BACKGROUND: Exposure to cotton is known to produce a specific occupational disease known as byssinosis. A large population of textile workers was investigated to determine whether such exposure was also associated with chronic bronchitis once other possible aetiological factors had been accounted for. METHODS: A total of 2991 workers were investigated for the presence of symptoms compatible with chronic bronchitis. An MRC adapted respiratory questionnaire and MRC definition of chronic b...
Niven, R. M.; Fletcher, A. M.; Pickering, C. A.; Fishwick, D.; Warburton, C. J.; Simpson, J. C.; Francis, H.; Oldham, L. A.
The present cross sectional study on prevalence of hypertension was carried out among 514 cotton textile workers of Shri Bapurao Deshmukh Sut Gimi, Wardha. Using standard guidelines for measuring blood pressure and standard criteria for diagnosis of hypertension, 20.2% of the subjects were found to have raised systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among persons aged 35 years or more, in the present occupation for 10 years or more and those working in more noisy department. PMID:14723294
Tiwai, R R; Pathak, M C; Zodpey, S P; Babar, V Y
Full Text Available The observational cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 100 women workers who volunteered, outlines their cardio-respiratory and musculo-skeletal profile before, during and at end of work. In addition, information on their health status in general was collected in advance. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant change in respiratory function. However, the musculo-skeletal problems were found to be abundantly present with pain in 91% of the subjects. Region-wise mapping of pain revealed that postural pain in low back was present in 47% while in neck was 19%. Scapular muscles on the right side were involved in stabilizing shoulder, which never went overhead. On the contrary, left shoulder was raised as high (>90 degrees in spinning action, while pulling thread. This muscle work involved trapezius, deltoid and triceps action concentrically in lifting and while coming to starting position slowly, eccentrically. There was no pause since the wheel continued to spin the thread continuously, unless a worker opted to stop the work. Accordingly, left wrist and hand were in holding contraction while the right wrist and hand holding the handle were also in a fixed position with wrist in flexion with supinated forearm. Though the overall job was light as per peak HR, there was pain due to fatigue and grip strength weakened by around 10%, at the end of the day?s work. In conclusion, pain and fatigue were found to be the main problems for women in the spinning section of the small-scale industry under this study. Women have to take up dual responsibility of a full-time job as well as the domestic work. It was considered that ergonomic factors such as provision of a backrest and frequent rest periods could remediate the musculo-skeletal symptoms.
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare lung disease characterized by small calculi, called calsispheritis, in the alveoli. The disease usually presents at age 20 to 30 years and is mostly diagnosed incidentally or detected on routine pulmonary roentgenograms. The radiologic findings are pathognomonic for the disease. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis most frequently appears in Turkey, followed by Italy. We present the case of a 29-year-old female textile worker found to have widespread micronodules after a routine pulmonary roentgenogram. PMID:19699880
Akyildiz, Elif Ulker; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ogur, Umit
Abstract Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogethe...
Stukonis Mecys; Kuzmickiene Irena
Full Text Available Here we analyze one of the integration strategies Argentine Communist Party policy towards the workers in the textile industry: the women's organization. To analyze gender relations within the working class developed a specific methodology is to examine the intra-and intersexo-género/clase, which was used in this study. As a result of this investigation it was realized that this policy implemented by communism influenced the increase in female membership in the Textile Workers Union during the '30s and the first half of the '40s
Purpose of review Over 60 million people worldwide work in the textile or clothing industry. Recent studies have recognized the contribution of workplace exposures to chronic lung diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early studies in textile workers have focused on the relationship between hemp or cotton dust exposure and the development of a syndrome termed Byssinosis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of long term exposure to organic dust in textile workers on chronic respiratory disease in the broader context of disease classifications such as reversible or irreversible obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma or COPD), and restrictive lung disease. Recent findings Cessation of exposure to cotton dusts leads to improvement in lung function. Recent animal models have suggested a shift in the lung macrophage:dendritic cell population as a potential mechanistic explanation for persistent inflammation in the lung due to repeated cotton-dust related endotoxin exposure. Other types of textile dust, such as silk, may contribute to COPD in textile workers. Summary Textile dust related obstructive lung disease has characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of chronic lung disease due to organic dust exposure in textile workers. PMID:23361196
Lai, Peggy S.; Christiani, David C.
Full Text Available Introduction: Textile sector in India plays an important role in the country's economy, providing employment to a significant population in rural and urban areas. Objectives: This paper focuses on health and safety aspects of textile workers in Solapur City (one of the key textile cluster in the state of Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A sample of 180 workers from the identified textile industries of Solapur city were assessed for their general physique, muscle tone, lung condition, and eyesight using different techniques. The study aimed at developing a framework for understanding risks to textile workers resulting from lack of health and safety standards in companies. Results: Findings showed that most of the workers have been affected by respiratory problems, increase in muscle tone, eye problems and musculoskeletal problem. It has been also observed that job security or regular work impacts positively to the worker’s long term body health. However, there is an immediate need to adopt and implement measures in accordance with Indian Factories Act (OHSAS 18001/ILO-OSH 2001 which includes directions and procedures in respect of industrial installations, work environment and occupational health and safety guidelines.
Rahul B Hiremath
Full Text Available Abstract Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19, for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25. The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73. The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers.
One of the most cited criticism for US fashion brands is their exploitation of workers in their overseas manufacturing facilities. This paper studies whether such textile and apparel production facilities (also known as “sweatshops”) lead to lower education and thus a lower socio-economic status for women working in them. Results suggest it is not as a clear-cut conclusion. Evidence suggests a higher ratio of women receive primary education as apparel and textile exports increase while a...
A cohort of 889 men and 1077 women employed for at least 1 month between 1946 and 1984 by a former Italian leading asbestos (mainly textile) company, characterised by extremely heavy exposures often for short durations, was followed up to 1996, for a total of 53,024 person-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from factory personnel records, while vital status and causes of death were ascertained through municipality registers and local health units. We observed 222 cancer death...
Pira, E.; Pelucchi, C.; Buffoni, L.; Palmas, A.; Turbiglio, M.; Negri, E.; Piolatto, P. G.; La Vecchia, C.
A historical prospective mortality study was conducted at a glass filament plant in Ontario, Canada. The cohort consisted of 1465 men and women who had worked for a total of at least one year between 1951 (when the operations began) and 1986. Ninety six deaths were found in the 96% of persons traced. Mortality was compared by the person-years method with that of the Ontario population. An estimate of cumulative dust exposure was made based on long term employees' recollections of past conditi...
Shannon, H. S.; Jamieson, E.; Julian, J. A.; Muir, D. C.
Full Text Available Introduction Female workers in textile and metal industry are exposed to various physical and chemical hazards that can lead to the occurrence of gynaecological diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of gynaecological diseases among workers of textile and metal industries. METHOD The investigation comprised 197 female workers, 148 from textile and 49 from metal industry, aged from 26 to 57 years. All subjects were hospitalized based on non-gynaecological diagnoses. Gynaecological diagnoses included: tumours of the genital organs and breasts, cervical ectopy and lacerations, inflammatory diseases, disturbances of static of genital organs, cysts, and irregularities of menstrual cycle. Results Textile workers were significantly younger than metal workers, but the groups were comparable according to total and exposure work-time, qualifications and diagnosis on hospital admission. Gynaecological diseases were diagnosed among all investigated subjects. About 80% were diagnosed with tumours and inflammatory diseases. A highly statistically significant difference was observed among groups according to the presence of cervical ectopy and lacerations, which were more frequent among textile workers. Conclusion Comparison of gynaecological status of workers revealed that, among textile workers, cervical ectopy and lacerations were more frequent than among workers in metal industry. .
A project explored and addressed the communication barriers to union participation of stewards and members of the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU). A questionnaire was developed and distributed to over 300 ACTWU members; 153 responded. Other commitments and communication skills were identified as key barriers to greater…
Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Workers in the cotton processing industries risk developing obstructive respiratory conditions due to prolonged exposure to cotton dust. We noted a tenfold increase in asthma among workers in a Textile Manufacturing Company. We determined the prevalence of respiratory obstructive conditions among workers in various sections. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional analytic study. Workers were randomly sampled and data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Respiratory function was assessed using spirometry and chest auscultation. A walk through survey was conducted and a checklist was used to capture hazards and control measures in the work place. RESULTS: A total of 194 workers participated. The prevalence of severe respiratory obstruction was 27.8%. It was 50.0% among the blowers, 35.3% in waste recovery, 32.5% in carders, 15.0% in spinners and 7.5% among weavers. The mean years of exposure between the affected and the non-affected were significantly different (T =2.20; p less than 0.05. Working in the blowing department was significantly associated with developing respiratory obstruction (OR=3.53; 95% CI= 1.61- 7.79 but working in the weaving department was significantly protective (OR 0.16; CI 0.04-0.59.Working in a department for less than 10 years was protective (OR =0.94; 95% CI= 0.48- 1.85, but not significant. CONCLUSION: Obstructive respiratory conditions are common among textile workers, with those in blowing and waste recovery sections being the most affected. We recommended worker rotation every six months, regular spirometric screening employment of a medical officer.
Objective: Violence against women is a common social problem. Gender inequality is origin of the violence against women. Health workers have responsibilities in supplying medical care, support and counseling to the mistreated of the violence. This descriptive study was planned for the purpose to determine attitude of the healthcare workers to violence against women. Material and Methods: In this research, 94 healthcare workers from seven different types of hospital (4 public hospitals, 2 priv...
Rojin Mamuk; Saadet Yaz?c?
Full Text Available Objective: Violence against women is a common social problem. Gender inequality is origin of the violence against women. Health workers have responsibilities in supplying medical care, support and counseling to the mistreated of the violence. This descriptive study was planned for the purpose to determine attitude of the healthcare workers to violence against women. Material and Methods: In this research, 94 healthcare workers from seven different types of hospital (4 public hospitals, 2 private hospitals, one university hospital in ?stanbul have been contacted. Data were collected with a 34 item questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Percentage was used in the data analysis. Results: According to the research findings even 95.7% of the healthcare workers had indicated that the violence against the women is only “harmfull physical action against the women”. “What is the basis of violence against the women?” had been answered by 59.5% of the same healthcare workers as “This is due to the patriarchal society we live in.” Scary answer was that 61.7% of the same healthcare workers agreed that “to attempt to rape is women’s provocation” as is the general belief in society. Conclusion: It can be said that the approach of the healthcare workers is similar with the view and attitude related to women’s sexual role expectancy which is internalized by traditional cultures of Turks.
A combination of crises and innovative attempts to manage them that began in 1980 transformed the relationship between Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, which represents most of Xerox's manufacturing employees. Eight pivotal episodes were largely responsible for the transformation. The first was a joint…
Chrysotile asbestos has continued to be mined and used in China, but its health effects on exposed workers have not been well documented. This study was conducted to give a complete picture about cause-specific mortality in Chinese asbestos workers. A cohort of 586 males and 279 females from a chrysotile textile factory were prospectively followed for 37 years. Their vital status was identified, and the date and underlying cause of death were verified from death registry. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios by gender were computed with nationwide gender- and cause-specific mortality rates as reference. Male workers were 11 years older, and had 6 years longer exposure duration than females; 79% in males and 1% in females smoked. In males, the mortality rate of all cancers doubled; both larynx and lung cancer were four-fold, and mesothelioma was 33-fold. In females, there was slightly excess mortality from lung cancer and all cancers, and significant increase in mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. Other significantly increased mortality was seen from cancers of thymus, small intestine and penis in males, and cancers of bone and bladder in females. In addition to asbestosis, mortality from pulmonary heart disease was significantly elevated in both genders. The data confirmed significantly excess mortality from mesothelioma in either gender, lung and larynx cancers in males, and ovarian cancer in females. A gender difference in mortality from lung cancer and all cancers could be mainly due to the discrepancies in age, exposure duration and smoking between the male and female workers. PMID:23121131
Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius; Qiu, Hong; Lan, Yajia; Yano, Eiji
Full Text Available Women are playing significant role in agricultural work and processes and more than half of the working population in agriculture are women. But, they are facing many problems such as exploitation from employers, no security for work and job, seasonal employment, lower wages, wage discrimination, etc. A sample survey of 142 women agricultural workers working in Gulbarga taluka in Karnataka was made with interview technique. The social aspects to a greater extent depends on work life of the women agricultural workers. It was concluded that there is need for social security schemes for women agricultural workers and self-employment is also suggested for these workers during offseasons. It is also suggested to increase awareness among people on gender equality
Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and awareness about mode of transmission of HIV. This cross-sectional study of 250 textile workers reveal that 76.4% worker know that HIV can be transmitted by unsafe sexual route while 43.2% of workers does not know that HIV can be spread through reused injections. 43 worker currently had extra marital or premarital sexual relations and among them 48.8% had used condom during last such intercourse.
Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara, Sarita Mangukiya, Vimalkumar Tailor
Full Text Available Introduction: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. Method: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo, who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. Results: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. Discussion: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.
Dantas, Ivan de Picoli
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. AIM: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhiniti [...] s in workers exposed to cotton dust. METHOD: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. RESULTS: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. DISCUSSION: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.
Ivan de Picoli, Dantas; Fabiana Cardoso Pereira, Valera; Carlos Eduardo Monteiro, Zappelini; Wilma Terezinha, Anselmo-Lim.
Women are playing significant role in agricultural work and processes and more than half of the working population in agriculture are women. But, they are facing many problems such as exploitation from employers, no security for work and job, seasonal employment, lower wages, wage discrimination, etc. A sample survey of 142 women agricultural workers working in Gulbarga taluka in Karnataka was made with interview technique. The social aspects to a greater extent depends on wor...
Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the effects of gender and race on American workers’ workplace control. Scholarship on gender, work, and occupation states that gender and race are important predictors of the extent of control workers exercise in workplaces. Literature also posits that job satisfaction and work-family conflict also contribute substantially to workers’ workplace control. However, there exists hardly any empirical study that explores the impacts of gender, race, job satisfaction and work-family conflict altogether on their workplace control. That is what we accomplished in this study. Obtaining data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW, we ask: 1 Do women and men workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? 2 Do non-white and white workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? And 3 Do gender and race of the workers influence their workplace control when job satisfaction and work-family conflict are considered? Analyses are based on quantitative methods. Results show that women perceive to have less control over their workplace as compared to men. Moreover, job satisfaction is a more significant predictor of their workplace control than work-family spillover.
Full Text Available Dairy farm is one of promising to increase the household income. Dairy farm generally involve all the household members. The research was aimed to: 1 know contribution of work duration of women woker to the total duration of work in dairy farm; 2 identify contribution of women income to the total income of dairy farm; 3 determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income of dairy farm. Three sub districts were taken as area sample using purposive sampling method based on number of dairy farm that utilize women as worker in their farm activities. Sixty seven famers were taken as respondents is this research. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income. The result showed that: 1 contribution of working duration of women was 25,24 percent; 2 contribution of income of women was Rp 2,762,755.96: and 3 partially, contribution of income of women was influenced by farm scale and dependency ratio. In conclusion, women wokers have contribution on the total duration of work and income; and dairy farm scale and Dependency Ratio influencing contribution of women income. (Animal Production 11(1: 40-47 (2009 Key Words: dairy farm, duration of work, income, role of women
This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8< dB (A), which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems. (author)
Abstract Economic empowerment brings with it a wide range of consequences, both positive and negative. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between economic empowerment and the sexual behaviour and practices of migrant workers within the context of HIV and AIDS in the Lesotho textile industry. Data for this paper were extracted from the findings of a larger study which had been conducted concerning HIV and AIDS in the textile industry in Lesotho. Using in-depth interviews, data were collected from 40 participants who were purposively selected from five factories which had been chosen randomly. Empowerment theory was used as a lens to provide meanings for the experiences of the participants. The findings show that the participants were empowered only in certain respects in terms of Kabeer's empowerment model of ‘power to’ and ‘power within’, on one hand, and in terms of Malhotra's comprehensive empowerment framework at the household level, on the other, as being employed in the industry enabled them to participate in the economy. Employment in the sector provided the participants with the means to be able to acquire basic needs and the ability to participate in household decision-making: for the female participants, the ability to make independent sexual decisions was also enhanced. These improvements were greeted enthusiastically, particularly by the female participants, given their previously disadvantaged status as a result of coming from rural patriarchal villages with gender-defined hegemonic notions of respectability. The findings also indicate that environmental factors and others, such as meagre salaries, encouraged some of the female workers to engage in transactional sex, while some of the male participants tended to increase their sexual relationships as a result of acquiring employment and income from the industry. It is the contention of the authors of this study that true empowerment requires both vital resources and individual and collective participation, particularly for the women, who are more vulnerable than men. Finally, we conclude that the opportunities provided by economic empowerment have given the participants a new social meaning for their situation and an awareness about their place in power relations. PMID:25383704
Tanga, Pius Tangwe; Tangwe, Magdaline Nji
Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941
Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don
La situacin de la mujer trabajadora en Tucumn en los aos setenta: el caso de las obreras de la industria textil / The situation of the woman worker in Tucumn in the seventies: the case of the workers of the textile industry
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La finalidad de este trabajo es analizar la situacin laboral de las trabajadoras de los sectores populares, haciendo hincapi en la industria textil, dentro de un marco de crisis ocupacional, en los aos setenta. Se busca saber como, a raz de diversos factores (familiares, emocionales y sociales), la [...] mujer tucumana sali a trabajar y en muchos casos lleg a ser el sostn y nica fuente de ingresos del grupo familiar. Este ser el punto de partida para esta investigacin que permitir un acercamiento al conocimiento de la situacin laboral femenina. Nuestro planteo surge de la afirmacin que la transformacin del mercado laboral impuls la incorporacin de mano de obra femenina en el sector industrial. Este nuevo rol de proveedoras del hogar, en algunos casos el nico, signific una transformacin en su subjetividad que en algunas no es aceptado como tal. Adems, se indagar sobre las estrategias intra y extra domsticas femeninas que caracteriza la doble jornada de trabajo. Cabe aclarar que este anlisis fue abordado desde la perspectiva de Gnero e Historia Oral. Las mujeres tienen una doble jornada de trabajo que para algunos autores esta denominacin es concebida como trabajo extra domestico e intra domestico. Partiendo de estos conceptos se indagar sobre las diversas estrategias realizadas por las trabajadoras de la industria textil. Estas mujeres de una u otra manera han buscado diferentes estrategias para lograr combinar el trabajo extra e intra domstico, siempre buscando el bienestar de su familia y sobre todo, en el caso de las casadas de sus hijos. Para la realizacin de este trabajo se utilizaron fuentes orales (entrevistas semistructuradas), datos estadsticos y material bibliogrfico pertinente al tema. Abstract in english The purpose of this work is to analyze the labor situation of the workers of the popular sectors, insisting on the textile industry, within a frame of occupational crisis, in the Seventies. One looks for to know like, as a result of diverse factors (familiar, emotional and social), the tucumana woma [...] n left to work and in many cases she got to be the support and only source of income of the familiar group. This it will be the departure point for this investigation that will allow an approach to the knowledge of the feminine labor situation. Ours I raise arises from the affirmation that the transformation of the labor market impelled the incorporation of feminine manual labor in the industrial sector. This new roll of suppliers of the home, in some cases the only one, meant a transformation in its subjectivity that in some is not accepted like so. In addition, one will investigate on the feminine domestic strategies intra and extra that the double day of work characterizes. It is possible to clarify that this analysis was boarded from the perspective of Gender and Oral History. The women have one double day of work that stops some authors this denomination is conceived like extra work domestic servant and intra domestic servant. Starting off of these concepts she will investigate herself on the diverse strategies made by the workers of the textile industry. These women of one or another way have looked for different strategies to manage to combine domestic the extra work and intra, always looking for the well-being of their family and mainly, in the case of the married ones of their children. For the accomplishment of this work oral sources were used (semistructuradas interviews), statistical data and pertinent bibliographical material to the subject.
Noem Liliana, Soraire.
Cotton textile workers have an increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung function patterns when compared to control subjects. Similar abnormal lung function patterns may occur with other respiratory diseases, notably those associated with cigarette smoking. The shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve has been used to characterize patterns of lung function abnormality. The authors defined a new functional parameter (angle ..beta..) related to the shape of the MEFV curve in order better to characterize the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure. In this study, 477 cotton textile workers, both current smokers and never smokers 45 years and older, were compared to 932 similarly aged control subjects from three communities: Lebanon and Ansonia, CT, and Winnsboro, SC. Smokers, regardless of their occupational exposure or sex, have smaller values of ..beta.. than do nonsmokers. Cotton textile workers who have more abnormal lung function than do controls, cannot be distinguished from controls by ..beta... They suggest that such functional differences between cotton and smoking effects may reflect injury to different portions of the bronchial tree.
Schachter, E.N.; Kapp, M.C.; Maunder, L.R.; Beck, G.; Witek, T.J.
Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening (±S.E.) of 1.8 ±0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of 226Ra + 228Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment
HIV prevention is an especially salient issue for women, given the ongoing feminization of the epidemic. Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who are drug-using and engage in street-based sex exchange. This paper examines risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using women sex workers in Miami, Florida, and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were r...
Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.
Ginning factory discharges large amount of cotton dust, which might decrease haematological indices among the selected subjects. An attempt was made to study the haematological indices of women labourers located in the urban areas of Tirupur and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 150 non-pregnant, non-lactating adult women performing varied textile tasks and aged between 20 to 60 years were identified randomly from ginning (n=150) (gin house, gutter and sorting sections) industries...
Sridevi, D.; Radhaisri, S.
Full Text Available Ginning factory discharges large amount of cotton dust, which might decrease haematological indices among the selected subjects. An attempt was made to study the haematological indices of women labourers located in the urban areas of Tirupur and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 150 non-pregnant, non-lactating adult women performing varied textile tasks and aged between 20 to 60 years were identified randomly from ginning (n=150 (gin house, gutter and sorting sections industries. Socio demographic, work pattern, nutritional and health status were assessed by administering a questionnaire. Further, to correct micronutrient deficiency, iron and folic acid fortified soy biscuits were formulated. Intervention study was conducted among the selected moderate anaemic ginners (n=20. l00 g of micronutrient fortified soy biscuit containing 13.5 g of protein, 8.4 mg of iron (ferrous fumarate and 120 µg of folic acid was supplemented to experimental group of women as a midmorning and midevening snack for a period of four months. Therapeutic efficacy of food supplement was studied by assessing their anthropometric and haematological conditions at pre and post supplementation period. Anthropometric indices showed an improvement in weight (48.7 ± 4.98 to 51.5 ± 6.25 and BMI (19.02 to 23.04. Haematological indices revealed that the mean haemoglobin of experimental group improved to 11.04 ± 0.56 g/dl from 9.1 ± 0.67. Similarly increase in serum iron from 61.9 ± 3.24 to 65.0 ± 2.95 µg/dl was noticed and showed a significant difference at 1 per cent. Improvement in total protein (6.62 ± 0.49 to 8.11 ± 0.20 g/dl, albumin (3.9 ± 0.36 to 4.73 ± 0.31 g/dl and globulin (2.82 ± 0.24 to 3.8 ± 0.29 g/dl showed significant difference at 1 per cent level. Similarly, an increase in Total WBC count (7326 ± 19.5 to 9725 ± 25.5 cumm, reduction in lymphocyte (942.16 ± 3.6 to 35.2 ± 2.2 per cent seen among the ginning women workers.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the the impact of Beedi work on Self Decision Empowerment (SDE of women beedi workers in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. To achieve the purpose of the study, 600 women beedi workers were identified as sample evenly from 19 blocks of the district by adopting the multistage random sampling technique. Causal research design was carried out as research design for this study. The five variables of family day-to-day expenditures, going outside of home, visiting village market, helping a relative with money and purchasing women's / children's clothes under the core variable of Self Decision Empowerment (SDE of women beedi workers were selected for this study. Collected data were subjected to statistical analysis by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM technique with the help of popular statistical package 'AMOS 20' (Analysis of Moment Structures software. The results of the study indicate that there was a significant impact in the variables of family day-to-day expenditures, going outside of home, visiting village market, helping a relative with money and purchasing women's / children's clothes due to the beedi work of the respondents. It also reveals that all predator variables have a positive medium level effect due to beedi work on Self Decision Empowerment (SDE of women beedi workers. This study will be relevant and significant to the women beedi workers.
Efeito da exposição prolongada a ruído ocupacional na função respiratória de trabalhadores da indústria têxtil / Effects of long term exposure to occupational noise on textile industry workers' lung function
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo procurou detectar eventuais alterações da função respiratória em 28 operárias de uma fábrica de fiação, submetidas a uma exposição prolongada ao ruído (> 10 anos) com amplitude elevada e baixa frequência, susceptível de causar doença vibro-acústica (DVA). Foram realizados testes da [...] função respiratória, incluindo espirometria, oscilometria de impulso e estudo da Capacidade de difusão alvéolo-capilar pelo CO. Os resultados foram comparados com os de outra população de igual número de mulheres, do mesmo grupo etário, consideradas normais no aspecto respiratório, com cargos administrativos, não sujeitas a agressão acústica detectável. Realizou-se um estudo estatístico dos resultados obtidos comparando as duas populações, tendo sido calculado para cada um dos parâmetros, escolhidos a partir do estudo funcional respiratório, os valores médios, o desvio-padrão e o grau de significância (p Abstract in english Vibroacoustic disease is a pathology caused by long occupational exposure to large pressure amplitude and low frequency noise. It is a systemic disease, with evolvement of respiratory structures. The exposure workers to this noise of textile industry may favour alterations in lung function. We studi [...] ed 28 women working more than ten years in cotton-mill rooms to evaluate their lung function, including Spirometry, forced oscillation technique (I.O.S.) and Diffusion capacity. These results were compared with those of 30 women of similar ages not exposed to similar noise and not presenting respiratory disease. Statistical significance (p
António Paes, Cardoso; Maria João R., Oliveira; Álvaro Moreira da, Silva; Artur P., Águas; António Sousa, Pereira.
Full Text Available :Unorganized sector constitute majority of working population in India and of the workers, women are playing significant role in unorganized sector work. The unorganized sector includes different occupations such as construction, domestic servants, sales women, agricultural labourers, etc. Compared to all other sectors, the problems and challenges faced by women in unorganized sector are many. Hence, a survey was made to study the problems and challenges of women working in unorganized sector. Interview schedule was used to collect the primary data from 200 women working in construction work, 200 women working as domestic servants and 100 women agricultural labourers in Gulbarga city. The study revealed that there is lower wage for these workers. Further, it was observed that considerable number of women workers have lower status in family and society. It was suggested to revise the wage rates and ensure job security by assuring at least three years of work under single employer. It is also suggested to increase awareness of the women in unorganized sector on the legislations and security measures formulated by the Government. Self-employment training and financial assistance are also suggested to empower the women working in unorganized sector.
Hanamanthappa B. Sedamkar
In Cambodia, clinics established for the prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women sex workers do not address other reproductive health services. The aim of this study was to assess the need for more comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services for women sex workers in Cambodia. In January 2000, relevant documents were reviewed, interviews with key informants carried out and group interviews with women sex workers conducted. Medical records from wom...
Delvaux, T.; Crabbe?, F.; Seng, S.; Laga, M.
Respiratory symptoms and abnormalities of lung function were studied in 84 female and 27 male hemp workers employed in two textile mills (A and B) processing soft hemp (C sativa). In mill A 46 women and 27 men were investigated and 38 female workers were studied in mill B. Forty nine women and 30 men from a non-dusty industry served as controls. A significantly higher prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was found in female hemp workers when compared to control workers. Among...
Zuskin, E.; Kanceljak, B.; Pokrajac, D.; Schachter, E. N.; Witek, T. J.
Dairy farm is one of promising to increase the household income. Dairy farm generally involve all the household members. The research was aimed to: 1) know contribution of work duration of women woker to the total duration of work in dairy farm; 2) identify contribution of women income to the total income of dairy farm; 3) determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income of dairy farm. Three sub districts were taken as area sample using purposive sampling...
Mastuti, S.; Nn, Hidayat
Methods: Nordic musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire was adopted to identify the musculoskeletal symptoms in nine anatomical body regions. Workers exposure to risk factors continuously for a period of more than two hours at a stretch and more than two such types of work spells in a work day was considered as risk factor. Results: The risk of WRMSDs is about 4 times more among workers with greater than 20 years of work experience than those with 11-20 years and is about 2 times more in those with 1-10 years of work experience respectively. Conclusions: Education programmes on ergonomic principles must be made mandatory for to reduce the rate of WRMSDs and to promote oc-cupational health.
Neeraja Telaprolu, Bhanwar Lal, Swarochish Chekuri
...THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS [Docket...practice in considering textile safeguard actions...certified or recognized union, or group of workers) that is representative...the subject Panamanian textile or apparel...
Marxist theories have for a long time been grappling with the question of the international solidarity among workers. This thesis revises the argument put forward especially in neo-Marxist theories of imperialism about the conflicting interests between workers in core countries and in peripheral ones. It seeks to do so by analyzing the impact of the new regime of accumulation upon global trade unionism and thus solidarity. The twin issues of global trade unionism and solidarity are seen throu...
Bergene, Ann Cecilie
In 1997, the Supreme Court of India recognised sexual harassment in the workplace as a violation of human rights. However, little is known about the extent or persistence of sexual harassment. To obtain an understanding of women's experiences of sexual harassment in the health sector, an exploratory study was undertaken in 2005-2006 among 135 women health workers, including doctors, nurses, health care attendants, administrative and other non-medical staff working in two government and two private hospitals in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Four types of experiences were reported by the 77 women who had experienced 128 incidents of sexual harassment: verbal harassment (41), psychological harassment (45), sexual gestures and exposure (15), and unwanted touch (27). None of the women reported rape, attempted rape or forced sex but a number of them knew of other women health workers who had experienced these. The women who had experienced harassment were reluctant to complain, fearing for their jobs or being stigmatised, and most were not aware of formal channels for redress. Experiences of sexual harassment reflected the obstacles posed by power imbalances and gender norms in empowering women to make a formal complaint, on the one hand, and receive redress on the other. PMID:17938090
Surmang Foundation's Clinic is located in Qinghai Province, Yushu Prefecture, Xiao Surmang Township, China. It is a remote, 97 percent ethnic Tibetan, mountainous region with little access to organized health care services. Surmang Foundation, a US 501(c)3 charity, has organized a cadre of local women to provide community-based care and education to women, resulting in a notable reduction in maternal mortality based on the report of community members. A festival organized to celebrate the accomplishments of the community health workers provided an opportunity for the women to demonstrate how their roles benefit themselves and their community. Both health care services and support for community empowerment are provided through the community health worker model. PMID:23399011
Levi, Amy; Factor, Dawn; Deutsch, Karen
Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)
Talbot, R. S.
Cosmopolitan Sex Workers examines the phenomenon of non-trafficked women who migrate from one global city to another to perform paid sexual labour in Southeast Asia. Overall, this is a fascinating and extremely unusual book, writes Charlotte Goodburn, which brings together macro and micro perspectives to present a rich and nuanced picture of transnational sex work, based on extensive fieldwork in hard-to-access communities. Christine B. N. Chin‘s work should be of interest to all those stud...
Swedish textile art is often described as highly successful and as part of an appreciated tradition. But there are some interesting points to be made from looking at the subject as an Art Historian with a gender- and genre-perspective. First of all the textile material is closely linked to notions of femininity. The textile material is also persistently placed within the craft sphere. Secondly, the textile art scene also consists mainly of women artists. The connection with traditional cr...
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Trichomonas sp. infection among adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia. METHODS:: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 girls attending school, 307 pregnant women, and 197 commercial sex workers. Self-collected specimens from the vagina, rectum, and mouth were tested by polymerase chain amplification assays for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and T...
Crucitti, T.; Jespers, V.; Mulenga, C.; Khondowe, S.; Vandepitte, J.; Buve?, A.
During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences. PMID:22545273
Cruz-Torres, María L
From crochet machines to the uses of acrylic yarn, the Textile Exchange website has rather fine comprehensive coverage across the nooks and crannies of the textile industry. Visitors to the homepage will find a search engine and a very thorough products directory which includes topical headings like "Textile Products", "Fibers, Yarns & Threads", and "Textile Chemicals". After looking over a few of these areas, visitors will definitely want to peruse the "Knowledge Center". Here they can learn more about fiber and textile history, and the types of weaves. One section that should not be missed is the "Textile Personalities" area. For those individuals who've been pining to learn about giants of the textile industry such as John Mercer, John Kay (who patented the flying shuttle), and Richard Roberts, this area will be quite the eye-opener.
Full Text Available In Britain during the Second World War, the Post Office constituted the single largest employer of women. Historically, the Post Office, like many other employers, had discriminated against women. During World War I, shortages of male labor had resulted in some opportunities for women at the Post Office, but the improvement had neither been comprehensive nor enduring. Unlike World War I, World War II, however, proved to a real turning point in the Post Office's personnel practices. By the end of the Second World War, while the Post Office still did not treat women workers completely equally (persisting, for instance, in gender-biased pay practices, management nevertheless had made strides in their treatment and perception of women workers. Post Office executives increasingly perceived women on the payroll not as temporary wartime employees, but as permanent employees, who would be just as essential peacetime as in war.
Mark James Crowley
Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil / Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil / Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. [...] Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalho Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cin [...] co madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajo Abstract in english This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, fro [...] m a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work
Ana Márcia Bustamante de, Morais; Márcia Maria Tavares, Machado; Priscila de Souza, Aquino; Maria Irismar de, Almeida.
Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil
Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalhoEste estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cinco madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajoThis study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, from a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work
Ana Márcia Bustamante de Morais
This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces. PMID:22031197
Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia
Main purpose of this study levels of some organochlorine pesticides were determined in milk samples of mothers living in two agricultural cities of Iran (Sari and Babol in Mazandaran province) in order to assess the trends of woman workers exposure to persistent pollutants. The milk samples gathered from breastfeeding women routine determination of OCPs was performed with GC/ECD. The resulte showed the highest amounts were found for p,p`-DDE, which was 0.056 ?g g-1 in fat in Sari ...
Ebadi, A. G.; Shokrzadeh, M.
This was a baseline study on occupational exposure and health problems among women workers in export processing zones. Physical, chemical, and ergonomic hazards were evaluated and measured through workplace ambient monitoring, survey questionnaires, and interviews with 500 respondents in 24 companies (most were female at 88.8%). The top 5 hazards were ergonomic hazards (72.2%), heat (66.6%), overwork (66.6%), poor ventilation (54.8%), and chemical exposure (50.8%). The most common illnesses were gastrointestinal problems (57.4%), backache (56%), headache (53.2%), and fatigue/weakness (53.2%). Logistic regression showed an association between certain work-related factors and occupational illnesses, and psychosocial problems. Highly significant associations were hearing loss with years spent in the company (p=.005) and gender (p=.006), headache and dizziness with poor ventilation (p=.000), backache with prolonged work (p=.003). These results will have implications for policy and program formulation for women workers' concerns and issues in export zones. PMID:18954543
Lu, Jinky Leilanie
Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an intervention trial with a 6-month follow-up. Trained LHWs recruited 100 KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram during the pas...
Han, Hae-ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.
Introduction. Training community health workers (CHWs) builds a workforce that is essential to addressing the chronic disease crisis. This article describes a highly replicable CHW training program that targets heart disease risk among African American women. Background. African American women suffer disproportionately from heart disease mortality and morbidity. Well-trained CHWs are uniquely positioned to close this disparity gap. Method. We used a Learning Circle approach to train CHWs in heart health education. The curriculum blended web-based, self-directed learning and in-person peer coaching. CHWs learned through (a) peer-to-peer sharing, (b) problem solving and brainstorming, and (c) leadership and experiential activities. Training evaluation measures were CHWs' (a) self-confidence, (b) heart health knowledge, (c) satisfaction with training, (d) training retention, and (e) replication of training within 90 days after training. Results. This training resulted in appreciable effects on four of five outcome measures. Heart health knowledge increased significantly among experienced CHWs (p = .011). CHWs were satisfied with training and retention was 100%. CHWs initiated and subsequently delivered 122 person hours of community heart health education and CHW training in their communities. Discussion/Conclusion. CHW heart health training using Learning Circles is a practical and replicable method of training CHWs and holds significant potential for building capacity in resource-poor community organizations. PMID:24891525
Josiah Willock, Robina; Mayberry, Robert M; Yan, Fengxia; Daniels, Pamela
...when exposed to contact and located within...which will prevent contact with the beater...All textile opener lines shall be equipped...exposing the worker to moving parts, hot surfaces...exposing the worker to moving parts, hot surfaces...operator from coming in contact with the nip....
As the United States economy moves away from manufacturing, members of this workforce are facing an uncertain future. In this study, an interpretive methodological framework is used to explore women's experiences with textile manufacturing job loss, and subsequent retraining at a local community college. Narratives of four displaced workers and…
Hodges, Nancy J.
Life table methods were applied to survival data on U.S. women radium dial workers in order to compare observed and expected deaths as a function of time after exposure to radium. The study population consisted of 1235 workers employed in the industry before 1930 for whom age and year of death, withdrawal or loss from the study were known. Expected deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for U.S. white females. The closing year for analysis was 1976, so observation times of 45 to 60 years were possible. For all causes, 529 deaths before age 85 were observed versus 461 expected, and the cumulative survival of the population was significantly less than expected at 10 and more years after first employment. Estimates were made of the net survival probabilities after elimination of risk due to the well-known radium-related malignancies, i.e. bone sarcomas and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and the mastoid air cells. There were 455 observed deaths from other causes versus 460 expected, and there was no significant difference between observed and expected cumulative net survival at one-year intervals from zero to 59 years after first employment. These findings indicate that only the known radium-related malignancies contributed significantly to life shortening of the exposed population as a whole, but the presence of other radium-related causes of death may yet be detectable by examination of specific risks as a function of dose. (author) as a function of dose. (author)
Full Text Available Main purpose of this study levels of some organochlorine pesticides were determined in milk samples of mothers living in two agricultural cities of Iran (Sari and Babol in Mazandaran province in order to assess the trends of woman workers exposure to persistent pollutants. The milk samples gathered from breastfeeding women routine determination of OCPs was performed with GC/ECD. The resulte showed the highest amounts were found for p,p`-DDE, which was 0.056 ?g g-1 in fat in Sari and 0.045 ?g g-1 fat in Babol , followed by ?-HCH, which was 0.037 ?g g-1 fat and 0.024 ?g g-1 fat, respectively. The low level of OCPs in human milk as found in the present study support the Iranian policy of encouraging breast-feeding. The fact that the mother breast-feeds her child and that she originally comes from a region where DDT is still in use as a vector control agent, as well as the former use of organochlorine pesticides OCPs in agriculture, seems to be the main factors for high DDT and other OCP residues in the mothers` milk.
The addition of 5 years of follow-up and over 411,000 person-years of observation to a cohort of 34,081 men and women employed in U.S. furniture and other related industries allowed the investigation of mortality patterns among women and minority races in addition to white men. A significant excess of pleural mesotheliomas occurred among white men (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-8.7) but could not be linked to a particular type of furniture manufacturing. SMRs for myeloid leukemia and chronic nephritis were elevated among white men employed in the wood furniture industry but were not statistically significant. Males in the black/other race categories in wood furniture plants showed nonsignificant mortality excesses for infectious diseases and cancers of the prostate and colon and rectum. Among white women employed in wood furniture plants, mortality was elevated for cancers of the pancreas and lung during the most recent follow-up period. In metal furniture plants, mortality was raised among men in both race groups for kidney cancer (black/other SMR = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.6-23.2; white SMR = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.4-6.2) and diabetes mellitus (black/other SMR = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.6-5.6; white SMR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.7-3.9). Stomach cancer mortality was significantly elevated (SMR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.3-6.8) among white men in metal furniture plants and was of the same magnitude over both the previous and the most recent follow-up periods. Among those working with textiles, SMRs were significantly elevated for leukemia (SMR = 6.1, 95% CI = 1.2-7.8) and cancers of the colon and rectum (SMR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.3-4.5) for white women. Lung cancer mortality was increased for white men and women in textile operations, but SMRs were not statistically significant. SMRs for a number of other causes of death that were elevated at the end of the earlier follow-up period were not increased during the new follow-up period. PMID:8010296
Miller, B A; Blair, A; Reed, E J
This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-onl...
Lazarus, L.; Chettiar, J.; Deering, K.; Nabess, R.; Shannon, K.
This thesis aims to gain a deeper understanding of relationships and sexuality of women at risk of social exclusion in Sri Lanka and the risk of violations of their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) that they might face. Individual qualitative interviews with migrant women workers (n=18) and men (n=18) in the Free Trade Zone (FTZ), women facing single motherhood (n=28) and women formerly involved in prostitution (n=15) were conducted. Conceptual approaches included gender, soci...
Avaliação do risco ergonômico em trabalhadores da indústria têxtil por dois instrumentos: quick exposure check e job factors questionnaire / Ergonomic risk assessment in textile industry workers by two instruments: quick exposure check and job factors questionnaire / Evaluación del riesgo ergonómico en trabajadores de la industria textil con dos instrumentos: quick exposure check y job factors questionnaire
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise dos fatores de risco ergonômicos presentes em indústrias têxteis auxilia no planejamento de estratégias que contribuem para a melhora das condições de trabalho e redução dos distúrbios osteomusculares. Este estudo se propôs a mensurar os níveis de exposição aos fatores de risco ergonômicos [...] em trabalhadores de dois setores de produção de uma indústria têxtil. Para tanto, os instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) e o Quick Exposure Check (QEC) foram aplicados em 107 trabalhadores. Os resultados foram analisados por estatística descritiva. O teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparação dos resultados obtidos entre os setores de produção. O diagnóstico do nível de exposição ao risco ergonômico, obtido por ambos os instrumentos, foi moderado. Os fatores de risco considerados pelo JFQ como mais criticos estão relacionados à temperatura ambiental; postura mantida em longos períodos de tempo; posturas inadequadas para coluna e continuar trabalhando quando está com alguma dor ou com alguma lesão. O QEC identificou as regiões de coluna lombar e punhos/mãos como expostas ao alto risco. Não houveram diferenças estatisticamente significante entre os setores. Abstract in spanish El análisis de los factores de riesgo ergonómicos presentes en industrias textiles ayuda al planeamiento de estrategias que contribuyen a la mejora de las condiciones de trabajo y reducción de los trastornos osteomusculares. Este estudio se propuso medir los niveles de exposición a los factores de r [...] iesgo ergonómicos en trabajadores de dos sectores de producción de una industria textil. Para ello, los instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) y el Quick Exposure Check (QEC) fueron aplicados en 107 trabajadores. Los resultados fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva. El test de Mann-Whitney fue utilizado para comparación de los resultados obtenidos entre los sectores de producción. El diagnóstico del nivel de exposición al riesgo ergonómico, obtenido por ambos instrumentos, fue moderado. Los factores de riesgo considerados por el JFQ como más críticos están relacionados a la temperatura ambiental; postura mantenida en largos períodos de tiempo; posturas inadecuadas para la columna y continuar trabajando cuando tiene algún dolor o con alguna lesión. El QEC identificó las regiones de columna lumbar y muñecas/manos como expuestas a alto riesgo. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los sectores. Abstract in english The analysis of ergonomic risk factors that are present in the textile industry helps to plan strategies that can contribute to the improvement of work conditions and the consequent reduction of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed at measuring levels of exposure to ergonomic risk factors amo [...] ng workers of two production sections in a textile factory. For this purpose, the instruments Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) and Quick Exposure Check (QEC) were applied in 107 workers. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare the results between the production sections. The level of exposure to ergonomic risks, obtained through both instruments, was moderate. The risk factors considered as being critical by the JFQ are related to environmental temperature, posture maintained over long periods of time, inadequate spinal posture, and to working even when the worker feels pain or sustains injuries. The QEC identified regions of the lumbar spine and wrists/hands as being exposed to high risk. There were no statistically significant differences between the sections.
Maria Luiza Caires, Comper; Rosimeire Simprini, Padula.
Readers are reminded that Geneva's agency for salvaging used clothing, other textiles and old shoes (Coordination d'oeuvres d'entraide pour la récupération de vêtements, textiles et chaussures usagés dans le canton de Genève) has a container in the car park outside CERN's Meyrin site. In 2001, 1000 tonnes of such items were collected in the Canton of Geneva (as compared with 840 tonnes in 2000), of which 4460 kg came from the container outside the Meyrin site. The operation's organisers (Caritas, Centre Social Protestant, the Geneva Section of the Swiss Red Cross, Terre des Hommes, the Geneva branch of Terre des Hommes Suisse and Emmaüs, Geneva) would like to thank all those who have donated clothing or otherwise supported their campaign. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848 http://www.cern.ch/relations/
Relations with the Host States Service
Relación entre el consumo de tabaco, salud mental y malestares físicos en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana / Relationship among current tobacco use, mental health and physical distress in male workers of a Mexican textile industry
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción El consumo de tabaco es considerado un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo debido a la cantidad de enfermedades y muertes relacionadas con su uso. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) reporta que 30% de los adultos son fumadores y, de éstos, aproximadamente cinco millones de [...] personas morirán en un año. También se estima que para 2020 habrá 8.4 millones de muertes anuales por enfermedades relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco, de las cuales siete de cada 10 ocurrirán en países en vías de desarrollo, como México, donde más de 53 mil personas fumadoras mueren al año por enfermedades asociadas al tabaquismo y al menos 147 personas mueren diariamente. Por otro lado, en la bibliografía se ha encontrado que el daño en el organismo por fumar comienza desde el primer cigarro, que a los 10 años se presentan síntomas sutiles en la función pulmonar y disminución de la tolerancia al ejercicio, y que es entre 20 y 30 años después cuando los síntomas hacen a un fumador tomar conciencia del daño a su salud. En cuanto a la relación entre el uso de tabaco y la salud mental, ésta se evidencia por las consecuencias emocionales que conlleva padecer una enfermedad crónica. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la relación de problemas emocionales y malestares físicos con el consumo de tabaco en hombres trabajadores de una empresa textil mexicana. Método La muestra estuvo conformada por 279 sujetos que laboraban en una empresa textil, en su mayoría jóvenes entre 18 y 27 años (54.5%), con escolaridad de secundaria (59.3%) y casados o en unión libre (65.6%). El instrumento utilizado incluyó las escalas de salud mental (MHI-5), malestares físicos (SCL-90) y consumo de tabaco. La aplicación del instrumento se realizó de manera grupal dentro de la empresa textil en que laboraban los sujetos. Resultados No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a problemas de salud mental y síntomas físicos entre fumadores y no fumadores. Mediante un modelo de análisis de trayectorias, se analizó la relación existente entre síntomas físicos, problemas de salud mental e indicadores de consumo de tabaco. Se encontró así que el principal predictor de los síntomas físicos en fumadores es el tiempo que llevan consumiendo y que los síntomas físicos son un importante predictor de problemas de salud mental. Discusión Sin importar la cantidad de cigarrillos consumidos, la frecuencia de consumo ni otros indicadores de consumo elevado, el tiempo que se lleva consumiendo es un predictor importante del número de síntomas físicos que se manifiestan, lo que puede deberse a los efectos dañinos que tiene el consumo prolongado del tabaco. De este modo se confirma lo mencionado en otras investigaciones de que, después de los primeros 10 años de consumo, se presentan malestares físicos sutiles y que a lo largo de 20 o 30 años se presentaran malestares importantes. Si bien no se encontró una relación directa entre consumo de tabaco y salud mental, se puede sugerir una relación indirecta derivada de la influencia que tiene el consumo sobre el plano del bienestar físico. En este sentido es de esperarse que, a medida que se continúe consumiendo tabaco y los malestares físicos aumenten, también se incrementen los problemas de salud mental. Por otro lado, el modelo aquí presentado requiere ser completado incluyendo otras áreas que puedan influir sobre el bienestar físico y mental. Sin embargo, se logró evidenciar la importancia que tiene el consumo de tabaco sobre el malestar físico, a la vez que aumenta la probabilidad de que se presenten más problemas en la salud mental de la población consumidora. Abstract in english Introduction Tobacco use is considered a worldwide public health problem because of the amount of death and disease it causes. The WHO reports that 30% of the adult population in the world are cigarette smokers, and that nearly five million of these will die with
Ana Carolina, Rodríguez Machain; Nora Angélica, Martínez Vélez; Francisco, Juárez García; Elsa Karina, López Lugo; Silvia, Carreño García; María Elena, Medina-Mora.
This study was to develop the flame retardant (FR) protective clothing which had multifunction such anti-bacterial, UV cut, FR function with water repellent and water vapor permeable laminating textiles for industrial workers. First of all, the FR yarn and FR textiles were developed for this purpose. Second, the comparison analysis between the halogen laminating textiles and halogen-free laminating textiles were tested to figure out the eco-friendly laminating method. Third, the flame retarda...
Yoon Jeong Baek; Jeoung Hwa Shin
Full Text Available Abstract Background The TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display industry is rapidly growing in Taiwan and many other countries. A large number of workers, mainly women, are employed in the light-on test process to detect the defects of products. At the light-on test workstation, the operator is generally exposed to low humidity (in the clean room environment, flashing light, and low ambient illumination for long working hours. Many workers complained about eye discomfort, and therefore we conducted a study to evaluate the tear secretion function of light-on test workers of a TFT-LCD company. Methods We recruited workers engaged in light-on tests in the company during their periodical health examination. In addition to a questionnaire survey of demographic characteristics and ophthalmic symptoms, we evaluated the tear secretion function of both eyes of each participant using the Schirmer's lacrimal basal secretion test with anaesthesia. A participant with one or both eyes yielding abnormal test results was defined as a case of tear secretion dysfunction. Results During the study period, a total of 371 light-on test workers received the health examination at the clinic of the park, and 52 of them were excluded due to having ophthalmic diseases and other systemic diseases that may affect ophthalmic function. All the remaining 319 qualified workers agreed to participate in this study, and they were all females working by 4-shift rotations. The average age was 24.2 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8, and the average employment duration was 13.6 months (SD = 5.7. Among the 11 ophthalmic symptoms evaluated, eye dryness was the most prevalent (prevalence = 43.3%. In addition, the prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in at least one eye was 40.1% (128 cases, and contact lens users had an odds ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval = 1.02–2.94 in comparison with non-contact lens users. Comparing the Schirmer's test results of those who also participated in the screening in the previous year, we found 40 of the 156 participants (17.2% with normal test results in the previous year turned abnormal in 2001. In contrast, only 21 of the 76 participants (9.1% with abnormal test results in the previous year turned normal, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02 for McNemar's test. Conclusion The prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in woman workers engaged in light-on tests is high and increases with a one-year duration of employment. The use of contact lens may further increase the risk.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo discutimos as mudanças representadas pela entrada de mulheres no trabalho fabril numa região de industrialização recente, buscando verificar em que medida essa inserção, em um contexto de crise do emprego e em uma região marcada pela informalidade de parte significativa das atividades e [...] conômicas, tem influenciado a redefinição dos papéis familiares e acentuado conflitos geradores de violência doméstica. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 14 mulheres que denunciaram algum tipo de violência praticada por seus maridos ou companheiros na Delegacia Regional da Mulher, no município de Crato, CE. Os dados obtidos apontam, entre outros aspectos, que a entrada das mulheres na esfera pública e a autonomia financeira, propiciadas pelo trabalho fabril, tendem a provocar mudanças nos tradicionais papéis de gênero, cujas consequências tem se expressado no questionamento do lugar do homem como provedor, nos rompimentos do grupo familiar e violência doméstica contra as trabalhadoras. Abstract in english In this article, we will argue about the changes represented by the entrance of women in the factory work in a region of recent industrialization, aiming at verifying to which extent such insertion, in a context of employment crisis in a region marked by informal labor activities, has influenced the [...] redefinition of the family roles and increased conflicts that cause domestic violence. A group of 14 women workers that denounced the domestic violence in Crato City, Ceará State, was observed. We intend to recoup the changes perceived by these workers in its life of work and its ordinary life. The women entrance in the public sphere tends to pressure for changes in the traditional roles of gender with distinct gradations, since adjustments in the domestic life until disruption of the family group.
Iara Maria, Araújo; Jacob Carlos, Lima; Izabel Cristina Ferreira, Borsoi.
We report results from a pretest-posttest randomized experimental study comparing the impact of high versus low facilitation of formal mentoring programs on female healthcare workers' performance and attitudes. Results indicated increases in job performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment for mentoring program participants from…
Marshall Egan, Toby; Rosser, Manda H.
...05/12 06/04/12 (Workers). 81683...Brookfield GRS (Workers)....... Fort...Amerbelle Textiles, LLC (State/ Vernon...OSRAM Sylvania, Inc. (Union)... St. Marys...D. Fashion, Inc. (Workers). New York,...
...Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...determine whether the workers are eligible to apply...17/13 04/11/13 (Union). 82651...Anthem Workers Compensation Costa Mesa...U.S. Textile Corporation...
...Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...determine whether the workers are eligible to apply...Duro Textiles LLC (Company). Fall...10/12 01/06/12 (Workers). 81229...01/12/12 Company (Union)....
...11 10/28/11 (Union). 81034...MS Particleboard (Workers). 81035...Aerotek Inc. (Workers)..... Hanover...International Textile Group Greensboro...KFP Corporation (Workers).. Somerset...02/11 Refinery (Union)....
...determine whether the workers are eligible to apply...10/11 05/04/11 (Workers). 80162...Hofmann Industries (Union).. Sinking Spring...Corporation (CSC) (Workers). 80167...Southern Textiles (Company)....
Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)
This document contains the lesson plans for a 12-week course in basic workplace pre-algebra that was developed for clothing and textile workers through the joint effort of Northeastern Illinois University's Chicago Teachers' Center and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. A chart for recording students' mastery of 25 course…
This document contains the lesson plans for a 12-week course in basic workplace math that was developed for clothing and textile workers through the joint efforts of Northeastern Illinois University's Chicago Teachers' Center and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. A chart for recording students' mastery of 25 course objectives is…
Background: Occupational exposures to workplace hazards in health-care workers can affect on their health including the reproductive system. Some exposures cause reproductive system disorders. Objective of this study was to compare reproductive system disorders between hospital personnel who work in clinical and administrative setting. Methods: This is a historical cohort study on clinical and administrative workers of hospitals. The study tool was flexible interview and questionnaire. Pregnant personnel had been followed until the end of pregnancy. Frequency of reproductive disorders was compared between two groups. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16, t-test, and ?2 were calculated considering P < 0.05 as significant level. Odds ratio had been calculated with a confidence interval 95%. Results: Frequency of menses disorders in clinical personnel especially, personnel of emergency departments were the highest and showed a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.042). The odds ratio for menses disorders in clinical personnel was 1.362 (1.008-1.84) and in administrative personnel was 0.653 (0.368-1.159). Conclusions: Clinical personnel are at higher risk for menses disorders compared with administrative personnel. Assessing the health of these personnel may help to improve future generation's health. PMID:24049607
Assadi, Seyedeh Negar
Microbes can be carried by and even multiply on textiles. The first real, premeditated, microbiological warfare happened in 1763, during the Anglo-French wars in North America, when Native American emissaries were given blankets or handkerchiefs contaminated with smallpox. Thus, a small epidemic started and spread rapidly, causing considerable damage to the rank and file of the Native Americans. Nowadays, it could be said that textiles could be vectors of infections in hospitals or communities. The making of antimicrobial textiles could prevent them from becoming a reservoir of microbes in the transmission of infections and in cases of voluntary contamination in a terrorist threat for example. However, methods have to show that textiles are really active and do not attack the cutaneous flora they are in contact with. In this chapter, the role of textiles in the transmission of infections is summarized and the main characteristics of antimicrobial textiles are described.
Freney, Jean; Renaud, François N. R.
A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment technologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of...
Guaratini, Cla?udia C. I.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B.
Many organizations that are working with sex workers have learned that it is ineffective to provide HIV and other health services to them if they do not consider – and address – sex workers’ work environments, where many cases of human rights violations can be found. Thus, they gradually move into rights-based activities. By reframing sex workers’ health as a rights issue, the focus of HIV prevention work with sex workers shifts from individual-level behaviour change communication to ...
Agenda For Change, Womyn S.; Women’s Network for Unity
OBJECTIVES To compare the prevalence rate of hearing loss at different levels of noise in a textile factory and to find out the levels of hearing loss according to duration (years) of employment in the factory. METHODS Seventy workers exposed to different levels of noise were matched with 70 persons in the community who were not exposed to occupational noise. Noise levels dB(A) were measured at different locations in the factory. Hearin...
Shakhatreh, F. M.; Abdul-baqi, K. J.; Turk, M. M.
Full Text Available Annegret Schüle kommt in ihrer Untersuchung zu dem Ergebnis, dass die DDR-Diktatur das Leben von Frauen mehr veränderte als das der Männer. Ihre auf Interviews basierende Untersuchung fokussiert den (Berufs-Alltag von Frauen in der Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei. Anhand der drei Kategorien „Generation“, „Frauenarbeit“ und „Vergemeinschaftung im Betrieb“ diskutiert sie die geführten Interviews , die Förderung weiblicher Erwerbstätiger einerseits und das Negativimage des Textilbetriebs andererseits. Die Autorin legt eine überzeugende Studie zur Erfahrungsgeschichte weiblicher Industriearbeit vor und zeigt am konkreten Beispiel, wie die DDR-Gesellschaft in einer von Frauen getragenen familiarisierten Betriebskultur nicht aufgebrochen, sondern in einer eigentümlichen Verbindung von Geborgenheit und Unterordnung reproduziert wurde.Schüle argues that the Eastern German dictatorship had a greater impact on the lives of women than on those of their male counterparts. Her research, based on interviews with female workers in a in a cotton-spinning factory in Leipzig, portrays women’s everyday-life and work, and offers a convincing study of the experience of female industrial workers. Using the three categories “cohort,” “women’s work,” and a discourse of “factory-as-community,” Schüle discusses her interviews with respect to the promotion of female textile workers on the one hand and the negative stereotypes associated with working in the textile industry on the other hand. Using concrete examples, Schüle demonstrates how a factory organised by women did not undermine the patriarchal frame in which it was embedded but how existing power differentials were reproduced as part of a discourse of family, security, and subordination.
Full Text Available Introducción: la incorporación al trabajo insertado y el escenario laboral son factores sociales implicados en la función sexual de la mujer en etapa reproductiva, sin embargo, sus significados no están bien establecidos en la mujer en etapa de climaterio. Objetivo: identificar algunos aspectos relativos a la respuesta sexual en mujeres de edad mediana que laboran en centros de salud de Ciudad de la Habana. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal que consistió en entrevistar a las 59 mujeres de edad mediana que respondieron a la convocatoria de participar en el estudio, todas trabajadoras de 2 centros asistenciales del sector salud del municipio San Miguel del Padrón, en Ciudad de La Habana, y todas con edades entre 38 y 59 años y con pareja sexual estable. Se empleó una encuesta autoadministrada para explorar aspectos sociodemográficos, y cambios en la respuesta sexual (deseo, excitación y orgasmo en los últimos 6 meses. Como variables a controlar se utilizaron: la edad actual, la etapa de climaterio, las características de las relaciones de pareja y la sobrecarga de género. Se emplearon estadígrafos descriptivos y ANOVA para establecer diferencias entre grupos (valor de pIntroduction: to be incorporated into work and the working environment are social factors involved in sexual function of woman in reproductive stage, however, its meanings are not well established in the woman in climateric stage. Objective: our objective was to identify some features related to sexual response in mean age women working in health centers of Ciudad de La Habana. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to interview 59 mean age women participant in such study working in two assistance centers of health sector from the San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Ciudad de La Habana aged between 38 and 59 and with a stable sexual partner. A self-administered opinion poll was used to explore the sociodemographic features and the changes in sexual response (desire, excitation and orgasm during the past months. The variables to be controlled were: present age, climateric stage, features of partner relationships and genre overload. Descriptive stadigraphs were used and ANOVA to establish differences among groups (value of p < 0,05 for statistical significance. Results: most of polled persons expressed no change in sexual response features. Decrease of any of the sexual response phases was related to the partner relationships features, with a older age of woman and to the menopause stage, results similar to other reports made in women with similar sociodemographic features no workers of health sector. Influence of genre overload over sexual response was not identified. Conclusions: features related to sexual response identified in the mean age women group were similar to those of other national and international reports. It is not confirmed that the working scenario selected had influence (negative or positive on the sexual response of study women.
Yaquelín González Ricardo
We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.
Relation with the Host States
Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. A key driver for smart textiles research is the fact that both textile and electronics fabrication processes are capable of functionalizing large-area surfaces at very high speeds. In this article we review the history of smart textiles development, introducing the main trends and technological challenges faced in this field. Then, we identify key challenges that are the focus of ongoing research. We then proceed to discuss fundamentals of smart textiles: textile fabrication methods and textile interconnect lines, textile sensor, and output device components and integration of commercial components into textile architectures. Next we discuss representative smart textile systems and finally provide our outlook over the field and a prediction for the future.
Cherenack, Kunigunde; van Pieterson, Liesbeth
Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhadores de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, condições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação, com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008, deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores.OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores RESULTS: No significant differences (p < 0.05 were found comparing results of fatigue, workability index, and most demographic characteristics obtained among workers from the two groups. The best working conditions in the group with highest CSR scores (p = 0.008 were in plants that provided meals for the workers. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation and development of CSR projects do not necessarily mean better working conditions, less fatigue or higher workability. However, as this was a cross-sectional study with a small population sample and as working capacity may decrease with ageing of workers, new longitudinal studies must be performed with a larger population.
Ricardo Jorge Metzner
Full Text Available Large quantities of available biomass that needs to be used are the main reason for bioplastics revival. In many cases it is an optimal solution for a particular purpose. The production of textile used for clothing, medicine, and the automotive industry being the main consumer of technical textile where textile constitutes almost 85% of the car interior follow this trend. The important reasons for application are functionality and biomass utilization. Permanent increase in bioplastic production capacity is expected. The paper presents new achievements in textiles and the related areas. / Zbog velike koli?ine raspoložive biomase koju treba iskoristiti bioplastika doživljava renesansu. U nekim je slu?ajevima dobro rješenje za odre?enu namjenu. Takav trend slijedi i proizvodnja tekstila za potrebe odijevanja, medicine i automobilske industrije, glavnoga korisnika tehni?kog tekstila, gdje tekstil ?ini gotovo 85 % unutrašnjosti automobila. Važni razlozi primjene su funkcionalnost i iskoristivost otpadne biomase te se o?ekuje trajno pove?anje kapaciteta za proizvodnju bioplastike. U radu su prikazana nova dostignu?a u tekstilstvu i srodnim granama.
Ana Marija GRANCARI?
...18/12 06/14/12 (Workers). 81730...Talgo, Inc. (Union)........ Milwaukee...JCIM, US-LLC (Union)....... Kendallville...Ericsson, Inc. (Workers)... Albuquerque...International Textile Group/ Carlisle,...
...Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...determine whether the workers are eligible to apply...22/10 02/01/10 (Union). 73535...10 Products, LLC (Union). 73553...Dixie Belle Textiles (Wkrs). Elkin,...
Flame resistance treatment for acid resistant polyamide fibers involving photoaddition of fluorocarbons to surface has been scaled up to treat 10 yards of commercial width (41 in.) fabric. Process may be applicable to other low cost polyamides, polyesters, and textiles.
Fogg, L. C.; Stringham, R. S.; Toy, M. S.
We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152
Relations avec les Pays hôtes
The aerodynamic drag force acting on a circular cylinder clad with knitted wool and polyester textiles has been investigated in wind tunnel experiments in this study. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was utilized to determine the flow field, both around the separation point and a wake profile in the close wake. The drag forces and the characteristic CD curves were determined over a range of Reynolds numbers expected to contain flow transition, for a number of knitted textiles having dif...
Bardal, Lars Morten
Textile has within the last decade increasingly been regarded as an architectural material. Many new textiles have been developed and this has increased its applications in architecture. But how do textile and space meet and which spatial qualities can arise in this meeting? The paper describes a series of practical studies of the spatial qualities that can be established through the design of three very different fabrics. The topic is part of an ongoing Ph.D. project at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. The main theme of the Ph.D. is the inter-play between textile, space and sound. Space, established with textile, differs in several ways from rooms built of conventional building materials. Textiles are flexible - it can both be folded and moved, it can be translucent and simultaneously provide a visual barrier, it is lightweight and at the same time very strong, it is sound absorbing and it has a special poetry which is not to be found in any other material. Which spatial qualities can be obtained with these textile properties? Contemporary conception of space in architecture can be said still to rely on the modernist conception. In practical experiments it is investigated how the textiles can be given shape in relation to modernist theories of space conception. In these theories a number of specific parameters which determine the formation of space are defined. Some of these parameters are the creation of distance between objects, structuring of the space in relation to platonic solids, transparency of materials and dissolution of space boundaries.
Rapidly evolving technology of digital printing opens new opportunities on many markets. One of them is the printed fabric market where printing companies as well as clients benefit from new printing methods. This thesis focuses on the digital textile printing technology and its implementation for fabric-on-demand printing service in Finland. The purpose of this project was to study the technology behind digital textile printing, areas of application of this technology, the requirements ...
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An approach to motivation in the contemporary world of work is the implementation of Quality-of-Worklife (QWL programmes, which is aimed at easing the pressures faced at work by employees. Quality-of-Worklife is a relatively new concept in human resource management. It is a philosophy of improving productivity by providing workers with the opportunities required to put in their best at work, without jeopardizing their personal self improvement and responsibilities at home. This study, investigated the organisational pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of academic and non - academic women in tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study was a survey of the ex-post facto type. 3,640 senior cadre women working in the four purposively selected degree awarding institutions in Lagos State (University of Lagos, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State University and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and their managers formed the population. Out of these, 250 women were selected as sample from each institution using the stratified random sampling technique. Three instruments were used for the study: Quality-of-Worklife survey of Women Workers (QWLSWW r= .815, Head of Department Check List (HODCL and Structured Interview Questions (SIQ. A research question and 3 research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level. Data were analysed using frequency counts, percentages, t-test. Significant differences were found between academic and non-academic female members of staff in their sources of pressure (t=2.43, P<0.05. The factors included: salary, health-care benefits, day-care services on workplace premises and workload. However, no significant differences were found between academic and non-academic female members of staff on sources of satisfaction which included, daily workload, salary, fairness in performance assessment, special recognition for high performance, internet facilities at work and health- care benefit and organisational pressure factors. Factors such as salary, health-care benefit, day-care services, recognition, workload and others influenced QWL of women. Government and management committees of the tertiary institutions should ensure the reduction of organisational pressure and promote high QWL. This would enable the women workers contribute to the productivity of their organisation.
This document is an anthology of participant writings from the Worker Education Program, which is a holistic workplace literacy program developed through a partnership among Northeastern Illinois University (NIU) and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textiles Workers Union (ACTWU). The document begins with a brief overview of the Worker Education…
Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago. Chicago Teachers' Center.
Many HIV-infected women are not realizing the benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) despite significant advancements in treatment. Women in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside (DTES) are highly marginalized and struggle with multiple morbidities, unstable housing, addiction, survival sex, and elevated risk of sexual and drug-related harms, including HIV infection. Although recent studies have identified the heightened risk of HIV infection among women engaged in sex work and in...
Shannon, Kate; Bright, Vicki; Duddy, Janice; Tyndall, Mark W.
Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744
Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua
This document is the staff development manual that was developed to train worker education facilitators involved in the Chicago Teachers' Center of Northeastern Illinois University and Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union Worker Education Program (WEP). The document begins with an overview of the WEP, which uses workers' life and…
We present a simple fabrication process that produces polymeric charge storage devices directly onto a textile surface. By using a coating of poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT) as a solid electrolytic layer deposited between two woven silver coated polyamide yarns, we have created a simple polymeric textile battery. By studying the device's surface morphology and chemical composition, we determined that in the presence of an electric field, silver ions from the anode yarn migrate to the cathode yarn through the PEDOT. Despite this migration, the device could be charged and discharged five times without suffering degradation in electrical performance.
Bhattacharya, R.; de Kok, M. M.; Zhou, J.
Full Text Available This article discuss know clearly the dominant species of flame retardant, flame retardant mechanism and flame checking technology combine gave an outline of the testing method of flame retardant effect, lodge set look into highly active, low mammalian toxicity, low fume burst size, multifunctional flame retardant textile, it is our struggling heading.
This article discuss know clearly the dominant species of flame retardant, flame retardant mechanism and flame checking technology combine gave an outline of the testing method of flame retardant effect, lodge set look into highly active, low mammalian toxicity, low fume burst size, multifunctional flame retardant textile, it is our struggling heading.
Hongkun SunZhang; Guoliang Sun
Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer (SAP) by copolymerization of hydantoin containing monomer and acrylic acid and coating of SAP onto filter fabrics, and (9) use of a hindered amine compound to treat fabrics for use as air filters. Some treated samples were subjected to laundry testing and aging testing for evaluating their durabilities. Bacterial testing was performed to determine the antimicrobial efficacies of the samples. The results demonstrated that many of the treated samples exhibited promising antibacterial effectiveness.
This paper reports on a locally initiated investigation into the suitability of the Internet in helping to meet the information needs of women in small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the textile industry in Botswana. The background is the stated government policy to encourage the development of SMMEs and the Internet infrastructure. The…
Mbambo, Buhle; Cronje, Johannes C.
Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years) In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness
Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs) of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility we...
Prabir Kumar Manna; Debasis De; Debidas Ghosh
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Piracicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno.OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil. Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify variables related to weaning in the fourth month of life. RES
Aline Alves Brasileiro
Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE). MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhador [...] es de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, condições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação), com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05) nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008), deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they [...] were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores) RESULTS: No significant differences (p
Ricardo Jorge, Metzner; Frida Marina, Fischer; Diogo Pupo, Nogueira.
The present invention relates to textiles endowed with bioactive protection against air or water borne toxic chemicals such as pesticides, nerve agents, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. More specifically, the object of the invention is a textile material carrying immobilized biocatalysts able to actively degrade toxic chemicals adsorbed onto it. The textile material of the invention can be used to manufacture bioactive interlining element of protective garments or it may, but n...
Isella, Francesca; Rosace, Giuseppe; Giovannoni, Gianluigi; Donelli, Ilaria; Alberti Fusi, Gabriella; Cittadini, Cesare; Freddi, Giuliano
The present invention describes a process designed to integrate biomarkers into textile substrates. The invention is directed to any kind of textile materials in form of loose fibres, tops, tow, sliver, yarn, fabric (woven, knitted, nonwoven, braided, etc.), garment. Textile materials can be made of natural or man-made fibres (artificial, synthetic) or their blends. The biomarkers of the invention are proteins, preferably endowed with biocatalytic activity. The biomarker carrier media include...
Donelli, Ilaria; Rosace, Giuseppe; Rondi, Giorgio; Isella, Francesca; Alberti Fusi, Gabriella; Calleri, Sergio; Freddi, Giuliano
Offer of textiles and clothes greatly exceeds its needs. In the area of textile and clothes industry consumerism is highly developed. On the other hand, environmental awareness is strengthening whereas the current economic crisis is demanding more responsible shopping. Media such as television, newspapers and commercials give us information about numerous new detergents that are supposedly better than the existing ones. In shops we can find more and more textiles and clothes having labels ECO...
In this article, we have followed women and men with a Swedish or an immigrant background that have completed the Upper Secondary Health Care Program. In which occupations do they work? Who employs them? Which target groups do they serve? Official statistics and survey data were used. The interaction between occupational structure and educational…
Johansson, Stina; Ahnlund, Petra
It is the complete index of the six renowned journals of textiles. The index is arranged by keywords and entries are well formated. The index covers the published issues of year 2002 of the following journals. Library World, Coloration Technology, AATCC Review, Pakistan Textile Journal, Textile Research Journal, International Dyer, and Textile Today. The index is useful for textile designers, textile engineers, fashion designers, managers, decision makers, and researchers.
This research develops three efficient textile flaw detection methods to facilitate automated textile inspection for the textile-related industries. Their novelty lies in detecting flaws with knowledge directly extracted from textile images, unlike existing methods which detect flaws with empirically specified texture features. The first two methods treat textile flaw detection as a texture classification problem, and consider that defect-free images of a textile fabric normally possess c...
Tian, Xuwen; ???
The ways of using the nanometer material to give the textile fabric some function is listed and compared in this article. In the early research, first the nanometer material preparation is alone carries on. And then using this to make the finishing agent. Finally put the agent on the fabric by finishment. At present, people combine the preparation of nanometer material and finishing agent together, and then cover this on fabric through the normal finishment. Recentlly research the trend is to...
Dongxue Liu; Weiguo Dong
The term ‘smart dresser’ could soon acquire a new meaning. An unlikely alliance between textile manufacturers, materials scientists, and computer engineers has resulted in some truly clever clothing1 4. From self-illuminating handbag interiors to a gym kit that monitors workout intensity, the prototypes just keep coming. But researchers have yet to answer the million-dollar question, perhaps critical to consumer acceptance, will they go in the wash?
The evaluation report details the structure and outcomes of a workplace education program for members of the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers' Union from May 1993 through March 1995, and assesses the program's design as a model for similar programs elsewhere. The program was designed to enhance workers' skills and meet personal educational…
Fischer, Joseph C.; Larson, Katherine E.
The curriculum on occupational safety and health, designed for a workplace literacy and basic skills program for clothing and textile workers union members, is outlined. Its objectives are to help workers understand the importance of following company health and safety rules and danger signs, identify and report workplace hazards, aid in…
Final evaluation of the Workplace Education Program, funded by the National Workplace Literacy Program to provide workplace literacy education programs to 425 members of Chicago (Illinois) area clothing and textile workers union members, is presented. The program's goal was to enhance workers' basic literacy skills for present job stabilization…
Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts. The first research project (completed) concerns how textile designers use new responsive materials and technologies, whereas the second (ongoing) concerns how architects and design engineers can use textile materials. In both projects, the developed inspirational tool is tested through workshops with the mentioned stakeholders. In these workshops, new ways of disseminating the results from research in textiles and textile design are experimented with. The submitted contribution therefore mainly addresses the role of interdisciplinarity in textile design research as well as the impact of new materials and technologies on directions and approaches in textile design research. It presents one example of what textile design research is.
Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker
Full Text Available This study was to develop the flame retardant (FR protective clothing which had multifunction such anti-bacterial, UV cut, FR function with water repellent and water vapor permeable laminating textiles for industrial workers. First of all, the FR yarn and FR textiles were developed for this purpose. Second, the comparison analysis between the halogen laminating textiles and halogen-free laminating textiles were tested to figure out the eco-friendly laminating method. Third, the flame retardant ability was compared the halogen laminated textiles to halogen-free laminated textiles. LOI, UV protection ratio, antibiosis after 50 laundry test, water proof pressure, and moisture permeability of developed textiles were tested. GC-HR-TOF-MS was used for analysis of laminating film (halogen and halogen-free. 4.1 wt% TiO2 yarn showed antibacterial function (Pneumococcus & Staphylococcus aureus: 99.9%, UV Protection (UVA: 90.8, UVB: 92.1, and LOI (33.6. The chosen optimal compounding ratio for PU compound of HRF and HFFR were as followed: PU resin 58.3%, DMF (Dimethyl formamide, ? = 12.2 8.3%, MEK (Methylethylketone 8.3% and FR (flame retardants 25.0%. Binder for laminating should not be included over 10% of FRs because of adhesion between textiles and FR laminating film. There were detected phosphorus compounds in the textiles treated by halogenated type flame retardants and halogenated-free type flame retardants. There were not any detected harmful compounds from all textile samples.
Yoon Jeong Baek
This thesis describes how the use of a patented camera from Videometer A/S, can be the foundation for a range of quality control measures on textiles. An algorithm for segmenting the threads from denim will be tested on different fabrics, where abrasion and backstaining will be measured and compared to proven measuring methods done with a chromameter. New features for denim will also be presented such as speckle and graininess, which will give an objective measure of the global contrast in th...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho, ancorado em uma pesquisa desenvolvida no âmbito do Centro Scalabriniano de Estudos Migratórios, analisa a experiência vivida por mulheres migrantes em diversos países centrando a reflexão na dimensão do trabalho no contexto do processo migratório internacional. Tomando como pont [...] o de partida a perspectiva das próprias protagonistas - paraguaias no Brasil, brasileiras nos Estados Unidos, haitianas na República Dominicana, colombianas no Equador, filipinas na Itália e nicaraguenses na Costa Rica -, busca-se identificar dificuldades enfrentadas no que refere à vida profissional dessas mulheres. Parte-se do entendimento de que a migração pode ser vista como uma alternativa para escapar de situações de pobreza e exclusão do mercado de trabalho no país de origem. A pesquisa aponta a existência de segregação no mercado de trabalho. Abstract in english The present work, anchored on a research developed at CSEM, analyzes the lived experience of migrant women in several countries, focusing on the labor dimension in the context of the international migration process. Taking as a starting point the perspective of the protagonists themselves - Paraguay [...] ans in Brazil, Brazilians in the United States, Haitians in the Dominican Republic, Colombians in Ecuador, Filipinas in Italy, and Nicaraguans in Costa Rica -, the paper strives to identify difficulties related to the professional lives of these women. It is assumed that migration can be seen as an alternative to escape situations of poverty and exclusion in the labor market in their country of origin. The research indicates the existence of segregation in the labor market.
...Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance...Ames True Temper, Union City, PA...May 6, 2012. Inc., Union City Plant, Griffon Corporation...Textile Piece Dyeing Lincolnton,...
Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing) and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental) of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation ...
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la incorporación al trabajo insertado y el escenario laboral son factores sociales implicados en la función sexual de la mujer en etapa reproductiva, sin embargo, sus significados no están bien establecidos en la mujer en etapa de climaterio. Objetivo: identificar algunos aspectos rela [...] tivos a la respuesta sexual en mujeres de edad mediana que laboran en centros de salud de Ciudad de la Habana. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal que consistió en entrevistar a las 59 mujeres de edad mediana que respondieron a la convocatoria de participar en el estudio, todas trabajadoras de 2 centros asistenciales del sector salud del municipio San Miguel del Padrón, en Ciudad de La Habana, y todas con edades entre 38 y 59 años y con pareja sexual estable. Se empleó una encuesta autoadministrada para explorar aspectos sociodemográficos, y cambios en la respuesta sexual (deseo, excitación y orgasmo) en los últimos 6 meses. Como variables a controlar se utilizaron: la edad actual, la etapa de climaterio, las características de las relaciones de pareja y la sobrecarga de género. Se emplearon estadígrafos descriptivos y ANOVA para establecer diferencias entre grupos (valor de p Abstract in english Introduction: to be incorporated into work and the working environment are social factors involved in sexual function of woman in reproductive stage, however, its meanings are not well established in the woman in climateric stage. Objective: our objective was to identify some features related to sex [...] ual response in mean age women working in health centers of Ciudad de La Habana. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to interview 59 mean age women participant in such study working in two assistance centers of health sector from the San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Ciudad de La Habana aged between 38 and 59 and with a stable sexual partner. A self-administered opinion poll was used to explore the sociodemographic features and the changes in sexual response (desire, excitation and orgasm) during the past months. The variables to be controlled were: present age, climateric stage, features of partner relationships and genre overload. Descriptive stadigraphs were used and ANOVA to establish differences among groups (value of p
Yaquelín, González Ricardo; Taira, Maceo Coello; Daysi Antonia, Navarro Despaigne; Emma, Domínguez Alonso.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del [...] textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39). Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias. Abstract in english Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk preventi [...] on in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organizations agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39). Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.
Rafael, Gadea; Laura, Mundemurra; Tatiana, Santos; Ruth, Jiménez; Ana M., García.
Full Text Available Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39. Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias.Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk prevention in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organizations agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39. Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine whether female manual workers have higher mortality than other women. DESIGN--This was a retrospective cohort study in which mortality was compared with that of the general female population. Main outcome measures were standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). SETTING--Reykjavík region. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were 18,878 women, the cumulated members of a pension fund for manual workers between 1970 and 1986. MAIN RESUL...
Gunnarsdo?ttir, H.; Rafnsson, V.
Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are considered tobe the key technology for the recent era. Efforts are beingworldwide to create smart and intelligent textiles byincorporating various nano particles or by creatingnanostructured surfaces and nanofibres which lead tounprecedented level of textile performance such as stainresistant, self cleaning, antistatic, UV protective and variouschemical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paperis to examine the implications of nanotechnology for the fibreand textile industries in the world. The basics and impacts ofnanotechnology are discussed in terms of various advancedproducts by different manufactured along with the properties ofthe products. With an appreciation of what nanotechnologies areemerging globally in the fibre and textile areas, the localindustry will have the necessary background to ask the rightquestions and make informed decisions.
Mr. Subhankar Maity
Grasping highly deformable objects, like textiles, is an emerging area of research that involves both percep- tion and manipulation abilities. As new techniques appear, it becomes essential to design strategies to compare them. However, this is not an easy task, since the large state-space of textile objects explodes when coupled with the variability of grippers, robotic hands and robot arms performing the manipulation task. This high variability makes it very difficult ...
Alenya?, Guillem; Ramisa, Arnau; Moreno-noguer, F.; Torras, Carme
Full Text Available Presence of huge amount of salts in the wastewater of textile dyeing industry is one of the major limiting factors in the development of an effective biotreatment system for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Large number of textile industries are located on the coastal areas due to ease of transport to the various places in world and help in building nations economy, but on the contrary the effluents released from these industries are proving a great problem for the marine life. Therefore, industrial effluents containing dyes must be treated before their safe discharge into the environment. There are various physiochemical methods are conventionally used. These methods are effective but quite expensive leading to the production of solid sludge. Bacterial spp. capable of thriving under high salt conditions could be employed for the treatment of saline dye-contaminated textile wastewaters. Most of the Scientists used chemical coagulation, Flocculation and Precipitation techniques for the removal of dye colors from waste waters. But this method is not cost beneficial as it generates huge amount of Sludge and to dispose the sludge is major problem. The physical methods are also not cost effective. So only biological treatment using acclimatized microorganisms could remove 99-100% dye colour from wastewater. Hence now a day most of the workers concentrated on biotransformation of textile azo dyes by adapted organisms. The use of co substrates also slightly increased the decolorization of dye solution. Some scientists showed that the products of dye degradation are not toxic to biological system. Products formed can be determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS technique, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR etc.
R. S. Shertate
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: La morbilidad asociada a la violencia de pareja hacia la mujer (VPHM) justifica que sus víctimas acudan reiteradamente a los centros de salud. La accesibilidad y continuidad asistencial hacen de la atención primaria (AP) el lugar idóneo para su detección y primer abordaje. Sin embargo, [...] los datos reflejan las dificultades de los/as profesionales para lograr este fin. El objetivo es analizar el nivel de conocimientos, opiniones, barreras organizativas percibidas y propuestas de mejora de los profesionales de AP. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo realizado mediante una encuesta anónima y autoadministrada durante los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2010, dirigida a todos/as profesionales de AP del área 8 de Madrid. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables y la chi² para comparar las respuestas obtenidas. Resultados: Tasa de respuesta 170 (21,4%). 118 (70,7%) profesionales creen que este es un problema importante y 154 (91,7%) que habitualmente pasa desapercibido. 91 (55,2%) conocen las obligaciones legales que tienen cuando la detectan. 73 (51,8%) piensan que existen barreras organizativas. Entre ellas: presión asistencial 50(29%), fa de formación específica 40(23,5%), desconocimiento del procedimiento a seguir 20(11,8%) y de las competencias de cada profesional 12(7%). Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos medio para todas las categorías profesionales estudiadas, excepto para trabajo social que es alto. Los/as profesionales de AP consideran que la VPHM es un problema importante que pasa desapercibido. La mitad de ellos/as conocen las obligaciones legales que conlleva la detección. Existen barreras organizativas y estereotipos. Abstract in english Background: Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Heh Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to [...] achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of primary care. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi² to compare the answers. Results: Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). Conclusions: All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.
Ana Belén, Arredondo-Provecho; Manuel, Broco-Barredo; Teresa, Alcalá-Ponce de León; Araceli, Rivera-Álvarez; Isabel, Jiménez Trujillo; Carmen, Gallardo-Pino.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamentos: La morbilidad asociada a la violencia de pareja hacia la mujer (VPHM) justifica que sus víctimas acudan reiteradamente a los centros de salud. La accesibilidad y continuidad asistencial hacen de la atención primaria (AP) el lugar idóneo para su detección y primer abordaje. Sin embargo, [...] los datos reflejan las dificultades de los/as profesionales para lograr este fin. El objetivo es analizar el nivel de conocimientos, opiniones, barreras organizativas percibidas y propuestas de mejora de los profesionales de AP. Método: Estudio transversal descriptivo realizado mediante una encuesta anónima y autoadministrada durante los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2010, dirigida a todos/as profesionales de AP del área 8 de Madrid. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de variables y la chi² para comparar las respuestas obtenidas. Resultados: Tasa de respuesta 170 (21,4%). 118 (70,7%) profesionales creen que este es un problema importante y 154 (91,7%) que habitualmente pasa desapercibido. 91 (55,2%) conocen las obligaciones legales que tienen cuando la detectan. 73 (51,8%) piensan que existen barreras organizativas. Entre ellas: presión asistencial 50(29%), fa de formación específica 40(23,5%), desconocimiento del procedimiento a seguir 20(11,8%) y de las competencias de cada profesional 12(7%). Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos medio para todas las categorías profesionales estudiadas, excepto para trabajo social que es alto. Los/as profesionales de AP consideran que la VPHM es un problema importante que pasa desapercibido. La mitad de ellos/as conocen las obligaciones legales que conlleva la detección. Existen barreras organizativas y estereotipos. Abstract in english Background: Morbidity associated to partner violence against women (PVAW) justify these patients repeated visits to Heh Services. Primary Care is the ideal place for detectión and first aid, due to its easy accesibility and continuated assistance. Nevertheless, numbers show important difficulties to [...] achieve this goal. Our aim is to find out the level of knowledge, opinions, awareness about organizacional barriers and improvement proposals suggested by the workers of primary care. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an anonymous and voluntary survey during the months of August and September 2010, targeted to all professionals who perform their work in a Primary Care Area of Madrid. We made a descriptive analysis of variables and used chi² to compare the answers. Results: Answer rate is 170 (21.4%). There are stereotypes regarding battered woman and perpetrador. 118 (70.7%) professionals believe that this is a major problem and 154 (91.7%) that usually goes unnoticed. 91 (55.2%) know their legal commitments. 73 (51.8%) think that there are organizational barriers, among them: the burden of care 50(29%), lack of specific training 40(23.5), lack of knowledge about the procedure to be followed 20(11.8%) and about the professional responsabilities 12 (7%). Conclusions: All profesional categoríes showed an average level of knowledge, except for social workers that was high. Primary Care workers think that PVAW is an important issue that usually goes unnoticed. Half of them know the legal commitments o detección. There are organizacional barriers and stereotypes.
Ana Belén, Arredondo-Provecho; Manuel, Broco-Barredo; Teresa, Alcalá-Ponce de León; Araceli, Rivera-Álvarez; Isabel, Jiménez Trujillo; Carmen, Gallardo-Pino.
This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...
The diploma paper deals with the house design by textile façade coating. Textiles possess sensually tangible and also poetic aesthetics. By its diverse characteristics and application possibilities textile is placed among the highly attractive architectural materials. In the theoretical part of this diploma paper, the use of textile as a vertical façade coating material through history and its contemporary usage features are presented. Further on, the paper provides examples of the use o...
Full Text Available A biological treatment technique for wool textile was carried out by enzymes degradation coupled with H2O2 oxidation. The results demonstrated that the technique had ideal effects on wool textile such as better softness, plump and less loss of bursting stress. Because of mild reaction conditions, less textile damage and less environmental pollution, this technique for wool textile treatment could have promising prospect.
This research investigates the textile industry clusters in Pakistan. A cross sectional data were collected from 30 textile industries by using simple random technique and data were analysis by using E-Views software. Structural questionnaire was the basic tool for measures the performance of textile clusters in Pakistan. It was revealed that the industry is in urgent need of financial and technological investments. However, according to recent official figures, the Pakistan textile industry ...
Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal; Shaikh, Faiz M.; Babak Mahmood; Kamran Shafiq
Three-dimensional (3D) textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforce...
A worker employed in a textile printing-shop showing a rebellious eczema on hands and forearms, was submitted to three series of patch-tests which disclosed a polysensitization to chromium, to formaldehyde, to the urea-formaldehyde resin and to some pigments (Helizarine BASF, Fluolac FMC). The chemical analysis of some of these pigments shows an interesting relation between allergenicity for a certain pigment and the presence of formaldehyde. Thus, it is an allergy to the pigment-support and not to the pigment itself. PMID:143933
Herve-Bazin, B; Foussereau, J; Cavelier, C
The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...
Quem sente é a gente, mas é preciso relevar: a lombalgia na vida das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau - Santa Catarina / One feels it but one must overlook it: low back pain in the life of women working in the textile sector of Blumenau - Santa Catarina
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de compreender o enfrentamento da lombalgia no cotidiano de mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, Santa Catarina. Três mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil daquela cidade foram as informantes principais do estudo, desenvolvido em encontros [...] quinzenais e visitas a locais de trabalho. Foram utilizados como ferramentas de estudo um calendário com data e dias da semana para a marcação de dores relativas à lombalgia e uma Escala Análogo Visual (EAV). Além de relatos anotados em formulários de acompanhamento dos encontros quinzenais, utilizou-se um diário de campo para transcrição de fatos e relatos. Os dados coletados levaram à construção de duas categorias interpretativas: a dor lombar sob o aspecto da normalidade e a dor sentida. Os resultados da pesquisa levam à conclusão de que a lombalgia, sob o ponto de vista das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, apresenta-se como uma espécie de conflito entre a dor normal, sem importância social, e a dor sentida e limitante, que traz sofrimentos e angústias no âmbito privado. A dualidade da lombalgia é marcante, pois são mulheres que têm dor, real para elas, com um impacto importante para suas vidas, mas elas mesmas esforçam-se por negligenciá-la, seguindo a concepção socialmente aceita para esta questão no contexto cultural da região. O conceito de lombalgia construído é de algo inerente à vida e ao trabalho, o que não permite o direito de estar doente. Abstract in english This study was developed with the objective of understanding how women working in the textile sector of Blumenau, state of Santa Catarina, cope with low back pain. Three women who worked in the textile sector of that city were the main informants of the study, developed in biweekly meetings and visi [...] ts to workplaces. The study tools were a calendar with dates and week days, where the participants should mark the occurrence of low back pain, and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Besides accounts registered in forms during the meetings, a field diary for transcription of facts and accounts was used. The collected data led to the construction of two interpretative categories: low back pain under the aspect of normality and felt pain. In light of the results, it is possible to conclude that low back pain, in the point of view of the women from the textile sector of Blumenau, is expressed as a kind of conflict between normal pain, without social importance, and the felt pain, which is restrictive and brings suffering and anguish in the private scope. The duality of low back pain is outstanding, because these are women who feel pain, which is real for them and has an important impact on their lives, but they make an effort to neglect it, following the socially accepted conception for this issue in the region's cultural context. The constructed concept of low back pain is of something inherent in life and work, which does not give them the right to feel ill.
Karine Muniz, Polizelli; Silvana Nair, Leite.
Quem sente é a gente, mas é preciso relevar: a lombalgia na vida das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau - Santa Catarina One feels it but one must overlook it: low back pain in the life of women working in the textile sector of Blumenau - Santa Catarina
Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de compreender o enfrentamento da lombalgia no cotidiano de mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, Santa Catarina. Três mulheres trabalhadoras do setor têxtil daquela cidade foram as informantes principais do estudo, desenvolvido em encontros quinzenais e visitas a locais de trabalho. Foram utilizados como ferramentas de estudo um calendário com data e dias da semana para a marcação de dores relativas à lombalgia e uma Escala Análogo Visual (EAV. Além de relatos anotados em formulários de acompanhamento dos encontros quinzenais, utilizou-se um diário de campo para transcrição de fatos e relatos. Os dados coletados levaram à construção de duas categorias interpretativas: a dor lombar sob o aspecto da normalidade e a dor sentida. Os resultados da pesquisa levam ? conclusão de que a lombalgia, sob o ponto de vista das trabalhadoras do setor têxtil de Blumenau, apresenta-se como uma espécie de conflito entre a dor normal, sem importância social, e a dor sentida e limitante, que traz sofrimentos e angústias no âmbito privado. A dualidade da lombalgia é marcante, pois são mulheres que têm dor, real para elas, com um impacto importante para suas vidas, mas elas mesmas esforçam-se por negligenciá-la, seguindo a concepção socialmente aceita para esta questão no contexto cultural da região. O conceito de lombalgia construído é de algo inerente à vida e ao trabalho, o que não permite o direito de estar doente.This study was developed with the objective of understanding how women working in the textile sector of Blumenau, state of Santa Catarina, cope with low back pain. Three women who worked in the textile sector of that city were the main informants of the study, developed in biweekly meetings and visits to workplaces. The study tools were a calendar with dates and week days, where the participants should mark the occurrence of low back pain, and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Besides accounts registered in forms during the meetings, a field diary for transcription of facts and accounts was used. The collected data led to the construction of two interpretative categories: low back pain under the aspect of normality and felt pain. In light of the results, it is possible to conclude that low back pain, in the point of view of the women from the textile sector of Blumenau, is expressed as a kind of conflict between normal pain, without social importance, and the felt pain, which is restrictive and brings suffering and anguish in the private scope. The duality of low back pain is outstanding, because these are women who feel pain, which is real for them and has an important impact on their lives, but they make an effort to neglect it, following the socially accepted conception for this issue in the region's cultural context. The constructed concept of low back pain is of something inherent in life and work, which does not give them the right to feel ill.
Karine Muniz Polizelli
Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.
Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforcement for composites. This paper describes different tests done in our textile labs from unidirectional structures to woven, knitted or braided 3 D textile structures. Advantages and disadvantages of each textile structure are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with our know-how in the manufacturing and assessing of three-dimensional textile structures during this last five years in the field of textile structures for composites but also in the development of structures for other applications. In the field of composites for aeronautic sector we have developed textile structures using the main methods of textile production, that is to say, weaving, warp knitting, weft knitting and braiding. Comparing the advantages and disadvantages it could be said that braided fabrics, with a structure in the three space axes are the most suitable for fittings and frames.
The guide outlines the curriculum designed for a workplace literacy program for about 500 members of a clothing and textile workers union in the Chicago (Illinois) area. The program is intended to prepare workers for the challenges of work in an environment of constantly changing demographics, new technology, and shifting global economy. An…
Garcia, Paula; Keresztes-Nagy, Susan
Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex three-dimensional geometries of interfering spheres are created. Textiles are generally a very good sound dampening material. To dampen the sound most effective it should be placed where the sound energy is highest. To find these invisible spots of energy and to reveal the geometry of them, two experiments were carried out. One experiment was done in a laboratory with a sound measure instrument andtextiles arranged in different positions and shapes. Here the high energy spots were located. The other experiment is ongoing and is an investigation of how textiles can take the shape of the sound goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form.
Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…
Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira
An evaluation examined the efficacy of the program structure, implementation, and outcomes of the Worker Education Program (WEP), a partnership of Northeastern Illinois University; Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees; and 14 employers. WEP's greatest strengths were its conceptual design, program structures, relevant…
Larson, Katherine E.
The EDIPTEX project has three main deliverables. These are 1. Modelling of the lifecycle of six textile products and calculation of the connected environmental impact 2. Obtaining almost 500 textile unit processes following the EDIP unit process data format 3. Calculation of equivalency factors for a number of chemicals For each of the deliverables extensive documentation material exists, which is published in this report. In the EDIPTEX project, a number of lifecycle assessments (environmental assessments) were carried out on textile products. But an extensive and detailed lifecycle assessment case is not particularly information friendly - only to other lifecycle assessment experts and consultants. The Programme for Cleaner Products etc. has therefore supported a dissemination project "Information on EDIPTEX". In this dissemination project the six EDIPTEX environmental assessments were transformed into six leaflets which, on only four pages each and in a professional layout, outline the environmental profile of the six products. The six environmental assessments include: A T-shirt of 100% cotton /1/ A jogging suit of nylon microfibres with a cotton lining /2/ A work jacket of 65 per cent polyester and 35 per cent cotton /3/ A blouse of viscose, nylon and elastane /4/ A tablecloth of cotton /5/ A floor covering of nylon and polypropylene /6/ The present report informs in detail about methods and principles used in the environmental assessments of the six selected EDIPTEX textile products. The major part of the lifecycle is common for many textile products, e.g. energy production, production of raw materials (e.g. cultivation and harvesting cotton), certain production processes (such as dyeing polyester), washing and ironing in the use phase and incineration during disposal. Such basic data have been established during the EDIPTEX project. The EDIPTEX project has been based upon the nationally and internationally recognised environmental assessment method EDIP - "Environmental Design of Industrial Products". The project has obtained environmental data for several hundred processes "from cradle to grave" in the lifecycle of textiles. EDIPTEX environmental data and a PC tool provide the possibility for combining the lifecycle of a textile product from cradle to grave, process by process, on the computer screen through a modelling, and letting the computers calculate the equivalency impacts. EDIPTEX environmental data and the environmental assessments, which can be modelled on the basis of these data, thus represent a unique tool in connection with e.g. preparing and documenting lifecycle assessments and environmental declarations for goods. In connection with the project "Information on EDIPTEX" a leaflet has been prepared "EDIP environmental data for textiles - a survey" /7/, which gives an overview of the environmental data, so that others can use the data during environmental assessment of textiles. All data are now also available in the PC tool GaBi EDIP - the successor of the EDIP PC tool. For anumber of commonly occurring emissions (discharges) and for emissions which have been assessed in previous projects within EDIP, equivalency factors had already been established. But for a number emissions, no equivalency factors had been calculated. If these emissions were to be included in the calculations of the contribution of a product on the impact categories regarding toxicity, equivalency factors for the substances would have to be calculated, and they would have to be included in the PC tool. In the EDIPTEX case scenarios, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity for approx. 50 textile specific chemicals are used. Within the EDIPTEX project, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity have been calculated for approx. 35 different substances, which are part of the very often composite chemicals. Further, approx. 20 substances are assessed as unproblematic regarding ecotoxicity and human toxicity in discharges via wastewater treatment plants. Fate factors for the technosphere for the substances h
Laursen, SØren Ellebæk; Hansen, John
The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic branches increased. In the early 1960s the employment of foreign workers was concentrated in 3 branches -- the construction sector (32% of all foreign workers), metal industries (16%), and textile industries (10%). In 1982 only 1/3 of all foreign workers were still employed in these branches as an infiltration by foreign labor had taken place in all sectors. The services sector showed the greatest increase in foreign employment since 1975. There has never been as strong a concentration of 1 nationality in a particular economic branch as in Switzerland, Germany, or France. Case studies in Austria reveal that it was an explicit policy for firms (and also unions and entrepreneur representatives) not to depend on only 1 nationality of foreign workers. According to the case studies, about 1/3 of all foreign workers today occupy jobs which are in direct competition with indigenous labor. Another 1/3 fill jobs which are complementary to indigenous labor. For the remainder it is difficult to say to what extent they belong to one or the other segment of the labor market, because there is no information available on the occupational job structure. PMID:12159579
The report describes the design and outcomes of a workplace education program undertaken cooperatively by Northeastern Illinois University, the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers' Union, and a number of local businesses to provide adult basic education, English-as-a-Second-Language, and job skills instruction in the workplace. The report…
Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.
Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.331-339, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2756
Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforcement for composites. This paper describes different tests done in our textile labs from unidirectional structures to woven, knitted or braided 3 D textile structures. Advantages and disadvantages of each textile structure are summarized. The first part of this paper deals with the introduction of our Textile Research Centre in the field of composites and carbon fiber as a main material to produce three – dimensional textile structures. The use of composite materials in aerospace structures has increased over the past decades. Our contribution related to this field consists of the development of three- dimensional textile structures and even the adaptation and improvement of machinery to do it possible. Carbon fiber provides advantages as volumetric fraction and minimum fault occurrence. However carbon fiber has also disadvantages as uncomfortable handling delamination and high cost of material and processing.
A case-control study of lung cancer involving interviews with 965 female patients and 959 controls in Shenyang and Harbin, two industrial cities which have among the highest rates of lung cancer in China, revealed that cigarette smoking is the main causal factor and accounted for about 35% of the tumours among women. Although the amount smoked was low (the cases averaged eight cigarettes per day), the percentage of smokers among women over age 50 in these cities was nearly double the national average. Air pollution from coal burning stoves was implicated, as risks of lung cancer increased in proportion to years of exposure to 'Kang' and other heating devices indigenous to the region. In addition, the number of meals cooked by deep frying and the frequency of smokiness during cooking were associated with risk of lung cancer. More cases than controls reported workplace exposures to coal dust and to smoke from burning fuel. Elevated risks were observed for smelter workers and decreased risks for textile workers. Prior chronic bronchitis/emphysema, pneumonia, and recent tuberculosis contributed significantly to lung cancer risk, as did a history of tuberculosis and lung cancer in family members. Higher intake of carotene-rich vegetables was not protective against lung cancer in this population. The findings were qualitatively similar across the major cell types of lung cancer, except that the associations with smoking and previous lung diseases were stronger for squamous/oat cell cancers than for adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID:2257230
Wu-Williams, A H; Dai, X D; Blot, W; Xu, Z Y; Sun, X W; Xiao, H P; Stone, B J; Yu, S F; Feng, Y P; Ershow, A G
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify external and internal forces shaping HRM practices in textile industry of Pakistan. The study aimed at describing the context-specific HRM practices in textile industry. Interviews were used as a source of primary data collection. Taking Faisalabad city as a case, top HRM officials from ten respondent organizations in textile industry were interviewed. An interpretive approach to research design was adopted using ‘human as an instrument’ for data analysis. Findings suggest that due to extensive competition in last few years HR planning has received serious attention in textile industry. Countries like China, India, and Bangladesh are posing huge threats to the industry. The industry is at best dominated by family owned businesses and now the young generation, after education from abroad, is taking charge of their parents. Assumptions about workers are getting transformed. Fresh leaders are thinking different from their predecessors. However, there is a state of inertia in textile industry where young leaders have an uphill task ahead to remove the obstacles in the course of change.
The interconnection of electronics and textile circuits is still a main challenge for the fabrication of reliable smart textiles. This paper investigates the thermoplastic adhesive bonding technology. Electronic modules are bonded to textile substrates with a thermoplastic nonconductive adhesive (NCA) film. The modules are placed onto textile circuits with an NCA-film inbetween. By applying pressure and heat, the adhesive melts and contact partners touch. Subsequently cooling solidifies the N...
Krshiwoblozki, Malte Von; Linz, Torsten; Neudeck, Andreas; Kallmayer, Christine
The concept of social responsibility is a fairly recent one in the business world. Awareness about the social responsibility of business organizations is rapidly on the rise and firms are also accepting this concept. The textile industry is no exception. Textile producing and trading firms are also realizing their responsibility towards the society and the environment. This article aims at analyzing the concept of social responsibility and the common ways in which textile firms try to fulfill...
The new generation of textile materials have the capability to conduct electricity and at the same time be wearable. There are much more applications involved if an antenna is made from parts that are totally wearable. This new property of conductivity in textile materials is used to implement the wireless functions to clothing. In general, the antennas are made of highly conductive metal with is a solid structure, which results in stable output. The challenge with textile antenna is output s...
Robi Dahal; Demet Mercan; Lukas Vojtech; Marek Neruda
Full Text Available Los productos textiles no suelen ser protagónicos en las prácticas museográficas tradicionales; se les considera objetos decorativos, piezas de arte popular o elementos etnográficos, pero generalmente apoyan discursos de otras tipologías museales, más convencionales y establecidas. Por ello, este texto compara los fondos y los sistemas expositivos de tres instituciones dedicadas exclusivamente al objeto textil: el Textile Museum of Canada (fundado en Toronto en 1975; el Museo Ixchel del Traje Indígena (inaugurado en Guatemala en 1977; y el Museo Textil de Oaxaca (abierto al público en 2008. Se propone que los museos textiles son entidades híbridas y sugerentes, con frágiles acervos que requieren soluciones museográficas provenientes de la antropología, la historia del arte occidental “culta” y las artes populares. Si bien el discurso curatorial de los museos textiles ha sido relativamente periférico, también es polivalente: (reafirma identidades nacionales, pero construye nuevas visiones —más incluyentes— de diversidad cultural. Textile artifacts are not central devices in generalized curatorial practices: even if these objects might be considered simultaneously as decorative items, popular art pieces or ethnographical resources, they are certainly not independent from more traditionalist and established kinds of exhibits. For those reasons, this article will compare the collections and displays of three important institutions exclusively related to textile artifacts: the Textile Museum of Canada (inaugurated in Toronto in 1975; the Museum Ixchel of the Indigenous Garment (opened to the public in 1977 in Guatemala; and the Museum Textil of Oaxaca, Mexico (founded in 2008. Some institutional, architectonical and technical aspects of these three museums will be compared. The article will suggest some patrimonial possibilities latent in textile museums, according to their precise typological traits, with the main idea that textile museums show a very specific and challenging and kind of cultural heritage.
Francisco López Ruiz
It is well established that the water wettability of ma-terials is governed by both the chemical composition and the geometrical microstructure of the surface.1 Traditional textile wet processing treatments do in-deed rely fundamentally upon complete wetting out of a textile structure to achieve satisfactory perform-ance.2 However, the complexities introduced through the heterogeneous nature of the fiber surfaces, the nature of the fiber composition and the actual con-struction of the textile...
Karthik Ramaratnam, Ph D.; Swaminatha K Iyer, Ph D.; Kinnan, Mark K.; George Chumanov, Ph D.; Phillip J Brown, Ph D.; Igor Luminov, Ph D.
This review highlights the use of enzymes in the textile industry, covering both current commercial processes and research in this field. Amylases have been used for desizing since the middle of the last century. Enzymes used in detergent formulations have also been successfully used over the past 40 years. The application of cellulases for denim finishing and laccases for decolourization of textile effluents and textile bleaching are the most recent commercial advances. New developments rely...
Arau?jo, Rita; Casal, Margarida; Paulo, Artur Cavaco
This project was conducted in collaboration with a Helsinki based design studio, Saara Renvall Design. The task was to design patterns for interior textiles. This thesis describes about the processes that took place during creating the ideas for three different textile patterns. The whole thesis can be divided into two parts. The thesis first describes about a material research which was conducted to gather the information about textile patterns from different periods and ethnic groups. The...
technology and the recycling process is analyzed. Therefore, because of the origin of countries and total population of countries every country has its own textile recycling approaches. In order to investigate different textile recycling processes German recycling technology is the main focus in thesis to make a development plan for Finnish textile recycling. This is the part of project with the corporation of HAMK and VIIHI project, and the commissioner of this thesis is Heikki Ruohomma, hea...
Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility were recorded for both the groups before and after delivering awareness. Results: We found that the mean height of the respondents in control (C and experimental (E group before delivery of awareness were 150.64 cm and 150.36 cm and after deliberation of awareness these were 150.68 cm and 150.44 cm, respectively. A significant increase was observed in weight of the subjects of the experimental group after the nutritional awareness. The percentages of severe, moderate and mild degree of chronic energy deficiency were decreased after awareness in the experimental group and the percentages of low weight normal and normal women were increased. The hemoglobin level of the subjects under experimental group was also increased significantly. The percentages of severe and moderate degree of anemia were decreased after awareness given and the percentage of mild anemia was increased. The women with normal hemoglobin level were increased after awareness in the experimental group. The levels of blood pressure of the control and experimental group were not changed significantly. Subjects under experimental group improved their cooking practices, diet pattern, food hygiene, sanitation and ultimately decreased disease susceptibility. Conclusion: We found that nutritional awareness has a great impact on the nutritional status of the women particularly on weight and hemoglobin level. Mothers gladly learned the values of different local vegetables and pulses and incorporated there in their diet and improved their health status. They also improved food hygiene and sanitation and changed cooking practices.
Prabir Kumar Manna
This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF) process for chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: current density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum); and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electri...
Cerqueira, A.; Russo, C.; Marques, M. R. C.
This study analyses the life and the organizations of Mexican textile workers in two concrete historic events. First, during the Porfiriato, as the period from 1876-1911 has been called, in which President Porfírio Díaz managed to establish order in Mexico, attract foreign capital, and create favourable conditions for railroad construction, mines and industry. The second period under consideration is that of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), which started as an insurgent movement in Novem...
Santiba?n?ez Tijerina, Blanca Esthela
In an attempt to explain the much greater risk of respiratory cancer at the same cumulative exposure in asbestos textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, than in Quebec miners and millers, both exposed to chrysotile from the same source, 161 lung tissue samples taken at necropsy from dead cohort members were analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Altogether 1828 chrysotile and 3270 tremolite fibres were identified; in both cohorts tremolite predominated and fibre dimensions were ...
Sebastien, P.; Mcdonald, J. C.; Mcdonald, A. D.; Case, B.; Harley, R.
Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed st...
Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette
Full Text Available It is well established that the water wettability of ma-terials is governed by both the chemical composition and the geometrical microstructure of the surface.1 Traditional textile wet processing treatments do in-deed rely fundamentally upon complete wetting out of a textile structure to achieve satisfactory perform-ance.2 However, the complexities introduced through the heterogeneous nature of the fiber surfaces, the nature of the fiber composition and the actual con-struction of the textile material create difficulties in attempting to predict the exact wettability of a par-ticular textile material. For many applications the ability of a finished fabric to exhibit water repellency (in other words low wettability is essential2 and po-tential applications of highly water repellent textile materials include rainwear, upholstery, protective clothing, sportswear, and automobile interior fabrics. Recent research indicates that such applications may benefit from a new generation of water repellent ma-terials that make use of the “lotus effect” to provide ultrahydrophobic textile materials.3,4 Ultrahydropho-bic surfaces are typically termed as the surfaces that show a water contact angle greater than 150°C with very low contact angle hysteresis.4 In the case of tex-tile materials, the level of hydrophobicity is often determined by measuring the static water contact angle only, since it is difficult to measure the contact angle hysteresis on a textile fabric because of the high levels of roughness inherent in textile structures.
Karthik Ramaratnam, Ph.D.
The most common archaeological evidence for weaving in the Aegean is the presence of loom weights, which indicate the use of the warp-weighted loom. A wide variety of loom weight shapes have been recorded. In the past, this diversity has generally been explained in terms of cultural, geographical and chronological factors. In contrast, recent research has considered some aspects of shape as an expression of loom weight function. This new approach, which draws on experimental archaeology, has made it possible to render textile craft visible, even if the textiles themselves are not preserved (Mårtensson et al. 2009). It is this approach that has been adopted in the following analysis of the loom weights from Quartier Mu. The chapter divided into four parts. The first part gives an outline of general textile techniques and presents the methodology. The second part consists of an overview of the Quartier Mu loom weights, whilst the third part focuses on their contexts. The results of the analysis are discussed in the fourth and final part.
Cutler, Joanne; Andersson Strand, Eva Birgitta
Análisis de la Morfología del Raquis Torácico y Lumbar en Mujeres Trabajadoras de una Cooperativa Hortofrutícola / Analysis of the Thoracic and Lumbar Morphology in Women Workers froma Fruit and Vegetable Company
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la disposición angular del raquis torácico y lumbar en bipedestación y sedentación relajada en mujeres trabajadoras de una empresa hortofrutícola. Un total de 50 mujeres (media de edad: 43,62±8,43 años) fueron evaluadas mediante un Spinal Mouse en bipede [...] stación y en sedentación relajada. Los valores angulares medios para el raquis torácico y lumbar fueron de 32,74±8,76 y -21,66±19,12 en bipedestación y de 36,32±10,55 y -1,08±18,14, en sedentación. En bipedestación, un elevado porcentaje de casos (86% y 68,3%) presentaban una cifosis torácica y lordosis lumbar dentro de los valores de normalidad. En sedentación, el 74% presentaban hipercifosis torácica y el 20% una inversión lumbar. En conclusión, aunque en bipedestación la mayoría de las mujeres presentaban una morfología del raquis dentro de los valores de normalidad, en sedentación se observó un elevado porcentaje de casos con hipercifosis torácica y el raquis lumbar en inversión. Debido a las consecuencias negativas que se asocian a dichas desalineaciones raquídeas, es recomendable aplicar programas de mejora de la actitud postural en estas trabajadoras, preferentemente en su contexto laboral. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze the sagittal spinal morphology of thoracic and lumbar spine in standing and sitting in women workers from a cooperative in the production, handling and marketing business of vegetable and fruit products. A total of 50 women (mean age: 43.62±8.43 years old) were e [...] valuated. The Spinal Mouse system was used to mesasure the sagittal thoracic and lumbar curvatures in standing and relaxed sitting. The values for thoracic and lumbar curvatures were 32.74±8.76 and -21.66±19.12 in standing and 36.32±10.55 and -1.08±18.14 in sitting. A high frequency (86.0% and 68.3%) of normal thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were found in standing posture. While sitting the 74.0% and 20.0% presented thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar kyphosis. In conclusion, a high percentaje of women workers presented normality values in standing posture, although a high percentage of women were found with thoracic hyperkyphosis and lumbar flexed while sitting relaxed. It is recommended that these women carry out a program to improve their actitudinal postures in their work place.
José María, Muyor; Pedro A, López-Miñarro; Antonio J, Casimiro; Antonio J, Nievas; Tesifón, Parrón.
... Mr Bidur Thapa, Director of Field Programmes and Operations, SEARCH-Nepal, Kathmandu Ms Prativa Shrestha, Coordinator, Status of Women in Nepal Report, Shtrii Shakti, kathmandu, Ms Radha Kayastha, Madhesh Foundation for Peace and Development, Kathmandu Ms Abha Jha, Madhesh Foundation for Peace and Development, Kathmandu PAKISTAN Professor Salima Hashmi, Dean, School of Visual Arts and Design, Beaconhouse National University, Lahore Ms Madeeha Gauhar, Artistic Director, Ajoka Theatre, Lahore. Ms Madiha Kazi, Textile Designer, Thardeep Rural Development Programme, Karachi Dr. Durre ...
The research of new architectural textile membrane materials allows extending its possibilities to interior partitions in order to fulfil contemporary demands of comfort. This paper pretends to present the state of the art of textile membranes application in interior partition walls and the potentialities of Polymers and natural fibres used in these building elements
Macieira, Mo?nica; Mendonc?a, Paulo
Full Text Available Many natural dyes, for example carminic acid, are soluble in water. We present a simple strategy to naturalize synthetic azadyes through their linkage with lactose to induce their water solubility. The dyeing process of textile fibres then becomes possible in water without additives such as surfactants and mordants, which result in products that are difficult to eliminate. Glyco-azadyes (GADs we are presenting here are obtained through a diether linker to bond the azadye and the sugar. Tinctorial tests were carried out with fabrics containing wool, polyester, cotton, nylon, and acetate. GADs were found to be multipurpose and capable of dyeing many fabrics efficiently under mild conditions.
The Almuñecar Aquarium is a 3000 m2 underground installation that shows Mediterranean fauna on two levels below the Kuwait Square next to the market and near the City Hall of the andalusian town of Almuñécar (Spain). The Aquarium emerges to the surface by means of its control building, staircase and lift, all arranged around an open courtyard. We designed a textile roof in order to protect this courtyard from direct sunshine and rain. As the only part of the building that shows above is th...
Llorens Duran, Josep Ignasi
Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan
Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE
Textile industry is characterized by using a great variety of chemicals and by large water consumption. In this way, textile effluents contains many types of dyes, detergents, solvents and salts depending on the particular textile mill processes (dyeing, printing, finishing...) and on the raw matter. For those reasons, textile industry is one of the main sources of industrial pollution, producing effluents discharges characterized by high conductivities and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values and strong colour. Process selection and operating conditions are important issues to optimize technically and economically the textile effluent treatment. This work presents the results of the laboratory-scale membrane experiments of textile industry effluents and synthetic textile dyes. Different types of Ultrafiltration (UF) and Nano filtration (NF) membranes were evaluated for permeate flux and their suitability in separating COD, colour, conductivity. Experiments demonstrated that membrane treatment is a very promising advanced treatment option for pollution control for textile industry effluents. The results of this work show that the direct ultrafiltration seems to be a realistic method in the pretreatment of the textile wastewater. In fact, NF process was successfully used to improve permeate quality of synthetic dyeing textile wastewater, but this process presented some limitations in the treatment of textile industry effluents because of membrane fouling problems. So, tecause of membrane fouling problems. So, this process requires an efficient and appropriate technique such as ultrafiltration as a pre-treatment step for textile wastewater reuse. For direct nano filtration of synthetic textile dyes aqueous solutions, with a weak salt concentration (500 ppm), good results were obtained. More than 95 pour cent of color was removed from the treated water accompanied with a reduction of 92 pour cent of conductivity and COD. Based on the experiments; NF membranes are suitable for producing permeate of reusable quality.
It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area wh...
Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, U.; Frei, K. M.; Gleba, M.; Scharff, A. B.; Skals, I.; Heinemeier, J.; -l Nosch, M.; Holst, B.
Food, clothing and shelter are the primary needs of human being. Today in clothing ,textile industry is playing important role. Textile industry is second largest employer after agriculture. In modern world,consumer are now aware of many things especially eco-friendly textile. Their demand for eco-friendly textile is also related with quality, quantity ,price. For this Government ,Production dept of textile, Manager and also Consumers are playing important role .There are ill effects on healt...
Dudhedia, Amruta S.; Bhor, J. R.
Full Text Available This research investigates the textile industry clusters in Pakistan. A cross sectional data were collected from 30 textile industries by using simple random technique and data were analysis by using E-Views software. Structural questionnaire was the basic tool for measures the performance of textile clusters in Pakistan. It was revealed that the industry is in urgent need of financial and technological investments. However, according to recent official figures, the Pakistan textile industry contributes more than 60% to the country’s total exports, which amounts to around 5.2 billion US dollars. The manufacturing sector contributes to around half of the total exports and textile sector contributes around 46% of the manufacturing sector’s contribution. The negative growth of 2.6 % declining from $ 16.4 billion last year to $ 16.0 billion in July-April 2008-09. Ministry of Textile Industry should launch and endorse the development of cluster-based textiles vision. It further revealed that Government should emphasis on increase Efficiency and Productivity with the help of research and development department and identifies key areas for process.
Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal
The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the basis of the U.S. Army's interest in Interactive Textiles and to describe some of the salient needs in the area of healthcare and E-Textiles and finally to indicate the current and near term market for interactive textile solutions. The basis of current Army, indeed DoD interest in Interactive Textiles including E-Textiles is found in the concept of Network-Centric Warfare. The individual soldier in this concept is often at the hub of a vast information network than shares information across platforms such as vehicles and aircraft as well as across echelongs of command from the font line to the rearmost command and control centers. In order to realize the advantages of such a war fighting concept, E-Textiles are required in a number of areas including soldier's uniforms, tentage and airdrop systems. With respect to healthcare, the Army's interest in E-Textile solutions lie in the areas of human performance monitoring (broadly defined to include physiological states such as blood pressure and hydration as well as the more difficult to measure states of attentiveness and cognitive functioning), wound detection and treatment, energy harvesting and flexible displays. PMID:15718634
Leitch, D Paul
Full Text Available Uzbek light industry, in particular, the textile sector is one of the strategically important and dynamic sectors of the national economy. Textile industry of Uzbekistan possesses high ranks in the sectors directed to exportation, therefore it contains wide specter of export ranging from thread up to readymade product (made of stockinet, sewing, silk and carpet cloth. Contemporarily textile industry gains the fifth rank in the gross domestic product contribution and a third of all the workers in the field of industry is occupied in textile. Uzbek light industry still has significant untapped investment potential, all the conditions for the further rapid growth. Necessary to increase the production of goods for the domestic market to meet the growing needs of the population. This requires investment in projects for the production of finished cotton fabrics, blended fabrics, silk fabrics, garments and knitwear for the establishment of mobile industries with mandatory formation in their composition structures, responsible for design, marketing, quick changeovers production with fashion and demand.In the foreseeable future for the light industry remains a key role in the development of industrial production in the country. Experts believe that more needs to be done to develop the significant potential that lies in the light industry of the country.
Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles to create human habitation is not new. As Diether S. Hope phrases it, referring to tents: The history of development of humanity would be barely conceivable without free spanning textile membrane structures.
Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are water soluble cyclic sugars with a hydrophobic nanometric cavity that permits the formation of host/guest inclusion complexes with a large variety of molecules, alternating their physical-chemical properties. In the present review CD research related to the processing of textiles is revised and discussed. CDs may function as encapsulating, dispersing and levelling agents in the dyeing and washing of textiles. Furthermore they may be anchored to polymers and textile fibers in order to impart special properties such as odor reduction, UV protection or for the controlled release of perfumes, aromas, mosquito repellents or substances with therapeutical effects. (author)
During the last decades, China witnesses the fastest growth in World’s economy, and has played the significant role, but in 2008, because of the global crisis, international market shrank dramatically. In this crisis, Shaoxing, located in the Yangtze River delta and the main area dealing with textile manufacturing and processing, got severe influence in the textile industry. Because of that, the recession on the international market results in the heavy burden to Shaoxing textile and garmen...
In an attempt to explain the much greater risk of respiratory cancer at the same cumulative exposure in asbestos textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, than in Quebec miners and millers, both exposed to chrysotile from the same source, 161 lung tissue samples taken at necropsy from dead cohort members were analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Altogether 1828 chrysotile and 3270 tremolite fibres were identified; in both cohorts tremolite predominated and fibre dimensions were closely similar. Lung fibre concentrations were analysed statistically (a) in 32 paired subjects matched for duration of employment and time from last employment to death and (b) in 136 subjects stratified by the same time variables. Both analyses indicated that the Quebec/Charleston ratios for chrysotile fibre concentration in lung tissue were even higher than the corresponding ratios of estimated exposure intensity (mpcf). After allowance for the fact that regression analyses suggested that the proportion of tremolite in dust was probably 2.5 times higher in Thetford Mines, Quebec, than in Charleston, the results from both matched pair and stratification analyses of tremolite fibre concentrations in lung were almost the same as for chrysotile. It is concluded that neither fibre dimensional differences nor errors in estimation of exposure can explain the higher risks of lung cancer observed in asbestos textile workers. The possible co-carcinogenic role of mineral oil used in the past in asbestos textile plants to control dust provides an alternative hypothesis deserving consideration. PMID:2539184
Sebastien, P; McDonald, J C; McDonald, A D; Case, B; Harley, R
The purpose of our master thesis was to investigate what motivates assembly line workers performing low-skill jobs in a small industrial laundry business. We wanted to see what fac-tors determine and influence their motivation to work and if and how this motivation can be improved with respect to assembly line systems in general. The method of our investiga-tion was qualitative in nature, where we studied one firm that leases clean bed clothes and textiles to hotels and restaurants around Swe...
Saitovic, Maja; Jusufi, Valdete
Abstract Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women) were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2%) or in public services (23.9%). Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activi...
Jermendy György; Nádas Judit; Hegyi Ilona; Vasas István; Hidvégi Tibor
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF) process for chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: curren [...] t density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum); and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.
A., Cerqueira; C., Russo; M. R. C., Marques.
Full Text Available Product development is less than 20-30 years old and a relatively new area of research compared to the other classic academic disciplines. Integrated product development is a philosophy that systematically employs the teaming of functional disciplines to integrate and concurrently apple all the necessary processes to produce an effective and efficient product that satisfies customer needs. Product development might also be understood as a multidisciplinary field of research. The disciplines directly participating in product development include engineering design, innovation, manufacturing, marketing and management. A background contribution is also generated by disciplines such as psychology, social sciences and information technology. This article is an overview that introduces this philosophy to textile product development.
Full Text Available This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF process for chemical oxygen demand (COD, turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: current density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum; and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.
Maternal mortality is unacceptably high in Sub Saharan Africa, which accounts for 56% of all maternal deaths (WHO, 2012). Most maternal deaths are avoidable but with prompt recognition and timely intervention it is not inevitable that acute or critical maternal illness deteriorates to fatality (Firth and Ttendo, 2012). This paper discusses a project to provide multidisciplinary training in Maternal-Acute Illness Management (M-AIM) in a low resource setting in order to actively address the third delay to women accessing emergency obstetric care: prompt receipt of effective care on reaching a medical facility. PMID:24878358
McCarthy, Rose; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Hart, Jo; Yuill, Gordon; Slattery, Helen; Jackson, Matthew; Byrne, Gerard J
With an estimated maternal mortality ratio of 1,100 per 100,000 live births and a neonatal mortality rate of 49 per 1,000 live births, Sierra Leone has the highest maternal mortality ratio and the fourth highest neonatal mortality rate in the world, accounting for 2,400 maternal and 11,200 newborn deaths annually. By straining the fragile health care infrastructure, the Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic might put pregnant women and their newborns at even greater risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:25551595
Dynes, Michelle M; Miller, Laura; Sam, Tamba; Vandi, Mohamed Alex; Tomczyk, Barbara
Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384
Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette
Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.
Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik HØjgrav
Techniques to improve the properties of textiles by graft polymerization of acrylic acid, metacrylic acid, etc. on natural and synthetic fibers by irradiation of electron beam or ? ray were developed and put into practical use. Such graft polymerization by irradiation is effective technique to give synthetic fibers hydrophilic property, heat-shrinkage resistance, dye affinity, static electricity prevention, combustion resistance, etc.. Irradiation is also applied for adhesion of nonwoven fabric, coating processing of textiles, and printing processing of fabrics. Thus, the processing of textiles by radiation, especially electron beam, is effective to give new properties to textiles, but its importance has been also recognized as energy saving and public nuisance-avoiding processes. A great deal of energy reduction can be expected by electron beam irradiation method. (Kobatake, H.)
It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe. PMID:23024858
Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B
It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.
Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, Ulla
...Textiles--Man-made fibres--Generic Names...II. Regulatory Review Program...Textiles--Man-made fibres--Generic Names...other textile goods of a type customarily used in a...Textiles--Man-made fibres--Generic...
Electrokinetic properties describe the electrical potential adjacent to a solid surface, if it is moving in the surrounding liquid phase. It is described by zeta potential. Austrian company Anton Paar GmbH from Graz has developed the SurPASS elektrokinetic analyzer, which is based on a streaming potential/streaming current for determining the zeta potential. Many different apertures for application of micro capsulation technology on textile materials are used in textile industry. Streaming po...
Full Text Available This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the innovation and business strategies of Canadian textile firms. The results show that the textile industry is in a state of decline due mainly to competitive pressures resulting from economic and regulatory changes. The results also show that while the industry recognizes the need for innovation, the current strategies and practices do not seem to be aligned to their strategic goals of fostering innovation.
Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.
Full Text Available Food, clothing and shelter are the primary needs of human being. Today in clothing ,textile industry is playing important role. Textile industry is second largest employer after agriculture. In modern world,consumer are now aware of many things especially eco-friendly textile. Their demand for eco-friendly textile is also related with quality, quantity ,price. For this Government ,Production dept of textile, Manager and also Consumers are playing important role .There are ill effects on health to overcome this problem some solutions are suggested ,also government role ,managerial role ,production department role are important factor to make India eco friendly textile.
The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…
This work discusses the energetic consumption in the textile Brazilian industry. First, the international market of textile products is described, followed by the Brazilian situation facing this market. The greater opportunities for saving electric power in this sector are presented and discussed 9 tabs.
Fonseca, Maria Aparecida Sanches da; Atem, Suely Muniz; Serra, Neusa; Camargo, Carlos Augusto de
An Austrian survey of discriminatory practices in the texts of all collective agreements in force in March 1978 (except those covering public employees) identified six main forms of potential discrimination. Examples found among white-collar workers in the private sector and among textile, clothing, and leather workers are cited. (CT)
Full Text Available Economic instability around the world has resulted in many organizations having to lay off workers and also shut down to save their business. This economic strain and stress have impact on the worker’s job satisfaction and well being through job insecurity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effects of employment security on job security and job satisfaction and well being among workers in the banking sectors and manufacturing sectors who were most affected by the economic downturn. Participants were 600 workers of which 200 represented the workers who work in the bank, 200 in electronic industry and 200 in textile industry. They were randomly selected to participate in the research. A set of questionnaire comprising of Employment Security Scale, Job Security Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale and Well-Being Scale were used to measure the variables. Results from the multiple regression analysis showed that employment security did not moderate the relationship between job security and job satisfaction and well being of workers. However, job security had a direct relationship with job satisfaction and well being of workers. Thus, result from this study implicated that it was not the employment security that worried the workers but the security of their job that they were holding that impacted on their job satisfaction and well-being.
The curriculum guide is designed for a program of English-as-a-Second-Language literacy instruction for textile workers' union members at the Phoenix Closures company. It consists of five themed units, each teaching work-related skills and knowledge. The themes are: health and safety; workplace communication; quality control; work forms; and…
Martin, Sabrina Budasi
The Worker Education Program (WEP) of Northeastern Illinois University (NIU) is a partnership among NIU; the Union of Needle Trades, Industrial, and Textile Employees (UNITE); and companies whose employees are represented by UNITE. Now in its fourth year, the WEP operates in 13 diverse types of workplaces in three states: Illinois, Ohio, and…
Haptic Modeling of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. In spite of extensive research, no generic system has been proposed. The previous work mainly assumes that textile has a 2D planar structure. They also require time-consuming measurement of textile properties in construction of the mechanical model. A novel approach for haptic modeling of textile is proposed to overcome the existing shortcomings. The method is generic, assumes a 3D structure for the textile, and deploys computational intelligence to estimate the mechanical properties of textile. The approach is designed primarily for display of textile artifacts in museums. The haptic model is constructed by superimposing the mechanical model of textile over its geometrical model. Digital image processing is applied to the still image of textile to identify its pattern and structure through a fuzzy rule-base algorithm. The 3D geometric model of the artifact is automatically generated in VRML based on the identified pattern and structure obtained from the textile image. Selected mechanical properties of the textile are estimated by an artificial neural network; deploying the textile geometric characteristics and yarn properties as inputs. The estimated mechanical properties are then deployed in the construction of the textile mechanical model. The proposed system is introduced and the developed algorithms are described. The validation of method indicates the feasibility of the approach and its superiority to other haptic modeling algorithms.
Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Wood Conroy, D.
The purpose of the article is to examine the state of thyroid system in workers of mining and processing plant, working in harmful conditions. Materials and Methods: The working conditions of 407 workers of concentrator (study group) and 128 women workers of energy department (control group). The level of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine, anti-thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin has been determined in 88 women-workers of the main group and 82 women workers of control group. 80 ...
Lozovaya E.V.; Gaynullina ?.?.; Masyagutova L.M.; Karimova L.K.
Reviews gender-related issues that might arise as students are introduced to women's art achievements. Divides women's art into mainstream art and "hiddenstream" art, or art represented by work in textiles, ceramics, and miscellaneous art forms. Includes a chart which shows the name and nationality of over 90 female artists working between 1390…
Collins, Georgia C.; Sandell, Renee
Arsenic-based pesticide residues have been detected on Arizona State Museum's (ASM) Dine (Navajo) textile collection using a handheld portable X-ray (pXRF) spectrometer. The removal of this toxic pesticide from historic textiles in museums collections is necessary to reduce potential health risks to Native American communities, museum professionals, and visitors. The research objective was divided into three interconnected stages: (1) empirically calibrate the pXRF instrument for arsenic contaminated cotton and wool textiles; (2) engineer an aqueous washing treatment exploring the effects of time, temperature, agitation, and pH conditions to efficiently remove arsenic from wool textiles while minimizing damage to the structure and properties of the textile; (3) demonstrate the devised aqueous washing treatment method on three historic Navajo textiles known to have arsenic-based pesticide residues. The preliminary results removed 96% of arsenic from a high arsenic concentration (~1000 ppm) textile opposed to minimal change for low arsenic concentration textiles (<100 ppm).
Anderson, Jae R.
Plasma textiles are novel fabrics incorporating the advantages of cold plasma and low-cost non-woven or woven textile fabrics. In plasma textiles, electrodes are integrated into the fabric, and a corona discharge is activated within and on the surface of the fabric by applying high voltages above 10 kV between the electrodes. When the plasma textile is activated, submicrometre particles approaching the textile are charged by the deposition of ions and electrons produced by the corona, and then collected by the textile material. A stable plasma discharge was experimentally verified on the surface of the textile that was locally smooth but not rigid. A filtration efficiency close to 100% was observed in experiments conducted on salt particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 300 nm. Unlike conventional fibrous filters, the plasma textile provided uniform filtration in this range, without exhibiting a maximum particle penetration size.
Rasipuram, S. C.; Wu, M.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Levine, J. F.; Jasper, W. J.; Saveliev, A. V.
Research questions: Is employment during pregnancy a risk factor for perinatal mortality? Objective: To study the occurrence of perinatal mortality in working women and compare the results with those of non-working women taken as controls and also between the experience of working women before and after joining service. Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Jute mills in Hooghly district of West Bengal. Participants: 100 women workers of the mills under study as study population ...
Banerjee Bratati; Chatterjee Pronab; Kanti Dey Tushar
... to do contingent work part-time, temporary, or contract work. Compared to workers in traditional job arrangements, contingent workers have lower incomes and fewer benefits. Like all workers in insecure jobs, women may fear that bringing up a safety issue could result in job loss or more ...
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the mortality of a group of tannery workers. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 1244 workers (870 men and 374 women) employed at a chrome tannery between 1955 and 1988. A total of 36414 person-years of follow up was calculated (369 people had died). National and regional mortalities were used to estimate the expected numbers. RESULTS: All cause mortality was similar to that of the general population. The most remarkable excess was for bladder cancer (observed 10, standar...
Montanaro, F.; Ceppi, M.; Demers, P. A.; Puntoni, R.; Bonassi, S.
In this paper, I present an overview of important regulations regarding the environmental impact of the textile products on the level of European Union.There is always an environmental impact of the textile products, across the entire lifecycle. The most important environmental hazards from textiles are: use of chemicals, use of water, use of energy, generation of waste water contaminated with hazardous substances, hazardous and toxic waste generation.The textiles and clothing sector is an im...
Full Text Available Textile industry exposes many problems under financing crisis: lack of innovation, extensive growth, etc. To solve these problems, the textile industry must achieve industrial upgrading and enhance the core competence. However, the shortage of capital has restricted the development of textile industry. The paper, referring to some scholars’ recommendations, discussed how to broaden financing channels to solve the current financing problems for textile enterprises.
This paper provides an overview on the results of textile concrete achieved in twelve years of research at the Institute of Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology (ITM) in the field of textile reinforcements for concrete based on the multiaxial stitch-bonding technology. During the early years the research focused on the development of the textile manufacturing process and the integration of additional functions in stitch-bonding machines. With the introduction of new fibe...
Cherif, Chokri; Hausding, Jan; Berger, Ulrike; Younes, Ayham; Kleicke, Roland
Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C.?albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C.?albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T.?rubrum growth, whereas T.?mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T.?mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. PMID:21914005
Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk
Full Text Available The application of Cyclodextrins for textiles was reviewed in this paper. Cyclodextrins are crystalline, water soluble, cyclic, non-reducing oligosaccharides consisting of six, seven, or eight glucopyranose units. Cyclodextrins are known as products which are able to form inclusion complexes. The ability of Cyclodextrins to form inclusion complexes can be used, e.g., to remove malodor from textile materials, etc. Furthermore, some modifications of the parent Cyclodextrins are possible. The derivatives can be reactive (e.g. cyclodextrin with a monochlorotriazinyl group, more hydrophilic (by means of hydrophilic side groups, such as hydroxypropyl and hydroxyethyl, less hydrophilic (by means of lipophilic side groups, such as ethylhexyl glycidyl or ionic (by means of ionic side groups, such as hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride.The methods for treating textiles are thus quite simple. The method using anchor-bearing Cyclodextrins is especially useful, since no fixation agent is needed, enabling they use of conventional textile treatment techniques and equipment. Furthermore, this method has virtually no limitations with respect to the textile materials that can be used.
Full Text Available The article confers urgency of establishing clusters in textile industry. Particular focus is given to resource interaction among compound elements of national textile cluster. Policy recommendations targeted to development of cluster in the textile sector of Uzbekistan are provided.
Textile industry exposes many problems under financing crisis: lack of innovation, extensive growth, etc. To solve these problems, the textile industry must achieve industrial upgrading and enhance the core competence. However, the shortage of capital has restricted the development of textile industry. The p...
Minfang Gao; Juan Li; Qinghua Qin
PROFILE OF WOMEN WORKERS Women form an important part of the Indian Workforce. According to the information provided by the Registrar General of India, the work participation rate for women was 25.68 per cent in 2001. This is an improvement from 22.73 per cent in 1991 and 19.67 per cent in 1981. The two important aspects that require mention are that while there has been an improvement in the work participation rate of women, it continues to be substantially less in compari...
Hanamantharayya Baragali; PrakashM Badiger
The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated
Full Text Available The textile industry is one of the biggest industrial consumers of water especially dye houses which utilize synthetic dyes and other chemicals. Natural dyes are generally environmental friendly and have many advantages over synthetic dyes with respect to production and application. In recent years, there has been an interest in the application of these dyes due to their bio-degradability and higher compatibility with the environment. A review of previous work in the field of applying dyestuffs of natural source as possible textile dyes is given. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes by 'natural products' in textile dyeing may be feasible and may represent not only a strategy to reduce risks and pollutants, but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses which can develop from the inclusion of ecology in trade policy.
The textile processing industry of pakistan has great potential of improvement in resource consumption in various production processes. One major concern is the heavy usage of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) especially during the mercerization process which incurs a significant cost to a textile processing mill. To reduce the unit fabric production cost and stay competitive, the industry need to minimize the caustic wastage and explore the caustic saving potential. This paper describe the detailed caustic consumption practices and saving potentials in woven textile sector based on the data base of 100 industries. Region wise caustic saving potential is also investigated . Three caustic conservation option including process improvement, reuse and recycling, and caustic recovery plants are discussed. Detailed technical and and financial requirements. saving potentials and paybacks of these options are provided. (author)
Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG is one of the most important parameters for monitoring of the physiological state of a person. Currently available systems for ECG monitoring are both stationary and wearable, but the comfort of the monitored person is not at a satisfactory level because these systems are not part of standard clothing. This article is therefore devoted to the development and measurement of wearable textile electrodes for ECG measurement device with high comfort for the user. The electrode material is made of electrically conductive textile. This creates a textile composite that guarantees high comfort for the user while ensuring good quality of ECG measurements. The composite is implemented by a carrier (a T-shirt with flame retardant and sensing electrodes embroidered with yarn based on a mixture of polyester coated with silver nanoparticles and cotton. The electrodes not only provide great comfort but are also antibacterial and antiallergic due to silver nanoparticles.
Full Text Available Introducción. En este artículo se presenta la experimentación que se tuvo con la degradación del colorante rojo Recoltive con dióxido de titanio, peróxido y fenton utilizando como medio la lámpara UV. Los ensayos realizados implicaron la variación de la cantidad de estos oxidantes. Objetivo. Comparar los tratamientos con dióxido de titanio y fenton para aguas residuales coloreadas. Materiales y métodos. El equipo usado consistió de una cubeta de vidrio de longitudes 41 cm x 25,5 cm x 20 cm que almacenaba 15 L de muestra, una lámpara de luz ultravioleta de marca MIGHTY PURE de 60 Hz y una bomba que maneja un flujo de 0,047 L/s. Se adicionó el colorante en el tanque quedando con una concentración de 100 mg/L. Se midió continuamente el pH para ajustarlo en 5,0 cuando se trabajo con fenton y con TiO2 los valores de pH fueron medidos sin requerir adicionar ácidos o bases, por ser mas estables. Resultados. La mejor combinación para tratar un agua de la industria textil con lámpara de luz UV y dióxido de titanio es 100 mg/L de TiO2 y 2% v/v de H2O2. El ensayo que presentó la degradación óptima del color fue con fenton 30 mg/L de FeCl3 y 1% de v/v de H2O2. Conclusiones. La utilización de procesos de oxidación avanzada como la fotocatálisis con TiO2 o fotofenton, produjeron diferentes resultados respecto a la reducción del porcentaje de degradación del colorante y mayores velocidades de reacción, siendo la reacción fotofenton la que produjo los mejores porcentajes y tiempos de reducción (E13 con 30 mg/L FeCl3 y 1% v/v de H2O2.
Lu\\u00EDs Fernando Garc\\u00E9s Giraldo
The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.
China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali
In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80%) in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles): It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hy...
Gerhard TrÃƒÂ¶ster; Frank Clemens; Corinne Mattmann
This research investigated the effects of exposure to daylight on upholstery textiles. Eleven fabrics preferred by consumers were exposed to daylight in outdoor test cabinets for six months. Exposed and unexposed specimens were tested for tensile strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, and colorfastness. Statistical analysis indicated highly significant fabric/exposure interactive effects; significant losses in warp and filling strength, warp and filling elongation, and the resistance to abrasion in most of the exposed upholstery textiles tested. Color change was also found in the majority of exposed fabrics. Results indicate that careful selection of upholstery fabrics is required by energy-conscious consumers and designers
The availability of textile grade ceramic fibers has sparked great interest for applications in composite reinforcement and high temperature insulation. This paper summarizes the properties of various small diameter textile grade ceramic fibers currently available. Room temperature mechanical and electrical properties of the fibers are discussed for three cases: ambient conditions, after heat aging in argon, and after heat aging in wet air. Dow Corning (R) HPZ Ceramic Fiber, a silicon nitride type fiber, is shown to have improved retention of mechanical and electrical properties above 1200 C
Full Text Available China's entry into the WTO, all the textiles with the formal abolition of restrictions on Chinese textile and garment industry entered the free trade era, the increasingly fierce international competition, but also brought unprecedented opportunities to the Chinese textile and apparel industry. China's textile and garment industry required in this particular under the new situation to meet the challenges and seize the opportunity to be successful. Under the new situation China's textile and garment industry facing difficulties and the opportunities this article will do a specific analysis and put forward some feasible options for enterprises to adopt.
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to identify the formal clusters and potential clusters from the textile and the textile products from Romania. The statistical method has been used to delimit the potential clusters. In addition, there have been studied all the available works and internal and international reports on Romania, having as topic this type of industrial organization. The research conclusions are the following: (1 there are two young formal clusters, holding the premises of a “triple helix”: Astrico North-East and TMV South-East; (2 the spreading of the textile organizations, next to the structure of formal clusters, suggests the possibility of the natural building of three clusters: a common one for the North Eastern and Eastern regions, another one for the Central region and the third for the North-Western and Western regions. With reference to the professional literature, this work brings the picture of the spatial distribution of the textile industry in Romania.
The objective of this article is to identify the formal clusters and potential clusters from the textile and the textile products from Romania. The statistical method has been used to delimit the potential clusters. In addition, there have been studied all the available works and internal and international reports on Romania, having as topic this type of industrial organization. The research conclusions are the following: (1) there are two young formal clusters, holding the premises of a “t...
Cra?ciun, Liliana; Dudian, Monica
A cross sectional study was conducted on 513 employees at three hard metal plants: 425 exposed workers (351 men, 74 women) and 88 controls (69 men, 19 women). Cough and sputum were more frequent in workers engaged in "soft powder" and presintering workshops compared with controls (12.5% and 16.5% v 3.5%). Spirometric abnormalities were more frequent among women in sintering and finishing workshops compared with control women (56.8% v 23.8%) and abnormalities of carbon monoxide test were more ...
Meyer-bisch, C.; Pham, Q. T.; Mur, J. M.; Massin, N.; Moulin, J. J.; Teculescu, D.; Carton, B.; Pierre, F.; Baruthio, F.
Full Text Available The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the international textile economy. In this research Paper we study the socio economic problems faced by power loom workers in Avinashi in Tamilnadu, India, using Induced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (IFCMs. We have interviewed 50 households in the study area using a linguistic questionnaire. As the problems faced by them at large, involved so much of feelings and uncertainties. We felt it to fit to use fuzzy theory in general and induced fuzzy cognitive maps in particular. For IFCMs is the best suited tool when the data is an unsupervised one.
Full Text Available This article describes how the craftsmen at the workroom at Handarbetets vänner, Stockholm, learned their craft skills during the years 1948?2012. What this knowledge consisted of and how the apprentices’ knowledge grows into skillfulness. Interviews with 15 weavers and embroiderers who have worked during the time period form the empirical material. The period of time was chosen according to the informants´ times of employment.The strategies for learning are affected by dialogue between the craftsmen, both a verbal and a silent dialogue. The dialogue is an important part of the learning even though the making is central. The workroom forms its own way of making textile art, a way of doing that is learned from master to apprentice. In this situated knowledge, the different masters have their own ways of for instance mixing color and material, all corresponding with core values. The learning is also affected by the artistic leader and the artist.The learning within the workroom occurs in the making of objects, but never at the cost of the quality of the objects. The core values of the establishments, and the fact that there is a strive to be profitable, makes the circumstances. The collaboration with the artist in creating unique textile art is the primary goal; the learning is something that is taken for granted in order to withhold the competence in the establishment.Keywords: textile craft, master and apprentice, craftsmen, textile art, workroom
...to the front part of the J-box...in a straight line and all parts operate continuously...which is in close contact with the cylinder...or any other part of the machine...when exposed to contact and located...textile opener lines shall be...
...roller rotates in close contact with a fixed ledger blade...machinery, when exposed to contact and located within seven...covers which will prevent contact with the beater. Such...while the machine is in motion and prevent the operation... All textile opener lines shall be equipped...
This paper presents an overview on the last developments on 3D textile structures for composite reinforcements. The application of innovative 3D shaped weft-knitted preforms in GFRP tube joints is presented and discussed. Moreover, the mechanical behaviour of 3D hybrid basalt fiber reinforced composite material sis also presented and discussed.
Fangueiro, Rau?l; Mingxing, Z.; Hong, H.; Soutinho, F.; Gonc?alves, P.; Arau?jo, Ma?rio Duarte
This paper summarizes extensive experimental work regarding the manufacture, mechanical characterization and modelling of textile thermoplastic composites produced by means of commingled yarns. These composites are believed to have a high potential for applications in structural automotive components. However, methods need to be developed for faster manufacturing and reliable prediction of the component mechanical performance and failure. A practical approach of finite element ...
Svensson, N.; Gilchrist, M. D.
An overview is presented of the research on textile composites at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Three dimensionally woven sandwich fabric preforms are investigated for delamination resistant sandwich structures, velvet woven 2.5 dimensional fabrics for delamination resistant laminates, and knitted fabrics with good drapability for laminates of complex shape.
Verpoest, Ignaas; Ivens, Jan; Willemvanvuure, Aart; Efstratiou, Vassilios
The report gives results of a study, joining a hyperfiltration (HF) system with an operating caustic scour and preparation range in an integrated textile dye and finishing plant. (HF is a membrane separation technique widely used in desalination of natural water and in some indus...
Motivated by models of worker flows, we argue in this paper that monopsonistic discrimination may be a substantial factor behind the overall gender wage gap. On matched employer-employee data from Norway, we estimate establishment-specific wage premiums separately for men and women, conditioning on fixed individual effects. Regressions of worker turnover on the wage premium identify less wage elastic labour supply facing each establishment of women than that of men. Workforce gender compositi...
Barth, Erling; Dale-olsen, Harald
A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.
Full Text Available This paper is based mainly on experience and is the result of optimization analysis of work operations in departments that make clothing products, with maximum 200 workers and financially unable to invest in expensive technical equipment. The analysis takes the problem of increasing productivity for some work operations, such as the operation of the realization of loops, cutting them to the required size, forming packages, for their application to the top of the pants. The analysis performed was concerned not only with increasing productivity but also to create better working conditions for workers. Of course, through a thorough analysis can be improved and other working methods. Ergonomic workplace organization, centralization of operations or handling study due to their repetitiveness, can result in significant savings of time working. Equally it may affect the operations times for making garments and methods of employment with cut marks and accessories needed, or how to discharge processed workpiece. This paper outlines some options for improving the performance of companies producing textiles, in idea of increasing labor productivity and product quality. Even if a firm producing textiles, has sufficient financial resources for modern equipment, the studies conducted by experts, can brings improvements in working time and this without high costs.
Full Text Available PROFILE OF WOMEN WORKERS Women form an important part of the Indian Workforce. According to the information provided by the Registrar General of India, the work participation rate for women was 25.68 per cent in 2001. This is an improvement from 22.73 per cent in 1991 and 19.67 per cent in 1981. The two important aspects that require mention are that while there has been an improvement in the work participation rate of women, it continues to be substantially less in comparison to the work participation rate of men. In 2001, the work participation rate for men was 51.93 per cent. Secondly, there seem to be a rural urban divide in so far as work participation of women is concerned. In 2001, work participation rate for women in rural areas was 30.98 per cent as compared to 11.55 per cent in the urban areas. In the rural areas, women are mainly involved as cultivators and agricultural labourers. In the urban areas, almost 80 per cent of the women workers are working in the unorganized sectors like household industries, petty trades and services, buildings and construction.
Understanding which parties regulate reproduction is fundamental to understanding conflict resolution in animal societies. In social insects, workers can influence male production and sex ratio. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated worker influence over which queen(s) reproduce(s) in multiple queen (MQ) colonies (skew), despite skew determining worker-brood relatedness and so worker fitness. We provide evidence for worker influence over skew in a functionally monogynous population of t...
Gill, Richard J.; Hammond, Robert L.
Full Text Available In a labour surplus and capital hungry country like India jobs are very important to individuals. They help to determine standards of living, places of residence, status and even one's sense of self worth. Jobs are important to organizations because they are the means of accomplishing organizational objectives. Technological advances and competitive pressures may often force an organization to put more emphasis on characteristics of successful performance rather than on standard jobs duties and tasks etc. When negative stress is high it reduces job satisfaction. When a job does not correspond with employee's personal life, or is the source of anxiety and confusion, it's stressful. Work places must be in normal conditions allowing employee to do their job properly
Microcapsules containing citronella essential oil were prepared by complex coacervation and applied to cotton textiles in order to study the repellent efficacy of the obtained fabrics. Citronella released from treated textiles was indirectly monitored by the extractable content of its main components. Repellent activity was assessed by exposure of a human hand and arm covered with the treated textiles to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Fabrics treated with microencapsulated citronella presented a higher and longer lasting protection from insects compared to fabrics sprayed with an ethanol solution of the essential oil, assuring a repellent effect higher than 90% for three weeks. Complex coacervation is a simple, low cost, scalable and reproducible method of obtaining encapsulated essential oils for textile application. Repellent textiles were achieved by padding cotton fabrics with microcapsules slurries using a conventional pad-dry method. This methodology requires no additional investment for textile finishing industries, which is a desirable factor in developing countries. PMID:20673937
Specos, M M Miró; García, J J; Tornesello, J; Marino, P; Vecchia, M Della; Tesoriero, M V Defain; Hermida, L G
A special kind of discrimination of women on work place is that related to their psychophysical condition. Whereas the health condition is often a pretext for discrimination of pregnant women, young mothers, sick and disabled women workers, the mobbing at work is discrimination that may have psychical troubles as a consequence. We present a brief analysis of relevant international and domestic regulations, demonstrating explicitly their breaking on the examples from the work of SOS Hotline fo...
Electronic Textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirement...
Matteo Stoppa; Alessandro Chiolerio
In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-tox...
Zille, Andrea; Almeida, Lu S.; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa; Carneiro, No Mia; Esteves, M. F. Tima; Silva, Carla J.; Souto, A. Pedro
BACKGROUND: The common causes of textile dermatitis are formaldehyde resins and disperse dyes. There are various methods to detect the presence of formaldehyde in clothing. AIM: To detect the presence of formaldehyde in various types of textiles by the chromotropic acid method and to assess the effect of washing on the formaldehyde content. METHODS: Twenty randomly selected textiles from a local cloth store were tested for formaldehyde by the chromotropic acid method. A purple ring indicated ...
Rao Sanath; Shenoy Shruthakirthi; Davis Suraj; Nayak Sudhakar
Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerge...
Erben, D; Hola, V.; Jaros, J.; Rahel, J.
The production of natural fibers is not sufficient to accommodate the textile needs of the growing world population. Therefore, textile research is exploring alternative natural resources to produce fibers. Though typically known for its nutritional use, the sugarcane can also be used for textile production because of its high fiber content.The aim of our study was to extract fibers from sugarcane and to analyze their mechanical behavior. Cane particles were treated with an alkaline solution ...
Michel, Davina; Bachelier, Bruno; Drean, Jean-yves; Harzallah, Omar
The purpose of diploma work was to research the impact of decolourization of textile effluents by advanced oxidation processes with the intention of water reuse in textile finishing. Decolorization of textile effluents was accomplished according to oxidation H2O2/UV method. The pH, conductivity, absorption, TOC, KPK and turbidity of the purified waters were measured as well as the percentage of decolorization calculated. Afterwards, the purified waters were used for dyeing of cellulose-cotton...
Textiles are interesting from both a structural and an architectural point of view. Their patterns and textures, created by the interworking of yarn elements, are not only highly appealing on an aestetical level, they also possess load bearing qualities. The research project: Structural Timber Fabric: Applying Textile Principles on Building Scale sets out to investigate this potential and proposes to develop a new family of timber constructions based on the logic and principles of textile tec...
Hudert, Markus; Sistaninia, Masoud; Weinand, Yves
Textile electronic systems, or e-textiles, are on the rise but their utility is limited by its power demand. Potential applications include point-of-care diagnostic systems that would enable medical monitoring at the site of care. A small, inexpensive, and easy to use battery would enhance the capabilities of e-textile. Here we propose a thread based battery that attempts to satisfy these requirements. The thread based battery uses chemistry similar to an alkaline battery. The fabrication pro...
Laxmanan, Pranav; Chitnis, Girish; Rahimi, Rahim; Ziaie, Babak
As the chlorination of textile wastewater achieves all the objectives of its treatment such as color removal and reduction of TDS, BOD and COD; and the treated effluents meet the standards set as per Schedule 12-B of the Environment Conservation Rules-1997 (ECR-97, Bangladesh), the treatment of textile wastewater with chlorine gas is a practical technological option for Bangladesh. If this process which is simple if adopted by the textile sector, the ETP operation would be widely practised fo...
Abdul Quader, A. K. M.
We report a biomimetic procedure to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. By in situ introducing silica particles to cotton fibers to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), normally hydrophilic cotton has been easily turned superhydrophobic, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 155 degrees for a 10 microL droplet. The roll-off angle of water droplets depends on the droplet volume, ranging from 7 degrees for a droplet of 50 microL to 20 degrees for a 7 microL droplet. When a perfluoroalkyl chain is introduced to the silica particle surface, the superhydrophobic textile also becomes highly oleophobic, as demonstrated by a static contact angle of 140 degrees and a roll-off angle of 24 degrees for a 15 microL sunflower oil droplet. PMID:17985939
Hoefnagels, H F; Wu, D; de With, G; Ming, W
One of the main tasks of presented research are to impact the additional value on natural fabrics by adding them new properties with a metal nano-level coating, evaluate coating technologies. Having the ability to control the surface of a natural fiber offers great rewards that go far beyond pure economics as natural fibers are renewable and biodegradable. The paper describes the process of vacuum evaporation and magnetron sputtering of copper coatings on cotton textile materials, analysis of the metal coated textile surface by laser laboratory complex and SEM. The investigation results evince that laser laboratory complex measurements of reflected and through covered material transmitted light can be applied to trace the unevenness of deposited metal film on the covered fabric surface and its changes from exploitation impacts without samples destruction.
In this paper a stain sensor to measure large strain (80%) in textiles is presented. It consists of a mixture of 50wt-% thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and 50wt-% carbon black particles and is fiber-shaped with a diameter of 0.315mm. The attachment of the sensor to the textile is realized using a silicone film. This sensor configuration was characterized using a strain tester and measuring the resistance (extension-retraction cycles): It showed a linear resistance response to strain, a small hysteresis, no ageing effects and a small dependance on the strain velocity. The total mean error caused by all these effects was ±5.5% in strain. Washing several times in a conventional washing machine did not influence the sensor properties. The paper finishes by showing an example application where 21 strain sensors were integrated into a catsuit. With this garment, 27 upper body postures could be recognized with an accuracy of 97%.
Mattmann, Corinne; Clemens, Frank; Tröster, Gerhard
One of the main tasks of presented research are to impact the additional value on natural fabrics by adding them new properties with a metal nano-level coating, evaluate coating technologies. Having the ability to control the surface of a natural fiber offers great rewards that go far beyond pure economics as natural fibers are renewable and biodegradable. The paper describes the process of vacuum evaporation and magnetron sputtering of copper coatings on cotton textile materials, analysis of the metal coated textile surface by laser laboratory complex and SEM. The investigation results evince that laser laboratory complex measurements of reflected and through covered material transmitted light can be applied to trace the unevenness of deposited metal film on the covered fabric surface and its changes from exploitation impacts without samples destruction.
Vihodceva, S.; Kukle, S.; Barloti, J.
An intelligent textile is a textile structure that measures and reacts in front of external agents or stimulus with or without integrated electronic equipment. . The finality of the present textile is to take one more step towards intelligent textile, considering the integration of electronics and textile needs, to be industrially viable and to keep up the necessary competitiveness, raising the final price as little as possible. The finality of these experiments is to develop a textile that v...
JosÃƒÂ© Gisbert; Vicente Cambra; Jordi Margalef; Francesc Escudero; Maria Alsina
Full Text Available The complete liberalization of international trade led to important changes in financial performancesof the national enterprises. This paper has in view to present the consequences of these changes fromthe macroeconomic level to microeconomic level. Thus, indicators of the financial performance forthree enterprises at the textile sector from Galati are studied selectively. The scope of this study isboth to realize a financial performance hierarchy and to present of their evolution directions in thefuture.
Nicoleta BARBUTA MISU
Superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated by the complex coating of silica nanoparticles with functional groups onto cotton textiles to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with stearic acid, 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane or their combination. The wettability and morphology of the as-fabricated surfaces were investigated by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Characterizations by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis were also conducted
Full Text Available Superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated by the complex coating of silica nanoparticles with functional groups onto cotton textiles to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with stearic acid, 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane or their combination. The wettability and morphology of the as-fabricated surfaces were investigated by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Characterizations by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis were also conducted.
Chao-Hua Xue et al
This paper analyses the expansion of China's clothing industry in world textile value chains. Using data from interviews and observations throughout factory visits in China and other countries we show how private Guangdong entrepreneurs started China's clothing manufacturing. Lacking experience in consumer markets and designing, original equipment manufacturing was the route Chinese firms took to expand into garment manufacturing. Low wages and low margins of profits became their original sou...
This paper outlines the work being done by the Politecnico di Milano’s SPACE (Experimental process for architecture and life cycle of building products) research unit on the theme of textile architecture. It describes the major research done by the unit, giving a glimpse of the strategies put in place by the university and the European Union for pure research, applied research and even experimental design. The essay also presents some thoughts on the impact of technological research on a pr...
Full Text Available Se analizan los factores de competitividad a nivel internacional en los sectores textil y de la confección, así como los diferentes tipos y evolución de las Zonas Francas Industriales (ZFI existentes en los países del sur.1 Se estudian las consecuencias que sobre ellas tendrán los cambios en curso en el marco regulador de los intercambios comerciales multilaterales en el seno de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC, haciendo especial referencia al papel que juega la economía china.
Efren Areskurrinaga Mirandona
Full Text Available Surface conductance is one of the main parameters which describes basic characteristics of specific textile materials.These textile materials are used, for example, in environments with higher requirements on hardware electrostaticprotection during their production process. Published measurement standardized methods are followed by modelingmethods which do not reach satisfactory results. This paper is therefore focused on the modeling of surfaceconductance of textile materials. The results show that the structure of textile materials can be seen as serial-parallelconnections of resistors. A derivation of this model is described.
The Danish National Research Foundation’s Centre for Textile Research at the University of Copenhagen is a world recognized leading centre for ancient textile studies. In addition to the research programmes already in progress since 2005, the CTR has opened itself up to new interdisciplinary research frontiers in an intra-European perspective. The Marie-Sk?odowska Curie fellows recently employed at CTR are developing investigations in all aspects of textile research, also providing new evidence of different chronological periods. Linguists, archaeologists, historians and scientists share their academic backgrounds to join them with CTR expertise. TEXTHA (Textile terminology of Hittite Anatolia) is an innovative interdisciplinary project which aims to create a Hittite dictionary of textiles, the first of its kind, benefiting from the solid know-how of textile crafts of the CTR archaeologists. These new projects lay the foundations of new research platforms for future collaborations between different institutions.
This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.
The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.
Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.
Full Text Available Our country’s textile industry is in the producing and processing field in the global value chain, so textiles’ addedvalue is low and profit margins is narrow. Developed countries take up fields of high-grade fabrics productionand advanced textile machinery manufacture. Because textile fabrics, textile machinery and equipment ofChina's textile industry fall behind developed countries, product quality and product variety can not yet fullymeet the market demand, and can not compete with developed countries. In order to quicken the upgrade pace oftextile industry, this paper brings forward some measures on the Chinese textile fabrics and textile machinerydeficiencies.
Exhibition catalogue. The Stuff That Matters. Textiles collected by Seth Siegelaub for the Centre for Social Research on Old Textiles. Raven Row, London. 1 March to 6 May 2012. Curated by Sara Martinetti, Alice Motard and Alex Sainsbury. This publication complements the first exhibition of the csrot Historic Textile Collection by considering the biography of its founder, Seth Siegelaub, whose lifelong interests, besides conceptual art practice and the politics of communication, include the so...
Martinetti, Sara; Motard, Alice; Sainsbury, Alex
This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste. PMID:21847829
Demand for knowledge workers has increased relative to the available supply. A further cause for concern is that the requirements for managing knowledge workers differ from those for managing lower qualified employees. Due to scarcity and different management requirements, attracting and retaining the best available knowledge workers poses a serious challenge.The purpose of this study was to to identify and understand the impact of some of the key factors that motivate knowledge worker...
Denson, Fabian Chad
The chemical and physical effects of ultrasound with a frequency above 16kHz, higher than the audible frequency of the human ear, have proven to be a useful tool for variety of systems ranging from the application of ultrasound in environmental remediation to the cooperation of ultrasound waves with chemical processing regarding as sonochemistry. Ultrasound opened up new advances in textile wet processing including desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing and finishing and also nanoprocessing including nanopretreatment, nanodyeing, nanoprinting and nanofinishing. Use of ultrasound appears to be a promising alternative technique to reduce energy, chemicals and time involved in various operations. Over the past years there has been an enormous effort on using sonochemistry for the synthesis of nanomaterials on various textile materials. In situ sonosynthesis of nanoparticles and nanocomposites on different textiles is a pioneering approach driving future investigations. With such wide range of applications and vast ever increasing publications, the objective of this paper is presenting a comprehensive review on ultrasound application in textile from early time to now by the main emphasis on the sonosynthesis of nanomaterials outlining directions toward future research. PMID:25216894
Harifi, Tina; Montazer, Majid
Full Text Available The nonwoven is manufactured by using chicken feathers which are available at very low cost, so the end product too. The advantage is that there is a wide range of application of chicken feathers in textile field. The nonwoven which is prepared by chicken feather has very versatile and a wide application in the field of technical textiles.
Azo dyes are used extensively in the textile and dyestuff industries and effluents from these industrial processes are usually resistant to biological treatment. Textile azo dyes with bioaccessible groups such as guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, for lignin-degrading fungus as P. chrysosporium were synthesised.
Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Santos, Isabel M.; Queiroz, Maria Joa?o R. P.; Lima, Nelson
Azo dyes are used extensively in the textile and dyestuff industries and effluents from these industrial processes are usually resistant to biological treatment. Textile azo dyes with bioaccessible groups such as guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and 2,6--dimethoxyphenol, for lignin-degrading fungus were synthesized using aminobenzoic and aminosulfonic acids as diazocomponents.
Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Queiroz, Maria Joa?o R. P.
In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.
Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang
Air-dried, wet archaeological wool textiles can be flat and stiff with brittle fibers, but is this a permanent collapse or can they regain their size in water? Iron Age textiles were tested comparing the width of dry fibers with the width of fibers treated in water or 70% ethanol. Both liquids expanded the fibers and the yarn increased in size, resulting in more flexible and less brittle textiles. This property was kept when the textiles were dried by stepwise dehydration in ethanol, acetone, and white spirit with a final treatment in 5% lanolin. Preliminary tests on brittle textiles can be performed on small samples to investigate if they will gain in flexibility by this method.
Bruselius Scharff, Annemette
In this paper we explore textile design activities and textile design management from an industrial network perspective. The textile industry is probably one of the most globalized manufacturing industries in the world and thus one of the most dispersed industries on the globe. Most studies on design management are framed inside the organisational context of the firm. In this study the role and practice of textile design is addressed in perspective of the global textile production network. The empirical data stems from six case studies exploring how different types of enterprises are organised in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design management in order to maintain the relationships in their network of customers and suppliers.
Christensen, Poul Rind; Bang, Anne Louise
Full Text Available This paper is up for discussing the composed competitive situation of Lithuanian clothing and textile industry. Author concisely proposes aspects of competitive ability conception, explores the main statistical information illustrating importance of clothing and textile industry in all manufacturing and economics. Willing to accomplish a statistical data analysis of trade clothing and textile industry competitors and advantages which they have and which influence Lithuanian clothing and textile enterprises competitive situation in the local and foreign markets are presented. This article deals with discussion about Lithuanian clothing and textile industry possibilities to improve competitive situation and what main problems of industry could be solved in order to make this market more competitive.Article in Lithuanian
In this paper we explore textile design activities and textile design management from an industrial network perspective. The textile industry is probably one of the most globalized manufacturing industries in the world and thus one of the most dispersed industries on the globe. Most studies on design management are framed inside the organisational context of the firm. In this study the role and practice of textile design is addressed in perspective of the global textile production network. The empirical data stems from six case studies exploring how different types of enterprises are organised in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design management in order to maintain the relationships in their network of customers and suppliers.
Bang, Anne Louise
During the past 15 years NASA has taken the lead role in exploiting the benefits of textile reinforced composite materials for application to aircraft structures. The NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program was started in 1989 to develop composite primary structures for commercial transport airplanes with costs that are competitive with metal structures. As part of this program, several contractors investigated the cost, weight, and performance attributes of textile reinforced composites. Textile composites made using resin transfer molding type processes were evaluated for numerous applications. Methods were also developed to predict resin infiltration and flow in textile preforms and to predict and measure mechanical properties of the textile composites. This paper describes the salient results of that program.
Poe, C. C., Jr.; Dexter, H. B.; Raju, I. S.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000 - 1350 DC), descendiente de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa, en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fase [...] s Maytas/San Miguel). La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. La imagen sobre el fondo de la red de algodón blanco está formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, quizás con su interior. Abstract in english One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD), a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel [...] phases). The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no precedent for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual organs, perhaps with the interior shown also.
Alfredo, Rosenzweig; Bat - ami, Artzi.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Cianobactérias estão amplamente distribuídas no ambiente e podem ser uma alternativa eficaz e econômica para a remoção de corantes de efluentes de indústrias têxteis. O presente trabalho investigou o potencial de seis linhagens de cianobactérias de descolorir onze tipos de corantes têxteis. A absorç [...] ão máxima de cada corante foi verificada usando um espectrofotômetro. Espectrometria de massas foi utilizada na verificação da degradação e possível remoção de corantes pelas cianobactérias. Os resultados mostraram que todas as linhagens avaliadas foram capazes de remover indigo, amarelo palanil, amarelo indantreno, azul indantreno, azul dispersol, vermelho indantreno e vermelho dispersol em mais de 50%. O isolado brasileiro Phormidium sp. CENA135 foi capaz de descolorir e remover completamente o índigo azul BANN 30. Este estudo confirmou a capacidade das cianobactérias de descolorir e, possivelmente, degradar corantes têxteis estruturalmente diferentes, sugerindo a possibilidade de sua aplicação em estudos de biorremediação. Abstract in english Cyanobacteria are widely distributed in the environment and may be an effective and economic alternative for removing dyes from textile industry effluents. The present work investigated the potential of six cyanobacterial strains in decolorizing eleven types of textile dyes. The maximum absorbance o [...] f each dye was verified using a spectrophotometer. Mass spectrometry was used to verify the removal and possible degradation of dyes by the cyanobacteria. The results showed that all of the evaluated cyanobacteria were able to remove indigo, palanil yellow, indanthrene yellow, indanthrene blue, dispersol blue, indanthrene red and dispersol red by more than 50%. The Brazilian isolate Phormidium sp. CENA135 was able to decolorize and completely remove indigo blue BANN 30. This study confirmed the capacity of cyanobacteria to decolorize and possibly to structurally degrade different textile dyes, suggesting the possibility of their application in bioremediation studies.
Maria Estela, Silva-Stenico; Felipe D. P., Vieira; Diego B., Genuário; Caroline S. P., Silva; Luiz Alberto B., Moraes; Marli Fátima, Fiore.
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La industria textil uruguaya se inició a comienzos del siglo XX con la instalación de algunas fábricas de tejidos de lana y de una gran hilandería de lana peinada. Desde la crisis de 1929, sustentada en la protección cambiaría, se expandió en forma acelerada durante el periodo conocido como de indus [...] trialización por sustitución de importaciones. Alcanzó su apogeo entre fines de la segunda guerra mundial y comienzos de la década de los cincuenta, al instalar hilanderías de algodón y de fibras sintéticas y cuando las exportaciones industriales laneras adquirieron una importante dimensión. El progresivo agotamiento de la sustitución de importaciones, los frenos opuestos a las exportaciones, junto al estancamiento económico del país y el desmontaje de la protección estatal, la sumieron en una profunda crisis y en la pérdida creciente de significación en la industria y en la economía uruguaya. Abstract in english The Uruguayan textile industry started in the early xxth century based on the production of woven fabric and wool spinning mill (tops). From the years of the 1929's crisis onwards, it went through a great expansion due to a protectionist policy based on favourable exchange rates. Those were the time [...] s of the Import Substitutive Industrialization (ISI) in the country. After the Second World War and, particularly, during the fifties it reached its height with the production of cotton fabrics and synthetic fibers. Meanwhile, wool exports would grow strongly. However, in the late fifties, the ISI strategy was in trouble and the obstacles for export's growth and the economic stagnation together with the removal of the protectionist's policies, put an end to the textile industry development. As a consequence, it experienced a deep crisis and lost importance both for the industry and for the economy as a whole.
Full Text Available La industria textil uruguaya se inició a comienzos del siglo XX con la instalación de algunas fábricas de tejidos de lana y de una gran hilandería de lana peinada. Desde la crisis de 1929, sustentada en la protección cambiaría, se expandió en forma acelerada durante el periodo conocido como de industrialización por sustitución de importaciones. Alcanzó su apogeo entre fines de la segunda guerra mundial y comienzos de la década de los cincuenta, al instalar hilanderías de algodón y de fibras sintéticas y cuando las exportaciones industriales laneras adquirieron una importante dimensión. El progresivo agotamiento de la sustitución de importaciones, los frenos opuestos a las exportaciones, junto al estancamiento económico del país y el desmontaje de la protección estatal, la sumieron en una profunda crisis y en la pérdida creciente de significación en la industria y en la economía uruguaya.The Uruguayan textile industry started in the early xxth century based on the production of woven fabric and wool spinning mill (tops. From the years of the 1929's crisis onwards, it went through a great expansion due to a protectionist policy based on favourable exchange rates. Those were the times of the Import Substitutive Industrialization (ISI in the country. After the Second World War and, particularly, during the fifties it reached its height with the production of cotton fabrics and synthetic fibers. Meanwhile, wool exports would grow strongly. However, in the late fifties, the ISI strategy was in trouble and the obstacles for export's growth and the economic stagnation together with the removal of the protectionist's policies, put an end to the textile industry development. As a consequence, it experienced a deep crisis and lost importance both for the industry and for the economy as a whole.
This book contains a comparative survey of efforts to organize female workers in trade unions in both developing and industrialized nations and 19 case studies of efforts to organize female workers in selected occupations. The following papers are included: "A Comparative Survey" (Swasti Mitter); "The Union of Women Domestic Employees, Recife,…
Martens, Margaret Hosmer, Ed.; Mitter, Swasti, Ed.
Waterproofing is the treatment of reduction of water absorbing properties of materials. It is more of a coating than a finishing process because it uses polymer materials for covering spaces and pores. These textiles leaves no air or water vapor to pass through the material because the pores are completely coated . Thismaterial is impermeable to liquid water, and air and water vapor. It resists the water test with a pressure in the water column >1000mm, before the first drops of water start t...
We report a case of contact sensitivity to Flammentin ASN, a flame retardant used on cotton and wool. The patient was a painter who was protecting his face with a white cotton cap. He presented with eczema of the forehead at the sites of cap contact. Patch tests with the treated cap and flame retardant were positive; a formaldehyde patch test was negative. Flame retardants are used in construction, materials and textiles. Contact sensitivity is rarely described and we compare our case to those published in the literature. PMID:7750273
Moreau, A; Dompmartin, A; Castel, B; Remond, B; Michel, M; Leroy, D
Wearable electronics is a natural application field of miniaturized sensors and low-power analog and digital devices, including last generation microcontrollers and efficient power conversion components, that are able to manage battery power in an optimal way. A dye-doped SiO2 thin film was obtained by sol-gel technology. The synthesis was monitored in time by FT-IR spectroscopy. The hybrid sol was applied onto a fabric surface by a padd-system, obtaining a smart textile. The colour change of...
Caldara, Michele; Colleoni, Claudio; Guido, Emanuela; Rosace, Giuseppe
Full Text Available The Technical Textiles previously widely termed as "Industrial fabrics" has been now redefined and named as "Technical Textiles". The Technical Textiles offers a variety of technical and functional properties and has applications in the every field and walks of life. An important and growing part of the textile industry is the medical and related healthcare and hygiene sector
Abhishek K Mishra
A strategy is presented to realize textile-based photovoltaic cells motivated by developments of textile-based electronics and their demand of grid-independent energy supply. Beyond this, a development of textile-based photovoltaics also represents an attractive pathway towards very flexible and rugged solar cells. The need for compatibility of an appropriate photovoltaic technology with the physical limitations of textiles is stressed. Electrodeposition from aqueous solutions is presented as a successful strategy to realize semiconductor structures on textiles and detailed control and influence of the deposition conditions is discussed. The role of microelectrode effects, options of forced convection, deposition under pulsed potential, alternative deposition baths and different substrate metals are emphasized. An active electrode material is presented which reaches a conversion efficiency close to the 1% limit under AM 1.5 illumination conditions and thereby opens the door for a further optimization towards devices of technical interest. PMID:20143378
Loewenstein, Thomas; Rudolph, Melanie; Mingebach, Markus; Strauch, Kerstin; Zimmermann, Yvonne; Neudeck, Andreas; Sensfuss, Steffi; Schlettwein, Derck
...provided with an exhaust system which will effectively...operator from coming in contact with the nip. ...or swing folder (overhead type). The bottom of the overhead folders shall be located...workers from coming in contact with the...
Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which we attribute to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, we showed that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, we noticed a delayed type of irritation after 72 hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is, as far as we know, the first time that a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil in tent-cloth is described. PMID:17680869
Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Gonçalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan
Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.
Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.
Full Text Available The researched firm is a state-owned company of more than forty years of operation and is one of pioneer companies providing textile and garment to Vietnam market. Its vision is to be the sustainable multidisciplinary firm which operates in three main areas: textile and gament industry, travel – real estate and financial investment in global market. After more than forty years of operation in the market, company has obtained some recognized results but these are still low and do not meet company’s strategic goals and company’s shareholders expectation. A need of a development of strategy which will help company to take market positioning and to develop. This research will help to have an overview of company, its business environment, its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Business environment and SWOT analysis are used for alternatives of strategies. Each activity of the company is reviewed to find the real problem that company is facing and helps to find a solution. A strategy is finally given for company’s competitiveness anddevelopment.
Luu Trong Tuan
The Textile Collection at Indiana University Purdue University Indiana (IUPUI) was founded by the Lilly family, of Eli Lilly pharmaceutical fame. The digitized items here offer a great way to learn about an oft-ignored area of the art world. Visitors will find the introduction to the collection to be brief, but informative. It explains the multiple reasons behind the decrease in creation of textiles at home, mainly the mechanization of cotton production and the advent of the sewing machine, but goes on to say that quilting is the "only legacy that has endured in the American conscious" and "is truly a continuing heritage for this century." Visitors can type "crazy quilt" in the "keyword search" box to see a quilt with an array of beautiful decorative stitches to hold the multi-colored pieces together. Some of the other types of items that are in the collection are samplers and coverlets. Visitors interested in seeing some samplers, pieces made by young girls to practice their skills, can simply click on "Browse this Collection" to see a number of good examples of this work.
Our laboratory is requested more and more by the establishments of health and the industrial laundries for the microbiological realization of control on the textile articles after completion. We checked the effectiveness of the techniques of the bacteriol prints or rodac and the bacterial extraction after maceration for the realization of these controls. The output of extraction of the bacteriol prints applied to woven material samples sterilized and then artificially contaminated by a titrated Staphylococcal suspension is lower than 1%. The technique recommended and largely used for the study in particular of the contamination of the blouses of doctor in the establishments of health thus does not appear to be relevant. We propose for the quality control of the linen a technique of maceration then extraction by the ultra sounds whose output is evaluated to 62% which requires to sacrifice the controled textile article. The choice of the bacteriological techniques as controls ultimate of a procedure must be carried out carefully to meet the needs for quality. Conclusions, when with the effectiveness of a process, deduced from results obtained by a bad method could be wrongfully reassuring. PMID:18390428
Meunier, O; Schwebel, A; Meistermann, C; Falcone, F
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo es resultado de un trabajo de investigación, cuyo objetivo establece la determinación y análisis de los factores que inciden en la competitividad de la manufacturera textil y del vestido. Aplicando el modelo de competitividad sistémica, se profundizó en los distintos factores que influ [...] yen en los niveles sistémicos (micro, meso, macro y meta), con el fin de proponer las condiciones necesarias para generar el desarrollo del sector. La infraestructura productiva textil se integra en 99,5% de micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES), que revelan diferentes problemáticas y no logran interactuar debidamente con las instituciones de apoyo. Por su parte el Estado ha mantenido un entorno propicio para la competitividad y ha establecido políticas industriales dirigidas a un cambio en los tipos de organización industrial (clusters y empresas integradoras). Pero para participar con éxito en los nuevos sistemas de competencia internacional se deben lograr consensos entre actores sociales que permitan hacer los cambios necesarios para encauzarse hacia una competitividad sostenida en la industria textil. Abstract in english This article is a result of a research the objective of which is the determination and analysis of the factors that influence the competitiveness of the textile and garment industry in México. The systemic competitive methodology is applied in order to study the different factors that influence the [...] systemic levels (micro, meso, macro, goal) in order to propose the necessary conditions for the development of this industry. The textile productive infrastructure is 99.5% composed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSME’s), which present multiple types of problems of different kinds and which are unable to interact adequately with the supporting institutions. On the other hand, the government has maintained an adequate environment for competitiveness and has established industrial policies which pursue the change in industrial organization (“clusters” and “integrative companies”). However, in order to be successful in new systems of international competition, consensus among the social actors will have to be achieved in order to introduce the necessary changes to sustain competitiveness in the textile industry.
Carlos, Rodríguez Monroy; Lizbeth, Fernández Chalé.
Current theories of workplace gender inequality hinge upon the widely-shared cultural image of an "ideal worker:" a fully-committed, male employee with no non-work responsibilities that constrain his availability for work. While women's difficulties in relation to this ideal are well-documented, men's experiences remain largely unexamined. Yet, several social changes, including the prevalence of dual-earner families and intensified fathering expectations place men's true lives at odds with th...
This article studies the use and impact of a firm-sponsored training (Employability-miles) voucher scheme that aims to stimulate employees to develop a more active attitude toward their own employability. Using data from two surveys of the firm's workforce, we find that voucher use is related to various personality traits and personal characteristics. In particular, a worker's ambition, goal setting, and education level are positively related to voucher use. In addition, women and those with ...
Gerards, Ruud; Grip, Andries; Witlox, Maaike
Full Text Available Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is first adopted to quantitatively describe texture semantics. Then texture features of textile images are extracted using Gabor decomposition. Finally, the mapping model between texture features and texture semantics in the semantic space is built using three different methods: linear regression, k-nearest neighbor (KNN and multi-layered perceptron (MLP. The performance of the proposed mapping model is evaluated with a dataset of 1352 textile images. The results confirm that the mapping model is effective and especially KNN and MLP reach the good performance. We further apply the mapping model to two applications: automatic textile image annotation with texture semantics and textile image search based on texture semantics. The subjective experimental results are consistent with human perception, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed mapping model. The proposed model and its applications can be applied to various automation systems in commercial textile industry.
Full Text Available As the chlorination of textile wastewater achieves all the objectives of its treatment such as color removal and reduction of TDS, BOD and COD; and the treated effluents meet the standards set as per Schedule 12-B of the Environment Conservation Rules-1997 (ECR-97, Bangladesh, the treatment of textile wastewater with chlorine gas is a practical technological option for Bangladesh. If this process which is simple if adopted by the textile sector, the ETP operation would be widely practised for its low operating costs because of low price of chlorine produced by local chlor-alkali plants in the country. Satisfactory operation of the ETPs treating textile wastewater with chlorine at low costs has made this process affordable and attractive to the textile sector. Some of the perceived limitations of chlorination outweighs the greater benefits of textile wastewater treatment with chlorine gas leading to cleaner water bodies which receive these effluents otherwise.
Keywords:Textile wastewater, chlorination, ETP, wastewater treatment
DOI = 10.3329/cerb.v14i1.3206
Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin 14 (2010 59-63
A. K. M. Abdul Quader
Full Text Available This paper explores the women teachers: a sociological analysis. Women teachers played an important role in teaching profession. Teacher education is manifested locally, as lived experience, in women teacher educators' working lives. particularly through the social regulation of gender conflicts in the workplace - the terms and conditions upon which women are expected to function as 'workers' in the changing contexts of teacher education. Particular attention is paid to intensified research cultures, assessments of professionalism and fiscal restraints. Teacher education is seen as a key example where tensions surrounding female workers are often complex and contradictory, and where reforms have been implemented cross-nationally in a profession which maintains very specific historical and local patterns of work.
This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment. At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya.
Full Text Available The empirical research of this paper deals with knowledge workers in Romanian organizations from different fields of activity, with the purpose of distinguishing them from other types of employees and clarifying their profile and individual characteristics. Also, the paper presents the most important challenges concerning the knowledge workers’ management: identifying, developing and evaluating knowledge workers, motivating and rewarding them, as well as describing specific structure of the organizations that rely mostly on knowledgeable workforce. The findings of the research represent an important factor in developing future efficient human resources strategies and practices regarding workers that fuel the knowledge economy.
SUMMARY „SEPARATE GROUPS OF WORKERS SAFETY AND HEALTH GUARANTEE“ The paper reveals the health and safety guarantee the essence of the concept. Labor law doctrine laid down the principle of unity and differentiation, value, limits on the use of individual categories of workers, which provides for additional safety and health guarantee. Labor laws of such persons are recognized: young people (persons under 18 years of age), pregnant, have recently given birth or are breast-feeding women, th...
Women and children face many problems in the gradually developing country of Nepal. Community Action Centre – Nepal (CAC-Nepal), a non-profit, non-governmental social organisation, was established in 1993 by a group of intellectuals, social workers, and community development workers to respond to the need for additional people’s efforts to overcome these challenges. This article discusses the programmes of CAC-Nepal.
Amatya, T. L.
Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process
In recent years, the antimicrobial nanofinishing of biomedical textiles has become a very active, high-growth research field, assuming great importance among all available material surface modifications in the textile industry. This review offers the opportunity to update and critically discuss the latest advances and applications in this field. The survey suggests an emerging new paradigm in the production and distribution of nanoparticles for biomedical textile applications based on non-toxic renewable biopolymers such as chitosan, alginate and starch. Moreover, a relationship among metal and metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) size, its concentration on the fabric, and the antimicrobial activity exists, allowing the optimization of antimicrobial functionality.
Zille, Andrea; Almeida, Luís; Amorim, Teresa; Carneiro, Noémia; Fátima Esteves, Maria; Silva, Carla J.; Souto, António Pedro
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration
Full Text Available Se identifican de nichos de mercado para el sector textil a partir de una caracterización del sector textil a nivel internacional, específicamente en Canada y Venezuela en relación a las fibras sintéticas (poliéster y acrílicos, tejidos de sombra, hilos, cordeles y soga de sisal y propipropileno, se identifican los precios de los productos y se caracterizan las empresas potenciales interesadas. La metodología utilizada incluyó: analizar la solicitud, se identificó el problema del cliente a resolver, se enmarcó en un tipo de estudio, se ejecutaron los procedimientos para solucionar el problema, se identificaron las fuentes de información, se seleccionó la estrategia de búsqueda y se realizó el respectivo análisis de información utilizando Excel y Endnote X4. También se tuvo en cuenta información sobre el acceso al mercado, las barreras arancelarias y no arancelarias, restricciones, tamaños del mercado, tendencias y crecimiento del mercado, segmentación y consumo, las importaciones, volumen, país de origen, fortalezas y debilidades del mercado y precios, nomenclatura de los productos como la ALADI, sistema de clasificación internacional y el sistema armonizado de designación y codificación de mercancía de Cuba. Como resultado se elabora un perfil de cada uno de los países, sus canales de distribución y se identifican los acuerdos internacionales sobre la industria textil.
Silvio Leonel Curiel Lorenzo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The experiences of the commercial sex workers as they fulfill the role of being a parent, have rarely been reported. Considering their socioeconomic background, profession and work pattern, the women are bound to face major challenges. AIMS: To describe child bearing, family support, dietary practices and various placement options for raising children. STUDY DESIGN : A cross-sectional descriptive study of brothel- based commercial sex workers. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : X2 test, Fisher?s Exact test RESULTS: Some commercial sex workers continued pregnancy with the hope of security and support, while others were compelled to do so, as they report late for medical termination of pregnancy. A group of sex workers (Devdasis received support during pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and child-rearing. The role and responsibilities of raising the child, depended upon the kind of family support available to the mothers. Being a single parent, stigma of the profession, odd working hours and variable family support were major challenges, while the fact that the women were earning, availability of rehabilitation centers, the homogeneous groups within the brothels, supportive peers and local non governmental organizations were factors which helped them in the process of raising their children. CONCLUSIONS : Day care centers and night shelters should be opened up in the red light area where the children can be looked after, during the working hours. The sex workers should be educated about weaning and nutrition. The role of peer workers and NGOs was very important in helping the women raise their children.
This study examines the mobilisation of South African women into trade union activities between the period 1973 and 2003. Firstly, it underscores the role of South African women in fighting for workers’ rights in the workplace and their contributions in the building of the labour movement at the national level. In explaining the mobilisation of women, this research focuses on their social biography. It explores women’s experiences in society, the family (or personal relationships), the wo...
Tshoaedi, Cynthia Malehoko
This research dealt with noise problem in the working environment in relation to textile industry. The study was carried out in Khartoum spinning and weaving factory to evaluate noise problem and its effect on workers. To achieve the goal of this study noise levels were measured in the working environment in three sections which are weaving, spinning and preparation by using dosimeter. Also questionnaires were given to the workers to fill out so as to know the effect of noise on the workers health. All measurements showed that the level of noise was above permissible limit (85 dBA). Graphs were drawn to show measurements of noise level. In addition statistical analysis of information obtained from the questionnaire was carried over, it is shown in frequency tables and correlation tables. There are many effects resulting from noise problem in working environment which could be summarized in hearing the machine sound after completion of work, effect on hearing sense, difficulty in conversing with others during working, instability, disturbance and anxiety, sleepless, nervousness etc.... Not with standing, the questionnaire results did not give high percentage in all cases yet this does not neglect the existence of the problem. On the contrary, this may mean lack of knowledge and inability to deal with the problem. It is hoped that this research will pave the way to future studies in this field so as to arrive at the suitable solution to the problem raised in the this reution to the problem raised in the this research. The study recommended the following: 1. Reduce the noise in the working environment by engineering control and acoustic absorbent to the room boundaries. 2. The workers must be provided by ear protection or/and the working hours must reduce. (Author)
Analysis of sludge samples of a textile processing factory revealed that the BOD and COD as well as the levels of total solids, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of sludge liquor were high needing treatment before disposal or reuse. Detention time of 60 days was established for aerobic treatment of the sludge. Optimum dosage for physicochemical methods were established at 4 g/l, using alum and iron III chloride each and 15.5 g/l and 550 mg/l, for lime and polyelectrolyte each. Solids were reduced by 67%, through aerobic and 61 % through anaerobic digestion, while the sludge treated by physicochemical method had higher solid content, recording the highest increase with lime. (author)
Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan's energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan's textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074 ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving was equivalent to 94,614 MWh of electricity, 23,686 kl of fuel oil and 4887 ton of fuel coal. It represented a potential reduction of 143,669 ton in carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 3848 ha plantation forest. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users and identifies the areas for making energy saving to provide an energy efficiency baseline. (author)
Hong, Gui-Bing; Su, Te-Li; Chen, Hua-Wei [Department of Cosmetic Application and Management, St. Mary' s Medicine Nursing and Management College, 100, Lane. 265, Section 2, Sanxing Road, Sanxing Township, Yilan County (China); Lee, Jenq-Daw; Hsu, Tsung-Chi [Technology Center for Service Industries, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Section 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu (China)
This report investigates the state of the US textile industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. Specific objectives were: To update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1984; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1984), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2010); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. Results of this study concluded that in the year 2010, there is a potential to save between 34% and 53% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry in three categories: process modification, basic research, and improved housekeeping practices that reduce energy consumption. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.
Badin, J. S.; Lowitt, H. E.
Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan's energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan's textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074 ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving was equivalent to 94,614 MWh of electricity, 23,686 kl of fuel oil and 4887 ton of fuel coal. It represented a potential reduction of 143,669 ton in carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 3848 ha plantation forest. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users and identifies the areas for making energy saving to provide an energy efficiency baseline.
Full Text Available La integración y la coordinación entre empresas de la cadena de suministro, tanto interna como externamente, es uno de los puntos que suscita mayor interés entre directivos e investigadores por su potencial aportación a la mejora de la cadena de suministro y, más globalmente, a la mejora de competitividad. En este sentido, el objetivo de este artículo es identificar el nivel evolutivo de la organización adoptada para gestionar la cadena de suministro, en un contexto de adaptación a las necesidades planteadas por los mercados, que demandan, entre otros aspectos, una mayor eficiencia y flexibilidad. Para ello, se analizan comparativamente los casos de 25 empresas españolas del sector alimentario y del sector de textil moda.
Full Text Available This article reflects the use of urban space by women in urban informal sectors in the city of Guwahati located in North East India. The population influx from across the borders in the aftermath of the partition has huge implications both on polity and on economy of the northeastern states in general and Assam in particular. Importantly, the urban informal sectors have a sizeable share in terms of its significant contributions towards Gross Domestic Product (GDP as well as generation of employment opportunities largely. Using a feminist perspective, the research is an attempt to investigate the engagement of women in the informal sector in greater Guwahati. Research findings reveal that the occupations of the women workers are location-specific, that is, the manufacturing sectors (textiles, food preparation, printing and skilled service are mainly home/shop based production (fixed locations whereas the service sectors (leisure, caring, elementary construction, elementary sales and cleaning occupation operate at variable locations (construction sites, street pavements, marketplaces and other various locations. Further analysis shows that the informal sector is highly demand dependent and such demands are in the central business areas of the city, therefore informal sector services (skilled services and elementary services are found to be located in and around the central areas of Guwahati city. Women operators in the informal sector are attracted to the central business district because of the many advantages that it enjoys relative to other parts of a city. The paper concludes by calling on policy makers and physical planning agencies to evolve more pragmatic strategies for urban development matters in order that urban informal sector activities can be integrated into urban development plans. Finally, further research is called for on how urban planners could redesign the urban space with appropriate consideration of the informal sector operators.
In this paper, a textile-based sensing principle for long term photopletysmography (PPG) monitoring is presented. Optical fibers were embroidered into textiles such that out-coupling and in-coupling of light was possible. The "light-in light-out" properties of the textile enabled the spectroscopic characterization of human tissue. For the optimization of the textile sensor, three different carrier fabrics and different fiber modifications were compared. The sample with best light coupling efficiency was successfully used to measure heart rate and SpO2 values of a subject. The latter was determined by using a modified Beer-Lambert law and measuring the light attenuation at two different wavelengths (632 nm and 894 nm). Moreover, the system was adapted to work in reflection mode which makes the sensor more versatile. The measurements were additionally compared with commercially available system and showed good correlation. PMID:25136484
Krehel, Marek; Wolf, Martin; Boesel, Luciano F; Rossi, René M; Bona, Gian-Luca; Scherer, Lukas J
Full Text Available The textile industry is an industrial field that affects the environment, from the plant growth until the production process. The obtaining of environmental licence for Romanian companies that produce textile products is related to elaboration and implementation of a modern system for an environmental management, that consist in utilization of ecological technologies for finishing, in diminution the water and energy consumption, cleaning of waste waters, reutilization of cleaned waters, sustainable management of wastes. In this study, the surfactant categories used in the textile industry that fulfil the conditions of environment protection, are presented. Some exemplifications were made involving the existing surfactants in Romanian textile industry, obtained from both domestic and external production. Also, some recommendation are suggested regarding the utilization of surfactants manufactured from either vegetal oils or chemical/petrochemical wastes, with similar properties as those from import having decreased prices an that affect as small as possible the environment.
Full Text Available Textile manufacturing consumes a considerable amount of water in its manufacturing processes. The water is primarily utilized in the dyeing and finishing operations of the textile establishments. Considering both the volume generated and the effluent composition, the textile industry wastewater is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors. In this study a combined anaerobic-aerobic reactor was operated continuously for treatment of textile wastewater. Cosmo balls were used to function as growth media for microorganisms in anaerobic reactor. Effect of pH, dissolved oxygen, and organic changes in nitrification and denatrification process were investigated. The results indicated that over 84.62% ammonia nitrogen and about 98.9% volatile suspended solid (VSS removal efficiency could be obtained. Dissolved oxygen (DO, pH were shown to have only slight influences on the nitrification process; and for each 10% removal of nitrogen, only 3% of pH changes were achieved.
Despite acknowledging the feminization of immigration there are a few studies giving immigrant and ethnic minority women greater visibility within receiving country context and using gender as an analytic concept in migration researches. Particularly, there is a tendency that women’s migration has still been acknowledged as “dependant” or “secondary” migratory movement in guest worker regimes’ traditional “family reunion” schemas and issues such as immigrant women’s particip...
Textile is a material that accompanies a child from the birth on. Diapers, clothes, soft toys, books are made from it. As a child grows up, he or she comes across cloths at creating in different activities in a kindergarten. In the theoretical part of the BA thesis I have presented the development of textile, its division into fabrics, general characteristics of fabrics and its maintenance. I have described development characteristics of children aged from 5 to 6. The practical part...
Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in th...
Solimar Garcia; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs
Performance results obtained in terms of entrepreneurial skills, professional skills and structured cross various specializations in the field of management, in textiles and leather industry, demonstrates the ability of permanent self-control skills on motivation for learning, in relation to their professional and personal development objectives. Article identifies and evaluates the performance of critical business managers working in textiles and leather industry, analyzing their competitive...
Stan Luciana Cristiana
Textile industry is an important activity that provides considerable benefits to people, but unfortunately dyeing of yarn and cloth produces pollution of water, a resource that is valuable and scarce. Dyeing of textiles fibers is an inefficient process, in view of the fact that approximately ten percent of total dye is thrown to municipal sewage. Although different treatment systems are applied to wastewater, dyes are resistant to physical, chemical and biological factors because of the way they are designed. (Author)
Textile industry is an important activity that provides considerable benefits to people, but unfortunately dyeing of yarn and cloth produces pollution of water, a resource that is valuable and scarce. Dyeing of textiles fibers is an inefficient process, in view of the fact that approximately ten percent of total dye is thrown to municipal sewage. Although different treatment systems are applied to wastewater, dyes are resistant to physical, chemical and biological factors because of the way they are designed. (Author)
Lozano-Alvarez, J.; Jauregui-Rincon, J.; Mendoza-Diaz, G.; Rodriguez-Vazquez, G.; Frausto-Reyes, C.
In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was observed that t...
Koz?eniauskiene?, Jurgita; Daukantiene?, Virginija
Full Text Available Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations that can be well overcome by tertiary waste water treatment.
Manali Desai*1, Mehali Mehta2
Tertiary treatment is the Industrial waste water treatment process which removes stubborn contaminants that have not been removed in secondary treatment. Effluent becomes even cleaner by Tertiary treatment through the use of stronger and more advanced treatment systems. The present work is an attempt to review all possible tertiary treatment methods for removal of dyestuff from textile effluent. Conventional method for treatment of textile effluent has own certain limitations ...
Manali Desai, Mehali Mehta
Production process and characteristics of PAN based carbon fibers and cellulose based carbon textile are presented. In the case of carbon fibers attention is paid to changes during the carbonization process in the range of 400-1000°C. The change of diameter and weight loss as well as tensile strength and Young's modulus were examined. For carbon textile it was interesting to show their adsorption characteristics as activated material. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms correspond to the micro...
Kalu?erovi? Branka V.; Milovanovi? Ljiljana M.; Babi? Biljana M.
EP 1473131 A UPAB: 20041208 NOVELTY - Numbers of individual textile blanks (4) are assembled in a compaction stage. A highly-compact component (5) is produced, in a shape close to its final form. This is saturated with an adhesive resin. It is hardened at raised temperature under increased pressure. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Numbers of individual textile blanks (4) are assembled in a compaction stage. A highly-compact component (5) is produced, in a shape close to its final form. This is saturat...
Ulrich, E.; Paul, J.
The main goal of this paper is to present the initial version of a Textile Chemical Ontology, to be used by textile professionals with the purpose of conceptualising and representing the banned and harmful chemical substances that are forbidden in this domain. After analysing different methodologies and determining that “Methontology” is the most appropriate for the purposes, this methodology is explored and applied to the domain. In this manner, an initial set of concepts are defined, to...
Carolina Prieto Ferrero; Elena Lloret; Manuel Palomar
Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is fir...
Xiaohui Wang; Jia Jia; Yongxin Wang; Lianhong Cai
We integrate Li-ion battery electrode materials into a 3D porous textile conductor by using a simple process. When compared to flat metal current collectors, our 3D porous textile conductor not only greatly facilitates the ability for a high active material mass loading on the battery electrode but also leads to better device performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Hu, Liangbing; La Mantia, Fabio; Wu, Hui; Xie, Xing; McDonough, James; Pasta, Mauro; Cui, Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
This research work is focused on analyzing the potential application of textile subwaste as an alternative building thermal insulation material for double external walls, and in a sustainable perspective. The studied textile subwaste results from the mattress industry and it was briefly characterized as a material. Taking into account that it is necessary to achieve the thermal insulation performance of the proposed technological building solution an alternative expedite experimen...
Paiva, A.; Varum, H.; Caldeira, F.; Sa?, A.; Nascimento, D.; Teixeira, N.
Naturally colored flax fabrics are considered potential eco-friendly materials for textile industries because they avoid the use of synthetic dyes and pigments which in general, contain toxic chemicals.In this context, a comparative study about the posibility to use these natural extract has been made. The selected natural extracts of bilberry fruits and red-onion skin were applied to the dyeing of flax fibres under various conditions. The textile composites made of a flax fibrous support pre...
Coman, Diana; Vri?nceanu, Narcisa; Oancea, Simona; Neagu, Ioan
Shear resistance of structural members can be increased by different measures. So far only reinforcements from steel or fibre-reinforced plastic pasted on the surface have been acknowledged worldwide. Textile reinforced fine grained concrete, however, is still mostly an unknown option. Systematic research into the load bearing behaviour of this kind of shear strengthening as well as qualified design rules are missing. It is the aim of this thesis to analyse the possibilities of textile re...
In the context of this thesis work, theoretical and experimental research were carried out in the field of developing microcapsules, based on ethyl cellulose containing lavender essential oil, for application on textile material. The study was conducted in two parts. In the first section microcapsules were developed using the emulsion encapsulation process. The microcapsules were then applied with heat fixation onto textile material for the second segment of the thesis. After applying the dev...
This study is an endeavor to explore the supply chain management specifically in connection with textile/apparel industry of a developing country. A review of pertinent literature is conducted to explore the continuation of supply chain management and its existence in textile/apparel industry of a developing country. Databases such as: EBSCO Host, Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, and Science Direct are searched for the works concerned to supply chain management. The review of literature suggest...
Amer Rajput; Abdul Hamid Abu Bakar
Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the role of management and marketing in formation and assessment of quality and ecological security of the domestic textile raw material and use of the obtained information for the needs of development of this raw material market and products manufactured on its basis. It was established in the result of the conducted study that the process of marketing management should be built on the basis of a deep study of needs of textile raw material and manufactured on its basis products consumers and is a key factor of successful development of the market of ecological textile in Ukraine. The article shows the role and justifies a necessity of introduction of ecological standardisation as a necessary prerequisite of formation of the system of textile raw material quality and ecological security management for manufacturing ecological textile. Further studies should be carried out in spheres of development of systems of control over the textile raw material quality and ecological security level for ensuring its correspondence with domestic and international regulatory documents.
Semak Bohdan B.
Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerged into a growth medium inoculated with green fluorescein protein labelled Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After overnight incubation at 33°C, the textile was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy for bacterial enumeration and biofilm structure characterisation. In the second stage, the textile was used as a filter medium for prefiltered river water, and the pressure development on the in-flow side was measured to quantify the overall level of biofouling. In both cases, nontreated textile samples were used as a control. The results indicate that the chitosan coating exhibits antibacterial properties. The developed method is applicable for the evaluation of the ability to inhibit biofilm formation. PMID:23724330
Erben, D; Hola, V; Jaros, J; Rahel, J
Examines specific motives and difficulties as they pertain to women returning to school. Most women are affected to some degree by all the variables, and student personnel workers and counselors should understand this in order to be more resourceful when working with older women. (Author/CJ)
Letchworth. George E.
...a number of boxes for washing and scouring. The...while saturated, and washing out most of the caustic...prevent the worker's hand or fingers from striking...clothes tumbler, and each washing machine shall be equipped...cutters to prevent the hands of the operator...
Recently, Finnish companies have been interested in the Vietnamese market due to stable quality and affordable prices. The purpose of the study is to explore the recent context of promoting textile exportation by Vinatex to the Finnish market. The author interviews Vinatex’s managers to inquire into possible challenges and their trend in textile exportation to the Finnish market and the selection of secondary data. The author shows and analyses information relating to the Finnish market and...
Full Text Available E-training style requires a strong readiness level among industrial workers in order to ensure that they gain its optimum advantages. The purpose of the study is to explore analytically how the demographic factors affect the computer usage attitude, computer literacy, computer facility and access technology. The study also explores analytically the e-training readiness level in terms of computer usage attitude, computer literacy, computer facility and technology access among industrial workers. Four hundreds industrial workers from electronics industries, food industries, poultry industries and textile industries in Batu Pahat, Johore were involved in this study. The data were collected using questionnaires and were analyzed quantitatively. Through multiple regression analysis, the findings showed that some demographic factors (workers’ characteristics and work place were significant at predicting the computer usage attitude, the computer literacy, the computer facility and the technology access. The findings also showed that there was a high level of e-training readiness among industrial workers in the aspect of computer usage attitude. But the aspects of computer literacy, computer facility and technology access showed only a moderate level of readiness. In general, the e-training readiness level among industrial workers is still moderate. This situation should be overcome in order to ensure that the e-training approach which has been emphasized in Malaysian Occupational Skills Development and Training Master Plan 2008-2020 would be implemented successfully. Therefore, some suggestions for improvement have been presented toward enhance the e-training readiness among industrial workers.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the Beedi workers are vulnerable segments of the country’s labour force which has increased involvement of women and child labour in the Beedi rolling activities. The condition of Beedi workers at present as well as in the past have not been conducive. The Beedi industry is present all over the country. The researcher in this study aimed at gaining insight into the “Socio – economic condition of female Beedi workers at Karugamputhur Village, Vellore District.
This paper investigates the relationship between the gender wage gap, the choice of training occupation, and occupational mobility. We use longitudinal data for young workers with apprenticeship training in West Germany. Workers make occupational career choices early during their careers and women and men pursue very different occupational careers. We reconsider whether through occupational segregation women are locked in low wage careers (Kunze, 2005) or whether they can move up to higher wa...
Fitzenberger, Bernd; Kunze, Astrid
Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input). There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber ch...
Thakre, G. V.; Patil, S. G.; Agrawal, D. N.
The urinary excretion of hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid was studied in workers (233 subjects; 122 men and 111 women) exposed to toluene and xylenes in combination and in non-exposed controls (281 subjects; 141 men and 140 women) recruited from the same factories or factories of the same regions. Smoking and drinking habits of the subjects were obtained by medical interviews. From each worker, one urine sample was collected at the end of a shift and analysed for hippuric and methylhippu...
Huang, M. Y.; Jin, C.; Liu, Y. T.; Li, B. H.; Qu, Q. S.; Uchida, Y.; Inoue, O.; Nakatsuka, H.; Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, M.
Ask any women about sexual harassment, and she is likely to have experienced it or to know of cases of it at work. In industrialized countries, 42-50% of female workers have been sexually harassed, in the European Union, 40-50% of women, and in Asia-Pacific countries between 30-40% of women workers reported some form of harassment. In a recent study in South Africa, 77% of women respondents experienced sexual harassment sometime during their working lives
Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ?safe? industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)
Full Text Available Women are participating in large number in almost all the spheres of economic activity. From village to city, a large number of women workers and entrepreneurs contributing towards the national income of the country can be observed. Now it has been accepted that the women's movement is for the welfare development and empowerment of women. The development of Indian women will be the biggest source of enrichment for our country's development. Economic empowerment of women can improve the social, educational and political status of women. Empirical evidences show that women contribute significantly to the running of family businesses mostly in the form of unpaid efforts and skills. Women entrepreneurship is the process where women or group of women initiate organize and run business enterprises and provide employment opportunities of others. In India, women entrepreneurs run only 8% of the small scale manufacturing units which is very less compared to the developed countries of the world.
K. R. Udmale
The viability as an efficient aircraft material of advanced textile composites is currently being addressed in the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program. One of the expected milestones of the program is to develop standard test methods for these complex material systems. Current test methods for laminated composites may not be optimum for textile composites, since the architecture of the textile induces nonuniform deformation characteristics on the scale of the smallest repeating unit of the architecture. The smallest repeating unit, also called the unit cell, is often larger than the strain gages used for testing of tape composites. As a result, extending laminated composite test practices to textiles can often lead to pronounced scatter in material property measurements. It has been speculated that the fiber architectures produce significant surface strain nonuniformities, however, the magnitudes were not well understood. Moire interferometry, characterized by full-field information, high displacement sensitivity, and high spatial resolution, is well suited to document the surface strain on textile composites. Studies at the NASA Langley Research Center on a variety of textile architectures including 2-D braids and 3-D weaves, has evidenced the merits of using moire interferometry to guide in test method development for textile composites. Moire was used to support tensile testing by validating instrumentation practices and documenting damage mechanisms. It was used to validate shear test methods by mapping the full-field deformation of shear specimens. Moire was used to validate open hole tension experiments to determine the strain concentration and compare then to numeric predictions. It was used for through-the-thickness tensile strength test method development, to verify capabilities for testing of both 2-D and 3-D material systems. For all of these examples, moire interferometry provided vision so that test methods could be developed with less speculation and more documentation.
Ifju, Peter G.
The skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of the skin, thermoregulation, antimicrobial defence and the skin-associated immune system are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. The stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. Mechanical properties like roughness of fabric surface are responsible for non-specific skin reactions like wool intolerance or keratosis follicularis. Thermoregulation, which is mediated by local blood flow and evaporation of sweat, is an important subject for textile-skin interactions. There are age-, gender- and activity-related differences in thermoregulation of skin that should be considered for the development of specifically designed fabrics. The skin is an important immune organ with non-specific and specific activities. Antimicrobial textiles may interfere with non-specific defence mechanisms like antimicrobial peptides of skin or the resident microflora. The use of antibacterial compounds like silver, copper or triclosan is a matter of debate despite their use for a very long period. Macromolecules with antimicrobial activity like chitosan that can be incorporated into textiles or inert material like carbon fibres or activated charcoal seem to be promising agents. Interaction of textiles with the specific immune system of skin is a rare event but may lead to allergic contact dermatitis. Electronic textiles and other smart textiles offer new areas of usage in health care and risk management but bear their own risks for allergies. PMID:16766877
Wollina, U; Abdel-Naser, M B; Verma, S
The apparent link recently found by Dr. Najarian between cancer among workers at a US Naval dockyard where up to 5000 civilian employees have been exposed to low dose irradiation while servicing nuclear ships and their radiation exposure is discussed. The study has revealed that 38.4% of the deaths of nuclear workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in New Hampshire were caused by cancer while the comparable rate for non-nuclear shipyard workers was 21.7% and the national average in the United States is 18%. The Portsmouth study, launched in October 1977, was based on a survey of 1722 death certificates of shipyard employees and interviews with 592 next-of-kin. In addition the results show that the rate of leukaemia of the shipyard workers was 450% higher than that of the general population, and the incidence of lymph gland cancers was 125% higher than the national rate. The most startling statistics compared mortality among workers aged 60 to 69. In this age group nearly 60% of the nuclear employees had died of cancer, while the cancer death rate among non-nuclear workers was only 26%. If these results are confirmed present ideas concerning the effects of low doses of radiation must be challenged. (U.K.)
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment
The term ‘next to my skin’ is frequently used as a way to describe the close bonds between human beings and textiles. It is also widely accepted within the broad field of textile professionals that textile attributes related to emotional value – for example hand, look and drape – can be a make-and-break decision for a company. However textile design research has shown that experience of emotional value is closely connected to fabric perception, and much literature suggests that textiles are experienced by a combination of sensory evaluation and memory associations. This paper introduces the Tripod Approach as a framework that can support designing the stimuli, which can lead to personal experiences of emotional value in relation to applied textiles. It can be used to access the relevant level of entry in the textile design process focusing on appropriate design parameters, and support designing the textile as part of an overall context.
Bang, Anne Louise
Treatment of textile wastewaters by means of an ozonation pilot plant are described. Wastewaters used were produced by a dyeing and finishing factory and were first treated in an active sludge plant and filtrated through sand. In the appropriate conditions very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and the effluent could be reused in production processes requiring water of high quality as dyeing yarns or light colorations. Even if the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease of up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, recycling experiments were successful. The economical viability of the techniques implementation was also demonstrated and the industrial plant is currently under realisation under an EU financed project. The paper considers also the possible improvement of ozone diffusion by means of membrane contactors realised in a second pilot plant, in order to further reduce operating costs of the technique. With respect to traditional systems, the gas/liquid contact surface is much higher being that of the membrane. Ozone at the interface is therefore immediately solubilized and potentially consumed with no additional resistance to the mass transfer. PMID:11695484
Ciardelli, G; Capannelli, G; Bottino, A
Full Text Available Bandwidth characteristic of a wearable antenna is one of the major factors in determining its usability on the human body. In this work, a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA structure is proposed to achieve a large bandwidth to avoid serious antenna reflection coefficient detuning when placed in proximity of the body. The proposed structure is designed based on a simple structure, in order to provide practicality in application and maintain fabrication simplicity. Two different types of conductive textiles, namely Pure Copper Polyester Taffeta Fabric (PCPTF and ShieldIt, are used in order to proof its concept, in comparison with a metallic antenna made from copper foil. The design is spaced and fabricated using a 6 mm thick fleece fabric. To cater for potential fabrication and material measurement inaccuracies, both antennas' performance are also investigated and analyzed with varying physical and material parameters. From this investigation, it is found that the proposed structure's extended bandwidth enabled the antenna to function with satisfactory on-body reflection coefficients, despite unavoidable gain and efficiency reduction.
Process Integration is an important tool that has been developed in the last years, in such a remarkable way that enables to find new insights concerning the optimisation of new projects or the retrofit of older industrial process designs. In this paper we report a Process Integration study in a Portuguese Textile Industry using the Pinch Analysis in order to optimise the energy efficiency and consequently reduce the fuel burning. The main purpose of this study was the search of an optimal design that makes the best overall process integration of steam/hot water available from the cogeneration system and the other existing hot thermal fluids. The global site analysis made apparent some opportunities for the use of hot sinks available in the process. The major projects include the modification of the existing cogeneration system in order to produce a lower pressure steam from the flue gas and a hot water stream from the diesel-engines cooling system. This study enables a reduction of steam and thermal fluid consumption of about 15% and 10%, respectively. (au)
Matos, H.A.; Fernandes, C.; Nunes, C.P. [DEQ - Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the efficiency of polymeric membranes in terms of reductions in color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in textile industry effluents was investigated. Effluents containing different mixtures of dyes, taken from different processing stages, and some pure dyes in aqueous solution were u [...] sed. Five membranes were used, three commercial ones produced by Osmonics (two nanofiltration M1 and NF-HL and one reverse osmosis SG) and two ultrafiltration (UF) membranes prepared in the laboratory using PES (polyethersulfone) named T1 and T2. Each membrane, due to its particular chemical nature and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), had distinct values for permeate flux, and color, conductivity and COD reductions. After stabilization, the permeate flux varied from 20 to 71 L/h/m² and the dye retention from 81 to 100%. For aqueous solutions containing pure dyes, the permeate flux varied from 57 to 119 L/h/m², depending on the temperature used in the process. Membrane M1 showed a good performance; when considering the values for permeate flux (66 L/h/m²) and color reduction (99.3%).
A.A., Ulson De Souza; J.C.C., Petrus; F.P., Santos; H.L., Brandão; S.M.A., Guelli U. Souza; L.N., Juliano.
Full Text Available Textile chitosan fibre scaffolds were evaluated in terms of interaction with osteoclast-like cells, derived from human primary monocytes. Part of the scaffolds was further modified by coating with fibrillar collagen type I in order to make the surface biocompatible. Monocytes were cultured directly on the scaffolds in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL for up to 18 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the formation of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells on both the raw chitosan fibres and the collagen-coated scaffolds. The modified surface supported the osteoclastogenesis. Differentiation towards the osteoclastic lineage was confirmed by the microscopic detection of cathepsin K, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, acidic compartments using 3-(2,4-dinitroanillino-3’-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP, immunological detection of TRAP isoform 5b, and analysis of gene expression of the osteoclastic markers TRAP, cathepsin K, vitronectin receptor, and calcitonin receptor using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The feature of the collagen-coated but also of the raw chitosan fibre scaffolds to support attachment and differentiation of human monocytes facilitates cell-induced material resorption – one main requirement for successful bone tissue engineering.
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la trayectoria tecnológica de la industria textil de México. Partiendo de la propuesta de Dosi (1982) sobre este concepto, la discusión se centra en el paradigma tecnológico, pero también se incluye la propuesta de Pérez (1986), que sugiere el concepto de para [...] digma tecnoeconómico, el cual toma en cuenta aspectos económicos y organizacionales. Esto permitió elaborar una explicación más exhaustiva del derrotero seguido por esta industria. La investigación es documental, abarcando desde los años cuarenta del siglo pasado hasta los primeros años del siglo XXI. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze the technological trajectory of the textile industry in Mexico. Based on the proposed Dosi (1982) on this concept, the discussion focuses on the technological paradigm, but also includes the proposal of Pérez (1986), that suggests the concept of technoeconomic par [...] adigm, which takes into account economic and organizational. This allowed developing a fuller explanation of the itinerary followed by this industry. Research is documentary, ranging from the forties of the last century to the early years of this century.
Gerardo, Vera Muñoz; María Antonieta Monserrat, Vera Muñoz.
Decolourization of textile dyes from fungi Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from the soil samples around the textile distillery industries of Nanjangud, Karnataka, India were tested for their efficacy in decolourization of Textile dyes, Orange3R, Blue3R, YellowGR, BlackRL and T blue. It was found that all the four fungal species were found to be efficient in decolouring textile dyes. Among the four fung...
Raju, N. S.; Venkataramana, G. V.; Girish, S. T.; Raghavendra, V. B.; Shivashankar, P.
Due to Taiwan join WTO and quotas cancellation, textile goods faced global competition. With the short life cycle of the textile market and demand uncertainty in market, it leads to increasing pressure on the textile industry. Brand vendors start to search partners and hope to solve these problems through information sharing and collaboration. After sixty-year’s development, textile industry in Taiwan had established a complete supply chain system. Beside, the ROC Government promoted electr...
Ming-Kuen Chen; Wei-You Sun
The global market for textile industry is highly competitive nowadays. Quality control in production process in textile industry has been a key factor for retaining existence in such competitive market. Automated textile inspection systems are very useful in this respect, because manual inspection is time consuming and not accurate enough. Hence, automated textile inspection systems have been drawing plenty of attention of the researchers of different countries in order to r...
Md. Tarek Habib; Rahat Hossain Faisal; Rokonuzzaman, M.
Needles are used in the textile industry for weaving. In high volume textile production a problem is wear of the needle eyelet as the threat is pulled through. This wear results in a cost to the textile manufacturer both in needle replacement, but in many cases more importantly, lost production during needle substitution The objective of this study was to examine the potential of wear resistant coatings deposited using the magnetron sputtering technique to increase the life-time of textile ne...
Textile reinforced concrete is a composite building material consisting of a fine-grained concrete and a textile reinforcement predominantly made of AR-glassfibers or carbonfibers. As a result of its material characteristics the textile reinforcement combines the advantages of corrosion resistance and an effective and economic positioning in the cross-section of the structural component. The precondition for the success of textile reinforced concrete is the availability of design models and c...
An engineering approach to predict the fatigue life and progressive failure of multilayered composite and textile laminates is presented. Analytical models which account for matrix cracking, statistical fiber failures and nonlinear stress-strain behavior have been developed for both composites and textiles. The analysis method is based on a combined micromechanics, fracture mechanics and failure statistics analysis. Experimentally derived empirical coefficients are used to account for the interface of fiber and matrix, fiber strength, and fiber-matrix stiffness reductions. Similar approaches were applied to textiles using Repeating Unit Cells. In composite fatigue analysis, Walker's equation is applied for matrix fatigue cracking and Heywood's formulation is used for fiber strength fatigue degradation. The analysis has been compared with experiment with good agreement. Comparisons were made with Graphite-Epoxy, C/SiC and Nicalon/CAS composite materials. For textile materials, comparisons were made with triaxial braided and plain weave materials under biaxial or uniaxial tension. Fatigue predictions were compared with test data obtained from plain weave C/SiC materials tested at AS&M. Computer codes were developed to perform the analysis. Composite Progressive Failure Analysis for Laminates is contained in the code CPFail. Micromechanics Analysis for Textile Composites is contained in the code MicroTex. Both codes were adapted to run as subroutines for the finite element code ABAQUS and CPFail-ABAQUS and MicroTex-ABAQUS. Graphic user interface (GUI) was developed to connect CPFail and MicroTex with ABAQUS.
Xue, David Y.; Shi, Yucheng; Katikala, Madhu; Johnston, William M., Jr.; Card, Michael F.
Healthcare textiles are ambient health monitoring systems that can contribute towards medical aid as well as general fitness of the populace. These are textile based products that have sensor systems mounted on them or are electrically functionalized to act as sensors. While embedded sensor chipsets and connection wires have been shown as working prototypes of this concept, there is a need for seamless integration of sensor technologies without hindering the inherent properties of the textile. Screen printing or stamping with electrically conductive inks have been demonstrated as technologies for fabricating electronics on flexible substrates. They are applicable to textile manufacturing as well. Printing technology allows for fabrication of nanocomposite based electronics elements in a bottom-up fashion. This has advantages such as low material consumption, high speed fabrication and low temperature processing. In this research, Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polyaniline nanoparticles (PANP) core shell based nanocomposites were synthesized and formulated into colloidal ink. Printed MWCNTs-PANP traces were electrically characterized and compared with traces made with those made by other composites such as Silver, and Carbon Black. The nanocomposite based inks are compared for proposed applications as sensor systems and conductive tracks on smart textile for pervasive wireless healthcare system that can be mass produced using low cost printing processes.
Rai, Pratyush; Lee, Jungmin; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.
Objective: Undergloves are a way to reduce moisture-related skin damage. The aim of this feasibility study was to gain experience with logistics, applicability, acceptability and cost of the routine use of reusable textile undergloves in a hospital setting. Methods: Undergloves were tested with 18 health-care workers on an intensive care unit over three months. Data on usage as well as logistics were recorded. At baseline, personal data and knowledge and use of cotton undergloves, existing skin problems and the nursing behaviour of the hands by the subjects were determined by means of an input questionnaire. After each wearing, data on usage were collected by a questionnaire. Participants were interviewed by means of a questionnaire with respect to their experience with the use of the undergloves. Results: Acceptance and compliance with the use of undergloves was remarkably good. This was partly due to the properties of the gloves, and partly to the reduction of sweating and very positive effect on the skin of the hands. In the study period 2165 underglove uses were documented, resulting in an average daily consumption of four pairs per person per day. The average wearing time was 28.6?min. The undergloves were suitable for application as well as reprocessing. Reprocessment-related fatigue was relatively low and did not lead to the loss of the properties, only few gloves had to be sorted out. Even if one assumes a complete write-off of the gloves with end of the study, costs for reprocessing were about 0.46?€ or 64?% less than the single use. Conclusion: The routine use of textile, reprocessable undergloves is feasible. Major challenges for broad usage are within logistics and acceptance by the user. PMID:24771217
Hübner, N-O; Rubbert, K; Pohrt, U; Heidecke, C-D; Partecke, L I; Kramer, A
Protección a la maternidad: una historia de tensiones entre los derechos de infancia y los derechos de las trabajadoras / Protection of motherhood: a history of tensions between the rights of children and the rights of the worker women
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las normas de protección a la maternidad han sido un vehículo para salvaguardar la infancia, la familia, la sociedad toda (el bien común), pero escasamente para proteger a la mujer en cuanto ciudadana. Instar por estas normas ha sido resistida a lo largo del siglo con argumentos que cruzan distintas [...] épocas, como por ejemplo, que proteger a las mujeres tendría un impacto perjudicial en su empleabilidad, aludiendo a factores como el encarecimiento de la mano de obra, la limitación en la gestión de recursos humanos en la empresa o que el trabajo remunerado femenino es un mal menor, pues abandona las tareas de cuidado y crianza. A este discurso se suma el biomédico que busca la protección de la infancia a través de la lactancia y la salud de los infantes. Solo en los últimos años se recoge en el discurso la equidad de género. Abstract in english The standards of protection of motherhood have been a vehicle for safeguarding childhood, family and society as a whole (the common good), but hardly to protect women as citizens. Urging by these rules has been resisted throughout the last century with different arguments. For instance, that protect [...] ing women would have a detrimental impact on their employability, referring to factors such as rising wage cost; there are limited managerial human resources available in the companies; or that paid work for women is a lesser evil, since they have abandoned the duty of take care of the children. To this discourse is added the biomedical arguments that seeks to protect children through breastfeeding and health care. Only in recent years, the discourse of gender equity has been embraced.
Lidia, Casas Becerra; Ester, Valenzuela Rivera.
...Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel and Certain Piece Goods...regulatory and economic impact of the FTC's Rule on...Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel and Certain Piece Goods...Labeling of Textile Wearing Apparel and Certain Piece Goods...regulatory and economic impact. These reviews...
...Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. 1610.33 Section 1610.33 Commercial...Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. (a)(1) All textile fabrics...Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film, and if such coated fabrics do not...
...Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. 1611.33 Section 1611.33 Commercial...STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations § 1611.33 Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. (a)(1) All textile...
A vivência de amamentar para trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública La experiencia de la amamantación para mujeres trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública Breast-feeding experience for women workers and students from a public university
Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo teve como objetivo conhecer os principais elementos interferentes no processo de amamentação vivenciado por trabalhadoras e estudantes de uma universidade pública do Estado de São Paulo, no qual participaram 65 mulheres trabalhadoras e alunas, cujas entrevistas foram analisadas segundo os pressupostos de Taylor e Bogdan e do Interacionismo Simbólico. Os resultados demonstram que o processo de amamentar, para essas mulheres, mostrou-se delineado pelas condições seus ambientes doméstico, do trabalho ou de estudo. O ambiente físico, as relações entre seus familiares, superiores e seus pares exercem forte influência em sua determinação de manter a amamentação.Este estudio cualitativo tuvo como objetivo conocer los principales elementos de interferencia en el proceso de amamantamiento vivenciado por trabajadoras y estudiantes de una universidad pública, cuyos sujetos son las mujeres trabajadoras y alumnas de una universidad pública del Estado de São Paulo. Los datos se coletaron a través de entrevista, que se analizaron según los presupuestos de Taylor e Bogdan y bajo la óptica del Interaccionismo Simbólico. Los resultados apuntan que el proceso de amamantamiento para esas mujeres se mostró condicionado y delineado por las situaciones que surgen en su ambiente doméstico, de trabajo o estudio y las relaciones entre sus familiares, superiores y sus similares, ejercen fuerte influencia en la determinación de mantener la amamantacion.This qualitative research aimed to know the main interfering elements in the breast-feeding process as experienced by professional women and by students, that was carried out with 65 professional women and students from a public university in São Paulo state. The data collection was proceeded by interviews which contents were analyzed according to Taylor and Bogdan and Symbolic Interactionism approaches. Results indicated that the breast-feeding process for these women demonstrated to be conditioned and highlighted by the conditions the women encounter in their domestic, professional, and study settings. The physical setting and the relations among their relatives, superiors and peers exerts a strong influence on their determination to keep on breast-feeding.
Isilia Aparecida Silva
Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus permettent de distinguer deux différentes catégories de déchirure. Pour les basses densités des fils, la fissure se propage dans le tissu par glissement des fils, alors que pour les hautes densités des fils, la déchirure est obtenue par la rupture des fils. Ainsi, il est important de noter que l’énergie de rupture par déchirure des tissus est maximale lorsque le rapport FYB/FS est proche de l’unité. En ce qui a trait à la déchirure des textiles enduits, la propagation de la fissure est obtenue par déchirure du support textile et de l’enduit de manière simultanée ainsi que par le délaminage du système textile-enduit. La définition d’un critère de rupture pour les textiles enduits nous a permis de constater que l’enduction d’un support textile par une couche d’élastomère engendre une diminution de son énergie de rupture. En outre, l’étude de la déchirure du support textile, de l’enduit et des textiles enduits a montré que l’énergie obtenue pour la couche de l’enduit est très faible si nous la comparons avec celles du support textile et du textile enduit. L’étude de l’effet du vieillissement sur l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a aussi fait l’objet de cette thèse. L’exposition des textiles enduits à différentes températures de vieillissement montre que le comportement en déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits est similaire pour les durées les plus faibles. Par contre, une accélération de la réduction de la résistance à la déchirure est observée pour les textiles enduits aux temps de vieillissement plus élevés. Ce phénomène peut éventuellement être attribué à une augmentation de l’adhésion du système textile-enduit suite au traitement de vieillissement. La diminution de la mobilité des fils ainsi engendrée cause alors une importante chute de la valeur de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure. Mots clés : Textiles, Textiles enduits, Énergie de rupture, Modélisation, Vieillissement thermique.
Full Text Available The Anganawadi worker and helper are the basic functionaries of the ICDS who run the Anganawadi centre and implement the ICDS scheme in coordination with the functionaries of the health, education, rural development and other departments. Their services also include the health and nutrition of pregnant women, nursing mothers, and adolescent girls. Today in India, about 2 million Anganawadi workers are reaching out to a population of 70 million women, children and sick people, helping them become and stay healthy. The present study focuses on “Socio-Economic Condition of Anganwadi workers, with special reference to Raichur District.
Full Text Available day work and shift work and cigarette smoking in Japanese workers. We used data of 3,238 men (39.3 ± 10.5 years and 5,111 women (37.1 ± 10.9 years, aged 20 - 59 years, by cross-sectional clinical investigation study. Work style i.e. day work and shift work, cigarette smoking, status of stress and stress coping were obtained by questionnaires by well-trained medical staff. A total of 227 men (7.0% and 339 women (6.6% were shift workers, and 1346 men (41.6% and 649 women (12.7% were current smokers. Work style was significantly linked to cigarette smoking, stress and stress coping after adjusting for age in women. In addition, the level of stress coping in subjects with cigarette smoking was significantly lower than that in subjects without cigarette smoking even after adjusting for age in women. However, these associations were not noted in men. Work style was critically associated with cigarette smoking in Japanese female workers.
Prior approaches to transformer-like robots had only very limited success. They suffer from lack of reliability, ability to integrate large surfaces, and very modest change in overall shape. Robots can now be built from two-dimensional (2D) layers of robotic fabric. These transformers, a new kind of robotic space system, are dramatically different from current systems in at least two ways. First, the entire transformer is built from a single, thin sheet; a flexible layer of a robotic fabric (ro-fabric); or robotic textile (ro-textile). Second, the ro-textile layer is foldable to small volume and self-unfolding to adapt shape and function to mission phases.
Here we discuss two alternative approaches for building flexible batteries for applications in smart textiles. The first approach uses well-studied inorganic electrochemistry (Al-NaOCl galvanic cell) and innovative packaging in order to produce batteries in a slender and flexible fiber form that can be further weaved directly into the textiles. During fabrication process the battery electrodes are co-drawn within a microstructured polymer fiber, which is later filled with liquid electrolyte. The second approach describes Li-ion chemistry within solid polymer electrolytes that are used to build a fully solid and soft rechargeable battery that can be furthermore stitched onto a textile, or integrated as stripes during weaving process.
Qu, Hang; Rolland, Julien; Vlad, Alexandru; Gohy, Jean-François; Skorobogatiy, Maksim
The effect of color removal agent (CRA) on textile waste water has been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the optimum condition for CRA to react on the textile waste water and to see the effect of CRA on waste water with different Chemical Oxygen Demand. 8 ml CRA was used to treat 800 mls of sample with various COD ranging between 2500 mg/ l-500 mg/ l. The results showed that CRA totally remove the colour of textile waste water at pH ranging from 6 to 8. At an optimum condition CRA works efficiently on waste water with COD 2300 mg/ l for reduction of suspended solid and turbidity. It also observed, sludge accumulation was depended on COD concentration. Color removal curves for different initial COD concentration also obtained. (author)
The natural world around us provides excellent examples of functional systems built with a handful of materials. Throughout the millennia, nature has evolved to adapt and develop highly sophisticated methods to solve problems. There are numerous examples of functional surfaces, fibrous structures, structural colours, self-healing, thermal insulation, etc., which offer important lessons for the textile products of the future. This paper provides a general overview of the potential of bioinspired textile structures by highlighting a few specific examples of pertinent, inherently sustainable biological systems. Biomimetic research is a rapidly growing field and its true potential in the development of new and sustainable textiles can only be realized through interdisciplinary research rooted in a holistic understanding of nature. PMID:21325320
Eadie, Leslie; Ghosh, Tushar K
Guidelines are presented to help institutions ensure women's full participation in campus-based and sponsored merit awards and prizes programs. Over 100 recommendations are designed to: explain why such awards and prizes can be particularly important for women students and women faculty; identify overt and inadvertent barriers to women's full…
Hall, Roberta M.; Sandler, Bernice Resnick
Analysis of data from 8 female manufacturing workers, 13 professionals, and 10 clerical workers, two themes emerged: (1) women and organizational change; and (2) disappearing boundaries of work and family. The assumptions of human resource development about why and how women work and definitions of productive work were found to be flawed and…
Howell, Sharon L.; Carter, Vicki K.; Schied, Fred M.
The mortality and disability of cotton mill workers were studied in five Finnish cotton mills. The population under study comprised all 1065 women exposed to raw cotton dust who had been hired between 1950 and 1971. The minimum exposure period was five years. For the study on disability, the cohort was followed up until the end of 1981. The follow up period for the mortality analysis was from 1950 to 1985. At the end of 1981 the observed number of prevalent disability pensions for respiratory...
Elwood, P. C.
Full Text Available Purpose: Nanospider technology is modified electrospinning method for production nanofiber textile from polymer solutions. This material can be used as wound dressing and filter materials for example. Carbon coatings deposited onto surface of polymer nanofiber textiles are predicted to improve filtration effectivity of filters and bioactivity of wound dressings. Carbon coatings have been produced by Microwave Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW/RF PACVD method.Design/methodology/approach: Carbon coatings were deposited on polymer nanofiber textile by MW/RF PACVD method. Nanocomposite obtained in this way was characterized by the contact angle studies and by scanning electron microscope (SEM.Findings: Carbon coatings can be deposited on the polymer nanofibers by MW/RF PACVD method. Content of diamond phase in produced carbon coatings has been confirmed by wetability test. A SEM microscopic images have shown that the spaces between the nanofibers have not been closed by the material of the film.Research limitations/implications: MW/RF PACVD makes carbon coating synthesis possible in lower temperature, what is essential in case of applying the polymer substrate. Use of any other method than MW/RF PACVD for deposition of carbon coatings onto polymer nanofiber textile is not covered in this paper.Practical implications: Nanofiber textile produced by Nanospider is very good mechanical filter. Carbon onto surface of nanofibers can cause from this material active filter. Since this nanocomposite enables the transport of oxygen and exudate, simultaneously is impenetrable for bacteria or even viruses, it can be used for wound dressing.Originality/value: It is our belief that we are first to have deposited carbon coatings on nanofiber textile. We hope that in this way we have prepared very good material for filtration of air and for wound dressing.
The mechanical contact between medical textiles and skin is relevant in the health care for patients with vulnerable skin or chronic wounds. In order to gain new insights into the skin-textile contact on the microscopic level, the 3D surface topography of a normal and a new hospital bed sheet with a regular surface structure was measured using a digital microscope. The topographic data was analysed concerning material distribution and real contact area against smooth surfaces as a function of surface deformations. For contact conditions that are relevant for the skin of patients lying in a hospital bed it was found that the order of magnitude of the ratio of real and apparent contact area between textiles and skin or a mechanical skin model lies between 0.02 and 0.1 and that surface deformations, i.e. penetration of the textile surface asperities into skin or a mechanical skin model, range from 10 to 50µm. The performed analyses of textile 3D surface topographies and comparisons with previous friction measurement results provided information on the relationship between microscopic surface properties and macroscopic friction behaviour of medical textiles. In particular, the new bed sheet was found to be characterised by a trend towards a smaller microscopic contact area (up to a factor of two) and by a larger free interfacial volume (more than a factor of two) in addition to a 1.5 times lower shear strength when in contact with counter-surfaces. The applied methods can be useful to develop improved and skin-adapted materials and surfaces for medical applications. PMID:25047353
Derler, S; Rotaru, G-M; Ke, W; El Issawi-Frischknecht, L; Kellenberger, P; Scheel-Sailer, A; Rossi, R M
Full Text Available The study aims to isolate and optimize bacterial strains having the ability to degrade and decolorize azo dyes produced in the final effluent of textile dying industries. In this regard, ten bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater treatment plants, and most of them were subjected to the colored effluents resulting from dilapidated houses. The ability of these bacterial isolations to use a wide range of azo dyes to determine the sole carbon source was determined. According to these screening testes, two bacterial isolations were selected as the most potent decolorizer for azo dyes, and they were identified as Comamanas acidovorns-TN1 and Burkholdera cepace-TN5. The optimization process started with the addition of 1 g/l yeast extract, where the decolorization ability of the two strains increased sharply and according to this experiment, the two azo dyes, Acid orange 7 and Direct blue 75, were selected to complete the study. The effect of different conditional and chemical factors on the decolorization process of Acid orange 7 and Direct blue 75 by Comamanas acidovorns-TN1 and Burkholdera cepace-TN5 was studied. Factors that contributed to the difference were different pH, temperature, incubation period, inoculum size, carbon source, nitrogen source and the respective concentrations of yeast extract. This study recommends the application of the two most potent bacterial strains in the decolorization of the azo dyes, along with acid orange 7 and direct blue 75, specifically in the industrial effluents under all nutritional and environmental conditions.
The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695
In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.
Cauthen, Nancy K.
The Social Rural Research Institute confirms that 60-70% of village people in India seek the health services of a rural private practitioner (RPP), 98-99% of whom are men. Dais or female midwives provide most obstetric and childbirth care and have done so for generations. They have learned the skills needed to deliver infants from their forebears. They constitute a category separate from that of RPPs in rural India. Villagers have begun to accept modern medicine, resulting in the marginalization of Dais. Consequently, Dais face social pressures, lack of professional recognition, and problems of credibility. The government of India has trained rural health workers (75% of whom are female) in preventive and promotive health care since 1977. Other community workers include Anganwadi workers, Saathins, and trained assistant nurse-midwives but they have little authority or power to make decisions. The government claims that training women for these grass root roles empowers them, but it has not granted them power to make decisions, resulting in their low social status. They do not receive wages for their work, but honorariums, while most men receive a salary. Some cases objecting to this mode of payment have become before the High Court in Jaipur. In 1990 in Padampura, Saathins protested their low wages in relation to their long work hours, large workload, and commitment. Gender, caste, and class biases further undermine the status of many of these grass roots workers (e.g., the rape case of a Saathin in Bhateri district of Rajasthan). They must work odd hours and in far away villages with no transportation or other support. The government and nongovernmental groups should support them vigorously, including promoting their professional and social legitimacy and credibility. They should institutionalize a link between the community workers, RPPs, and primary health care physicians to establish this needed legitimacy and credibility. PMID:12286354
Full Text Available A resistive switching memory suitable for integration into textiles is demonstrated on a copper wire network. Starting from copper wires, a Cu/CuxO/Pt sandwich structure is fabricated. The active oxide film is produced by simple thermal oxidation of Cu in atmospheric ambient. The devices display a resistance switching ratio of 102 between the high and low resistance states. The memory states are reversible and retained over 107 seconds, with the states remaining nondestructive after multiple read operations. The presented device on the wire network can potentially offer a memory for integration into smart textile.
The Indian textile industrial sector is one of the oldest industrial sectors in the country, which is also energy intensive. It is currently undergoing several studies to reduce its energy consumption and hence energy conservation (EC) in this context offers an excellent opportunity. This paper, at the beginning, addresses the experiences of the authors with a textile industry, which has already carried out some fruitful EC measures. Then it highlights the EC potential availability and suggests some practicable environmental friendly EC policies suitable for the Indian context to achieve the estimated potential, and finally it highlights the Government's role in the EC endeavour
Simulations of mechanical or comfort properties of fibers, yarns and textile fabrics have been developed for a long time. In the course of increasing interest in smart textiles, models for conductive fabrics have also been developed. The magnetic properties of fibers or magnetic coatings, however, are almost exclusively being examined experimentally. This article thus describes different possibilities of micromagnetically modeling magnetic fibers or coatings. It gives an overview of calculation times for different dimensions of magnetic materials, indicating the limits due to available computer performance and shows the influence of these dimensions on the simulated magnetic properties for magnetic coatings on fibers and fabrics.
Ehrmann, Andrea; Blachowicz, Tomasz
Full Text Available Production process and characteristics of PAN based carbon fibers and cellulose based carbon textile are presented. In the case of carbon fibers attention is paid to changes during the carbonization process in the range of 400-1000°C. The change of diameter and weight loss as well as tensile strength and Young's modulus were examined. For carbon textile it was interesting to show their adsorption characteristics as activated material. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms correspond to the microporous adsorbent which is suitable for adsorption of both gaseous and liquid adsorbats.
Kalu?erovi? Branka V.
Full Text Available Unique pattern characteristics of textile pattern are proposed as a factor to consider in the image retrieval algorithm. Dual-tree complex wavelet and Rotated Complex Wavelet (RCW transform are used to build feature value which is based on the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Then image retrieval method is established on the correlation sequence which is including the characteristics direction of textile pattern instead of the traditional means and variances. The results can be provides basic theoretical support for content-based image retrieval.
This work focus on the evaluation of textile electrodes for EMG signals acquisition. Signals have been acquired simultaneously from textile electrode and from gold standard electrodes, by using the same acquisition system; tests were done across subjects and with multiple trials to enable a more complete analysis. This research activity was done in the frame of the European Project Interaction, aiming at the development of a system for a continuous daily-life monitoring of the functional performance of stroke survivors in their physical interaction with the environment. PMID:24111233
Sumner, B; Mancuso, C; Paradiso, R
Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget confirmed generous funding for language, literacy and numeracy programs as well as skills recognition and training for older workers as part of a strategy to upgrade workforce skills. In considering possible responses to the announcement, many Australian adult education theorists and practitioners weighed up the contexts in which such programs could build the resources and increase the options of vulnerable workers. One such group of workers, retrenched factory workers, have benefitted from participation in union-run, integrated post-retrenchment programs, which have incorporated access to language, literacy and numeracy as well as vocational education and training programs. Such programs can build on the existing social capital amongst close-knit groups of workers as they develop the confidence to transform their work identities. This article draws on results from a study with a group of retrenched textile workers who accessed broad-based post-retrenchment support and subsequently participated in a high number of vocational education and training (VET courses before finding ongoing employment. The study suggests that VET participation plays a limited role in broadening the employment opportunities for retrenched factory workers who move into low-paid occupations. Whilst VET participation alongside other factors supported entry into some occupations, it played no role in supporting most workers in their transitions into non-manufacturing jobs.
The population of radium-dial workers, which has now been studied for more than half a century, constitutes a resource of considerable value. More than 1,100 workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions
Full Text Available This review intends to highlight the developments in medical and Health care textiles, current perspective and key challenges regarding the advancements of non-toxic and eco-friendly solutions for health care. This study provides an appraisal on the innovative, intelligent and smart textile products related to Health care and medical textiles. This review also intends to highlight the current state of the technologies as well as future advances and enhancements potential of new textile materials in antimicrobial, surgical sutures and wound dressings. A discussion on classification of antimicrobial textiles, types of surgical sutures and wounds management make this review interdisciplinary.
Boilers are widely used in most of the processing industries like textile, for the heating applications. Surat is the one of the largest textile processing area in India. In textile industries coal is mainly used for the steam generation. In a textile industry normally a 4% of heat energy is wasted through blowdown. In the study conducted in steam boilers in textile industries in surat location, 1.5% of coal of total coal consumption is wasted in an industry by improper blowdwon. This thesis ...
Full Text Available Empowerment of women has emerged as an important issue these days as a Sinequo-non of progress for the national economy and is of paramount importance topolitical thinkers, social scientists and reformers. Women constitute 90 percent oftotal marginal workers of the country. Rural women engaged in agricultureconstitutes 78 percent of all women in regular work and the contribution of womenand their role in the family as well as in the economic development and socialtransformation are pivotal. Women are engaged in various farming activities,livestock management, post harvest and allied activities. The need of the hour is toempower them technically to cope with the changing times and productivity usingtheir free time and existing skills for setting and sustaining enterprises. Microenterprises could be an effective instrument of social and economic developmentand rural women posses abundant resources to take up enterprises. The economicempowerment of women leads to development of family and community.
Pradeep Kumar Singh
Aznar S.A. is a textile factory especially sensitive to electricity distribution failures. They produce the subsequent shut down at the manufacturing process and several hours of maintenance tasks. A cogeneration plant has been installed to provide electricity and thermal energy to the process. Since the location is far from Natural Gas pipelines the system includes fuel-oil as energy source. Annual electricity production will be 23.300 MWh and 6.400 MWh of them will be exported into the grid. Fuel-oil consumption at the heat exchanger is reduced by 47%, but the whole factory consumption increases a 247% due to the high consumption of the engine. This increase is compensated by revenues from selling electricity and electricity savings. These facts, together with maintenance cost saving leads to a pay back time of 3.3. years. (Author)
Navarro Larrauri, M.; Diez Hernandez, J.; Villasante Diaz, A. (IDOM, Ingenieria y Consultoria, S.A. (Spain))
The textile industry mainly producing labor-intensive products occupies the important status in the national economy of China and India, the biggest two developing countries in the world .The two countries are the backstop of the Asia and even world textile market that can’t be replaced by other countries. Comparing with other countries, the textile industries of China and India have obviously comparative advantages in the raw materials supply, processing ability, industry system, labor cos...
Min Zhao; Hong Zhao
...264] Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, Izod Women's Wholesale Division, New York, NY; Notice of Affirmative Determination...workers of Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation, Izod Women's Wholesale Division, New York, New York (subject firm). The...
Full Text Available Our country is the biggest textile export country of the world. Now for the textile industry of our country, it is a period of facing the expansive world market, and getting a new opportunity to improve. But with the opportunity, we also face much more challenges. Seen from outside, EU and US set limits, which make textile companies into an austere condition? Setting limits, anti-dumping, and its chain-reaction, make textile export of our country face an austere and complicated international trade condition. Seen from inside, some relative policies which our country made to vindicate new trade orders, and some problems which the textile industry had, are also have influence on our country’s export of textile to some extent. The purpose of research of this essay is to find relevant countermeasures by investigating the reason of export restriction, then make sure that our country’s textile export can be carried though successfully.
This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.
This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.
Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.
The author comments on the many reports concerning the health of employees, and retired employees, in the nuclear industries. The authors person views concerning a report by McGeoghegan and Binks on the cancer mortality of workers at Springfields, as well as similar reports, are expressed. Letter-to-the-editor
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Full Text Available Indian textile enjoys a rich heritage and the origin of textiles in India traces back to the Indus valley Civilization where people used homespun cotton for weaving their clothes. If we talk about the Indian Textiles Industry in the present era, it is one of the leading industries in the world. The WTO has played an important role in the growth and development of the textiles industry at global level. Various steps have been taken to uplift the sector. In the year 1995, WTO had renewed its MFA and adopted Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC which stated that all quotas on textiles and clothing shall be removed among the WTO member countries by 2005. The MFA phased out and the textiles trade got integrated in to GATT provisions by 2005. The world T&C export had grown from US$ 272.43 billion in 1994 to US$ 530 bn in 2006, registering almost a two-fold rise. World textile and clothing trade rose by 9.7% to US$530 bn in 2006, by 10.6% to US$583 bn in 2007. As expected, the implementation of ATC had brought about structural changes in the international trade arena on textiles & clothing. In the years, during the post-quota period, India has emerged as a major sourcing destination for new buyers. As a measure of growing interest in the Indian textile and clothing sector a number of buyers have opened their sourcing/ liaison office in India. The paper focuses on the changes in the Textiles exports of different countries after the MFA (Multi Fiber Agreement. Special focus is on the Indian Textiles Industry and its position in the world in terms of textiles and clothing exports. The paper explores the changes in the exports and profits of the Indian textiles exporters. Further it investigates the role of FDI in the industry and what Indian Government is doing for the promotion of the industry.
Dr. Asiya Chaudhary
The aim of the study was to assess the health risk of workers performing specific jobs in the process of the rubber footwear production by defining the cause and length of temporary work disability, as well as mortality causes and level. The analysis was carried out in the groups of workers performing the following jobs: mixing, mill operation, pressing and vulcanizing (A); semi-product preparation and calendaring (B); finishing and sorting (C); production of polyvinyl chloride footwear (D); and auxiliary works (E). The sickness absence study covered all workers (208 men and 315 women) employed in a large rubber footwear company and performing all above-listed jobs in 1995. Standardized sick days ratio was used to analyze the risk of temporary work disability. Mortality rate was estimated on the basis of the results of the cohort study performed in the same company among workers who had worked at least three months during the years 1945-1985. The follow-up continued until 31 December 1997. The present study included sub-cohorts composed of 5628 men and 7197 women, performing jobs listed above. The results of both studies indicated the enhanced risk of cardiovascular diseases among workers employed in the basic phases of the production process. The increased risk of the diseases of the digestive system was observed in men and women employed in: finishing, sorting and packing of the products (group C); in men involved in mixing, pressing and vulcanizing (group A); and in women engaged in auxiliary works (group E). In addition, the enhanced risk of sickness absence due to the diseases of the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary systems was related to the enhanced risk of death from malignant neoplasms in a given site. The analysis showed that the temporary work disability may be regarded as a parameter useful in early assessment of health effects of the work environmental hazards. PMID:11928670
Szubert, Z; Wilczy?ska, U; Sobala, W
Full Text Available This paper aim at examining the export competitiveness of selected textile and apparel products using indicators like Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and Constant Market Share (CMS analysis. The selected four categories textile and seven categories apparel product are taken into account on the basis of three digit level Standard International Trade Classification (SITC for the period between (1985 until 1999. The RCA calculation clearly indicates an increasing strength of comparative advantage of Bangladesh in the textile as well as apparel products, This is mainly due to the negligible import for these products. The CMS results suggest that export gain of mainly due to the negligible import for these products. The CMS results suggest that export gain of Bangladesh for textile and apparel are largely attributed to the size of the market and also to her competitiveness efforts. The CMS analysis also depicts that the competitiveness effect of apparel products are subsequently improved in general during the period I and III (1985-89 and 1995-99 as compared to those for period I and II (1985-89 and 1990-94 and period II and III (1990-94 and 1995-99.
The incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into textiles was demonstrated following two different strategies. Simple incorporation of a polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) substrate carrying the polymer photovoltaic device prepared by a doctor blade technique necessitated the use of the photovoltaic device as a structural element. The total area of the device on PET was typically much smaller than the active area due to the decorative design of the aluminium electrode. Elaborate integration of the photovoltaic device into the textile material involved the lamination of a polyethylene (PE) film onto a suitably transparent textile material that was used as substrate. Plasma treatment of the PE-surface allowed the application of a PEDOT electrode that exhibited good adherence. Screen printing of a designed pattern of poly 1,4(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy))phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV) from chlorobenzene Solution and final evaporation of an aluminium electrode completed the device. The total area of the textile device was 1000 cm(2) (25 cm x 40 cm) while the active area (190 cm(2)) was considerably smaller due to the decorative choice of the active material. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.
Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.
Osagie A. Osadolor
Gegenstand der Dissertation ist die Untersuchung von Internationalisierungsstrategien deutscher Textil- und Bekleidungsunternehmen. Die Arbeit basiert neben einer Auswertung der Literatur zum Thema der Globalisierung und der Internationalisierung hauptsächlich auf einer eigenen durchgeführten und ausgewerteten empirischen Analyse in Form eines schriftlichen Fragebogens. Die Gestaltung der schriftlichen Befragung wurde mit den wichtigen Fachverbänden abgestimmt. Beteiligt haben sich 122 Tex...
Schneider, Andre? Arno Anton
The determination of the effective mechanical moduli of textiles from mechanical measurements is usually difficult due to their discrete architecture, which makes micromechanical analyses a relevant alternative to access those properties. Micropolar continuum models describing the effective mechanical behavior of woven fabric monolayers are constructed from the homogenization of an identified repetitive pattern of the textile within a representative unit cell. The interwoven yarns within the textile are represented as a network of trusses connected by nodes at their crossover points. These trusses have extensional and bending rigidities to allow for yarn stretching and flexion, and a transverse shear deformation is additionally considered. Interactions between yarns at the crossover points are captured by beam segments connecting the nodes. The woven fabric is modeled after homogenization as an anisotropic planar continuum with two preferred material directions in the mean plane of the textile. Based on the developed methodology, the effective mechanical properties of plain weave and twill are evaluated, including their bending moduli and characteristic flexural lengths. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the effective moduli obtained by homogenization and numerical values obtained by finite element simulations performed over periodic unit cells.
Goda, Ibrahim; Assidi, Mohamed; Ganghoffer, Jean-François
Full Text Available Se presenta información sobre las especies de plantas textiles mencionadas o usadas encomunidades guaraníes de la provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se brindan algunos detallessobre técnicas de recolección y aprovechamiento de dichas especies. Se especifican lasespecies que se siguen usando con frecuencia, las que se usan raramente y las que han caídoen desuso. Se ilustra el trabajo mediante fotografías.
Héctor A. Keller