78 percent of all women in regular work and the contribution of womenand their role in the family as well as in the economic development and socialtransformation are pivotal. W...

Pradeep Kumar Singh; Poonam Sharma,

2011-01-01

339

Angora Wool Asthma in Textile Industry  

OpenAIRE

Up to now the exposures to hair and skin derivatives of animals have not yet been the subject of systematic studies. The observation of a clinical case has provided the opportunity for a review of the literature. The inpatient was a 49-year-old man, a carder in a textile factory, exposed to angora wool. He noticed the appearance of dyspnea during working hours. There was no eosinophilia in blood, and the results of pulmonary function tests were normal. The nonspecific bronchial provocation te...

Pietro Sartorelli; Riccardo Romeo; Giuseppina Coppola; Roberta Nuti; Valentina Paolucci

2012-01-01

340

GORE-TEX AND SYMPATEX TEXTILE WATERPROOFING  

OpenAIRE

Waterproofing is the treatment of reduction of water absorbing properties of materials. It is more of a coating than a finishing process because it uses polymer materials for covering spaces and pores. These textiles leaves no air or water vapor to pass through the material because the pores are completely coated . Thismaterial is impermeable to liquid water, and air and water vapor. It resists the water test with a pressure in the water column >1000mm, before the first drops of water start t...

Viorica Porav

2011-01-01

341

E-commerce : A study on women's online purchasing behavior  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Key words:E-commerce, women, online purchasing behavior, online shopping, Internet shopping Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to map out the present behavior of women between 40-55 years concerning Internet shopping. Fur-thermore, the research aims at finding and analyzing factors that might help marketers when persuading the target group to increase their usage of Internet as a purchasing channel for home textile and decorations. Background: Along with the increasing usage of c...

Eliasson, Malin; Holkko Lafourcade, Johanna; Smajovic, Senida

2009-01-01

342

Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

2015-01-01

343

Viscoelastic Behavior of Textile Artificial Ligaments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to describe and model viscoelastic behavior of textile anterior cruciate ligament prostheses. For this purpose, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of woven and braided artificial ligaments were studied. These structures were manufactured with the same braided yarn and the same number of yarns. The mechanical properties of the two structures, such as tensile strength, strain at break, work and stiffness were measured by using a constant speed gradient dynamometer. In order to determine the viscoelastic modulus of the two structures, a rheological model was proposed and the correlation between experimental and theoretical creep and relaxation curves were studied. The energy dissipation and the residual deformation were measured with an application developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic software. The obtained results showed that textile structure influences prosthesis viscoelastic and mechanical properties, material damping, hysteresis and residual deformation. The nonlinear viscoelastic model permitted to evaluate the elastic and the viscous modulus of the braided and woven structures and to describe its time-dependent deformation. This study may serve as a method for the selection of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Saber Marzougui

2009-01-01

344

Treatment of Textile Wastewater with Chlorine: An Effective Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the chlorination of textile wastewater achieves all the objectives of its treatment such as color removal and reduction of TDS, BOD and COD; and the treated effluents meet the standards set as per Schedule 12-B of the Environment Conservation Rules-1997 (ECR-97, Bangladesh, the treatment of textile wastewater with chlorine gas is a practical technological option for Bangladesh. If this process which is simple if adopted by the textile sector, the ETP operation would be widely practised for its low operating costs because of low price of chlorine produced by local chlor-alkali plants in the country. Satisfactory operation of the ETPs treating textile wastewater with chlorine at low costs has made this process affordable and attractive to the textile sector. Some of the perceived limitations of chlorination outweighs the greater benefits of textile wastewater treatment with chlorine gas leading to cleaner water bodies which receive these effluents otherwise.

Keywords:Textile wastewater, chlorination, ETP, wastewater treatment

DOI = 10.3329/cerb.v14i1.3206

Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin 14 (2010 59-63

 

A. K. M. Abdul Quader

2010-05-01

345

Durable hydrophobic sol-gel finishing for textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface of cotton textile was modified to create a water-repellent finishing by depositing a modifying coatings using the sol-gel technique. Treated textiles evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD). The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle and drop test. The results showed that the cotton textile treated with 7.5 wt.% zinc acetate dihydrate sol showed excellent hydrophobic properties, water contact angle could reach 145°C without decreasing after 50 hydrothermal treatment cycles.

Vihodceva, S.; Kukle, S.; Bitenieks, J.

2015-03-01

346

Current state of the cotton and textile industry in Kazakhstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry of Kazakhstan is presented basically by enterprises created in period of centrally planned economy and as consequence. Low labor productivity, lacking equipment base and technologies, poor marketing are problems of the current state of industry. But, there are also advantages as a vicinity of potential cotton manufacturers - Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. A free economic zone (FEZ “Ontustik” has been established and a program of “Ontustik” FEZ development has been adopted for developing the cotton and textile cluster in Kazakhstan. The law “About development of the cotton branch” has been adopted in Kazakhstan to provide the textile enterprises with necessary raw material and to develop the domestic cotton growing.

Gulfari Azhimetova

2010-06-01

347

Daily practices of health among sex workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.

Elouyse Fernandes Leitão

2012-09-01

348

KNOWLEDGE WORKERS’ MANAGEMENT  

OpenAIRE

The empirical research of this paper deals with knowledge workers in Romanian organizations from different fields of activity, with the purpose of distinguishing them from other types of employees and clarifying their profile and individual characteristics. Also, the paper presents the most important challenges concerning the knowledge workers’ management: identifying, developing and evaluating knowledge workers, motivating and rewarding them, as well as describing specific structure of the...

Todericiu, Ramona; Stanit, Alexandra; Serban, Anca

2014-01-01

349

Fair Trade & Worker Organizations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment. At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya.

Riisgaard, Lone

2015-01-01

350

Protecting Temporary Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation versión ...

351

Identificación de nichos de mercado para el sector textil. identification of niche markets for textiles.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se identifican de nichos de mercado para el sector textil a partir de una caracterización del sector textil a nivel internacional, específicamente en Canada y Venezuela en relación a las fibras sintéticas (poliéster y acrílicos, tejidos de sombra, hilos, cordeles y soga de sisal y propipropileno,  se identifican los precios de los productos y se caracterizan las empresas potenciales interesadas. La metodología utilizada incluyó: analizar la solicitud, se identificó el problema del cliente a resolver, se enmarcó en un tipo de estudio,  se ejecutaron los procedimientos para solucionar el problema, se identificaron las fuentes de información, se seleccionó la estrategia de búsqueda y se realizó el respectivo análisis de información utilizando Excel y Endnote X4. También se tuvo en cuenta información sobre el acceso al mercado, las barreras arancelarias y no arancelarias, restricciones, tamaños del mercado, tendencias y crecimiento del mercado, segmentación y consumo, las importaciones, volumen, país de origen, fortalezas y debilidades del mercado y precios, nomenclatura de los productos como la ALADI, sistema de clasificación internacional y el sistema armonizado de designación y codificación de mercancía de Cuba. Como resultado se elabora un perfil de cada uno de los países, sus canales de distribución y se identifican los acuerdos internacionales sobre la industria textil.

Silvio Leonel Curiel Lorenzo

2011-12-01

352

Evaluation of occupational environment in two textile plants in Northern India with specific reference to noise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational Noise exposure has been linked with a range of negative health effects by various researchers. The resulting injury of occupational hearing loss is also a well recognized and global problem. To protect workers from hearing damage due to noise exposure and other related health effects, a vast store of knowledge has been accumulated till date about its nature, etiology and time course. There is still ignorance, amongst majority of people working in industries in developing and third world countries including India about ill effects of exposure to high values of noise. The study being reported here has been carried out in two textile plants located in Northern Indian state of Punjab. Equivalent sound pressure level L(eq) has been measured in various sections of these plants with the help of a Class-I type digital sound level meter. The noise spectrum has been evaluated with the help of 1/3 octave filter set. A cross sectional study involving 112 workers exposed to different levels of occupational noise has been conducted. The results of the study establish the fact that noise level in certain sections of the plants i.e Loom Shed, Spinning, Ring Frame, TFO Area is more than the acceptable limit of 90 dBA for 8 h exposure stipulated by OSHA. The noise level in other sections like carding, blow room, combing etc., although is less than 90 dB(A), but is quite higher than limits used for assessment of noise for community response. Octave band analysis of the noise shows the presence of high sound level in 4,000 Hz frequency range, which can be a major reason for causing occupational hearing loss. The results of the interview questionnaire which included a number of parameters reveal the following; (i) only 29% workers are aware about the effects of noise on health (ii) 28% workers are using ear protectors (iii) the satisfaction with the working environment is related to noise level, as workers exposed to comparatively less noise level report better satisfaction (iv) 70% of the workers reported that high noise level causes speech interference (v) 42% workers report the noise to be annoying. The study thus demonstrates the presence of gross occupational noise exposure in both the plants and the author believes that occupational noise exposure and the related effects in India is a widespread problem. PMID:16610545

Bedi, Raman

2006-01-01

353

The power of women on April 27.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women make up 54% of voters in South Africa. A delegation of 80 groups representing 2 million women under the Women' National Coalition delivered many research reports on women's issues (e.g., rape, violence, women's status, women workers' rights) to the Transitional Executive Council. If political parties want women to support them, they need to address the inequalities and discrimination women encounter at work, in their homes, and in society. The research findings were a result of 23 focus groups and will be used to draft a Women's Charter. The Coalition will use the Charter to bring about maximum equality within the constitutional framework. The research revealed that sexual harassment at work was more common than was recognized. Black women reported that men of all races in responsible positions seek sex for jobs or for promotion. 50% of women are raped. 1 of 6 women are beaten by their partner. In the past, women's groups were not well supported because White women tended to be satisfied with the status quo. Specifically, they had a servant, leisure time, and a high standard of living. Women are starting to understand that they can be forces of change. A common thread among the diversity of women in the research was a desire for control of their lives. Other issues emerging from the research were women and law, women at work, women and violence, and political awareness among women. The women call for changes in marital law to make sure that women are considered as majors. For example, they should be able to buy property and sign contracts. Women want equal pay for work of equal value, equal treatment when applying for a job. Women want society, including family members, not to ignore domestic violence. They also call on authorities and police to respond more vigorously to domestic violence. Women are becoming more involved in politics, locally, regionally, and nationally. PMID:12287660

Khumalo, B

1994-04-01

354

Noise pollution in textile industry (case of Khartoum spinning and weaving factory)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research dealt with noise problem in the working environment in relation to textile industry. The study was carried out in Khartoum spinning and weaving factory to evaluate noise problem and its effect on workers. To achieve the goal of this study noise levels were measured in the working environment in three sections which are weaving, spinning and preparation by using dosimeter. Also questionnaires were given to the workers to fill out so as to know the effect of noise on the workers health. All measurements showed that the level of noise was above permissible limit (85 dBA). Graphs were drawn to show measurements of noise level. In addition statistical analysis of information obtained from the questionnaire was carried over, it is shown in frequency tables and correlation tables. There are many effects resulting from noise problem in working environment which could be summarized in hearing the machine sound after completion of work, effect on hearing sense, difficulty in conversing with others during working, instability, disturbance and anxiety, sleepless, nervousness etc.... Not with standing, the questionnaire results did not give high percentage in all cases yet this does not neglect the existence of the problem. On the contrary, this may mean lack of knowledge and inability to deal with the problem. It is hoped that this research will pave the way to future studies in this field so as to arrive at the suitable solution to the problem raised in the this reution to the problem raised in the this research. The study recommended the following: 1. Reduce the noise in the working environment by engineering control and acoustic absorbent to the room boundaries. 2. The workers must be provided by ear protection or/and the working hours must reduce. (Author)

355

Life Satisfaction Differences between Workers and Non-Workers - The Value of Participation per se  

OpenAIRE

Is working more than monetary income? This paper attempts to give an answer to this question on the basis of the German Socio-economic Panel data set. By comparing the satisfaction with life between workers and non-workers with the same household income, the monetary value of participating in the labour force is assessed. It is found that this monetary value is substantial for many individuals and that it varies strongly with personal characteristics such as age and gender.Women suffer less t...

Praag, Bernard M. S.; Ferrer-i-carbonell, Ada

2002-01-01

356

Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.

Sanda VISAN

2010-06-01

357

The purification of textile wastes by radiation and coagulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model wastes from textile industry plants were processed by gamma radiation and coagulation. 2,5-50 kG doses were applied. Preliminary irradiation had positive effect on coagulation process. 2 tabs., 9 refs. (A.S.)

358

COMBINED ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile manufacturing consumes a considerable amount of water in its manufacturing processes. The water is primarily utilized in the dyeing and finishing operations of the textile establishments. Considering both the volume generated and the effluent composition, the textile industry wastewater is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors. In this study a combined anaerobic-aerobic reactor was operated continuously for treatment of textile wastewater. Cosmo balls were used to function as growth media for microorganisms in anaerobic reactor. Effect of pH, dissolved oxygen, and organic changes in nitrification and denatrification process were investigated. The results indicated that over 84.62% ammonia nitrogen and about 98.9% volatile suspended solid (VSS removal efficiency could be obtained. Dissolved oxygen (DO, pH were shown to have only slight influences on the nitrification process; and for each 10% removal of nitrogen, only 3% of pH changes were achieved.

MAHDI AHMED

2007-04-01

359

Integrating Quality into the Textile and Apparel High School Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the importance of quality assurance in high school textiles and apparel instruction. Describes educational activities that integrate quality assurance concepts (teamwork, continuous improvement, customer focus, and empowerment). (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

Meyer, Deborah J. C.; Kadolph, Sara J.; Cosbey, Sarah; Hillery, Julie; Haar, Sherry; Day, Marla; Keiser, Sandra; Brandes, Kendra

2001-01-01

360

CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

361

Roadmap Textile 2030; Routekaart Textiel 2030  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the Roadmap Textile the future market demand was chosen as a starting point Trends in the following five sectors are depicted: Care, Construction, Mobility, Sports and Entertainment, Safety. Opportunities are defined and translated into development targets. Based on 'technological readiness levels' and perceived market opportunities, five new or innovative product market combinations (PMCs) are assigned and calculated for potential savings in energy and raw materials [Dutch] Voor de Routekaart Textiel is de toekomstige marktvraag als vertrekpunt gekozen. Trends in de volgende vijf sectoren zijn in beeld gebracht: Zorg, Bouw, Mobiliteit, Sport en ontspanning, Veiligheid. Vanuit deze trends zijn kansen gedefinieerd, die vervolgens zijn doorvertaald naar ontwikkelingsdoelen. Op basis van de bijbehorende 'technological readiness levels' en de gepercipieerde marktkansen, zijn een vijftal nieuwe dan wel vernieuwende product markt combinaties (pmc's) benoemd en doorgerekend op besparingspotentieel in energie en grondstoffen.

Wintermans, J. [MODINT, Zeist (Netherlands); Van den Berg, F. [BECO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van Hooijdonk, G. [The Bridge, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Luiken, A. [Alcon Advies, Wierden (Netherlands); Brinks, G. [BMA Techne, Almelo (Netherlands); Op den Brouw, H. [Agentschap NL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

2012-06-15

362

industria alimentaria y textil moda de España  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La integración y la coordinación entre empresas de la cadena de suministro, tanto interna como externamente, es uno de los puntos que suscita mayor interés entre directivos e investigadores por su potencial aportación a la mejora de la cadena de suministro y, más globalmente, a la mejora de competitividad. En este sentido, el objetivo de este artículo es identificar el nivel evolutivo de la organización adoptada para gestionar la cadena de suministro, en un contexto de adaptación a las necesidades planteadas por los mercados, que demandan, entre otros aspectos, una mayor eficiencia y flexibilidad. Para ello, se analizan comparativamente los casos de 25 empresas españolas del sector alimentario y del sector de textil moda.

Jes\\u00FAs Garc\\u00EDa-Arca

2011-01-01

363

Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan's energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan's textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074 ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving was equivalent to 94,614 MWh of electricity, 23,686 kl of fuel oil and 4887 ton of fuel coal. It represented a potential reduction of 143,669 ton in carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 3848 ha plantation forest. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users and identifies the areas for making energy saving to provide an energy efficiency baseline.

364

The US textile industry: An energy perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report investigates the state of the US textile industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. Specific objectives were: To update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1984; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1984), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2010); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. Results of this study concluded that in the year 2010, there is a potential to save between 34% and 53% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry in three categories: process modification, basic research, and improved housekeeping practices that reduce energy consumption. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.

Badin, J. S.; Lowitt, H. E.

1988-01-01

365

Advanced worker protection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

366

Advanced worker protection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

367

An Urban-Spatial Analysis of the Women in the Informal Sectors of Greater Guwahati City of Assam, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reflects the use of urban space by women in urban informal sectors in the city of Guwahati located in North East India. The population influx from across the borders in the aftermath of the partition has huge implications both on polity and on economy of the northeastern states in general and Assam in particular.  Importantly, the urban informal sectors have a sizeable share in terms of its significant contributions towards Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as generation of employment opportunities largely. Using a feminist perspective, the research is an attempt to investigate the engagement of women in the informal sector in greater Guwahati. Research findings reveal that the occupations of the women workers are location-specific, that is, the manufacturing sectors (textiles, food preparation, printing and skilled service are mainly home/shop based production (fixed locations whereas the service sectors (leisure, caring, elementary construction, elementary sales and cleaning occupation operate at variable locations (construction sites, street pavements, marketplaces and other various locations. Further analysis shows that the informal sector is highly demand dependent and such demands are in the central business areas of the city, therefore informal sector services (skilled services and elementary services are found to be located in and around the central areas of Guwahati city. Women operators in the informal sector are attracted to the central business district because of the many advantages that it enjoys relative to other parts of a city. The paper concludes by calling on policy makers and physical planning agencies to evolve more pragmatic strategies for urban development matters in order that urban informal sector activities can be integrated into urban development plans. Finally, further research is called for on how urban planners could redesign the urban space with appropriate consideration of the informal sector operators.

Zona Bhuyan

2013-05-01

368

Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers  

OpenAIRE

The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (mis)information and marketing on the...

Zawistoski, P. S.

2012-01-01

369

Comparative toxicity of leachates from 52 textiles to Daphnia magna.  

Science.gov (United States)

The environmental aspects of textiles are very complex and include production, processing, transport, usage, and recycling. Textiles are made from a variety of materials and can contain a large number of chemicals. Chemicals are used during production of fibres, for preservation and colouring and they are released during normal wear and during washing. The aim of this study was to investigate the release to water of toxic chemicals from various textiles. Altogether 52 samples of textiles made from cotton (21), linen (4), cotton and linen (7), cellulose (3), synthetic fibres (7), cotton and synthetic fibres (8) and wool (2). Seven were eco-labelled. All textiles were cut into squares and placed into Petri dishes with 50 ml ISO test medium in a concentration series (4-256 cm(2)/50 ml) and tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Estimated EC50s were converted into weight/volume, and 48-h EC50s ranged between 182 g/L. It was not possible to detect any difference between fibre type and toxicity (ANOVA), but a significantly higher toxicity was found for printed versus unprinted cotton and cotton/linen textiles, while the opposite was found for synthetic textiles. Eco-labelled products were evenly distributed on a toxicity scale, which means that eco-labelling in its present form does not necessarily protect users or the environment from exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore, the results from the present study suggest that bioassays and toxicity tests should become an integrated part of textile environmental quality control programs. PMID:20579734

Dave, Göran; Aspegren, Pia

2010-10-01

370

PRECONDITIONS OF SERBIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS AND PROSPERITY  

OpenAIRE

Despite the present problems, the textile industry is of great importance in Serbian economy, and it has the perspective to become the one of the most important economy branches if it employs all advantages and successfully overcomes the key problems.Textile and clothing competition is possible only if the following factors are taken into account: price, as the factor that usually stands out, and non-price factors such as product quality, design, rich assortment, top-line standardisation, and...

Snežana Uroševi?

2012-01-01

371

Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images  

OpenAIRE

Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is fir...

Xiaohui Wang; Jia Jia; Yongxin Wang; Lianhong Cai

2011-01-01

372

On Trade Barriers to China’s Textiles Industry  

OpenAIRE

Firstly we shall introduce the development situation of China’s textile industry from international tradeperspective, and then analyze the current international trade competition focusing on international trade barrierswhich consist of tariff and non-tariff barriers respectively. Finally we propose that increasing non-tariff barriersto China’s textile exportation are due to lower tariff, trade protection, rapid growth and keen competition of theindustry.

Jing Ma; Weiquan Yang

2010-01-01

373

Textile and Apparel Export from Bangladesh: Measure of Competitiveness  

OpenAIRE

This paper aim at examining the export competitiveness of selected textile and apparel products using indicators like Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis. The selected four categories textile and seven categories apparel product are taken into account on the basis of three digit level Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) for the period between (1985 until 1999). The RCA calculation clearly indicates an increasing strength of comparative ...

Ahasanul Haque; Mahbubur Rahman

2002-01-01

374

Tertiary Treatment for Textile Waste Water-A Review  

OpenAIRE

Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations ...

Manali Desai, Mehali Mehta

2014-01-01

375

CRITICAL EVALUATION OF BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN TEXTILES AND LEATHER INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

Performance results obtained in terms of entrepreneurial skills, professional skills and structured cross various specializations in the field of management, in textiles and leather industry, demonstrates the ability of permanent self-control skills on motivation for learning, in relation to their professional and personal development objectives. Article identifies and evaluates the performance of critical business managers working in textiles and leather industry, analyzing their competitive...

Stan Luciana Cristiana

2012-01-01

376

Auxiliaries for the textile industry and environmental protection  

OpenAIRE

The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, susta...

Visan, Sanda; Botez, Ligia Florica

2010-01-01

377

Strategic planning for the textile and clothing supply chain  

OpenAIRE

The expansion of textile and clothing production to Asian regions has both, increased competition and created a need for integration with the global supply chain. Strategies are being designed to improve competitiveness and responsiveness of the chains by increasing the diversification of products and value addition. This study formulates and examines the potential of such strategies and their implementation for textile and clothing chains originating from Pakistan. The strategies were develo...

Deedar Hussain; Manuel Figueiredo; Anabela Tereso; Fernando Ferreira

2012-01-01

378

Dynamic tensile test of single PET textile cables  

OpenAIRE

The tyres conception involves for certain applications, the use of textile cables as reinforcement. During its use, the tyre undergoes temperatures variations and dynamic loading rates. The consideration of these conditions during the numeric simulations requires the knowledge of the sensitivity of the mechanical behaviour to loading rate and temperature. In this paper, we developed an experimental methodology for testing textile cable up to high strain rate. The main difficulty of testing ca...

Pasco F.; Othman R.; Guégan P.; Bruant R.

2012-01-01

379

Removal of Heavy Metals from Textile Wastewater using Zeolite  

OpenAIRE

Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) are widely used for production of colour pigments of textile dyes. Textile dyes pollutants are being released to the environment at various stages of operation therefore it is necessary that the pollutants are treated before discharge using zeolite with and without alum. A study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of treatment using zeolite with and without alum for the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr...

Normala Halimoon

2010-01-01

380

Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton  

OpenAIRE

Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in th...

Solimar Garcia; Irenilza Alencar Nääs

2014-01-01

381

Image Retrieval Using Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters for Textile Pattern  

OpenAIRE

Unique pattern characteristics of textile pattern are proposed as a factor to consider in the image retrieval algorithm. Dual-tree complex wavelet and Rotated Complex Wavelet (RCW) transform are used to build feature value which is based on the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Then image retrieval method is established on the correlation sequence which is including the characteristics direction of textile pattern instead of the traditional means and variances. The results can be provides b...

Luo Ronglei

2013-01-01

382

A RECAPITULATION OF SCM IN CONJUNCTION WITH TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

This study is an endeavor to explore the supply chain management specifically in connection with textile/apparel industry of a developing country. A review of pertinent literature is conducted to explore the continuation of supply chain management and its existence in textile/apparel industry of a developing country. Databases such as: EBSCO Host, Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, and Science Direct are searched for the works concerned to supply chain management. The review of literature suggest...

Amer Rajput; Abdul Hamid Abu Bakar

2011-01-01

383

Biodegradation and decolourization of textile dye wastewater using Ganoderma lucidum  

OpenAIRE

In this work, treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried in a batch reactor using Ganoderma lucidum. The characteristics of textile dye wastewater were studied. The effect of process parameters like pH, temperature, agitation speed and dye wastewater concentration on dye decolourization and degradation were studied. These parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). From the results, the optimized conditions were: pH 6.6, temperature 26.5 °C, agitation speed 200?...

Selvakumar, Sathian; Manivasagan, Rajasimman; Chinnappan, Karthikeyan

2012-01-01

384

Preparation of activated carbon fibres from acrylic textiles fibres  

OpenAIRE

Acrylic textile fibres have been used to prepare activated carbon fibres (ACF). Characterisation by means of elemental analysis, XRD, SEM and low temperature nitrogen adsorption show that the properties of the acrylic ACF compare favourably with those of non-textile PAN, Kevlar and Nomex ACF. A particularly interesting, and never previously reported, feature was observed with fibres activated at 9008C. It was found, with one fibre in particular, that over a very limited range of b...

Nabais, Joao; Carrott, Peter; Ribeiro Carrott, Manuela

2001-01-01

385

Monofilament composites with carbon nanotubes for textile sensor applications  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to develop polymer matrix/carbon nanotube composite monofilaments to incorporate in textile products, to be used as sensors. The carbon nanotube polymer composite (CPC) monofilaments were produced with the required electrical and mechanical properties for the development of a textile sensor of water vapor. The monofilaments selected were formed by polylactic acid (PLA), and were incorporated directly into the fabrics. The presence of water induced a variation on the e...

Ferreira, Alexandre; Ferreira, Fernando; Paiva, M. C.; Oliveira, Bruno; Covas, J. A.

2011-01-01

386

Virucidal Nanofiber Textiles Based on Photosensitized Production of Singlet Oxygen  

OpenAIRE

Novel biomaterials based on hydrophilic polycaprolactone and polyurethane (Tecophilic®) nanofibers with an encapsulated 5,10,5,20-tetraphenylporphyrin photosensitizer were prepared by electrospinning. The doped nanofiber textiles efficiently photo-generate O2(1?g), which oxidize external chemical and biological substrates/targets. Strong photo-virucidal effects toward non-enveloped polyomaviruses and enveloped baculoviruses were observed on the surface of these textiles. The photo-virucidal...

Lhota?kova?, Yveta; Pli?s?til, Luka?s?; Mora?vkova?, Alena; Kuba?t, Pavel; Lang, Kamil; Forstova?, Jitka; Mosinger, Jir?i?

2012-01-01

387

Lithium-ion textile batteries with large areal mass loading  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We integrate Li-ion battery electrode materials into a 3D porous textile conductor by using a simple process. When compared to flat metal current collectors, our 3D porous textile conductor not only greatly facilitates the ability for a high active material mass loading on the battery electrode but also leads to better device performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Hu, Liangbing; La Mantia, Fabio; Wu, Hui; Xie, Xing; McDonough, James; Pasta, Mauro; Cui, Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

2011-11-15

388

Improving the appearance of all textile products from clothing to home textile using laser technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Denim trousers, commonly known as "blue jeans", have maintained their popularity for many years. For the purpose of supporting customers' purchasing behaviour and to address their aesthetic taste, companies have been trying in recent years to develop various techniques to improve the visual aspects of denim fabrics. These techniques mainly include printing on fabrics, embroidery and washing the final product. Especially, fraying certain areas of the fabric by sanding and stone washing to create designs is a popular technique. However, due to certain inconveniences caused by these procedures and in response to growing demands, research is underway to obtain a similar appearance by creating better quality and more advantageous manufacturing conditions. As is known, the laser is a source of energy which can be directed on desired objects and whose power and intensity can be easily controlled. Use of the laser enables us to cut a great variety of material from metal to fabric. Starting off from this point, we thought it would be possible to transfer certain designs onto the surface of textile material by changing the dye molecules in the fabric and creating alterations in its colour quality values by directing the laser to the material at reduced intensity. This study mainly deals with a machine specially designed for making use of laser beams to transfer pictures, figures as well as graphics of desired variety, size and intensity on all kinds of surfaces in textile manufacturing such as knitted—woven fabrics, leather, etc. at desired precision and without damaging the texture of the material. In the designed system, computer-controlled laser beams are used to change the colour of the dye material on the textile surface by directing the laser beams at a desired wavelength and intensity onto various textile surfaces selected for application. For this purpose, a laser beam source that can reach the initial level of power and that can be controlled by means of a computer interface; reflecting mirrors that can direct this beam at two axes; a galvanometer which comprised of an optical aperture; and a computer program that can transfer images obtained in standard formats to the galvanometer control card were used. Developing new designs by using the computer and transferring the designs that are obtained on textile surfaces will not only increase and facilitate the production in a more practical manner, but also help you to create identical designs. This means serial manufacturing of the products at a standard quality and increasing their added values. Moreover, creating textile designs using laser will also contribute to the value of the product as far as the consumer is concerned because it will not cause any wearing off and deformation in the texture of the fabric unlike the sanding and stoning processes. Another advantage of this system is that it gives a richer look to the product by causing the textile surfaces to get wrinkled and become three-dimensional by deformation as well as enabling you to create pictures and patterns on leather and synthetic fabrics by means of heat. As for the results of the study, the first step was to prepare 40 pairs of denim trousers, half of which were prepared manually and the other half by using laser beam. Time studies were made at every step of the production. So as to determine the abrasion degrees of the trousers in design applications, tensile strength as well as tensile extension tests were conducted for all the trousers.

Ondogan, Ziynet; Pamuk, Oktay; Ondogan, Ece Nuket; Ozguney, Arif

2005-11-01

389

Old at 40: Women in the Workplace.  

Science.gov (United States)

In providing an overview of the complex topic of mature women in the workplace, this report presents some of the known, and sometimes contradictory, facts about women and work. It is divided into three sections. The first section begins by detailing facts and figures regarding the older woman worker of the 1980s. Comparisons are made between men's…

Snyder, Eloise; And Others

390

Are Social Workers Sexist?  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the few controlled studies of the influence of sex bias on social workers' judgments produces dramatic findings that contradict the contentions of other studies of the subject. The study finds consistent pro-female, anti-male bias among the sampled social workers. (Author)

Fischer, Joel; And Others

1976-01-01

391

3D geometric modelling of hand-woven textile  

Science.gov (United States)

Geometric modeling and haptic rendering of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. A haptic representation is created by adding the physical properties of an object to its geometric configuration. While research has been conducted into geometric modeling of fabric, current systems require time-consuming manual recognition of textile specifications and data entry. The development of a generic approach for construction of the 3D geometric model of a woven textile is pursued in this work. The geometric model would be superimposed by a haptic model in the future work. The focus at this stage is on hand-woven textile artifacts for display in museums. A fuzzy rule based algorithm is applied to the still images of the artifacts to generate the 3D model. The derived model is exported as a 3D VRML model of the textile for visual representation and haptic rendering. An overview of the approach is provided and the developed algorithm is described. The approach is validated by applying the algorithm to different textile samples and comparing the produced models with the actual structure and pattern of the samples.

Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Conroy, D. Wood

2008-02-01

392

Median mononeuropathy among active workers: are there differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic workers?  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to determine whether symptomatic workers with an abnormal sensory nerve conduction study consistent with carpal tunnel syndrome differed, in terms of electrophysiologic measures, psychosocial, demographic, anthropometric, or ergonomic variables, from workers with an asymptomatic median mononeuropathy. This was a cross-sectional study of active workers at six different work sites. Cases were defined as workers with electrodiagnostic findings of a median mononeuropathy in either hand, based on a 0.5-msec prolongation of the median sensory evoked peak latency compared to the ulnar latency. This group was stratified on the basis of symptoms of numbness, tingling, burning or pain in the hand. The two groups were compared in terms of demographic, anthropomorphic, psychosocial, electrophysiologic, and ergonomic risk factors. Active workers from six different sites were tested; five sites involved manufacturing workers, and one site represented clerical workers. One hundred eighty-four active workers with a median mononeuropathy were documented on nerve conduction studies. These workers represented a subset of more than 700 workers screened at six different locations. The main outcome measure was the patient's report of symptoms of pain, numbness, tingling or burning in the hand or fingers that lasted more than 1 week or occurred three or more times at the initial screening. Workers with a median mononeuropathy who complained of hand symptoms were more likely to be female, to have jobs with higher hand repetition levels, to have higher ratings of job security, not to have a history of diabetes, to use more force in their job with more abnormal postures of their wrist and fingers, and to have a trend toward a more prolonged median sensory distal latency. Most logistic regression models explained less than 15% of the variance (pseudo R2). Women with jobs that have higher ergonomic risks and no history of diabetes were more likely to have reported symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome compared to other workers with a documented median mononeuropathy. Psychosocial variables were not particularly discriminatory. None of the models allows enough precision to predict on an individual basis. PMID:9513644

Werner, R A; Franzblau, A; Albers, J W; Armstrong, T J

1998-04-01

393

Latino Immigrant Women in Memphis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines the growing Latino population in Memphis and surrounding Shelby County (Tennessee), focusing on demography, Latino workers in the local economy, and a study of the needs and concerns of Hispanic immigrant women. The Hispanic population increased by 229 percent in Shelby County in the 1990s. In 2000, about half of the county's…

Mendoza, Marcela

394

Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers. PMID:18853641

García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

2008-09-01

395

Economic and employment potential in textile waste management of Faisalabad.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to characterize the waste from the textile industry, to identify the sources and types of waste generation and to find out the economic and employment potential in this sector. Textile waste, its management, and the economic and employment potential in this sector are unrevealed facts in developing countries such as Pakistan. The textile industry is ranked first in export earning in Pakistan. Textile export of yarn and cloth from Faisalabad is US$3 billion per year. On average 161 325 people are employed in the textile sector in Faisalabad, of which 11 860 are involved in solid waste handling and management. The textile industries generate solid wastes such as fibre, metal, plastic and paper waste. A total of 794 209 kg day(-1) (289 886 285 kg year(-1)) solid waste is produced from this sector and purchased by cotton waste junkshop owners at US$125 027 day(-1) (US$45 634 855 year(-1)). Only pre-consumer textile waste is considered. Interestingly no waste is sent to landfill. The waste is first segregated into different categories/ types by hand and then weighed. Cotton waste is sold to brick kilns where it is used as an alternative fuel as it is cheaper than wood/coal. Iron scrap is sold in the junk market from where it is resold to recycling industries. Paper waste is recycled, minimizing the virgin material used for producing new paper products. Iron and plastic drums are returned to the chemical industries for refilling, thus decreasing the cost of dyes and decreasing the demand for new drums. Cutting rags are used for making different things such as ropes and underlay, it is also shredded and used as fillings for pillows and mattresses, thus improving waste management, reducing cost and minimizing the need for virgin material. As no system of quality control and no monitoring of subsequent products exist there is a need to carry out quality control and monitoring. PMID:23439877

Noman, Muhammad; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhary, Muhammad Nawaz

2013-05-01

396

Skin physiology and textiles - consideration of basic interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of the skin, thermoregulation, antimicrobial defence and the skin-associated immune system are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. The stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. Mechanical properties like roughness of fabric surface are responsible for non-specific skin reactions like wool intolerance or keratosis follicularis. Thermoregulation, which is mediated by local blood flow and evaporation of sweat, is an important subject for textile-skin interactions. There are age-, gender- and activity-related differences in thermoregulation of skin that should be considered for the development of specifically designed fabrics. The skin is an important immune organ with non-specific and specific activities. Antimicrobial textiles may interfere with non-specific defence mechanisms like antimicrobial peptides of skin or the resident microflora. The use of antibacterial compounds like silver, copper or triclosan is a matter of debate despite their use for a very long period. Macromolecules with antimicrobial activity like chitosan that can be incorporated into textiles or inert material like carbon fibres or activated charcoal seem to be promising agents. Interaction of textiles with the specific immune system of skin is a rare event but may lead to allergic contact dermatitis. Electronic textiles and other smart textiles offer new areas of usage in health care and risk management but bear their own risks for allergies. PMID:16766877

Wollina, U; Abdel-Naser, M B; Verma, S

2006-01-01

397

Lightening the load for women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women. PMID:12319335

Buvinic, M

1995-01-01

398

Vocational training and gender: wages and occupational mobility among young workers  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the relationship between the gender wage gap, the choice of training occupation, and occupational mobility. We use longitudinal data for young workers with apprenticeship training in West Germany. Workers make occupational career choices early during their careers and women and men pursue very different occupational careers. We reconsider whether through oc- cupational segregation women are locked in low wage careers (Kunze, 2005) or whether they can move up to higher ...

Fitzenberger, Bernd; Kunze, Astrid

2005-01-01

399

Exposure of workers to a mixture of toluene and xylenes. I. Metabolism.  

OpenAIRE

The urinary excretion of hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid was studied in workers (233 subjects; 122 men and 111 women) exposed to toluene and xylenes in combination and in non-exposed controls (281 subjects; 141 men and 140 women) recruited from the same factories or factories of the same regions. Smoking and drinking habits of the subjects were obtained by medical interviews. From each worker, one urine sample was collected at the end of a shift and analysed for hippuric and methylhippu...

Huang, M. Y.; Jin, C.; Liu, Y. T.; Li, B. H.; Qu, Q. S.; Uchida, Y.; Inoue, O.; Nakatsuka, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, M.

1994-01-01

400

ASSESMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AMBER CHARKHA AND ERGONOMIC EVALUATION OF WORKERS  

OpenAIRE

Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input). There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber ch...

Thakre, G. V.; Patil, S. G.; Agrawal, D. N.

2011-01-01

401

16 CFR 303.23 - Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textile fiber products containing superimposed or added fibers. 303.23 Section 303.23 Commercial...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.23...

2010-01-01

402

78 FR 11159 - Determination under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Dybczak, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S...22--Initial >= 90 points; 10x wash >= 70 points. High light fastness...to be followed by the mill in sourcing yarn used...the Implementation of Textile Agreements. [FR...

2013-02-15

403

The Tripod Approach : A Systematic and Structured Framework to Designing Applied Textiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The term ‘next to my skin’ is frequently used as a way to describe the close bonds between human beings and textiles. It is also widely accepted within the broad field of textile professionals that textile attributes related to emotional value – for example hand, look and drape – can be a make-and-break decision for a company. However textile design research has shown that experience of emotional value is closely connected to fabric perception, and much literature suggests that textiles are experienced by a combination of sensory evaluation and memory associations. This paper introduces the Tripod Approach as a framework that can support designing the stimuli, which can lead to personal experiences of emotional value in relation to applied textiles. It can be used to access the relevant level of entry in the textile design process focusing on appropriate design parameters, and support designing the textile as part of an overall context.

Bang, Anne Louise

2012-01-01

404

BINGE DRINKING, SMOKING AND MARIJUANA USE: THE ROLE OF WOMEN's LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzed the role of women's labor force participation in relation to binge drinking, smoking and marijuana use among employment age married/cohabiting women. The sample consisted of 956 women who were employed as construction workers (n=104), or were unemployed (n=101), homemakers (n=227) or employed in non-physically demanding occupations (n=524). Results of multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women construction workers were at elevated risk for smoking and mont...

Cunradi, Carol B.; Ames, Genevieve M.; Xiao, Hong

2014-01-01

405

Worker Participation in Yugoslavia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Issues raised by the Yugoslavian practice of worker self-management are examined: government flexibility, effects of cultural pluralism and adult education, structural changes and trends, and social class formation. (SK)

Foley, Griff

1984-01-01

406

Pesticides: Protecting Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... to mitigate risks associated with the use of older pesticides while preserving their benefits. In many cases, EPA made significant changes to increase protection for workers as part of the reregistration process. More recently, ...

407

THE APPLICATION OF COLLABORATIVE DESIGN IN TAIWAN’S TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

Due to Taiwan join WTO and quotas cancellation, textile goods faced global competition. With the short life cycle of the textile market and demand uncertainty in market, it leads to increasing pressure on the textile industry. Brand vendors start to search partners and hope to solve these problems through information sharing and collaboration. After sixty-year’s development, textile industry in Taiwan had established a complete supply chain system. Beside, the ROC Government promoted electr...

Ming-Kuen Chen; Wei-You Sun

2010-01-01

408

Study on Chinese Textile Industry Promotion in View of External Variables  

OpenAIRE

Accounting for current situation of the study on Chinese textile industry promotion it is put forward that industrial promotion of Chinese textile industry should be studied in view of system, which means both internal variables and external variables should be paid attention to. In this way measures observed could be operational and practical. Because internal variables of textile industrial system have been fully discussed, industry promotion of china textile should be analyzed in view of e...

Yanling Jia

2009-01-01

409

Dependency and Worker Flirting  

OpenAIRE

The present paper concentrates on 'worker flirting' as one of the forms of interactional ritual in the culture of an organization. It is thus only an illustration of the interactional dimension of the culture of an organization. The paper deals with interactional ritual in an industrial organization and is based on an empirical study carried out in a radio-electrical plant, "Z," which employs 1,500 workers. The author carried out a period of three-months covert participant observation and...

Konecki, Krzysztof

1990-01-01

410

Color reduction in textile effluents by membranes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In this study, the efficiency of polymeric membranes in terms of reductions in color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in textile industry effluents was investigated. Effluents containing different mixtures of dyes, taken from different processing stages, and some pure dyes in aqueous solution were u [...] sed. Five membranes were used, three commercial ones produced by Osmonics (two nanofiltration M1 and NF-HL and one reverse osmosis SG) and two ultrafiltration (UF) membranes prepared in the laboratory using PES (polyethersulfone) named T1 and T2. Each membrane, due to its particular chemical nature and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), had distinct values for permeate flux, and color, conductivity and COD reductions. After stabilization, the permeate flux varied from 20 to 71 L/h/m² and the dye retention from 81 to 100%. For aqueous solutions containing pure dyes, the permeate flux varied from 57 to 119 L/h/m², depending on the temperature used in the process. Membrane M1 showed a good performance; when considering the values for permeate flux (66 L/h/m²) and color reduction (99.3%).

A.A., Ulson De Souza; J.C.C., Petrus; F.P., Santos; H.L., Brandão; S.M.A., Guelli U. Souza; L.N., Juliano.

2009-01-01

411

In vitro osteoclastogenesis on textile chitosan scaffold  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile chitosan fibre scaffolds were evaluated in terms of interaction with osteoclast-like cells, derived from human primary monocytes. Part of the scaffolds was further modified by coating with fibrillar collagen type I in order to make the surface biocompatible. Monocytes were cultured directly on the scaffolds in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL for up to 18 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the formation of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells on both the raw chitosan fibres and the collagen-coated scaffolds. The modified surface supported the osteoclastogenesis. Differentiation towards the osteoclastic lineage was confirmed by the microscopic detection of cathepsin K, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, acidic compartments using 3-(2,4-dinitroanillino-3’-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP, immunological detection of TRAP isoform 5b, and analysis of gene expression of the osteoclastic markers TRAP, cathepsin K, vitronectin receptor, and calcitonin receptor using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The feature of the collagen-coated but also of the raw chitosan fibre scaffolds to support attachment and differentiation of human monocytes facilitates cell-induced material resorption – one main requirement for successful bone tissue engineering.

C Heinemann

2010-02-01

412

Radiation haunts shipyard workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The apparent link recently found by Dr. Najarian between cancer among workers at a US Naval dockyard where up to 5000 civilian employees have been exposed to low dose irradiation while servicing nuclear ships and their radiation exposure is discussed. The study has revealed that 38.4% of the deaths of nuclear workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in New Hampshire were caused by cancer while the comparable rate for non-nuclear shipyard workers was 21.7% and the national average in the United States is 18%. The Portsmouth study, launched in October 1977, was based on a survey of 1722 death certificates of shipyard employees and interviews with 592 next-of-kin. In addition the results show that the rate of leukaemia of the shipyard workers was 450% higher than that of the general population, and the incidence of lymph gland cancers was 125% higher than the national rate. The most startling statistics compared mortality among workers aged 60 to 69. In this age group nearly 60% of the nuclear employees had died of cancer, while the cancer death rate among non-nuclear workers was only 26%. If these results are confirmed present ideas concerning the effects of low doses of radiation must be challenged. (U.K.)

413

Advanced worker protection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

414

Smart fabric sensors and e-textile technologies: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a review of recent developments in the rapidly changing and advancing field of smart fabric sensor and electronic textile technologies. It summarizes the basic principles and approaches employed when building fabric sensors as well as the most commonly used materials and techniques used in electronic textiles. This paper shows that sensing functionality can be created by intrinsic and extrinsic modifications to textile substrates depending on the level of integration into the fabric platform. The current work demonstrates that fabric sensors can be tailored to measure force, pressure, chemicals, humidity and temperature variations. Materials, connectors, fabric circuits, interconnects, encapsulation and fabrication methods associated with fabric technologies prove to be customizable and versatile but less robust than their conventional electronics counterparts. The findings of this survey suggest that a complete smart fabric system is possible through the integration of the different types of textile based functional elements. This work intends to be a starting point for standardization of smart fabric sensing techniques and e-textile fabrication methods.

Castano, Lina M.; Flatau, Alison B.

2014-05-01

415

[Use of Reusable Textile Undergloves for Medical Procedures: A Feasibility Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Undergloves are a way to reduce moisture-related skin damage. The aim of this feasibility study was to gain experience with logistics, applicability, acceptability and cost of the routine use of reusable textile undergloves in a hospital setting. Methods: Undergloves were tested with 18 health-care workers on an intensive care unit over three months. Data on usage as well as logistics were recorded. At baseline, personal data and knowledge and use of cotton undergloves, existing skin problems and the nursing behaviour of the hands by the subjects were determined by means of an input questionnaire. After each wearing, data on usage were collected by a questionnaire. Participants were interviewed by means of a questionnaire with respect to their experience with the use of the undergloves. Results: Acceptance and compliance with the use of undergloves was remarkably good. This was partly due to the properties of the gloves, and partly to the reduction of sweating and very positive effect on the skin of the hands. In the study period 2165 underglove uses were documented, resulting in an average daily consumption of four pairs per person per day. The average wearing time was 28.6?min. The undergloves were suitable for application as well as reprocessing. Reprocessment-related fatigue was relatively low and did not lead to the loss of the properties, only few gloves had to be sorted out. Even if one assumes a complete write-off of the gloves with end of the study, costs for reprocessing were about 0.46?€ or 64?% less than the single use. Conclusion: The routine use of textile, reprocessable undergloves is feasible. Major challenges for broad usage are within logistics and acceptance by the user. PMID:24771217

Hübner, N-O; Rubbert, K; Pohrt, U; Heidecke, C-D; Partecke, L I; Kramer, A

2014-04-25

416

International Student-Workers in Australia: A New Vulnerable Workforce  

Science.gov (United States)

In the period immediately preceding the 2007 Australian election, much attention was accorded to the impact of the nation's labour laws on vulnerable employees. This debate centred on specific groups including women, youth, migrants and workers on individual employment contracts. International students, by contrast, were ignored in the debate.…

Nyland, Chris; Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati; Smith, Sharon

2009-01-01

417

Silver speciation and release in commercial antimicrobial textiles as influenced by washing  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of nanoscale Ag in textiles is one the most often mentioned uses of nano-Ag. It has previously been shown that significant amounts of the Ag in the textiles are released upon washing. However, the form of Ag present in the textiles remains largely unknown as product label...

418

16 CFR 1610.33 - Test procedures for textile fabrics and film.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. 1610.33 Section 1610.33 Commercial...Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. (a)(1) All textile fabrics...Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film, and if such coated fabrics do not...

2010-01-01

419

16 CFR 1611.33 - Test procedures for textile fabrics and film.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. 1611.33 Section 1611.33 Commercial...STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations § 1611.33 Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. (a)(1) All textile...

2010-01-01

420

19 CFR 10.554 - Exclusion of textile or apparel goods for intentional circumvention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Exclusion of textile or apparel goods for intentional circumvention... § 10.554 Exclusion of textile or apparel goods for intentional circumvention...territory of the United States textile or apparel goods produced or exported by that...

2010-04-01

421

76 FR 16531 - Country of Origin of Textile and Apparel Products; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...1505-AB60) Country of Origin of Textile and Apparel Products; Correction AGENCIES: U.S...to the country of origin of textile and apparel products. The final rule document contained...concerning the country of origin of textile and apparel products. The Background portion of...

2011-03-24

422

19 CFR 102.22 - Rules of origin for textile and apparel products of Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Rules of origin for textile and apparel products of Israel. 102.22 Section...22 Rules of origin for textile and apparel products of Israel. (a) Applicability...purposes of determining whether a textile or apparel product, as defined in §...

2010-04-01

423

19 CFR 10.453 - Treatment of textile and apparel sets.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Treatment of textile and apparel sets. 10.453 Section 10.453... § 10.453 Treatment of textile and apparel sets. Notwithstanding the specific...General Note 26(n), HTSUS, textile and apparel goods classifiable as goods put up in...

2010-04-01

424

78 FR 31886 - Interim Procedures for Considering Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Requests From the Public for Textile and Apparel Safeguard Actions on Imports From Panama...requests from the public for textile and apparel safeguard actions. The President has...whether imports of a Panamanian textile or apparel article are causing serious...

2013-05-28

425

19 CFR 10.472 - Verification in the United States of textile and apparel goods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Verification in the United States of textile and apparel goods. 10.472 Section 10.472...Verification in the United States of textile and apparel goods. (a) Procedures to determine...that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate. A...

2010-04-01

426

Speaking through Cloth: Teaching Hmong History and Culture through Textile Art.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urges social studies educators to explore textile art and interviews with textile artists as a tool for fostering understanding and empathy for Hmong Americans. Summarizes Hmong history and culture as they lived traditionally in Laos, as refugees in Thailand, and as immigrants in the United States suggesting examples of textile art. (CMK)

McCall, Ava L.

1999-01-01

427

Pulmonary Symptoms and Functions in Cotton Factory Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the effects of chronic cotton dust exposure on respiratorytract.We planned a cross sectional study in cotton textile workers. Meanworking period of all subjects had been calculated as 18.0 ± 3.7 years. Atotal of 250 (95.4% out of 262 were administered a respiratoryquestionnaire and all subjects were examined, and subjected to spirometricevaluation. 146 (%58.4 workers were exposed to cotton dust.Onehundredfour (41.6% subjects working in places without dust wereregarded as control group.No statistically significant difference in respiratory symptoms, signs andspirometric parameters was found between study groups. In spirometricevaluations, in those having complained of symptoms compatible withallergic rhinitis and byssinosis PEFR, in those with bronchialhyperreactivity FEV1, PEFR and MMEF and in those with physicalexamination findings FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR, MMEF values weresignificantly lower.No statistically significant impairment of pulmonary system wasdetected in workers due to chronic cotton dust exposure for 18 years.

Candan Ö?ü?

2004-01-01

428

Anthropometry, dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of Malaysian estate workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 ± 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 ± 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134

Chee, S; Zawiah, H; Ismail, M; Ng, K

1996-09-01

429

Transformers: Shape-Changing Space Systems Built with Robotic Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior approaches to transformer-like robots had only very limited success. They suffer from lack of reliability, ability to integrate large surfaces, and very modest change in overall shape. Robots can now be built from two-dimensional (2D) layers of robotic fabric. These transformers, a new kind of robotic space system, are dramatically different from current systems in at least two ways. First, the entire transformer is built from a single, thin sheet; a flexible layer of a robotic fabric (ro-fabric); or robotic textile (ro-textile). Second, the ro-textile layer is foldable to small volume and self-unfolding to adapt shape and function to mission phases.

Stoica, Adrian

2013-01-01

430

Effect of color removal agent on textiles waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)

431

Biomimicry in textiles: past, present and potential. An overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural world around us provides excellent examples of functional systems built with a handful of materials. Throughout the millennia, nature has evolved to adapt and develop highly sophisticated methods to solve problems. There are numerous examples of functional surfaces, fibrous structures, structural colours, self-healing, thermal insulation, etc., which offer important lessons for the textile products of the future. This paper provides a general overview of the potential of bioinspired textile structures by highlighting a few specific examples of pertinent, inherently sustainable biological systems. Biomimetic research is a rapidly growing field and its true potential in the development of new and sustainable textiles can only be realized through interdisciplinary research rooted in a holistic understanding of nature. PMID:21325320

Eadie, Leslie; Ghosh, Tushar K

2011-06-01

432

Preparation of Fragrant Microencapsules and Coating on Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

A microcapsule is a small sphere with a uniform wall around it. Microcapsules range in diameter from 1 to 1000 ?m. The move by the more developed countries into textiles with new properties and added value, into medical and technical textiles, has encouraged the industry to use microencapsulation process as a means of imparting finishes and properties on textiles which were not possible or cost-effective using other technology. Numerous attempts have been made at adding fragrances directly to fiber and fabrics but all fail to survive after one or two wash cycle. Only through microencapsulation, fragrances are able to remain on a garment during a significant part of its lifetime. This research has tried to prepare microcapsules with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as wall and Rose fragrance as core.

Shah Jafari, M. H.; Parvinzadeh, M.; Najafi, F.

2007-08-01

433

Antistiction technique using elastomer contact structure in woven electronic textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present an antistiction technique using an elastomer contact structure in woven electronic textiles (e-textiles). A coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in the form of a solid conductive film on a hemispherical silicone elastomer structure is employed in creating an electrical circuit embedded into the fabric of a woven e-textile, where the contact structure reduces the contact area and capillary force generated by the moisture in air between weft and warp ribbons. Stiction occurs between a weft and a warp without the contact structure under an RH of 80%, and the detachment of the stuck ribbon requires a delamination load of about 0.2 N. On the other hand, in the case of contact between the contact structure and the ribbon coated with plain PEDOT:PSS, stiction does not occur as the relative humidity increases from 20 to 80%.

Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Miyake, Koji; Itoh, Toshihiro

2014-01-01

434

Flexible fiber batteries for applications in smart textiles  

CERN Document Server

Here we discuss two alternative approaches for building flexible batteries for applications in smart textiles. The first approach uses well-studied inorganic electrochemistry (Al-NaOCl galvanic cell) and innovative packaging in order to produce batteries in a slender and flexible fiber form that can be further weaved directly into the textiles. During fabrication process the battery electrodes are co-drawn within a microstructured polymer fiber, which is later filled with liquid electrolyte. The second approach describes Li-ion chemistry within solid polymer electrolytes that are used to build a fully solid and soft rechargeable battery that can be furthermore stitched onto a textile, or integrated as stripes during weaving process.

Qu, Hang; Rolland, Julien; Vlad, Alexandru; Gohy, Jean-François; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

2013-01-01

435

Numerical Simulation of Textile Composite Stamping On Double Dome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stamping is one of the most effective ways to form textile composites in industry for providing high-strength, low-weight and cost-effective products. This paper presents a fully continuum mechanics-based approach for stamping simulation of textile fiber reinforced composites by using finite element (FE) method. A previously developed non-orthogonal constitutive model is used to represent the anisotropic mechanical behavior of textile composites under large deformation during stamping. Simulation are performed on a balanced plain weave composite with 0 deg./90 deg. and ±45 deg. as initial yarn orientation over a benchmark double dome device. Simulation results show good agreement with experimental output in terms of a number of parameters selected for comparison.

436

Potential applications of nanofiber textile covered by carbon coatings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Nanospider technology is modified electrospinning method for production nanofiber textile from polymer solutions. This material can be used as wound dressing and filter materials for example. Carbon coatings deposited onto surface of polymer nanofiber textiles are predicted to improve filtration effectivity of filters and bioactivity of wound dressings. Carbon coatings have been produced by Microwave Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW/RF PACVD method.Design/methodology/approach: Carbon coatings were deposited on polymer nanofiber textile by MW/RF PACVD method. Nanocomposite obtained in this way was characterized by the contact angle studies and by scanning electron microscope (SEM.Findings: Carbon coatings can be deposited on the polymer nanofibers by MW/RF PACVD method. Content of diamond phase in produced carbon coatings has been confirmed by wetability test. A SEM microscopic images have shown that the spaces between the nanofibers have not been closed by the material of the film.Research limitations/implications: MW/RF PACVD makes carbon coating synthesis possible in lower temperature, what is essential in case of applying the polymer substrate. Use of any other method than MW/RF PACVD for deposition of carbon coatings onto polymer nanofiber textile is not covered in this paper.Practical implications: Nanofiber textile produced by Nanospider is very good mechanical filter. Carbon onto surface of nanofibers can cause from this material active filter. Since this nanocomposite enables the transport of oxygen and exudate, simultaneously is impenetrable for bacteria or even viruses, it can be used for wound dressing.Originality/value: It is our belief that we are first to have deposited carbon coatings on nanofiber textile. We hope that in this way we have prepared very good material for filtration of air and for wound dressing.

Z. Ro?ek

2008-03-01

437

Excretion of 1,2,4-benzenetriol in the urine of workers exposed to benzene.  

OpenAIRE

Urine samples were collected from 152 workers (64 men, 88 women) who had been exposed to benzene, 53 workers (men only) exposed to a mixture of benzene and toluene, and 213 non-exposed controls (113 men, 100 women). The samples were analysed for 1,2,4-benzentriol (a minor metabolite of benzene) by high performance liquid chromatography. The time weighted average solvent exposure of each worker was monitored by diffusive sampling technique. The urinary concentration of 1,2,4-benzentriol relate...

Inoue, O.; Seiji, K.; Nakatsuka, H.; Watanabe, T.; Yin, S.; Li, G. L.; Cai, S. X.; Jin, C.; Ikeda, M.

1989-01-01

438

Textile dyeing industry an environmental hazard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Color is the main attraction of any fabric. No matter how excellent its constitution, if unsuitably colored it is bound to be a failure as a commercial fabric. Manufacture and use of synthetic dyes for fabric dyeing has therefore become a massive industry today. In fact the art of applying color to fabric has been known to mankind since 3500 BC. WH Perkins in 1856 discovered the use of synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyes have provided a wide range of colorfast, bright hues. However their toxic nature has become a cause of grave concern to environmentalists. Use of synthetic dyes has an adverse effect on all forms of life. Presence of sulphur, naphthol, vat dyes, nitrates, acetic acid, soaps, enzymes chromium compounds and heavy metals like copper, arsenic, lead, cad- mium, mercury, nickel, and cobalt and certain auxiliary chemicals all collectively make the textile effluent highly toxic. Other harmful chemicals present in the water may be formaldehyde based dye fixing agents, chlorinated stain removers, hydro carbon based softeners, non bio degradable dyeing chemicals. These organic materials react with many disinfectants especially chlorine and form by products (DBP’S that are often carcinogenic and therefore undesirable. Many of these show allergic reactions. The colloidal matter present along with colors and oily scum increases the turbidity, gives the water a bad appearance and foul smell and prevents the penetration of sunlight necessary for the process of photosynthesis. This in turn interferes with the Oxygen transfer mechanism at air water interface which in turn interferes with marine life and self purification process of water. This effluent if allowed to flow in the fields’ clogs the pores of the soil resulting in loss of soil productivity. If allowed to flow in drains and rivers it effects the quality of drinking water in hand pumps making it unfit for human consumption. It is important to remove these pollutants from the waste waters before their final disposal.

Rita Kant

2011-12-01

439

Bacterial Influence on Textile Wastewater Decolorization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to isolate and optimize bacterial strains having the ability to degrade and decolorize azo dyes produced in the final effluent of textile dying industries. In this regard, ten bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater treatment plants, and most of them were subjected to the colored effluents resulting from dilapidated houses. The ability of these bacterial isolations to use a wide range of azo dyes to determine the sole carbon source was determined. According to these screening testes, two bacterial isolations were selected as the most potent decolorizer for azo dyes, and they were identified as Comamanas acidovorns-TN1 and Burkholdera cepace-TN5. The optimization process started with the addition of 1 g/l yeast extract, where the decolorization ability of the two strains increased sharply and according to this experiment, the two azo dyes, Acid orange 7 and Direct blue 75, were selected to complete the study. The effect of different conditional and chemical factors on the decolorization process of Acid orange 7 and Direct blue 75 by Comamanas acidovorns-TN1 and Burkholdera cepace-TN5 was studied. Factors that contributed to the difference were different pH, temperature, incubation period, inoculum size, carbon source, nitrogen source and the respective concentrations of yeast extract. This study recommends the application of the two most potent bacterial strains in the decolorization of the azo dyes, along with acid orange 7 and direct blue 75, specifically in the industrial effluents under all nutritional and environmental conditions.

Cuiling Jiang

2012-08-01

440

A Study on Energy Conservation in Textile Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

In textile mill, electricity consumption is in increasing trend, due to modernised machines and continuous usage of the equipments in inefficient operating parameters. The energy cost is around 15 % to 20 % over the production cost and it stands next to raw material cost. Hence now a day's area of focus is towards energy consumption at load end and by optimizing the efficiency of the motor. In this paper, influence of motors and process of optimisation in textile mill on energy conservation is discussed with practical data.

Dhayaneswaran, Y.; Ashokkumar, L.

2013-03-01