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Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.  

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1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births...

Xu, X.; Ding, M.; Li, B.; Christiani, D. C.

1994-01-01

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Chronic bronchitis in textile workers  

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BACKGROUND: Exposure to cotton is known to produce a specific occupational disease known as byssinosis. A large population of textile workers was investigated to determine whether such exposure was also associated with chronic bronchitis once other possible aetiological factors had been accounted for. METHODS: A total of 2991 workers were investigated for the presence of symptoms compatible with chronic bronchitis. An MRC adapted respiratory questionnaire and MRC definition of chronic b...

Niven, R. M.; Fletcher, A. M.; Pickering, C. A.; Fishwick, D.; Warburton, C. J.; Simpson, J. C.; Francis, H.; Oldham, L. A.

1997-01-01

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Women's respiratory health in the cotton textile industry: an analysis of respiratory symptoms in 973 non-smoking female workers.  

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As part of a 1992 survey of both environmental and occupational determinants of health, 973 non-smoking women aged 20-40 years who were employed in three comparable modern Chinese cotton textile mills were given a questionnaire that included questions on standard respiratory history and symptoms. All women had some potential exposure to cotton dust; mean employment was 8.7 years. Comparisons were made between those with lowest or no current exposure (job classification in administration, qual...

Beckett, W. S.; Pope, C. A.; Xu, X. P.; Christiani, D. C.

1994-01-01

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Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania  

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Abstract Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogethe...

Kuzmickiene Irena; Stukonis Mecys

2007-01-01

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Byssinosis and serum IgE concentrations in textile workers in an Italian cotton mill  

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ABSTRACT The relationship between serum concentrations of total IgE and byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms was evaluated in 352 textile workers (90 men, 262 women) at a cotton mill in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy. The subjects were aged from 20 to 61 (mean 44) and the mean duration of employment was 20 years. One hundred and eight subjects (30·7%) were smokers. Only 2% had a positive history of atopy. A standardised questionnaire showed chronic bronchitis in 96 textile workers (27·3%...

Petronio, L.; Bovenzi, M.

1983-01-01

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Long term respiratory health effects in textile workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of review Over 60 million people worldwide work in the textile or clothing industry. Recent studies have recognized the contribution of workplace exposures to chronic lung diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early studies in textile workers have focused on the relationship between hemp or cotton dust exposure and the development of a syndrome termed Byssinosis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of long term exposure to organic dust in textile workers on chronic respiratory disease in the broader context of disease classifications such as reversible or irreversible obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma or COPD), and restrictive lung disease. Recent findings Cessation of exposure to cotton dusts leads to improvement in lung function. Recent animal models have suggested a shift in the lung macrophage:dendritic cell population as a potential mechanistic explanation for persistent inflammation in the lung due to repeated cotton-dust related endotoxin exposure. Other types of textile dust, such as silk, may contribute to COPD in textile workers. Summary Textile dust related obstructive lung disease has characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of chronic lung disease due to organic dust exposure in textile workers.

Lai, Peggy S.; Christiani, David C.

2013-01-01

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Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19, for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25. The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73. The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers.

Stukonis Mecys

2007-11-01

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Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia.  

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This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker...

Woldeyohannes, M.; Bergevin, Y.; Mgeni, A. Y.; Theriault, G.

1991-01-01

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Cotton Dust Exposure, Respiratory Symptoms and PEFR in Textile Workers  

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The purposes of this study was to measurement cotton dust levels in air workplace, Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determine of changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) before and after during workday among textile workers. This study was done among 31 workers carding and blowing rooms. Using a short questionnaire for demographic characteristics, medical record were collected in a modified questionnaire of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and 12 air samples were ...

Ghasemkhani, M.; Firoozbakhsh, S.; Azam, K.; Ghardashi, F.

2006-01-01

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Write On! Business Writing for Textile Workers. Workforce 2000 Partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

This curriculum package presents a curriculum guide, the lesson plan, handouts, transparencies, tests, and evaluation forms for use by instructors in customizing a course on business writing for workers in the textile industry. The introduction describes how the curriculum is developed, the contents of this curriculum package, and how to involve…

Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

11

Comparative analysis of gynaecological status of workers from textile and metal industry  

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Introduction Female workers in textile and metal industry are exposed to various physical and chemical hazards that can lead to the occurrence of gynaecological diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of gynaecological diseases among workers of textile and metal industries. METHOD The investigation comprised 197 female workers, 148 from textile and 49 from metal industry, aged from 26 to 57 years. All subjects were hospitalized based on non-gynaecological diagn...

Milovanovi? Aleksandar; Dotli? Jelena; Jakovljevi? Branko; Milovanovi? Jovica; Petkovi? Slavica; ?orac Aleksandar; Blagojevi? Tatjana

2008-01-01

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[Risk of malignant disease among female textile workers in Lithuania].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk among the workers at two Lithuanian textile mills vis-a-vis occupational hazards and professional status. Our retrospective investigation included 12,602 females who had been followed up in 1978-2002. Cancer risk was evaluated using a standardized incidence ratio and a relative one - on the basis of confidential interviews. Overall cancer risk for textile workers in Lithuania was lower than that of the general population (SIR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81-0.99). However, excess risk of thyroid cancer was reported among females at the linen finishing unit (SIR 5.85; 95% CI 1.21-17.2) cotton one (SIR 3.24; 95% CI 1.19-7.06). An inverse correlation was shown between cumulative exposure to cotton dust and risk at all occupational sites (p=0.03). Our results point to a link between probability occupational factors in a variety of textile industry jobs and risk of cancer. Further research is required to better understand the potential of professional factor influence. PMID:19670734

Kuzmickiene, I H; Stukonis, M K

2009-01-01

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Long-term Effects of Work Cessation on Respiratory Health of Textile Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale: The degree to which chronic respiratory health effects caused by exposures to cotton dust and endotoxin is reversible after cessation of textile work is unknown. Objectives: To investigate changes in lung function and respiratory symptoms after cessation of textile work and to determine whether past exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin or smoking history modify the associations. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study consisting of 447 cotton textile workers exposed to cotton dust and 472 unexposed silk textile workers, with a 25-year follow-up. Spirometry testing and respiratory questionnaires were conducted at 5-year intervals. Generalized estimated equations were used to model the average 5-year change in FEV1 and odds ratios of respiratory symptom prevalence. Measurements and Main Results: Years since cessation of textile work was positively associated with 11.3 ml/yr and 5.6 ml/yr gains in 5-year FEV1 change for cotton and silk workers, respectively. Among male cotton workers, smokers gained more FEV1 per year after cessation of exposure than did nonsmokers, and the risk of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and byssinosis was larger for smoking than for nonsmoking male cotton workers. Conclusions: Cessation of textile work was significantly associated with improvement in lung function and respiratory symptoms. The positive effect of work cessation was greater for cotton workers than for silk workers. For cotton workers, the improvement in lung function loss after cessation of textile work was greater among smokers, but no differences were observed for silk workers.

Shi, Jing; Hang, Jing-qing; Mehta, Amar J.; Zhang, Hong-xi; Dai, He-lian; Su, Li; Eisen, Ellen A.; Christiani, David C.

2010-01-01

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Comparative analysis of gynaecological status of workers from textile and metal industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Female workers in textile and metal industry are exposed to various physical and chemical hazards that can lead to the occurrence of gynaecological diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of gynaecological diseases among workers of textile and metal industries. METHOD The investigation comprised 197 female workers, 148 from textile and 49 from metal industry, aged from 26 to 57 years. All subjects were hospitalized based on non-gynaecological diagnoses. Gynaecological diagnoses included: tumours of the genital organs and breasts, cervical ectopy and lacerations, inflammatory diseases, disturbances of static of genital organs, cysts, and irregularities of menstrual cycle. Results Textile workers were significantly younger than metal workers, but the groups were comparable according to total and exposure work-time, qualifications and diagnosis on hospital admission. Gynaecological diseases were diagnosed among all investigated subjects. About 80% were diagnosed with tumours and inflammatory diseases. A highly statistically significant difference was observed among groups according to the presence of cervical ectopy and lacerations, which were more frequent among textile workers. Conclusion Comparison of gynaecological status of workers revealed that, among textile workers, cervical ectopy and lacerations were more frequent than among workers in metal industry. .

Milovanovi? Aleksandar

2008-01-01

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Cotton Dust Exposure, Respiratory Symptoms and PEFR in Textile Workers  

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Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to measurement cotton dust levels in air workplace, Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determine of changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR before and after during workday among textile workers. This study was done among 31 workers carding and blowing rooms. Using a short questionnaire for demographic characteristics, medical record were collected in a modified questionnaire of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA and 12 air samples were collected of work area. The PEFR was measured with a peak flow meter. The mean cotton dust levels in carding and blowing rooms were 0.39±0.03 and 0.20±0.01 mg m 3, respectively. The mean age and year?s employment were 45±7.97 and 12.5±6.28, respectively. Thirty three percent of the workers were smoking. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms increased with age and employment years and there were found significantly between age and employment years with cough, phlegm, dyspnea (p<0.05, 0.05, 0.05, respectively. The mean PEFR before and after during workday were 362.9±147.8 and 305.8±147.5, respectively and subjects had found significantly (p<0.0001. The decline in PEFR was significantly associated with years employment (p<0.05, whereas with age and cotton dust levels were found to be non significant. One explanation for thelack of age and cotton dust levels effects in workers may be due to the low number of subjects and samples, respectively. Technological improvement has resulted in reduction of cotton dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms.

M. Ghasemkhani

2006-01-01

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Byssinosis and serum IgE concentrations in textile workers in an Italian cotton mill  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The relationship between serum concentrations of total IgE and byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms was evaluated in 352 textile workers (90 men, 262 women) at a cotton mill in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy. The subjects were aged from 20 to 61 (mean 44) and the mean duration of employment was 20 years. One hundred and eight subjects (30·7%) were smokers. Only 2% had a positive history of atopy. A standardised questionnaire showed chronic bronchitis in 96 textile workers (27·3%) and byssinosis in 63 (17·9%). The prevalence of respiratory disorders was the same for men and women but was higher in the carding room than in other work areas. Total serum IgE concentrations (RIST, Phadebas) were analysed after log transformation. The geometric mean was 192·7 IU/ml, with no significant difference between the two sexes. This mean concentration of IgE is much higher than that reported internationally for non-atopic subjects, but similar to values found in the Italian population. The IgE concentrations of the workers in the main departments (carding, spinning, and weaving) showed no significant difference. The geometric means were not different in subsamples stratified according to respiratory diseases (cases of pure and cases of mixed forms of chronic bronchitis and byssinosis). A negative result was obtained when IgE concentrations of 289 subjects without byssinosis (¯x = 188·4 IU/ml) and 63 with byssinosis (¯x = 212·6 IU/ml) were compared; there was also no trend when the results were analysed by clinical grade of byssinosis. The same negative pattern occured when the serum IgE concentrations were examined in patients with byssinosis with different grades of chronic change in FEV1. The results of this study support the hypothesis that there is no relationship between total serum IgE concentrations and byssinosis.

Petronio, L; Bovenzi, M

1983-01-01

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Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive respiratory conditions among textile industry workers in Zimbabwe, 2006  

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Introduction: Workers in the cotton processing industries risk developing obstructive respiratory conditions due to prolonged exposure to cotton dust. We noted a tenfold increase in asthma among workers in a Textile Manufacturing Company. We determined the prevalence of respiratory obstructive conditions among workers in various sections. Methods We conducted a cross sectional analytic study. Workers were randomly sampled and data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. R...

2010-01-01

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Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive respiratory conditions among textile industry workers in Zimbabwe, 2006  

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INTRODUCTION: Workers in the cotton processing industries risk developing obstructive respiratory conditions due to prolonged exposure to cotton dust. We noted a tenfold increase in asthma among workers in a Textile Manufacturing Company. We determined the prevalence of respiratory obstructive conditions among workers in various sections. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional analytic study. Workers were randomly sampled and data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. ...

2010-01-01

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Ventilatory functions in cotton textile workers and the role of some inflammatory cytokines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to cotton dust in industrial environments causes inflammation in the airways of the exposed workers. This may manifest as respiratory complaints and changes in the respiratory functions after work shift and in the baseline of their ventilatory functions. The study aimed to investigate the effect of occupational exposure to cotton dust on respiratory symptoms, ventilatory functions and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1?). The study was conducted on 63 textile workers and 65 nonexposed subjects. Both groups were matched for age, socioeconomic status and smoking habit. The respirable dust measured in the workplace did not exceed the permissible values of the Egyptian law 1994. The bacterial counts detected were within the occupational exposure limits of the industrial settings. The results revealed that the percentage of respiratory symptoms was higher in textile workers. Respiratory complaints were chronic cough (33.2%), chronic bronchitis (39.7%) and dyspnea (23.8%) in textile workers compared to (6.2%, 6.2% and 1.5%), respectively, in controls. There was a marked reduction in the ventilatory functions (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in the textile workers compared to the controls. The additive effect of smoking on the ventilatory functions was not apparent. The ventilatory functions of the workers were significantly positively correlated with the duration of exposure. The cytokines were insignificantly higher in the textile workers compared to their controls. The textile workers with respiratory complaints showed significant decline in ventilatory functions and elevation in the cytokine levels compared to the nonsymtomatizing workers with significant difference in interleukin 1? and interleukin 6. In conclusion, the results supported the fact that exposure to cotton dust deteriorates ventilatory functions and elevates proinflammatory cytokine levels. Analysis of the release of cytokines can be used to evaluate the immune responses to organic dust-induced airway inflammation. PMID:22082822

Beshir, Safia; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Saad-Hussein, Amal

2013-03-01

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Investigation of prevalence of ventilatory defects of textile mill workers in the Yazd province  

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This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of pulmonary problems, among a group of 1600 selected textile mill workers in the Yazd province. A standard questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was administered and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker. The results obtained were as follow: Obstructive ventilatory defect 15 cases (0.9 percent), restrictive ventilatory defect 16 cases (1 percent), combined obstructiv...

Salary M; Barkhordary A; Zahedpooranaraky M

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Indoor off-body communication based on a textile multi-antenna system integrated in clothing for rescue workers  

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The paper presents a collection of slides that deals with indoor off-body communication based on a textile multi-antenna system integrated in clothing for rescue workers. It discusses the design and performance of circular-polarized and dual-polarized textile antennas.

Rogier, Hendrik; Hertleer, Carla; Vallozzi, Luigi; Torre, Patrick; Declercq, Frederick; Moeneclaey, Marc

2009-01-01

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HANDBOOK ON WOMEN WORKERS, 1965.  

Science.gov (United States)

FACTUAL INFORMATION COVERS THE PARTICIPATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN IN THE LABOR FORCE, THE PATTERNS OF THEIR EMPLOYMENT, THEIR OCCUPATIONS, THEIR INCOME AND EARNINGS, THEIR EDUCATION AND TRAINING, AND THE FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS AFFECTING THE EMPLOYMENT AND THE CIVIL AND POLITICAL STATUS OF WOMEN. IN 1965, ABOUT 26 MILLION WOMEN, 37 PERCENT…

HILTON, MARY N.; AND OTHERS

23

Epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk in textile industry workers: a review and update.  

Science.gov (United States)

A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies for textile industry workers was undertaken in an attempt to evaluate whether the cancer risk varies within the textile industry in relation to the job held or the textile fiber used. We combined studies published up until 1990, when an ad hoc IARC Monograph was issued, and those published after 1990 with the aim of appreciating evidence of reversing trends in cancer risk. Observed and expected cases reported in the original studies were summed up and the totals were divided to obtain a pooled relative risk (PRR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated with a fixed-effect model. We calculated a chi-square test (chi2) of heterogeneity among studies. When PRR and chi2 were both significant, PRR and CI were calculated with a random-effect model and the source of heterogeneity was investigated. Lung cancer risk was around 0.4 in the first study on cotton workers published in 1936, around 0.7 in subsequent studies, mostly published in the 1970s and 1980s, and around 1.0 in the last studies published in the 1990s. Papers published in the 1970s and 1980s produced consistent risk estimates for lung cancer risk, which was significantly lower than 1.0 in workers exposed to cotton (PRR = 0.77; CI = 0.69-0.86) and wool dust (0.71; 0.50-0.92), as well as in carders and fiber preparers (0.73; 0.54-0.91), weavers (0.71; 0.56-0.85), and spinners and weavers (0.78; 0.66-0.91). Lung cancer PRRs did not significantly deviate from 1.0 in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and in dyers. Increased PRRs were found for sinonasal cancer in workers exposed to cotton dust, and in workers involved in spinning or weaving (4.14; 1.80-6.49). PRR was 1.46 (1.10-1.82) for cancer of the digestive system in textile workers using synthetic fibers or silk, and 1.34 (1.10-1.59) for colorectal cancer in spinners and weavers. The increased bladder cancer PRR in dyers (1.39; 1.07-1.71) is generally attributed to textile dye exposure. In studies published after 1990, there is a general tendency to move toward unity for all the cancer risk estimates, leading to an increasing heterogeneity among studies. Since adjustment for smoking made little difference to the findings, the latter could be attributed to the exposure to textile dusts. The recent findings could be due to a lowering of dust concentration in the workplaces. The reduction of cases of upper respiratory tract cancer parallels with a corresponding increase of lung cancer cases. So, preventive measures have paradoxically increased the lung cancer burden to the textile workers. PMID:12974540

Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Ugo; Fadda, Emanuela; Milan, Giovanni; Lange, John H

2002-05-01

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Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

Sanjay RODE

2009-06-01

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Ultrasonography findings of liver in textile workers for diagnosing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

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Introduction Ultrasonography, as a non-invasive method, has the advantage over other imaging methods in the investigation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), related to risk factors. Objective The aim of the study was to present the value of ultrasound imaging of fatty liver during a routine checkup of the selected working population. Fatty liver was related to obesity and hyperlipidaemia, excluding alcohol and diabetes mellitus. Method 120 textile workers were examined by ultrasound...

2007-01-01

26

1969 Handbook on Women Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Published periodically by the Women's Bureau of the United States Department of Labor, this handbook assembles factual information covering the participation and characteristics of women in the labor force, the patterns of their employment, occupations, income and earnings, education and training, and the federal and state laws affecting their…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

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Occupational risk factors for esophageal and stomach cancers among female textile workers in Shanghai, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors evaluated associations between occupational exposures in the textile industry and the risks of esophageal cancer and stomach cancer. The authors conducted a case-cohort study nested in a cohort of female textile workers in Shanghai, China. One hundred and two workers with incident esophageal cancer and 646 workers with incident stomach cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 1998 were compared with an age-stratified reference subcohort (n = 3,188). Work histories were ascertained for all study subjects from factory personnel records or interviews. Exposures were reconstructed for chemicals and dusts by linking work history data with a job-exposure matrix developed for the Shanghai textile industry. Hazard ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated with Cox proportional hazards modeling adapted for the case-cohort design. Risk of esophageal cancer was associated with long-term (> or = 10 years) exposure to silica dust (hazard ratio = 15.8, 95% confidence interval: 3.5, 70.6) and metals (hazard ratio = 3.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 7.1). Cumulative exposure to endotoxin, a contaminant of cotton dust, was inversely related to risks of both esophageal cancer (p-trend = 0.01) and stomach cancer (p-trend < 0.001) when exposures were lagged 20 years. Endotoxin has not been previously reported to be a protective factor for either stomach cancer or esophageal cancer and therefore warrants further study. PMID:16467414

Wernli, Karen J; Fitzgibbons, E Dawn; Ray, Roberta M; Gao, Dao Li; Li, Wenjin; Seixas, Noah S; Camp, Janice E; Astrakianakis, George; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B; Checkoway, Harvey

2006-04-15

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Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive respiratory conditions among textile industry workers in Zimbabwe, 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Workers in the cotton processing industries risk developing obstructive respiratory conditions due to prolonged exposure to cotton dust. We noted a tenfold increase in asthma among workers in a Textile Manufacturing Company. We determined the prevalence of respiratory obstructive conditions among workers in various sections. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional analytic study. Workers were randomly sampled and data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Respiratory function was assessed using spirometry and chest auscultation. A walk through survey was conducted and a checklist was used to capture hazards and control measures in the work place. RESULTS: A total of 194 workers participated. The prevalence of severe respiratory obstruction was 27.8%. It was 50.0% among the blowers, 35.3% in waste recovery, 32.5% in carders, 15.0% in spinners and 7.5% among weavers. The mean years of exposure between the affected and the non-affected were significantly different (T =2.20; p less than 0.05. Working in the blowing department was significantly associated with developing respiratory obstruction (OR=3.53; 95% CI= 1.61- 7.79 but working in the weaving department was significantly protective (OR 0.16; CI 0.04-0.59.Working in a department for less than 10 years was protective (OR =0.94; 95% CI= 0.48- 1.85, but not significant. CONCLUSION: Obstructive respiratory conditions are common among textile workers, with those in blowing and waste recovery sections being the most affected. We recommended worker rotation every six months, regular spirometric screening employment of a medical officer.

Gerald Shambira

2010-07-01

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Longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in cotton textile workers. A 15-yr follow-up study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the chronic effects of exposure to cotton dust, a 15-yr follow-up study in cotton textile workers was performed in Shanghai, China from 1981 to 1996. Testing occurred four times during the 15-yr period. The achieved follow-up rates were 76-88% of the original 447 cotton textile workers, and 70-85% of the original 472 silk textile workers (as a control group). Identical questionnaires, equipment, and methods were used throughout the study. The prevalence of byssinosis increased over time in cotton workers, with 15.3% at the last survey versus 7.6% at the baseline, whereas no byssinosis was found in silk workers. More workers in the cotton group consistently reported symptoms than in the silk group, although symptom reporting varied considerably from survey to survey. Cotton workers had small, but significantly greater, adjusted annual declines in FEV(1) and FVC than did the silk workers. Years worked in cotton mills, high level of exposure to endotoxin, and across-shift drops in FEV(1) were found to be significant determinants for longitudinal change in FEV(1), after controlling for appropriate confounders. Furthermore, there were statistically significant associations between excessive loss of FEV(1) and byssinosis, chest tightness at work, and chronic bronchitis in cotton workers. Workers who consistently (three or four of the surveys) reported byssinosis or chest tightness at work had a significantly greater 15-yr loss of FEV(1). We conclude that long-term exposure to cotton dust is associated with chronic or permanent obstructive impairments. Consistent reporting of respiratory symptoms, including byssinosis and chest tightness at work, is of value to predict the magnitude and severity of chronic impairments in textile workers. PMID:11282755

Christiani, D C; Wang, X R; Pan, L D; Zhang, H X; Sun, B X; Dai, H; Eisen, E A; Wegman, D H; Olenchock, S A

2001-03-01

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Lung function, airway reactivity, and atopy in newly hired female cotton textile workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess changes in lung function and airway reactivity resulting from exposure to cotton dust, and the role of atopic status in these changes, the authors observed a group of 225 newly hired Chinese textile workers for 1 yr. All workers were female, lifelong nonsmokers, and none of them had been exposed previously to cotton or other occupational dust. Atopic status was determined at baseline. Spirometry, response to methacholine challenge, and total serum immunoglobulin E level were examined at baseline and again after subjects began work in the cotton mills. Obvious cross-shift drops in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), and declines in forced vital capacity and FEV1.0 over 1 yr, were observed. Atopic workers had a significantly greater acute drop in FEV1.0 than did nonatopic workers. Both atopic and nonatopic workers had slightly increased airway reactivity at 1 yr, compared with baseline values. The results suggest that exposure to cotton dust is responsible for acute and longitudinal declines in lung function, as well as for slightly increased airway reactivity. Atopy may interact with cotton dust to accentuate the acute lung function response. PMID:12747513

Wang, Xiao-Rong; Pan, Lei-Da; Zhang, Hong-Xi; Sun, Bi-Xiong; Dai, He-Lian; Christiani, David C

2003-01-01

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A probabilistic approach to quantitatively assess the inhalation risk for airborne endotoxin in cotton textile workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, is a proinflammatory agent that induces local and systemic inflammatory responses in normal subjects which can contribute to the risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive lung diseases. A probabilistic approach linking models of exposure, internal dosimetry, and health effects were carried out to quantitatively assess the potential inhalation risk of airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants. Combining empirical data and modeling results, we show that the half-maximum effects of the endotoxin dose (ED50) were estimated to be 3.3 x 105 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-14.7 x 105) endotoxin units (EU) for the blood C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, 1.1 x 105 (95% CI: 0.6-1.7 x 105) EU for the blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count, and 1.5 x 105 (95% CI: 0.4-2.5 x 105) EU for the sputum PMN count. Our study offers a risk-management framework for discussing future establishment of limits for respiratory exposure to airborne endotoxin for workers in cotton textile plants.

2010-05-15

32

The added worker effect and the discouraged worker effect for married women in Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates both the added worker effect (the labour supply responses of women to their partners' job losses) and the discouraged worker effect (workers withdrawing from the labour market because of failed searches) for married women in Australia, with the emphasis on the former. We focus on the partners' involuntary job loss experiences, and analyse women's labour market activities in the periods before and after their partners' job loss. By estimating fixed effects labour supply...

Gong, Xiaodong

2010-01-01

33

Cause-specific mortality in a Chinese chrysotile textile worker cohort.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chrysotile asbestos has continued to be mined and used in China, but its health effects on exposed workers have not been well documented. This study was conducted to give a complete picture about cause-specific mortality in Chinese asbestos workers. A cohort of 586 males and 279 females from a chrysotile textile factory were prospectively followed for 37 years. Their vital status was identified, and the date and underlying cause of death were verified from death registry. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios by gender were computed with nationwide gender- and cause-specific mortality rates as reference. Male workers were 11 years older, and had 6 years longer exposure duration than females; 79% in males and 1% in females smoked. In males, the mortality rate of all cancers doubled; both larynx and lung cancer were four-fold, and mesothelioma was 33-fold. In females, there was slightly excess mortality from lung cancer and all cancers, and significant increase in mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. Other significantly increased mortality was seen from cancers of thymus, small intestine and penis in males, and cancers of bone and bladder in females. In addition to asbestosis, mortality from pulmonary heart disease was significantly elevated in both genders. The data confirmed significantly excess mortality from mesothelioma in either gender, lung and larynx cancers in males, and ovarian cancer in females. A gender difference in mortality from lung cancer and all cancers could be mainly due to the discrepancies in age, exposure duration and smoking between the male and female workers. PMID:23121131

Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius; Qiu, Hong; Lan, Yajia; Yano, Eiji

2013-02-01

34

Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. METHODS: Risk estimates were extracted from studies published before 2009 that met predefined quality criteria, including 8 cohort, 1 case-cohort, and 2 case-control studies of cotton textile industry workers, a...

2010-01-01

35

Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. AIM: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhiniti [...] s in workers exposed to cotton dust. METHOD: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo), who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. RESULTS: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. DISCUSSION: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

Ivan de Picoli, Dantas; Fabiana Cardoso Pereira, Valera; Carlos Eduardo Monteiro, Zappelini; Wilma Terezinha, Anselmo-Lim.

36

Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. Method: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo, who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. Results: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. Discussion: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

Dantas, Ivan de Picoli

2013-01-01

37

WOMEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN GULBARGA: A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women are playing significant role in agricultural work and processes and more than half of the working population in agriculture are women. But, they are facing many problems such as exploitation from employers, no security for work and job, seasonal employment, lower wages, wage discrimination, etc. A sample survey of 142 women agricultural workers working in Gulbarga taluka in Karnataka was made with interview technique. The social aspects to a greater extent depends on work life of the women agricultural workers. It was concluded that there is need for social security schemes for women agricultural workers and self-employment is also suggested for these workers during offseasons. It is also suggested to increase awareness among people on gender equality

Udayakumar. Rawoorkar

2014-03-01

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A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and...

Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara

2010-01-01

39

Ultrasonography findings of liver in textile workers for diagnosing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Ultrasonography, as a non-invasive method, has the advantage over other imaging methods in the investigation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, related to risk factors. Objective The aim of the study was to present the value of ultrasound imaging of fatty liver during a routine checkup of the selected working population. Fatty liver was related to obesity and hyperlipidaemia, excluding alcohol and diabetes mellitus. Method 120 textile workers were examined by ultrasound; blood cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in the meantime. Ultrasonography finding in the liver was normal echogenicity or "bright" hyperechogenicity (fatty liver. Five subgroups of examinees were formed using three risk factors for fatty liver: Body Mass Index (BMI, blood cholesterol and triglycerides. Results Ultrasonographic appearance of the liver was normal in 55% of examinees, while 45% had fatty liver. The highest incidence of fatty liver (70% was in the first subgroup with the highest risk (elevated BMI, elevated cholesterol and triglycerides. The highest incidence of normal liver (85% was in the fifth subgroup without risk factors (normal BMI, normal blood cholesterol and triglycerides. Incidence of fatty liver between subgroups was very different with high statistical significance. Conclusion Increased fat accumulation in the liver may be diagnosed with ultrasonography and related to risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, such as obesity and hyperlipidaemia.

Marovi? Dragana

2007-01-01

40

[Breastfeeding experiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, from a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work. PMID:21468491

de Morais, Ana Márcia Bustamante; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; de Almeida, Maria Irismar

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Auditory threshold and the degree of its temporary and permanent shifts in the textile industry workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hearing threshold was measured with digital audiometer CASK-431 in transportable soundproof booth GIG-AU-1 in 170 women and 75 men before and at the end of the afternoon shift work in the weaving-mill with shuttle looms, where an average noise level was 100 dB(A). The average hearing losses calculated from the formula dB (1000 Hz + 2000 Hz + 4000 Hz): 3 were higher than those calculated from the formula db (500 Hz + 1000 Hz + 2000 Hz): 3. There was also a higher correlation coefficient between the occupational exposure to noise and the values of hearing loss calculated according to the former of the mentioned formulae, as compared to the latter. Workers wearing individual hearing protectors from the glass microfibres suffered from temporary threshold shift (TTS) of few dB whereas in those wearing no hearing protectors the TTS attained 10 to 24 dB on average. Among the women--workers of comparable age and occupational exposure to noise the hearing losses were higher in those living in noisy communities than in those living in quiet communities. This result is indicative of cumulative effects of community and industrial noise in respect to the hearing damage. Regulations for permissible noise levels in occupational environment should involve the kind of exposure to the community noise.

Mikolajczyk, H.; Cieslewicz, A.

1982-01-01

42

Colorectal cancer incidence among female textile workers in Shanghai, China: a case-cohort analysis of occupational exposures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested increased risks of colorectal cancers among textile industry workers, potentially related to synthetic fibers. To investigate risks of colon and rectum cancers in relation to these and other textile industry exposures, we conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort study of female employees from the Shanghai Textile Industry Bureau (STIB). Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for colon and rectum cancers associated with duration of employment (e.g., 0, >0 to or =20 years) in various jobs classified according to process type and exposures to specific agents. Our findings indicate that certain long term exposures may pose increased risk of colorectal cancers, especially dyes and dye intermediates with colon cancer (> or =20 years exposure versus never, HR=3.9; 95% CI: 1.4-10.6), and maintenance occupation (HR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.0-5.7) and metals exposure (HR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6) with rectum cancer. A decreased risk of rectum cancer was associated with exposure to natural fibers such as cotton (HR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and a trend of decreasing rectum cancer incidence was observed by category of cumulative quantitative cotton dust or endotoxin exposures, when exposures were lagged by 20 years. PMID:16215868

De Roos, A J; Ray, R M; Gao, D L; Wernli, K J; Fitzgibbons, E D; Ziding, F; Astrakianakis, G; Thomas, D B; Checkoway, H

2005-12-01

43

Women brothel workers and occupational health risks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel.

Cwikel, J.; Ilan, K.; Chudakov, B.

2003-01-01

44

ABC of women workers' rights and gender equality  

CERN Document Server

This concise and easy to read guidebook assists the layperson in understanding the legal frameworks and socio-economic developments surrounding gender equality in the world of work. Completely updated and revised, this guide incorporates important information relevant to women workers such as women in development, gender mainstreaming, the glass ceiling and much more. Each entry in the guide provides a clear, succinct definition and directs the reader to relevant laws, ILO conventions, and other topics for further research.

International Labour Office. Geneva

2000-01-01

45

Workplace Control: Women and Minority Workers in America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the effects of gender and race on American workers’ workplace control. Scholarship on gender, work, and occupation states that gender and race are important predictors of the extent of control workers exercise in workplaces. Literature also posits that job satisfaction and work-family conflict also contribute substantially to workers’ workplace control. However, there exists hardly any empirical study that explores the impacts of gender, race, job satisfaction and work-family conflict altogether on their workplace control. That is what we accomplished in this study. Obtaining data from the 2008 National Study of Changing Workforce (NSCW, we ask: 1 Do women and men workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? 2 Do non-white and white workers in America differ in their perceptions of workplace control? And 3 Do gender and race of the workers influence their workplace control when job satisfaction and work-family conflict are considered? Analyses are based on quantitative methods. Results show that women perceive to have less control over their workplace as compared to men. Moreover, job satisfaction is a more significant predictor of their workplace control than work-family spillover.

Dina Banerjee

2013-06-01

46

Industrial noise pollution and its impacts on workers in the textile based cottage industries: an empirical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study includes the research work which was carried out to investigate the range of difficulties faced by the workers and its effects on them while working in textile based cottage industries along with their causes. This research provides necessary tip-offs to solve those problems in a systematic way. Therefore, it was considered to know the number of machines (looms) operated by one worker, number of machines in one unit and number of operators in one unit. The minimum and maximum noise levels were recorded by using digital sound level meter to compute average noise level/ unit. To identify the health problems like respiratory, hearing/listening, irritation, heart/BP, annoyance and headache faced by the workers, the survey was conducted. In present research work the minimum noise recorded was 101.6dB (A) and maximum as 1 09.8< dB (A), which was compared with OSHA and WHO (World Health Organization) standards. Result of this study shows that due to high intensity of noise generated by looms and dusts at work places, workers were facing the mental and physical problems. (author)

2011-01-01

47

Role of Women Workers at Dairy Farms in Banyumas District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dairy farm is one of promising to increase the household income. Dairy farm generally involve all the household members. The research was aimed to: 1 know contribution of work duration of women woker to the total duration of work in dairy farm; 2 identify contribution of women income to the total income of dairy farm; 3 determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income of dairy farm. Three sub districts were taken as area sample using purposive sampling method based on number of dairy farm that utilize women as worker in their farm activities. Sixty seven famers were taken as respondents is this research. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income. The result showed that: 1 contribution of working duration of women was 25,24 percent; 2 contribution of income of women was Rp 2,762,755.96: and 3 partially, contribution of income of women was influenced by farm scale and dependency ratio. In conclusion, women wokers have contribution on the total duration of work and income; and dairy farm scale and Dependency Ratio influencing contribution of women income. (Animal Production 11(1: 40-47 (2009 Key Words: dairy farm, duration of work, income, role of women

S Mastuti

2009-01-01

48

Women employed in textile sector in Turkey and their problems: (Istanbul-Adana-Denizli-Sivas and Tekirda? Province samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose of the study is to determine the problems of women working in textile factories as parallel to the characteristics of female labor in Turkey and the factors affecting these problems. With this purpose, 564 women working in textile factories in Istanbul, Adana, Denizli, Tekirda? and Sivas provinces were included in the study. It was determined according to the results obtained that factors affecting the problems women encounter in working life in a statistically significant way (P>0,25 are monthly income of the family, form of the family, number of members of the household, quality of the intra-family relationships, daily working hours, job satisfaction, relationships of the employee with managers and way of making decisions inside the family, respectively.

Sezer Ayan

2011-01-01

49

Mesotheliomas and asbestos type in asbestos textile workers: a study of lung contents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The asbestos contents of the lungs of former employees of an asbestos textile factory were determined at necropsy using a transmission electron microscope. Those who had died of mesothelioma were compared with a matched sample of those who had died of other causes. The predominant fibre processed in the factory was chrysotile, but crocidolite had also been used. The lung content was consistent with the known exposure to chrysotile, but the crocidolite content was also high, being about 300 ti...

Wagner, J. C.; Berry, G.; Pooley, F. D.

1982-01-01

50

Why Workers Switch Industry? The Case of Textile Industry of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify core reasons for employee’s turnover. The study is descriptive and cross-sectional. Twenty turnover intentions are identified from the literature and a questionnaire is designed on 5 point likert-scale for data collection. A sample of 160 respondents has been randomly selected from the textile industry of Pakistan. The data has been analyzed through one sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. The study reveals the most prominent factors responsible for employees’ intentions to leave and offer practitioners and researchers some practical recommendations to retain the workforce.

Madiha Rehman Farooqui

2013-01-01

51

La situacin de la mujer trabajadora en Tucumn en los aos setenta: el caso de las obreras de la industria textil / The situation of the woman worker in Tucumn in the seventies: the case of the workers of the textile industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La finalidad de este trabajo es analizar la situacin laboral de las trabajadoras de los sectores populares, haciendo hincapi en la industria textil, dentro de un marco de crisis ocupacional, en los aos setenta. Se busca saber como, a raz de diversos factores (familiares, emocionales y sociales), la [...] mujer tucumana sali a trabajar y en muchos casos lleg a ser el sostn y nica fuente de ingresos del grupo familiar. Este ser el punto de partida para esta investigacin que permitir un acercamiento al conocimiento de la situacin laboral femenina. Nuestro planteo surge de la afirmacin que la transformacin del mercado laboral impuls la incorporacin de mano de obra femenina en el sector industrial. Este nuevo rol de proveedoras del hogar, en algunos casos el nico, signific una transformacin en su subjetividad que en algunas no es aceptado como tal. Adems, se indagar sobre las estrategias intra y extra domsticas femeninas que caracteriza la doble jornada de trabajo. Cabe aclarar que este anlisis fue abordado desde la perspectiva de Gnero e Historia Oral. Las mujeres tienen una doble jornada de trabajo que para algunos autores esta denominacin es concebida como trabajo extra domestico e intra domestico. Partiendo de estos conceptos se indagar sobre las diversas estrategias realizadas por las trabajadoras de la industria textil. Estas mujeres de una u otra manera han buscado diferentes estrategias para lograr combinar el trabajo extra e intra domstico, siempre buscando el bienestar de su familia y sobre todo, en el caso de las casadas de sus hijos. Para la realizacin de este trabajo se utilizaron fuentes orales (entrevistas semistructuradas), datos estadsticos y material bibliogrfico pertinente al tema. Abstract in english The purpose of this work is to analyze the labor situation of the workers of the popular sectors, insisting on the textile industry, within a frame of occupational crisis, in the Seventies. One looks for to know like, as a result of diverse factors (familiar, emotional and social), the tucumana woma [...] n left to work and in many cases she got to be the support and only source of income of the familiar group. This it will be the departure point for this investigation that will allow an approach to the knowledge of the feminine labor situation. Ours I raise arises from the affirmation that the transformation of the labor market impelled the incorporation of feminine manual labor in the industrial sector. This new roll of suppliers of the home, in some cases the only one, meant a transformation in its subjectivity that in some is not accepted like so. In addition, one will investigate on the feminine domestic strategies intra and extra that the double day of work characterizes. It is possible to clarify that this analysis was boarded from the perspective of Gender and Oral History. The women have one double day of work that stops some authors this denomination is conceived like extra work domestic servant and intra domestic servant. Starting off of these concepts she will investigate herself on the diverse strategies made by the workers of the textile industry. These women of one or another way have looked for different strategies to manage to combine domestic the extra work and intra, always looking for the well-being of their family and mainly, in the case of the married ones of their children. For the accomplishment of this work oral sources were used (semistructuradas interviews), statistical data and pertinent bibliographical material to the subject.

Noem Liliana, Soraire.

52

Smoking and cotton dust effects in cotton textile workers: an analysis of the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume curve.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cotton textile workers have an increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung function patterns when compared to control subjects. Similar abnormal lung function patterns may occur with other respiratory diseases, notably those associated with cigarette smoking. The shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve has been used to characterize patterns of lung function abnormality. We defined a new functional parameter (angle beta) related to the shape of the MEFV curve...

Schachter, E. N.; Kapp, M. C.; Maunder, L. R.; Beck, G.; Witek, T. J.

1986-01-01

53

Additive effect of smoking and cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of cotton textile workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and sixty-nine and 175 cotton textile workers (CTWs) were enrolled in the first (1991) and second (1996) surveys to investigate the prevalence of byssinosis. The synergistic effect of smoking on cotton dust exposure was also evaluated. Although the difference in prevalence of abnormal pulmonary function between the first (38.5%) and second study (38.9%) was not statistically significant, smokers had significantly higher frequency than nonsmokers in both surveys. A significant trend existed between the cotton dust levels and the frequency of abnormal lung function. The significant trend was also noted in both smokers and nonsmokers. The frequency of respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of severe byssinosis in the second survey (14.9% and 12.6%, respectively) were significantly lower than that in the first survey (39.7% and 21.9%, respectively). The reduction of symptoms was due to remodeling of this old cotton mill. The prevalences of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis in smokers being significantly higher than in nonsmokers only found in the first survey, but not found in the second survey. These results indicate that smoking potentiates the effect of cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and byssinosis. The second study reveals high prevalence of byssinosis still existed in Taiwanese cotton mill, although the prevalence was declining. Smoking was found to show an additive effect on cotton dust exposure. Anti-smoking campaign, occupational health program to reduce the dust exposure, and periodical medical examination are measures to prevent from byssinosis. PMID:12725471

Su, Yih-Ming; Su, Jenn-Rong; Sheu, Jia-Yih; Loh, Ching-Hui; Liou, Saou-Hsing

2003-04-01

54

Cotton dust and endotoxin exposure-response relationships in cotton textile workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Endotoxin exposure has been implicated in the etiology of lung disease in cotton workers. We investigated this potential relationship in 443 cotton workers from 2 factories in Shanghai and 439 control subjects from a nearby silk mill. A respiratory questionnaire was administered and pre- and postshift forced expiratory volume (FVC) and flow in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker. Multiple area air samples were analyzed for total elutriated dust concentration (range: 0.15 to 2.5 mg/m3) and endotoxin (range: 0.002 to 0.55 microgram U.S. Reference Endotoxin/m3). The cotton worker population was stratified by current and cumulative dust or endotoxin exposure. Groups were compared for FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC%, % change in FEV1 over the shift (delta FEV1%), and prevalences of chronic bronchitis and byssinosis, and linear and logistic regression models were constructed. No dose-response relationships were demonstrated comparing dust concentration to any pulmonary function or symptom variable. A dose-response trend was seen with the current endotoxin level and FEV1, delta FEV1%, and the prevalence of byssinosis and chronic bronchitis, except for the highest exposure level group in which a reversal of the trend was seen. The regression coefficients for current endotoxin exposure were significant (p less than 0.05) in the models for FEV1 and chronic bronchitis but not in the models for delta FEV1% (i.e., acute change in FEV1) or byssinosis prevalence. The coefficient for dust level was never significant in the models.

Kennedy, S.M.; Christiani, D.C.; Eisen, E.A.; Wegman, D.H.; Greaves, I.A.; Olenchock, S.A.; Ye, T.T.; Lu, P.L.

1987-01-01

55

Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening (±S.E.) of 1.8 ±0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of 226Ra + 228Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment

1994-04-18

56

Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening ({plus_minus}S.E.) of 1.8 {plus_minus}0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of {sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment.

Stehney, A.F.

1994-05-01

57

An Effective HIV Risk Reduction Protocol for Drug-Using Women Sex Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV prevention is an especially salient issue for women, given the ongoing feminization of the epidemic. Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who are drug-using and engage in street-based sex exchange. This paper examines risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using women sex workers in Miami, Florida, and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were r...

Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.

2010-01-01

58

IMPACT OF MICRONUTRIENT FORTIFIED FOOD SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRITIONAL PROFILE AMONG GINNING WOMEN WORKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ginning factory discharges large amount of cotton dust, which might decrease haematological indices among the selected subjects. An attempt was made to study the haematological indices of women labourers located in the urban areas of Tirupur and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 150 non-pregnant, non-lactating adult women performing varied textile tasks and aged between 20 to 60 years were identified randomly from ginning (n=150 (gin house, gutter and sorting sections industries. Socio demographic, work pattern, nutritional and health status were assessed by administering a questionnaire. Further, to correct micronutrient deficiency, iron and folic acid fortified soy biscuits were formulated. Intervention study was conducted among the selected moderate anaemic ginners (n=20. l00 g of micronutrient fortified soy biscuit containing 13.5 g of protein, 8.4 mg of iron (ferrous fumarate and 120 µg of folic acid was supplemented to experimental group of women as a midmorning and midevening snack for a period of four months. Therapeutic efficacy of food supplement was studied by assessing their anthropometric and haematological conditions at pre and post supplementation period. Anthropometric indices showed an improvement in weight (48.7 ± 4.98 to 51.5 ± 6.25 and BMI (19.02 to 23.04. Haematological indices revealed that the mean haemoglobin of experimental group improved to 11.04 ± 0.56 g/dl from 9.1 ± 0.67. Similarly increase in serum iron from 61.9 ± 3.24 to 65.0 ± 2.95 µg/dl was noticed and showed a significant difference at 1 per cent. Improvement in total protein (6.62 ± 0.49 to 8.11 ± 0.20 g/dl, albumin (3.9 ± 0.36 to 4.73 ± 0.31 g/dl and globulin (2.82 ± 0.24 to 3.8 ± 0.29 g/dl showed significant difference at 1 per cent level. Similarly, an increase in Total WBC count (7326 ± 19.5 to 9725 ± 25.5 cumm, reduction in lymphocyte (942.16 ± 3.6 to 35.2 ± 2.2 per cent seen among the ginning women workers.

D.Sridevi

2013-08-01

59

Efeito da exposição prolongada a ruído ocupacional na função respiratória de trabalhadores da indústria têxtil / Effects of long term exposure to occupational noise on textile industry workers' lung function  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo procurou detectar eventuais alterações da função respiratória em 28 operárias de uma fábrica de fiação, submetidas a uma exposição prolongada ao ruído (> 10 anos) com amplitude elevada e baixa frequência, susceptível de causar doença vibro-acústica (DVA). Foram realizados testes da [...] função respiratória, incluindo espirometria, oscilometria de impulso e estudo da Capacidade de difusão alvéolo-capilar pelo CO. Os resultados foram comparados com os de outra população de igual número de mulheres, do mesmo grupo etário, consideradas normais no aspecto respiratório, com cargos administrativos, não sujeitas a agressão acústica detectável. Realizou-se um estudo estatístico dos resultados obtidos comparando as duas populações, tendo sido calculado para cada um dos parâmetros, escolhidos a partir do estudo funcional respiratório, os valores médios, o desvio-padrão e o grau de significância (p Abstract in english Vibroacoustic disease is a pathology caused by long occupational exposure to large pressure amplitude and low frequency noise. It is a systemic disease, with evolvement of respiratory structures. The exposure workers to this noise of textile industry may favour alterations in lung function. We studi [...] ed 28 women working more than ten years in cotton-mill rooms to evaluate their lung function, including Spirometry, forced oscillation technique (I.O.S.) and Diffusion capacity. These results were compared with those of 30 women of similar ages not exposed to similar noise and not presenting respiratory disease. Statistical significance (p

António Paes, Cardoso; Maria João R., Oliveira; Álvaro Moreira da, Silva; Artur P., Águas; António Sousa, Pereira.

60

Development of a job exposure matrix (JEM) for the textile industry in Shanghai, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for the Shanghai textile industry constructed along three axes: industry sector, textile process, and hazardous agent. We assessed 35 different categories of dust, chemical, and physical agents for 149 textile processes within nine industry sectors: cotton, cotton/synthetic, cotton/other (nonsynthetic), wool, silk, synthetic, mineral, other mixed (e.g., wool and synthetic), and nonproduction. The JEM was constructed from two components: a priori assessment of the textile process by a team of U.S. industrial hygienists, and the prevalence of exposures reported by Chinese industrial hygienists in specific textile processes within the factory. The JEM was applied to an ongoing case-cohort study of cancer in women textile workers. The JEM assessed only dichotomous exposure (ever/never), and could be coupled with cumulative exposure by years of employment. The most common exposures in cotton mills were cotton dust and solvent exposures. Dyeing processes had the highest frequency of exposures, including solvents, acids, bases and caustics, bleaching agents, dyes, dye chemicals and intermediates, and formaldehyde. Only two processes were identified with formaldehyde exposure, beck dyeing and resin finishing. The most prevalent exposures among the subcohort, occurring in more than 60% of the women, were electromagnetic fields, lubricants, and cotton dust. More than one-third of subcohort subjects were also exposed to synthetic fiber dust, and slightly less than one-third of women were exposed to endotoxin. This JEM could be applicable for epidemiologic research in other textile industries. PMID:16908453

Wernli, Karen J; Astrakianakis, George; Camp, Janice E; Ray, Roberta M; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Li, Gao Dao; Thomas, David B; Checkoway, Harvey; Seixas, Noah S

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Workplace Control: Women and Minority Workers in America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we examine the effects of gender and race on American workers’ workplace control. Scholarship on gender, work, and occupation states that gender and race are important predictors of the extent of control workers exercise in workplaces. Literature also posits that job satisfaction and work-family conflict also contribute substan...

2013-01-01

62

Problems Of Women Workers In Unorganized Sector: A Sociological Analysis In Gulbarga City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available :Unorganized sector constitute majority of working population in India and of the workers, women are playing significant role in unorganized sector work. The unorganized sector includes different occupations such as construction, domestic servants, sales women, agricultural labourers, etc. Compared to all other sectors, the problems and challenges faced by women in unorganized sector are many. Hence, a survey was made to study the problems and challenges of women working in unorganized sector. Interview schedule was used to collect the primary data from 200 women working in construction work, 200 women working as domestic servants and 100 women agricultural labourers in Gulbarga city. The study revealed that there is lower wage for these workers. Further, it was observed that considerable number of women workers have lower status in family and society. It was suggested to revise the wage rates and ensure job security by assuring at least three years of work under single employer. It is also suggested to increase awareness of the women in unorganized sector on the legislations and security measures formulated by the Government. Self-employment training and financial assistance are also suggested to empower the women working in unorganized sector.

Hanamanthappa B. Sedamkar

2013-12-01

63

The need for family planning and safe abortion services among women sex workers seeking STI care in Cambodia  

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In Cambodia, clinics established for the prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women sex workers do not address other reproductive health services. The aim of this study was to assess the need for more comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services for women sex workers in Cambodia. In January 2000, relevant documents were reviewed, interviews with key informants carried out and group interviews with women sex workers conducted. Medical records from wom...

2003-01-01

64

Women workers in male dominated industrial manufacturing organisations: Contrasting workplace case studies from Australia  

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This study compared women's roles, expectations and experiences in two comparable, male dominated industrial manufacturing companies in Australia. Both organisations are subject to legislated equal opportunity program and reporting requirements. The research was conducted to examinee the differences between what is submitted in their EEO reports and the experience of women workers in the organisations. Good jobs and poor jobs existed in the same legislative and industrial framework and in the...

Burgess, John; Henderson, Lindy; Strachan, Glenda

2005-01-01

65

Performing global citizenship: women NGO workers' negotiations of complicities in their work practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The practices of NGOs and development agencies located in the global North have been criticised for displaying (post-)colonial continuities. Concurrently, western feminism has been critiqued for assuming universality in the experiences of white western women. Hence there is a need for reflection on operating within and resisting of these power structures. Using interview data, this thesis investigates the reflections of women NGO workers located in the global North working on gendered iss...

Jong, Sara

2010-01-01

66

Transgressing the boarders of textile art  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Swedish textile art is often described as highly successful and as part of an appreciated tradition. But there are some interesting points to be made from looking at the subject as an Art Historian with a gender- and genre-perspective. First of all the textile material is closely linked to notions of femininity. The textile material is also persistently placed within the craft sphere. Secondly, the textile art scene also consists mainly of women artists. The connection with traditional cr...

Rosenqvist, Johanna

2003-01-01

67

Educated Immigrant Women Workers Doing Well with Change: Helping and Hindering Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors investigated the strategies that helped or hindered 10 immigrant women workers to do well with change that affected their work. A total of 182 incidents were extracted and grouped into 9 categories: personal beliefs/traits/values, taking action, skills/education, personal challenges, self-care, relationships/support,…

Koert, Emily; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

2011-01-01

68

Textile Exchange  

Science.gov (United States)

From crochet machines to the uses of acrylic yarn, the Textile Exchange website has rather fine comprehensive coverage across the nooks and crannies of the textile industry. Visitors to the homepage will find a search engine and a very thorough products directory which includes topical headings like "Textile Products", "Fibers, Yarns & Threads", and "Textile Chemicals". After looking over a few of these areas, visitors will definitely want to peruse the "Knowledge Center". Here they can learn more about fiber and textile history, and the types of weaves. One section that should not be missed is the "Textile Personalities" area. For those individuals who've been pining to learn about giants of the textile industry such as John Mercer, John Kay (who patented the flying shuttle), and Richard Roberts, this area will be quite the eye-opener.

69

[Pleural mesothelioma in women in the Veneto Region who used to work as rag sorters for textile recycling and paper production].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports 9 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed by means of histology or cytology that were observed among women resident in the Veneto Region, Northern Italy, whose only activity that could involve exposure to asbestos was as rag sorter. These cases are part of a group of about 260 subjects with mesothelioma whose entire working and residential history has been collected. The women worked as rag sorters between the 1940's and 1960's in textile recycling (8 cases) or (one case) at a paper mill where cotton was used for paper production. The work as rag sorter helps to explain the high proportion of mesotheliomas among women with an occupational exposure to asbestos. PMID:11515151

Merler, E; Gioffrè, F; Rozio, L; Bizzotto, R; Mion, M; Sarto, F

2001-01-01

70

Disjunctures for Women and Frontline Workers: Implementation of the Family Violence Option.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research uses analysis of qualitative interviews with 10 battered welfare clients and 15 frontline welfare workers to examine the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform. States adopting the FVO agree to screen for domestic violence, refer identified victims to community resources, and waive program requirements that would endanger the women or with which they are unable to comply. The analyses find that none of the 10 clients in this study received these services. This lack of services reflects four critical disjunctures between the formal policy and the policy experienced by the clients. It also reveals several more basic structural factors that provide conflicting mandates to frontline workers. Frontline workers' discretionary behaviors enforce core rules related to welfare eligibility and reduce welfare caseloads but do not provide violencerelated services to victims. PMID:18270548

Lindhorst, Taryn; Padgett, Julianna D

2005-09-01

71

HIV vulnerability and condom use among migrant women factory workers in Puebla, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

International migration is associated with increased HIV vulnerability, but little is known about the vulnerability of internal migrants. This qualitative study explored perceptions of HIV and condom use among Mexican migrant female factory workers. Migration and male sexual infidelity contributed to increased HIV vulnerability and unprotected sex was ubiquitous. The dominant cultural discourse that dichotomizes "good" (monogamous) and "bad" (sexually stigmatized) women, and male partner's resistance, were barriers to condom use. Women's positive attitudes toward the dual protection (pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) offered by condoms and sexual agency expressed by refusing unwanted sexual contact are resources for HIV prevention. PMID:20461602

Kendall, Tamil; Pelcastre, Blanca Estela

2010-06-01

72

Disjunctures for Women and Frontline Workers: Implementation of the Family Violence Option  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research uses analysis of qualitative interviews with 10 battered welfare clients and 15 frontline welfare workers to examine the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform. States adopting the FVO agree to screen for domestic violence, refer identified victims to community resources, and waive program requirements that would endanger the women or with which they are unable to comply. The analyses find that none of the 10 clients in this study received these ...

Lindhorst, Taryn; Padgett, Julianna D.

2005-01-01

73

Book review: cosmopolitan sex workers: women and migration in a global city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cosmopolitan Sex Workers examines the phenomenon of non-trafficked women who migrate from one global city to another to perform paid sexual labour in Southeast Asia. Overall, this is a fascinating and extremely unusual book, writes Charlotte Goodburn, which brings together macro and micro perspectives to present a rich and nuanced picture of transnational sex work, based on extensive fieldwork in hard-to-access communities. Christine B. N. Chin‘s work should be of interest to all those stud...

Goodburn, Charlotte

2013-01-01

74

Textile World  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile World is a website for textile industry professionals, manufacturers, investors, as well as those who would like to offer students, young or old, a glimpse into the world of textile production. This website is the perfect vehicle to see all that the textile industry encompasses. One look at the menu on the left hand side of the page informs visitors of several different areas of textile production, such as the "Yarn Market", "Nonwovens/Technical Textiles", "Fiber World", and "Dyeing Printing and Finishing". The "Nonwovens/Technical Textiles" link takes visitors to articles such as "Nonwovens Focus: Human-Centered Applications", which discusses the various types of products that constitute nonwovens. Those products include baby diapers, feminine products, hygiene products, and medical and protective textiles, such as surgical gowns and drapes, and those textiles that protect humans against liquid, biological and chemical agents. An evenhanded look at the increasing friendliness towards the environment that is being manufactured into baby diapers is discussed thoroughly in the article, as is the growing demand for nonwovens in some countries.

75

Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalhoEste estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cinco madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajoThis study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, from a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work

Ana Márcia Bustamante de Morais

2011-02-01

76

Vivência da amamentação por trabalhadoras de uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, Brasil / Breastfeeding esperiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil / Vivencia de la amamantación de trabajadoras de una industria textil de Ceará, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo compreender a vivência das funcionárias contratadas em uma indústria têxtil do Estado do Ceará, após o retorno ao trabalho, diante do processo de aleitamento materno ou desmame. Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em junho de 2007 com cinco mães trabalhadoras. [...] Os relatos dos sujeitos, a partir de um roteiro de perguntas abertas, revelaram dificuldades para conciliar o trabalho e a amamentação, consequentes às suas crenças e à falta de suporte social e institucional. As condições de trabalho deficientes a que essas mulheres estão expostas também são fatores determinantes na continuidade ou interrupção da amamentação. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de ampliar as melhorias das instituições com creches, postos de coleta de leite e acompanhamento permanente dessas mulheres quando do retorno ao trabalho Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender la vivencia de las funcionarias contratadas en una industria textil del Estado de Ceara, Brasil, después de regresar al trabajo, frente al proceso de amamantamiento materno o desmame. Investigación de carácter cualitativo, realizada en junio de 2007 con cin [...] co madres trabajadoras. Los relatos de dichas mujeres, a partir de un conjunto de preguntas abiertas, revelaron dificultades para conciliar el trabajo y la amamantación, como consecuencia de sus creencias y de la falta de soporte social e institucional. Las condiciones deficientes de trabajo a las que esas mujeres están expuestas también son factores determinantes en la continuidad o interrupción de la amamantación. Es necesario ampliar las mejorías de las instituciones con guarderías, puestos de recolección de leche y acompañamiento permanente de esas mujeres, cuando se produzca su vuelta al trabajo Abstract in english This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, fro [...] m a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work

Ana Márcia Bustamante de, Morais; Márcia Maria Tavares, Machado; Priscila de Souza, Aquino; Maria Irismar de, Almeida.

77

Labor force participation of married women in Turkey: Is there an added or a discouraged worker effect?  

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This article analyzes married women's labor supply responses to their husbands' job loss (added worker effect) and worsening of unemployment conditions (discouraged worker effect). We find that married women whose husbands are unemployed or underemployed are more likely to participate in the labor force and work more hours using yearly cross-sectional data from Turkey for the 2000-2010 period. We also construct two year panels based on questions on previous year's labor market outcomes. Panel...

Karaoglan, Deniz; Okten, Cagla

2012-01-01

78

Training for Whom? For What? Reflection on the Lack of Training Opportunities for Immigrant Garment Workers. NALL Working Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike many recent immigrants who entered Canada as highly trained professionals in their countries of origin, most of Canada's immigrant garment workers are working-class women with little education. The Apparel Textile Action Committee (ATAC) and Homeworker's Association (HWA) are among the bodies that were established to assist immigrant…

Ng, Roxana

79

Determinants of the Use of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women Workers in Urban Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThis case-control study aimed to determine critical factors influencing the use of clinical breast examination and mammography among women workers in Monterrey, Mexico.MethodsWe determined case and control status from survey results. Cases were defined in accordance with the guidelines of the Official Mexican Standard as lack of at least one clinical breast examination during the past year by surveyed women. For women older than 40 years, cases were further defined as lack of at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years and, for women older than 50, lack of a mammogram in the previous year. Controls were defined as adherence by surveyed women to these guidelines. Participants (N = 306 clerks aged 18–60 provided information about their practices, knowledge, and perceptions regarding breast cancer screening. Factors identified by odds ratio analysis as significantly different between cases and controls were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.ResultsSurvey participants’ knowledge about the utility of breast self-examination (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–33.9, perception that the health care system has enough equipment and personnel for clinical breast examination (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–13.2, and perception that they have enough time to wait for and receive clinical breast examinations (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–5.8 significantly predisposed women to use screening services independent of years of formal education, number of pregnancies, number of living children, hours worked per week, and monthly family income.ConclusionPerception of organizational and structural factors played a significant role in screening use. Our findings have implications for the general population, provider practices, community interventions, and future development of strategies to increase use of screening services in similar locales.

Sergio R. Sánchez-Peña, PhD

2008-04-01

80

Ergonomic design intervention strategy for work tools development for women agro based workers in Northeast India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategy for finding the appropriate strategy for work tool development has become a crucial issue in occupational wellness of varied nature of women workforce of Northeast India. This paper deals with ergonomics intervention through sustainable work tool design development process. Workers who frequently shift to different activities quite often in unorganised small-scale fruit processing units where productivity is directly related to the harvesting season require different work tools relevant to specific tasks and mostly workers themselves manage work tools of their own with available local resources. Whereas in contrast the tea-leaf pluckers are engaged in a single task throughout the year, and the work schedule and work equipment is decided and supplied to them based on the corporate decision where the workers do not have any individual control. Observations confirm the need for organising participatory workshops specific to trade based occupational well-being and different work tools for different tasks in mostly private owned unorganised sector. Implementation of single variety work tool development that supports a crucial component in tea-leaf plucking for which they are engaged in full time employment; and through a corporate decision a single design with its number of users makes a good effect. PMID:22316902

Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Bhattachheriya, Nandita

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Occupational hazards and illnesses of Filipino women workers in export processing zones.  

Science.gov (United States)

This was a baseline study on occupational exposure and health problems among women workers in export processing zones. Physical, chemical, and ergonomic hazards were evaluated and measured through workplace ambient monitoring, survey questionnaires, and interviews with 500 respondents in 24 companies (most were female at 88.8%). The top 5 hazards were ergonomic hazards (72.2%), heat (66.6%), overwork (66.6%), poor ventilation (54.8%), and chemical exposure (50.8%). The most common illnesses were gastrointestinal problems (57.4%), backache (56%), headache (53.2%), and fatigue/weakness (53.2%). Logistic regression showed an association between certain work-related factors and occupational illnesses, and psychosocial problems. Highly significant associations were hearing loss with years spent in the company (p=.005) and gender (p=.006), headache and dizziness with poor ventilation (p=.000), backache with prolonged work (p=.003). These results will have implications for policy and program formulation for women workers' concerns and issues in export zones. PMID:18954543

Lu, Jinky Leilanie

2008-01-01

82

Tear secretion dysfunction among women workers engaged in light-on tests in the TFT-LCD industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display) industry is rapidly growing in Taiwan and many other countries. A large number of workers, mainly women, are employed in the light-on test process to detect the defects of products. At the light-on test workstation, the operator is generally exposed to low humidity (in the clean room environment), flashing light, and low ambient illumination for long working hours. Many workers complained about eye ...

Su Shih-Bin; Lu Chih-Wei; Sheen Jiunn-Woei; Kuo Shu-Chun; Guo How-Ran

2006-01-01

83

Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers fro...

Hl, Chee; Rashidah S; Shamsuddin K; Intan O

2003-01-01

84

Respiratory disability in ex-cotton workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A high proportion of textile workers handling cotton and flax complain of respiratory symptoms and show a loss in lung function. These effects are reversible in the early stages but the degree to which they lead to permanent respiratory disability is unknown. Two surveys were therefore conducted in which respiratory function and symptoms were compared in ex-textile workers and in control subjects who had never been exposed to textile dusts. One survey was of ex-flax workers in Northern Irelan...

Elwood, P. C.; Sweetnam, P. M.; Bevan, C.; Saunders, M. J.

1986-01-01

85

The effects of sex -segregation and racial/ethnic segregation on the job -related well -being of women workers  

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This research examines the effects of sex-segregation and racial/ethnic segregation in workplaces on the perceived job-related well-being of the women workers. Women's increased participation in the U.S.A. labor market has drawn attention to the impact of sex-segregation of the workplace on their well-being. Again, in the U.S.A. labor market, workers are also segregated in terms of race/ethnicity. Thus the study of sex-segregation without including the effect of racial/ethnic segregation prov...

2009-01-01

86

Textile Dictionary  

Science.gov (United States)

Are you tired of getting the same definitions for batiste, cambric, and lawn in your regular dictionary, when you're sure there must be a difference between them? You can now find detailed definitions to these and 179 other textile terms from the Textile Dictionary, produced by the Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design. The entries are arranged under four main categories: Standard Cotton Fabrics; Standard Silk and Silk Imitation Fabrics; Standard Worsted, Wool and Hair fabrics; and Other Cellulose Fabrics. Details on fiber, weave, characteristics, and uses are given for most entries. The dictionary does not currently have a search capability, which would greatly enhance its usefulness.

1997-01-01

87

Ergonomic evaluation of conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking with women workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking were evaluated ergonomically on an experiment conducted for 20 minute with women workers. The working heart rate, energy expenditure rate, total cardiac cost of work and physiological cost of work with conventional tools varied from 93-102 beats.min-1, 6-7.5 kJ.min-1, 285-470 beats, 14 -23 beats.min-1 while with machine varied from 96-105 beats.min-1, 6.5-8 kJ.min-1 , 336-540 beats, 16-27 beats.min-1 respectively. OWAS score for conventional method was 2 indicating corrective measures in near future while with machine was 1 indicating no corrective measures. Result of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire revealed that subjects complaint of pain in back, neck, right shoulder and right hand due to unnatural body posture and repetitive movement with hand tool. Moreover pricking was carried out in improper lighting conditions (200-300 lux) resulting into finger injuries from sharp edges of hand tool, whereas with machine no such problems were observed. Output with machine increased thrice than hand pricking in a given time. Machine was found useful in terms of saving time, increased productivity, enhanced safety and comfort as involved improved posture, was easy to handle and operate, thus increasing efficiency of the worker leading to better quality of life. PMID:22316889

Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Sharma, D K

2012-01-01

88

Survival times of women radium dial workers first exposed before 1930  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Life table methods were applied to survival data on U.S. women radium dial workers in order to compare observed and expected deaths as a function of time after exposure to radium. The study population consisted of 1235 workers employed in the industry before 1930 for whom age and year of death, withdrawal or loss from the study were known. Expected deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for U.S. white females. The closing year for analysis was 1976, so observation times of 45 to 60 years were possible. For all causes, 529 deaths before age 85 were observed versus 461 expected, and the cumulative survival of the population was significantly less than expected at 10 and more years after first employment. Estimates were made of the net survival probabilities after elimination of risk due to the well-known radium-related malignancies, i.e. bone sarcomas and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and the mastoid air cells. There were 455 observed deaths from other causes versus 460 expected, and there was no significant difference between observed and expected cumulative net survival at one-year intervals from zero to 59 years after first employment. These findings indicate that only the known radium-related malignancies contributed significantly to life shortening of the exposed population as a whole, but the presence of other radium-related causes of death may yet be detectable by examination of specific risks as a function of dose. (author)

89

Comparative study of lung functions in women working in different fibre industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross sectional work has been done on Bangladeshi females, working in different fibre industries, to study the effect of exposure to fibre dust on pulmonary functions. The ventilatory capacities were measured by VMI ventilometer in 653 apparently healthy women (160, 162 and 167 were jute, textile and garment industry workers, respectively). For the controls 164 females were recruited who never worked in any fibre industry. The observed FVC, FEV1 and PEFR were lower in all groups of fibre industry workers than those of the control. Among the industry workers, the jute mill workers had the lowest ventilatory capacities and garment industry workers had the highest values. The jute and textile mill workers had also significantly lower FEV1 and PEFR than those of garment industry workers. The FEV1 and PEFR were significantly lower in jute mill workers than those of textile ill workers. The low ventilatory capacities were almost proportionate with the length of service of the workers. Thus, the present study indicates that the fibre dust, on regular exposure for longer duration, may limit the lung functions. PMID:18626454

Khanam, F; Islam, N; Hai, M A

2008-07-01

90

Wearable textile GPS antenna for integration in protective garments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the context of wearable textile systems for rescue workers, the knowledge of the position of the mobile operator is a crucial information for coordination of interventions. For this purpose, a textile wearable GPS antenna is required. Such an antenna must be completely integrable into a protective garment and resistent against harsh environmental conditions. Moreover, its performance must be sufficiently resilient to real-work disturbances, such as the proximity of textile materials compos...

Vallozzi, Luigi; Vandendriessche, Wouter; Rogier, Hendrik; Hertleer, Carla; Scarpello, Maria Lucia

2010-01-01

91

Rural Gambian women's reliance on health workers to deliver sulphadoxine – pyrimethamine as recommended intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of most anti-malarial medications is restricted during pregnancy, but two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended after the first trimester as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp. In The Gambia, only 32% of women receive two doses and very little research has been conducted on women's awareness of drug safety during pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to assess whether rural Gambian women were aware of the importance of the timing of the two-dose IPT dose schedule and its relevance to drug safety. Methods This was a qualitative study in which 41 interviews and 16 focus group discussions with women, adolescents, men and traditional birth attendants were conducted. A generic qualitative approach was used to generate a theory as to why women might not participate in IPTp as recommended. Results Although most women used calendar months to count their stage of pregnancy, these months did not correlate with their concept of foetal development. Foetal growth was described following Islamic tradition as water, clot, piece of meat and human being, although there was little consensus about the order or timing in which these stages occurred. Common signs and conditions of malaria were known. Women were anxious about miscarriage and recognized that some medicines should not be taken in the first trimester, but were urged by men and traditional birth attendants to attend for antenatal care in the first trimester to "start treatment." General knowledge about the purpose of pregnancy medications and when they should be taken was poor among both men and women. One important result was that women relied entirely on health workers to provide safe drugs, at the correct time. Conclusion Women did not have relevant information to judge the safety and appropriate timing of pregnancy drugs, which made them over-reliant on health workers. They should be encouraged to date their own pregnancies in culturally relevant terms and to anticipate when and which medications they should receive.

Brabin Loretta

2009-02-01

92

Avaliação do risco ergonômico em trabalhadores da indústria têxtil por dois instrumentos: quick exposure check e job factors questionnaire / Ergonomic risk assessment in textile industry workers by two instruments: quick exposure check and job factors questionnaire / Evaluación del riesgo ergonómico en trabajadores de la industria textil con dos instrumentos: quick exposure check y job factors questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A análise dos fatores de risco ergonômicos presentes em indústrias têxteis auxilia no planejamento de estratégias que contribuem para a melhora das condições de trabalho e redução dos distúrbios osteomusculares. Este estudo se propôs a mensurar os níveis de exposição aos fatores de risco ergonômicos [...] em trabalhadores de dois setores de produção de uma indústria têxtil. Para tanto, os instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) e o Quick Exposure Check (QEC) foram aplicados em 107 trabalhadores. Os resultados foram analisados por estatística descritiva. O teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparação dos resultados obtidos entre os setores de produção. O diagnóstico do nível de exposição ao risco ergonômico, obtido por ambos os instrumentos, foi moderado. Os fatores de risco considerados pelo JFQ como mais criticos estão relacionados à temperatura ambiental; postura mantida em longos períodos de tempo; posturas inadequadas para coluna e continuar trabalhando quando está com alguma dor ou com alguma lesão. O QEC identificou as regiões de coluna lombar e punhos/mãos como expostas ao alto risco. Não houveram diferenças estatisticamente significante entre os setores. Abstract in spanish El análisis de los factores de riesgo ergonómicos presentes en industrias textiles ayuda al planeamiento de estrategias que contribuyen a la mejora de las condiciones de trabajo y reducción de los trastornos osteomusculares. Este estudio se propuso medir los niveles de exposición a los factores de r [...] iesgo ergonómicos en trabajadores de dos sectores de producción de una industria textil. Para ello, los instrumentos Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) y el Quick Exposure Check (QEC) fueron aplicados en 107 trabajadores. Los resultados fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva. El test de Mann-Whitney fue utilizado para comparación de los resultados obtenidos entre los sectores de producción. El diagnóstico del nivel de exposición al riesgo ergonómico, obtenido por ambos instrumentos, fue moderado. Los factores de riesgo considerados por el JFQ como más críticos están relacionados a la temperatura ambiental; postura mantenida en largos períodos de tiempo; posturas inadecuadas para la columna y continuar trabajando cuando tiene algún dolor o con alguna lesión. El QEC identificó las regiones de columna lumbar y muñecas/manos como expuestas a alto riesgo. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los sectores. Abstract in english The analysis of ergonomic risk factors that are present in the textile industry helps to plan strategies that can contribute to the improvement of work conditions and the consequent reduction of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed at measuring levels of exposure to ergonomic risk factors amo [...] ng workers of two production sections in a textile factory. For this purpose, the instruments Job Factors Questionnaire (JFQ) and Quick Exposure Check (QEC) were applied in 107 workers. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare the results between the production sections. The level of exposure to ergonomic risks, obtained through both instruments, was moderate. The risk factors considered as being critical by the JFQ are related to environmental temperature, posture maintained over long periods of time, inadequate spinal posture, and to working even when the worker feels pain or sustains injuries. The QEC identified regions of the lumbar spine and wrists/hands as being exposed to high risk. There were no statistically significant differences between the sections.

Maria Luiza Caires, Comper; Rosimeire Simprini, Padula.

93

TEXTILE SALVAGE  

CERN Multimedia

Readers are reminded that Geneva's agency for salvaging used clothing, other textiles and old shoes (Coordination d'oeuvres d'entraide pour la récupération de vêtements, textiles et chaussures usagés dans le canton de Genève) has a container in the car park outside CERN's Meyrin site. In 2001, 1000 tonnes of such items were collected in the Canton of Geneva (as compared with 840 tonnes in 2000), of which 4460 kg came from the container outside the Meyrin site. The operation's organisers (Caritas, Centre Social Protestant, the Geneva Section of the Swiss Red Cross, Terre des Hommes, the Geneva branch of Terre des Hommes Suisse and Emmaüs, Geneva) would like to thank all those who have donated clothing or otherwise supported their campaign. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848 http://www.cern.ch/relations/

Relations with the Host States Service

2002-01-01

94

Hospital Textiles, Are They a Possible Vehicle for Healthcare-Associated Infections?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textiles are a common material in healthcare facilities; therefore it is important that they do not pose as a vehicle for the transfer of pathogens to patients or hospital workers. During the course of use hospital textiles become contaminated and laundering is necessary. Laundering of healthcare textiles is most commonly adequate, but in some instances, due to inappropriate disinfection or subsequent recontamination, the textiles may become a contaminated inanimate surface with the possibility to transfer pathogens. In this review we searched the published literature in order to answer four review questions: (1 Are there any reports on the survival of microorganisms on hospital textiles after laundering? (2 Are there any reports that indicate the presence of microorganisms on hospital textiles during use? (3 Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection of patients? (4 Are there any reports that microorganisms on textiles are a possible source infection for healthcare workers?

Sabina Fijan

2012-09-01

95

Hospital Textiles, Are They a Possible Vehicle for Healthcare-Associated Infections?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Textiles are a common material in healthcare facilities; therefore it is important that they do not pose as a vehicle for the transfer of pathogens to patients or hospital workers. During the course of use hospital textiles become contaminated and laundering is necessary. Laundering of healthcare textiles is most commonly adequate, but in some instances, due to inappropriate disinfection or subsequent recontamination, the textiles may become a contaminated inanimate surface with the possibili...

2012-01-01

96

Measurement of Organochlorine Pesticides Level in Milk Agricultural Women Workers (Mazandaran-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main purpose of this study levels of some organochlorine pesticides were determined in milk samples of mothers living in two agricultural cities of Iran (Sari and Babol in Mazandaran province in order to assess the trends of woman workers exposure to persistent pollutants. The milk samples gathered from breastfeeding women routine determination of OCPs was performed with GC/ECD. The resulte showed the highest amounts were found for p,p`-DDE, which was 0.056 ?g g-1 in fat in Sari and 0.045 ?g g-1 fat in Babol , followed by ?-HCH, which was 0.037 ?g g-1 fat and 0.024 ?g g-1 fat, respectively. The low level of OCPs in human milk as found in the present study support the Iranian policy of encouraging breast-feeding. The fact that the mother breast-feeds her child and that she originally comes from a region where DDT is still in use as a vector control agent, as well as the former use of organochlorine pesticides OCPs in agriculture, seems to be the main factors for high DDT and other OCP residues in the mothers` milk.

A.G. Ebadi

2006-01-01

97

The Vulnerability of Ethiopian Rural Women and Girls : The Case of Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The migration of economically and socially marginalized rural Ethiopian women and girls is becoming an accelerating phenomenon. Although the displacement is disguised by voluntary labour migration, their vulnerable position makes them easy targets creating a fertile ground for traffickers. The purpose of this study is identifying the causes of the plights Ethiopian domestic workers are facing in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The study is conducted in light of phenomenological framework aiming to u...

Woldemichael, Selamawit

2013-01-01

98

Yönetim Tarz? ve Çal??ma Ko?ullar?, Arkada?l?k Ortam? ve Takdir Edilme Duygusu ile ?? Tatmini Aras?ndaki ?li?kiler : Tekstil Sektöründe Bir Uygulama = The Relationship Between Supervision Style, Working Conditions, Co-Workers Behavior, Recognition and Job Satisfaction : A Field Research on Textile Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intensive competition forces firms to work efficiently and effectively with all their resources including human resources. The need for satisfying employees on the job arises as a necessity for the firm success. Firms can achieve their objectives only by developing and maintaining policies and work environments which in turn will result in job satisfaction. In this study the factors which effect job satisfaction are analyzed on a sample of firms operating in the textile industry. Turkish textile firms are well known with their export ability as well as with their use of labor-intensive production technology. High level of job satisfaction of employees is needed for firm performance. The findings of the survey results indicate that supervisory behavior, working conditions, co-workers behavior and recognition are related to job satisfaction, co-workers behavior having the highest effect among all.

Salih Zeki ?MAMO?LU

2004-01-01

99

RISKY HEALTH ENVIRONMENTS:WOMEN SEX WORKERS’ STRUGGLES TO FIND SAFE, SECURE AND NON-EXPLOITATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA’S POOREST POSTAL CODE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-onl...

2011-01-01

100

Introduction to Textile Terms  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is a brief glossary of terms used in textiles. It would be particularly useful for students in an introductory textiles course. The vocabulary used to describe textiles is often varied and unfamiliar and the terms on this list are a sample of common textile terms related to hand-made textiles. As it is only four pages long, and available in pdf form, it could easily be printed and used as a study guide or handout. The publication is provided as a service of The Textile Museum, which is one of the world's foremost specialty museums, located in Washington D.C.

2006-11-13

 
 
 
 
101

Career Awareness through Textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of art units is intended to be incorporated into the curriculum throughout the career motivation program, kindergarten through grade six. The units use simulated classroom art projects to provide students with exposure to the work done in textile decoration. General information about the textile industry and textile decoration, a…

Domalski, Beverly

102

Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

2008-01-01

103

Evaluation of health hazards of workers of the textile industry working in contact with latex substances on the acrylic compound base  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper is aimed at quantitative and qualitative determination of acrylic compounds that may occur in air at the ''Lentex'' Plant in Lubliniec, along with microclimate parameters measurements. The initial method was that of the Polish Standard PN-78/z-04113, which was subsequently modified. Pursuant to this standard, acrylic compounds were determined by gas chromatography with new column pack and changed parameters of gas chromatograph. The conditions of acrylic esters and acrylonitrile separation on column with LAC-1R-296 phase were considered the best and were used for quantitative and qualitative estimation. The investigations were carried out at workstations, basing on the production stage. The obtained results of identified acrylates concentrations are indicative of a very little content of those compounds in workstations air, implying that those workstations are safe in respect of chemical risk to workers. Certain deviations from mandatory standards were exhibited by almost all microclimatic parameters which might result in workers' worse general feeling.

Szczebara, M.; Stach, R.; Molenda, M.; Szoltysek, H.

1983-01-01

104

Tear secretion dysfunction among women workers engaged in light-on tests in the TFT-LCD industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display industry is rapidly growing in Taiwan and many other countries. A large number of workers, mainly women, are employed in the light-on test process to detect the defects of products. At the light-on test workstation, the operator is generally exposed to low humidity (in the clean room environment, flashing light, and low ambient illumination for long working hours. Many workers complained about eye discomfort, and therefore we conducted a study to evaluate the tear secretion function of light-on test workers of a TFT-LCD company. Methods We recruited workers engaged in light-on tests in the company during their periodical health examination. In addition to a questionnaire survey of demographic characteristics and ophthalmic symptoms, we evaluated the tear secretion function of both eyes of each participant using the Schirmer's lacrimal basal secretion test with anaesthesia. A participant with one or both eyes yielding abnormal test results was defined as a case of tear secretion dysfunction. Results During the study period, a total of 371 light-on test workers received the health examination at the clinic of the park, and 52 of them were excluded due to having ophthalmic diseases and other systemic diseases that may affect ophthalmic function. All the remaining 319 qualified workers agreed to participate in this study, and they were all females working by 4-shift rotations. The average age was 24.2 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8, and the average employment duration was 13.6 months (SD = 5.7. Among the 11 ophthalmic symptoms evaluated, eye dryness was the most prevalent (prevalence = 43.3%. In addition, the prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in at least one eye was 40.1% (128 cases, and contact lens users had an odds ratio of 1.73 (95% confidence interval = 1.02–2.94 in comparison with non-contact lens users. Comparing the Schirmer's test results of those who also participated in the screening in the previous year, we found 40 of the 156 participants (17.2% with normal test results in the previous year turned abnormal in 2001. In contrast, only 21 of the 76 participants (9.1% with abnormal test results in the previous year turned normal, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02 for McNemar's test. Conclusion The prevalence of tear secretion dysfunction in woman workers engaged in light-on tests is high and increases with a one-year duration of employment. The use of contact lens may further increase the risk.

Sheen Jiunn-Woei

2006-12-01

105

"... But then he became my sipa": the implications of relationship fluidity for condom use among women sex workers in Antananarivo, Madagascar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing evidence indicates that sex workers use condoms less consistently with regular (i.e., nonpaying) partners than with clients. Few studies have examined the extent to which these 2 categories are mutually exclusive. In an ethnographic study of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar, we examined how the meaning of women sex workers' sexual relationships could shift among 3 different forms of sex work. Condom use was less likely in forms in which the distinction between client and lover (sipa in Malagasy) was fluid. For many sex workers, therefore, relationships they understood to be intimate imparted the greatest health vulnerability. It is important to examine the influence of the meaning of sexual relationships on condom use for HIV prevention. Policy implications for HIV prevention work with sex workers are considered. PMID:19299685

Stoebenau, Kirsten; Hindin, Michelle J; Nathanson, Constance A; Rakotoarison, Paul Ghislain; Razafintsalama, Violette

2009-05-01

106

Operárias no Cariri cearense: fábrica, família e violência doméstica / Women workers in the Brazilian Northeast: factory, family and domestic violence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo discutimos as mudanças representadas pela entrada de mulheres no trabalho fabril numa região de industrialização recente, buscando verificar em que medida essa inserção, em um contexto de crise do emprego e em uma região marcada pela informalidade de parte significativa das atividades e [...] conômicas, tem influenciado a redefinição dos papéis familiares e acentuado conflitos geradores de violência doméstica. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 14 mulheres que denunciaram algum tipo de violência praticada por seus maridos ou companheiros na Delegacia Regional da Mulher, no município de Crato, CE. Os dados obtidos apontam, entre outros aspectos, que a entrada das mulheres na esfera pública e a autonomia financeira, propiciadas pelo trabalho fabril, tendem a provocar mudanças nos tradicionais papéis de gênero, cujas consequências tem se expressado no questionamento do lugar do homem como provedor, nos rompimentos do grupo familiar e violência doméstica contra as trabalhadoras. Abstract in english In this article, we will argue about the changes represented by the entrance of women in the factory work in a region of recent industrialization, aiming at verifying to which extent such insertion, in a context of employment crisis in a region marked by informal labor activities, has influenced the [...] redefinition of the family roles and increased conflicts that cause domestic violence. A group of 14 women workers that denounced the domestic violence in Crato City, Ceará State, was observed. We intend to recoup the changes perceived by these workers in its life of work and its ordinary life. The women entrance in the public sphere tends to pressure for changes in the traditional roles of gender with distinct gradations, since adjustments in the domestic life until disruption of the family group.

Iara Maria, Araújo; Jacob Carlos, Lima; Izabel Cristina Ferreira, Borsoi.

107

Risk of sexually transmitted infections among Mayan women in rural Guatemala whose partners are migrant workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) are of concern in Mayan districts of Guatemala in which labor migration is common. This study assessed whether the migration status of men is associated with reported STI symptoms among their female primary partners. In a multivariate analysis of survey data taken from a larger Mayan sexual health study, the odds of reporting STI symptoms were twofold higher among women who reported that their partner migrated (OR 2.08, 95 % CI, 1.16-3.71), compared to women whose partners did not. Women from the Mam and Kaqchikel ethnolinguistic groups reported higher rates of STI symptoms after adjustment for their partners' migration status. PMID:23963499

Ikeda, Janet M; Schaffer, Jessica R; Sac Ixcot, Maria L; Page, Kimberly; Hearst, Norman

2014-01-01

108

The Textile Museum  

Science.gov (United States)

The Textile Museum in Washington, D.C. and its website offer a great look into an oft-ignored medium. Historic textiles, functional textiles, and art textiles can all be found on this museum's website, thanks to the collecting savvy of George Hewitt Myers, who founded the museum in 1925. Visitors will enjoy learning about the Textile of the Month when they go to the "Collections" link, found under "Exhibitions and Collections". Scroll down after reading the introductory paragraphs to "Collections", to learn about almost 60 textiles that have been featured as a textile of the month. There is a sock, (possibly from Egypt) from the 12th century, a 19th Century Bhutanese Throne Cover and an intriguing raffia skirt from 20th century Zaire. Visitors can click on the title below the thumbnail image of the textile to see it expanded in all its glory. Visitors can also read about what the textile is made from, how it was made, and how it was worn. As with any type of art work, its conservation is of utmost importance. In the "Care & Display" link at the bottom of any page, visitors can read the techniques employed by the museum to combat cloth-eating bugs, store Oriental carpets, and hang textiles appropriately.

109

Corantes têxteis Textile dyes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment technologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of synthetic organic dyes.

Cláudia C. I. Guaratini

2000-02-01

110

Impact of a physical activity promotion program in worker women from two companies in Bogotá (Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Active and healthy lifestyles have been associated with better quality of life in working women. Objective: To establish the effectiveness of a physical activity program to improve fitness componentsin working women from two Colombian companies. Materials and methods: A longitudinal,exploratory, descriptive study was conducted, previous and later measurements aboutthe quantitative aspects of fitness were taken. Women in the study were between 24-49 years old, without associated risk factors or physical activity practice restrictions according to PARQ & YOU questionnaire. 15 women (37,33 ±9,3 voluntarily decided to join for the intervention onphysical activity for a period of 12 weeks, 60 minutes per day.Statistical analysis was made with SPSS 17. Results: Statistical changes appeared after the intervention, body mass index (BMI (p= 0,023, abdominal strength (p = 0,004 and lower limbs strength (p= 0,001. There were no significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and flexibility. Conclusion: From these results, it was established that the implemented physical activity promotion protocol was effective to change fitness of women who completed the program, meaning that it can be replicated with effective results after its completition.

Mendoza D

2011-12-01

111

Nonwoven electrowetting textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrowetting of two nonwoven textile platforms is reported. Demonstrated nonwoven textiles include a polyethylene naphthalate film that was laser milled with ~125 ?m pores, and pressed paper that was made using wood microfibers of 35-50 ?m diameter. Vacuum deposition provided an Al electrode on the polymer textile whereas layer-by-layer nanoassembly provided an organic PEI-PEDOT:PSS electrode on the wood microfibers. Both textiles were electrically insulated with parylene C and fluoropolymer. Irreversible electrowetting of water was achieved over contact angles of ~120° to ~70° by applying 0-100 V. Completely reversible electrowetting of water/oil was also demonstrated.

Bhat, K.; Heikenfeld, J.; Agarwal, M.; Lvov, Y.; Varahramyan, K.

2007-07-01

112

New Skills for Rural Women. Report of a Training Program for Twelve Malian Community Development Workers (Banjul, The Gambia, June 7-15, 1977).  

Science.gov (United States)

In June, 1977, a 2-week tie-dyeing and batik training program was undertaken for 12 Malian community development workers by a newly formed cooperative of urban dyers in Gambia. Need for income-producing activity for women in the Bambara regions of rural Mali led to a decision to promote cloth processing and in 1974 training sessions were held in…

Caughman, Susan L.

113

Education and the Transformation of Markets and Technology in the Textile Industry. Technical Paper No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report on the textile industry focuses on the training and education of production-level textile workers--from unskilled factory hands to first-level supervisors. It is part of a larger study of the educational implications of broad economic changes, particularly the spread of microelectronic technologies, growing national and international…

Bailey, Thomas

114

Women Workers and Technological Change in Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on research from a number of European countries, the contributors to this book present nine detailed studies on women's work spanning 2 centuries and dealing with a variety of work environments. "General Introduction" (Gertjan de Groot, Marlou Schrover) provides an overview of the book's content. "Frames of Reference: Skill, Gender, and…

de Groot, Gertjan, Ed.; Schrover, Marlou, Ed.

115

Journal Publications of Interest to the Textile Industry: 1ST Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The index gives information about journals and periodicals of interest to workers in many areas of the textile industry. The journals included cover many diverse fields, such as agriculture, chemistry, physics, mechanical engineering, and others. (Author)

P. Jacobs S. Backer

1967-01-01

116

CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES  

CERN Multimedia

We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

Relation with the Host States

2001-01-01

117

Textile Museum of Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The Textile Museum of Canada contains more than 10,000 textiles and spans almost 2,000 years and 190 world regions. Visit this virtual exhibit to learn about fabric from all over the world. You can search exhibits or explore online projects.

Canada, Textile M.

118

Fruit and Vegetable Intakes Are Associated with Lower Risk of Breast Fibroadenomas in Chinese Women1–3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibroadenomas are common benign breast conditions among women and account for ?50% of breast biopsies performed. Dietary factors are known to influence benign breast conditions in the aggregate, but little is known of their association specifically with fibroadenoma. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the association between dietary and other factors and fibroadenoma risk. A case-control study, nested in a randomized trial of breast self-examination (BSE) in Chinese textile workers...

Nelson, Zakia Coriaty; Ray, Roberta M.; Wu, Chunyuan; Stalsberg, Helge; Porter, Peggy; Lampe, Johanna W.; Shannon, Jackilen; Horner, Neilann; Li, Wenjin; Wang, Wenwan; Hu, Yongwei; Gao, Daoli; Thomas, David B.

2010-01-01

119

Attitudes of Turkish Blue Collar Workers Toward Healthy Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the behaviors in terms of healthy nutrition blue collar workers. 300 workers in total, 150 of which are women and 150 of which are men who work in textile factories in Bursa province were included in the content of the study The socio-demographic characteristics and behaviors in terms of healthy nutrition of the workers who were included in the study were taken into consideration. The data were evaluated according to SPSS 11.0 package software and also chi square test, independent samples test, one-way ANOVA analysis and sheffe test were used. According to the obtained results, it was detected that the majority (49.3% of the workers were in the 21-31 age range, were graduates of high school (44.3% and were married (65.3%. It can be seen that the maximum score that workers could obtain was 148, instead of the total possible score of 165. This shows that approximately 71.5% of the total possible score was obtained by the workers.

F. Pinar Cakiroglu

2008-01-01

120

Sex workers self-organizing and empowerment : the experience of Women’s Network for Unity (WNU) in Cambodia : article produced as part of the KIC Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many organizations that are working with sex workers have learned that it is ineffective to provide HIV and other health services to them if they do not consider – and address – sex workers’ work environments, where many cases of human rights violations can be found. Thus, they gradually move into rights-based activities. By reframing sex workers’ health as a rights issue, the focus of HIV prevention work with sex workers shifts from individual-level behaviour change communication to ...

Agenda For Change, Womyn S.; Women’s Network for Unity

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Beetles in Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

This 1994 article by Victoria Rivers, Professor of Textiles at University of California (Davis), is about the fascinating and exquisite use of beetle parts, especially iridescent beetle wings, in textiles. Many entomologists will not be familiar with this aspect of the use of insects and will find the article delightful. The article explores how beetles have been used in textiles throughout history in India, New Guinea, Thailand, Burma, and Amazonia. The online article is about 6 standard text pages and includes photographs that, when clicked, provide a larger image.

0002-11-30

122

Corantes têxteis / Textile dyes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A dye is a colored substance used to impart permanent color to other substances. Its most important use is in coloring textile fibers and fabrics. The removal of colour from dyehouse waste waters is currently a major problem in the textile sector. This paper provides an overview of the treatment tec [...] hnologies that can currently be used by the textile processor and the developments over the past decade with respect to the toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of synthetic organic dyes.

Cláudia C. I., Guaratini; Maria Valnice B., Zanoni.

123

Bioplastics in Textiles / Bioplastics in Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of available biomass that needs to be used are the main reason for bioplastics revival. In many cases it is an optimal solution for a particular purpose. The production of textile used for clothing, medicine, and the automotive industry being the main consumer of technical textile where textile constitutes almost 85% of the car interior follow this trend. The important reasons for application are functionality and biomass utilization. Permanent increase in bioplastic production capacity is expected. The paper presents new achievements in textiles and the related areas. / Zbog velike koli?ine raspoložive biomase koju treba iskoristiti bioplastika doživljava renesansu. U nekim je slu?ajevima dobro rješenje za odre?enu namjenu. Takav trend slijedi i proizvodnja tekstila za potrebe odijevanja, medicine i automobilske industrije, glavnoga korisnika tehni?kog tekstila, gdje tekstil ?ini gotovo 85 % unutrašnjosti automobila. Važni razlozi primjene su funkcionalnost i iskoristivost otpadne biomase te se o?ekuje trajno pove?anje kapaciteta za proizvodnju bioplastike. U radu su prikazana nova dostignu?a u tekstilstvu i srodnim granama.

Ana Marija GRANCARI?

2013-07-01

124

Workplace Literacy: Impacting the Textile Industry. Final Report. Evaluation Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Workers in five departments of the J.P. Stevens Plant in Clemson, South Carolina, participated in a workplace literacy project that was designed to increase participants' literacy and job skills and increase the literacy training efforts of textile plants in the Southeast. Major project activities included the following: identification of the…

Fisk, William R.; Peck, Nancy L.

125

Flame-resistant textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Flame resistance treatment for acid resistant polyamide fibers involving photoaddition of fluorocarbons to surface has been scaled up to treat 10 yards of commercial width (41 in.) fabric. Process may be applicable to other low cost polyamides, polyesters, and textiles.

Fogg, L. C.; Stringham, R. S.; Toy, M. S.

1980-01-01

126

The Textile Space  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Textile has within the last decade increasingly been regarded as an architectural material. Many new textiles have been developed and this has increased its applications in architecture. But how do textile and space meet and which spatial qualities can arise in this meeting? The paper describes a series of practical studies of the spatial qualities that can be established through the design of three very different fabrics. The topic is part of an ongoing Ph.D. project at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. The main theme of the Ph.D. is the inter-play between textile, space and sound. Space, established with textile, differs in several ways from rooms built of conventional building materials. Textiles are flexible - it can both be folded and moved, it can be translucent and simultaneously provide a visual barrier, it is lightweight and at the same time very strong, it is sound absorbing and it has a special poetry which is not to be found in any other material. Which spatial qualities can be obtained with these textile properties? Contemporary conception of space in architecture can be said still to rely on the modernist conception. In practical experiments it is investigated how the textiles can be given shape in relation to modernist theories of space conception. In these theories a number of specific parameters which determine the formation of space are defined. Some of these parameters are the creation of distance between objects, structuring of the space in relation to platonic solids, transparency of materials and dissolution of space boundaries.

Bendixen, Cecilie

127

CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES  

CERN Multimedia

We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site.The Association has informed us that 2 530 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 1998 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.Relations with the Host StatesTel. 75152

Relations avec les Pays hôtes

2000-01-01

128

Digital Textile Printing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapidly evolving technology of digital printing opens new opportunities on many markets. One of them is the printed fabric market where printing companies as well as clients benefit from new printing methods. This thesis focuses on the digital textile printing technology and its implementation for fabric-on-demand printing service in Finland. The purpose of this project was to study the technology behind digital textile printing, areas of application of this technology, the requirements ...

Moltchanova, Julia

2011-01-01

129

Comparação da percepção de fadiga e de capacidade para o trabalho entre trabalhadores têxteis de empresas que se encontram em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Comparison of fatigue and workability among textile workers of companies in different stages of corporate social responsibility in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar as características demográficas e as percepções da capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e condições de trabalho entre trabalhadores de indústrias têxteis que estejam em diferentes estágios de responsabilidade social empresarial (RSE. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, 126 trabalhadores de três empresas e cinco fábricas responderam a questionário de caracterização demográfica, condições e estilos de vida, a autoavaliações sobre fadiga, condições de trabalho e capacidade para o trabalho. As empresas foram classificadas em dois grupos de pontuação de indicadores de RSE (o grupo um de menor pontuação e o grupo dois de maior pontuação, com base nas respostas dadas em questionário específico. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças (p > 0,05 nos resultados de capacidade para o trabalho, fadiga e na maior parte dos dados demográficos obtidos entre os trabalhadores dos dois grupos. As melhores condições de trabalho, no grupo de maior pontuação (p = 0,008, deveram-se principalmente ao fornecimento de refeições nas fábricas. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento e a implementação de projetos de RSE não implicam, necessariamente, em melhores condições de trabalho ou em percepções dos trabalhadores de menor fadiga ou maior capacidade para o trabalho, em relação a empresas que não dispõem desses projetos. Por tratar-se de estudo transversal com população reduzida e como a capacidade para o trabalho pode diminuir com o envelhecimento do trabalhador novos estudos, preferencialmente longitudinais, deverão ser realizados, com populações maiores.OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic data and perception of workability, fatigue and working conditions among groups of workers of textile industries in different stages of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. RATIONAL: Cross-sectional study with 126 workers of 5 textile plants and 3 companies, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate demographic, living conditions and life styles as well as fatigue, working conditions and workability index. Companies were classified based on a specific evaluation, according to their CSR scores, in 2 CSR score groups (group 1 with lower CSR scores and group 2 with higher CSR scores RESULTS: No significant differences (p < 0.05 were found comparing results of fatigue, workability index, and most demographic characteristics obtained among workers from the two groups. The best working conditions in the group with highest CSR scores (p = 0.008 were in plants that provided meals for the workers. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation and development of CSR projects do not necessarily mean better working conditions, less fatigue or higher workability. However, as this was a cross-sectional study with a small population sample and as working capacity may decrease with ageing of workers, new longitudinal studies must be performed with a larger population.

Ricardo Jorge Metzner

2008-12-01

130

Respuesta sexual en mujeres de edad mediana trabajadoras de la salud Sexual response in mean age health workers women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: la incorporación al trabajo insertado y el escenario laboral son factores sociales implicados en la función sexual de la mujer en etapa reproductiva, sin embargo, sus significados no están bien establecidos en la mujer en etapa de climaterio. Objetivo: identificar algunos aspectos relativos a la respuesta sexual en mujeres de edad mediana que laboran en centros de salud de Ciudad de la Habana. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal que consistió en entrevistar a las 59 mujeres de edad mediana que respondieron a la convocatoria de participar en el estudio, todas trabajadoras de 2 centros asistenciales del sector salud del municipio San Miguel del Padrón, en Ciudad de La Habana, y todas con edades entre 38 y 59 años y con pareja sexual estable. Se empleó una encuesta autoadministrada para explorar aspectos sociodemográficos, y cambios en la respuesta sexual (deseo, excitación y orgasmo en los últimos 6 meses. Como variables a controlar se utilizaron: la edad actual, la etapa de climaterio, las características de las relaciones de pareja y la sobrecarga de género. Se emplearon estadígrafos descriptivos y ANOVA para establecer diferencias entre grupos (valor de pIntroduction: to be incorporated into work and the working environment are social factors involved in sexual function of woman in reproductive stage, however, its meanings are not well established in the woman in climateric stage. Objective: our objective was to identify some features related to sexual response in mean age women working in health centers of Ciudad de La Habana. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to interview 59 mean age women participant in such study working in two assistance centers of health sector from the San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Ciudad de La Habana aged between 38 and 59 and with a stable sexual partner. A self-administered opinion poll was used to explore the sociodemographic features and the changes in sexual response (desire, excitation and orgasm during the past months. The variables to be controlled were: present age, climateric stage, features of partner relationships and genre overload. Descriptive stadigraphs were used and ANOVA to establish differences among groups (value of p < 0,05 for statistical significance. Results: most of polled persons expressed no change in sexual response features. Decrease of any of the sexual response phases was related to the partner relationships features, with a older age of woman and to the menopause stage, results similar to other reports made in women with similar sociodemographic features no workers of health sector. Influence of genre overload over sexual response was not identified. Conclusions: features related to sexual response identified in the mean age women group were similar to those of other national and international reports. It is not confirmed that the working scenario selected had influence (negative or positive on the sexual response of study women.

Yaquelín González Ricardo

2011-08-01

131

Forecast and Analyzis Electricity Consumption in Textile Industry in Iran  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in textile Industry in Iran. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in textile industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. On the other hand, Iranian textile industries are facing numerous problems, such as lack of liquidity and lack of foreign exchange to import raw materials and spare parts; outdated and ageing machinery because of the impossibility of renovating production lines; rise in wages; and, finally, the inefficiency of the industry. This industry uses about 8.5% of electricity and 6.4% energy of Iran industrial sector and employs about 10.9 % of all workers in manufacturing. Textile industry provides about 5.4% of Iran industries added value. Energy consumption in Iran's textile industry is inefficient, with a huge possibility of improvement. This paper aims to analyze energy demand in the current condition and in the new government's plan. This paper has simulated these models with neural network. The comparison between results of these two models illustrates the effects of this plan on the electricity consumption in textile industry in Iran. Results show that with current electricity price, the most effective parameter on electricity consumption in Iran is added value.

Piltan, Mehdi; Farahani, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, S. Farid [University of Tehran, Faculty of Engineering (Iran)

2009-07-01

132

Functionalisation of textiles : future perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multifunctional effects are essential for producing higher value added textiles, important not only for new technical applications but also for more “traditional” uses such as clothing and home textiles with high product differentiation. Within the “European Technology Platform for the Future of Textiles and Clothing”, functional textiles are a clear priority. Surface modification by means of finishing is very versatile and allows a large number of effects. The developments of new fun...

2006-01-01

133

Problems with textile wastewater discharge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

1987-12-01

134

Problems with textile wastewater discharge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

Rantala, Pentti [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

1987-12-15

135

Prevalence of byssinosis in textile mills at Ahmedabad, India.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an epidemiological study carried out in three textile mills at Ahmedabad, India, 929 workers were examined from the spinning departments. The mean prevalence of byssinosis in the blow section was 29.62%, whereas in the card section it was 37.83%. The concentrations of cotton dust (dust less fly) were high in the blow and card sections (4.00 mg/m3 in the blow and 3.06 mg/m3 in the card section). This study suggests that the prevalence of byssinosis is not low in the textile mills of India a...

Parikh, J. R.; Bhagia, L. J.; Majumdar, P. K.; Shah, A. R.; Kashyap, S. K.

1989-01-01

136

Reports of work related musculoskeletal injury among home care service workers compared with nursery school workers and the general population of employed women in Sweden.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To describe the nationwide occurrence of work related musculoskeletal injuries among all home care service workers in Sweden, and to identify relative risks and risk factors of the injuries. METHODS--The study was based on work related injuries reported to the Swedish occupational injury information system in 1990-1. The work related musculoskeletal injuries were divided into overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases. The incidence of the injuries in female home care ser...

Ono, Y.; Lagerstro?m, M.; Hagberg, M.; Linde?n, A.; Malker, B.

1995-01-01

137

Radiation Modification of Textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of ionizing radiation to textile finishing operations has become a commercial reality. Electron accelerators are currently being used in a process which imparts durable press, stain-releasing properties to a polyester-cotton blend fabric (Deering-Milliken Co., USA). There are other textile and chemical companies which have announced laboratory or pilot plant development of radiation-textile finishing processes. During the past ten years there has also been a tremendous number of research publications on radiation initiated reactions in fibres or fibre-monomer systems. This paper first briefly reviews the principles of radiation modification of textiles. The important molecular factors controlling such processes and their interaction will be considered. These factors include the G-values for radical formation, local propagation, transfer and termination rate constants, local monomer concentration and its coefficient of diffusion within the polymer matrix, radiation dose rate, temperature, and the presence of non-reactive (e.g. solvent) species. Economic factors will also be considered. Following this there is a review;of the most pertinent recent published work in this field, including the patent literature. This survey will be broken into two parts: bulk effects and surface effects. Emphasis will be placed on durable press and stain release properties. The chemistry of durable press and its application within the field of radiation chemistry will be covered. The principles of surface chemistry will then be discussed, as they relate to important wetting phenomena in textile fibres and fabrics. Data will be presented from a series of studies which the author has been conducting on the radiation modification of surface wettability of textile materials. (author)

1969-12-01

138

Windham Textile & History Museum & Visitors Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The website of the Mill Museum of Connecticut states that it "preserves and interprets the history of textiles, textile arts and the textile industry, with special emphasis on the experiences of the craftspeople, industrial workers, manufacturers, inventors, designers, and consumers." The Museum has permanent and temporary exhibits online, which consist primarily of photos. The "Temporary Exhibits" link will take visitors to several slideshows of "Past Exhibits." Visitors should not miss the "Treasures" past exhibit, with its gorgeous quilts and weavings. There is a weaving with the faces and dates of the presidents of the U.S. up to the mid 1800s, as well as a gorgeous crazy quilt that features appliqued stars and a moon in the middle of it. The "Permanent Exhibits" has a number of photos of mills, inside and out, as well as a PDF exhibit catalog, entitled "Sewing Revolution: The Machine that Changed the World." It features pictures and machine details of more than 75 antique sewing machines from the museum's collection.

139

Organisational Pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of Academic and Non- Academic Women Workers in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

An approach to motivation in the contemporary world of work is the implementation of Quality-of-Worklife (QWL programmes, which is aimed at easing the pressures faced at work by employees. Quality-of-Worklife is a relatively new concept in human resource management. It is a philosophy of improving productivity by providing workers with the opportunities required to put in their best at work, without jeopardizing their personal self improvement and responsibilities at home. This study, investigated the organisational pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of academic and non - academic women in tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study was a survey of the ex-post facto type. 3,640 senior cadre women working in the four purposively selected degree awarding institutions in Lagos State (University of Lagos, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State University and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital and their managers formed the population. Out of these, 250 women were selected as sample from each institution using the stratified random sampling technique. Three instruments were used for the study: Quality-of-Worklife survey of Women Workers (QWLSWW r= .815, Head of Department Check List (HODCL and Structured Interview Questions (SIQ. A research question and 3 research hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level. Data were analysed using frequency counts, percentages, t-test. Significant differences were found between academic and non-academic female members of staff in their sources of pressure (t=2.43, P<0.05. The factors included: salary, health-care benefits, day-care services on workplace premises and workload. However, no significant differences were found between academic and non-academic female members of staff on sources of satisfaction which included, daily workload, salary, fairness in performance assessment, special recognition for high performance, internet facilities at work and health- care benefit and organisational pressure factors. Factors such as salary, health-care benefit, day-care services, recognition, workload and others influenced QWL of women. Government and management committees of the tertiary institutions should ensure the reduction of organisational pressure and promote high QWL. This would enable the women workers contribute to the productivity of their organisation.

 

Mobolaji Ogunsanya

2012-05-01

140

Gender Pay Differences: Progress Made, but Women Remain Overrepresented among Low-Wage Workers. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women represent an increasingly larger share of the total workforce in the United States constituting nearly half of the total workforce. In addition, an increasing proportion of women in the workforce are more educated. However, research by GAO and other...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Prevalência da dor orofacial e seu impacto no desempenho diário em trabalhadores das indústrias têxteis do município de Laguna, SC / Prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life of textile industries workers of Laguna, SC, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram examinadas as tendências em saúde da população idosa brasileira utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998-2008). O estudo incluiu uma amostra probabilística de 105.254 pessoas com > 60 anos de idade. A média da idade foi de 69 anos e 56% eram mulheres. Houve um a [...] umento gradativo da boa autoavaliação da saúde (39,3%, 43,5% e 45,0% em 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente) e uma diminuição na prevalência de artrite, doença do coração e depressão autorreferidas. A prevalência da hipertensão (43.9%, 48.8% e 53.3%, respectivamente) e do diabetes autorreferidos (10.3%, 13.0% e 16.1% respectivamente) aumentou acentuadamente. A prevalência da incapacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária (alimentar-se, tomar banho ou ir ao banheiro) permaneceu estável (6.5%, 6.4% e 6.9%, respectivamente). A realização de três ou mais consultas médicas nos 12 meses precedentes aumentou 21% entre 1998 e 2008. As hospitalizações diminuíram 10% no mesmo período. Essas tendências foram independentes do sexo e da idade. Os resultados mostram melhora em algumas dimensões da saúde dos idosos, mas não em todas. As mudanças no uso de serviços de saúde ocorreram como esperado em decorrência da expansão das atividades de atenção primária no Brasil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the daily performance of workers in the textile industry in the municipality of Laguna, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving all workers (n= 267) of the five textile industries of the municipality in 2004 [...] was conducted. Data were obtained through the questionnaire proposed by Locker and Gruska to measure the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) indicator. Socio-demographic data such as gender, age, level of schooling, income, job function and absenteeism due to orofacial pain was collected. Data were descriptively analyzed and the prevalence ratios, confidence intervals and unconditional multiple logistic regression were calculated. The prevalence of orofacial pain was 32.2% and the oral impact on daily performance was 28.5%. The regression model indicated that orofacial pain was the only variable statistically associated with the oral impact on daily performance, increasing its prevalence by more than 22 times, compared to those without orofacial pain. It was concluded that the prevalence of orofacial pain was high among workers, representing a decisive factor on the oral impact on daily performance.

Josimari Telino de, Lacerda; Juliana Demétrio, Ribeiro; Dayane Machado, Ribeiro; Jefferson, Traebert.

142

Prevalência da dor orofacial e seu impacto no desempenho diário em trabalhadores das indústrias têxteis do município de Laguna, SC / Prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life of textile industries workers of Laguna, SC, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram examinadas as tendências em saúde da população idosa brasileira utilizando-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998-2008). O estudo incluiu uma amostra probabilística de 105.254 pessoas com > 60 anos de idade. A média da idade foi de 69 anos e 56% eram mulheres. Houve um a [...] umento gradativo da boa autoavaliação da saúde (39,3%, 43,5% e 45,0% em 1998, 2003 e 2008, respectivamente) e uma diminuição na prevalência de artrite, doença do coração e depressão autorreferidas. A prevalência da hipertensão (43.9%, 48.8% e 53.3%, respectivamente) e do diabetes autorreferidos (10.3%, 13.0% e 16.1% respectivamente) aumentou acentuadamente. A prevalência da incapacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária (alimentar-se, tomar banho ou ir ao banheiro) permaneceu estável (6.5%, 6.4% e 6.9%, respectivamente). A realização de três ou mais consultas médicas nos 12 meses precedentes aumentou 21% entre 1998 e 2008. As hospitalizações diminuíram 10% no mesmo período. Essas tendências foram independentes do sexo e da idade. Os resultados mostram melhora em algumas dimensões da saúde dos idosos, mas não em todas. As mudanças no uso de serviços de saúde ocorreram como esperado em decorrência da expansão das atividades de atenção primária no Brasil. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on the daily performance of workers in the textile industry in the municipality of Laguna, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving all workers (n= 267) of the five textile industries of the municipality in 2004 [...] was conducted. Data were obtained through the questionnaire proposed by Locker and Gruska to measure the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) indicator. Socio-demographic data such as gender, age, level of schooling, income, job function and absenteeism due to orofacial pain was collected. Data were descriptively analyzed and the prevalence ratios, confidence intervals and unconditional multiple logistic regression were calculated. The prevalence of orofacial pain was 32.2% and the oral impact on daily performance was 28.5%. The regression model indicated that orofacial pain was the only variable statistically associated with the oral impact on daily performance, increasing its prevalence by more than 22 times, compared to those without orofacial pain. It was concluded that the prevalence of orofacial pain was high among workers, representing a decisive factor on the oral impact on daily performance.

Josimari Telino de, Lacerda; Juliana Demétrio, Ribeiro; Dayane Machado, Ribeiro; Jefferson, Traebert.

143

Negotiating respectability: migrant women workers' perceptions of relationships and sexuality in free trade zones in sri lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migration has implications for women's sexual and reproductive health and rights. Our purpose with this study was to explore unmarried migrant women's perceptions of relationships and sexuality in the context of Sri Lankan Free Trade Zones. Sixteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. We found that the women's perceptions were influenced by gendered hegemonic notions of respectability and virginity. Complex gender relations both worked in favor of and against women's sexual and reproductive health and rights. Programs for improvement of migrant women's health should be informed by contextualized analysis of gender relations with its various dimensions and levels. PMID:24279615

Jordal, Malin; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Ohman, Ann; Essén, Birgitta; Olsson, Pia

2014-06-01

144

TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

145

Textile Flame Retardant Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article discuss know clearly the dominant species of flame retardant, flame retardant mechanism and flame checking technology combine gave an outline of the testing method of flame retardant effect, lodge set look into highly active, low mammalian toxicity, low fume burst size, multifunctional flame retardant textile, it is our struggling heading.

2009-01-01

146

Textile Flame Retardant Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discuss know clearly the dominant species of flame retardant, flame retardant mechanism and flame checking technology combine gave an outline of the testing method of flame retardant effect, lodge set look into highly active, low mammalian toxicity, low fume burst size, multifunctional flame retardant textile, it is our struggling heading.

Hongkun SunZhang

2009-02-01

147

Learning with a Website for the Textile Industry in Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a locally initiated investigation into the suitability of the Internet in helping to meet the information needs of women in small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the textile industry in Botswana. The background is the stated government policy to encourage the development of SMMEs and the Internet infrastructure. The…

Mbambo, Buhle; Cronje, Johannes C.

2007-01-01

148

Novel antimicrobial textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer (SAP) by copolymerization of hydantoin containing monomer and acrylic acid and coating of SAP onto filter fabrics, and (9) use of a hindered amine compound to treat fabrics for use as air filters. Some treated samples were subjected to laundry testing and aging testing for evaluating their durabilities. Bacterial testing was performed to determine the antimicrobial efficacies of the samples. The results demonstrated that many of the treated samples exhibited promising antibacterial effectiveness.

Cho, Unchin

2003-10-01

149

Learning with a website for the textile industry in Botswana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on a locally initiated investigation into the suitability of the Internet in helping to meet the information needs of women in small, medium, and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the textile industry in Botswana. The background is the stated government policy to encourage the development of SMMEs and the Internet infrastructure. The question is, how likely are women entrepreneurs to use a website as a resource? We considered two barriers to the use of technology by ...

Mbambo, Buhle; Cronje, Johannes C.

2007-01-01

150

Electrical conductive textiles obtained by screen printing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the emergence of smart textiles and wearable textile systems, the need for electrically conductive textiles has become increasingly clear. Often this conductivity is achieved by integrating metal particles, fibres or yarns into textiles or by coating a textile with a metallic layer. In this research, the potential of another method is explored, namely screen printing a textile with conductive ink. This printing technique is an interesting alternative because it is flexible and cost eff...

Kazani, Ilda; Hertleer, Carla; Mey, Gilbert; Schwarz, Anne; Guxho, Genti; Langenhove, Lieva

2012-01-01

151

Making textile sensors from scratch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This workshop will explore the use of low-cost materials and tools to build textile-based interfaces. We will introduce a range of methods for handcrafting textile sensors and circuitry. Participants will learn techniques developed by the workshop leaders and will also be encouraged to use our material library to design their own custom sensors. The goal of the workshop is to familiarize participants with available electronic textile materials and introduce them to ...

Perner-wilson, Hannah Rosamonde; Buechley, Leah

2010-01-01

152

Wearable textile antenna in substrate integrated waveguide technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel wearable substrate integrated waveguide antenna fabricated entirely from textile materials is presented. The cavity-backed slot antenna operates in the 2.45 GHz industrial, scientific and medical band, for short range communication between rescue workers. A prototype of the antenna was fabricated and tested: good performance was obtained in terms of input matching and radiation pattern. Moreover, measurements performed on the antenna after bending and integration into clothing indicat...

Moro, Riccardo; Agneessens, Sam; Rogier, Hendrik; Bozzi, Maurizio

2012-01-01

153

Fixed textile shutters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with multifunctional properties, formed by the interwoven threads of a vigorous fixed formwork textile material (basalt, linen, silica and other glass yarns adhered by binding material. The innovative construction technology of production and installation of a new generation of textstone buildings has been registered as a brand TextStone. The fundamental difference between texstone and reinforced concrete and all known building materials is that the whole outer surface of solidified light binders is protected by strong, vigorous and fixed formwork made from inexpensive textile materials. Manufacturing textile shells allows using it as an internal finishing material, reducing or eliminating the cost of finishing work.The use of fixed textile construction shutters during the construction of buildings has obvious technical, economic, operational, sanitary and environmental benefits: short construction time (from 3 to 10 days, compact packaging and light weight of fabric shells, high fire resistance, frost resistance, ease of engineering services installation in the hollow communicating shells; minimal amount of finishing, roofing, heat and noise insulation works. Texstone is a durable solid monolithic construction that provides high viability and earthquakes, hurricanes wind, solar sultriness and frost resistance. Material complies with all sanitary and environmental requirements. Due to such physical, mechanical, operational, sanitary and ecological characteristics of the structure, long life and reduced assembly time textstone has great prospects for development and application in the future.

K.A. Chernova

2010-06-01

154

Unravelling women’s stories of health :Female workers’ experiences of work, gender roles and empowerment relating to health in Katunyake export-processing zone, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of globalization processes on women, such as the new economic division of labour and relocation of global production into Third World countries, is a frequently debated topic within the globalization and gender discourse. The opportunities for formal work for young women in export-processing industries and they have been able to earn an income and to contribute economically to the survival of their poor families are the main positive impacts of globalization. Further, they are able...

Attanapola, Chamila Thushari

2005-01-01

155

Unravelling women’s stories of health : Female workers’ experiences of work, gender roles and empowerment relating to health in Katunyake export-processing zone, Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of globalization processes on women, such as the new economic division of labour and relocation of global production into Third World countries, is a frequently debated topic within the globalization and gender discourse. The opportunities for formal work for young women in export-processing industries and they have been able to earn an income and to contribute economically to the survival of their poor families are the main positive impacts of globalization. Further, they are able...

Attanapola, Chamila Thushari

2005-01-01

156

Physical tools for textile creativity and invention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two textile research projects (one completed and one ongoing) are described, where physical inspirational tools are developed and tested with the aim of stimulating textile creativity and invention, i.e. the use of textile materials in new kinds of products, thus bringing textiles into new contexts. The first research project (completed) concerns how textile designers use new responsive materials and technologies, whereas the second (ongoing) concerns how architects and design engineers can use textile materials. In both projects, the developed inspirational tool is tested through workshops with the mentioned stakeholders. In these workshops, new ways of disseminating the results from research in textiles and textile design are experimented with. The submitted contribution therefore mainly addresses the role of interdisciplinarity in textile design research as well as the impact of new materials and technologies on directions and approaches in textile design research. It presents one example of what textile design research is.

Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker

2010-01-01

157

A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras / Breastfeeding among children of women workers / El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Pira [...] cicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio [...] de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]). CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (South [...] eastern Brazil). Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination

Aline Alves, Brasileiro; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Sérgio Tadeu Martins, Marba; Rosana de Fátima, Possobon.

158

A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras / Breastfeeding among children of women workers / El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Pira [...] cicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio [...] de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85]), madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26]) y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83]) o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]). CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (South [...] eastern Brazil). Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaig

Aline Alves, Brasileiro; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Sérgio Tadeu Martins, Marba; Rosana de Fátima, Possobon.

159

A amamentação entre filhos de mulheres trabalhadoras El amamantamiento entre hijos de mujeres trabajadoras Breastfeeding among children of women workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar benefícios trabalhistas e fatores associados à manutenção dos índices de amamentação entre mães trabalhadoras. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 200 mulheres trabalhadoras formais que retornaram ao trabalho antes de a criança completar seis meses de vida, no município de Piracicaba, SP. Dentre as participantes, 100 díades mãe-lactente receberam orientações e apoio para a prática do aleitamento em um programa de prevenção em saúde bucal e as demais 100 díades foram abordadas em uma campanha de vacinação infantil. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para identificar variáveis relacionadas ao desmame ao quarto mês de vida. RESULTADOS: A maior parte das participantes era primípara, passou por cesariana, iniciou a amamentação em menos de quatro horas após o parto e permaneceu com seu filho em alojamento conjunto. Tiveram mais chance de parar a amamentação: mães não participantes do programa de incentivo (OR = 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], mães que não tinham intervalo de 30 minutos durante a jornada de trabalho (OR = 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] e mães cujos filhos utilizavam chupeta (OR = 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] ou mamadeira (OR =14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSÕES: As mães que participaram do grupo de incentivo à amamentação, não ofereceram chupeta e mamadeira aos filhos e tinham intervalo durante o trabalho pararam a amamentação após o quarto mês. Apoio, informações sobre o manejo da lactação e sobre seus direitos garantidos por lei, em conjunto com a ampliação do tempo de licença maternidade, poderão ter um importante papel na manutenção da prática do aleitamento materno.OBJETIVO: Analizar beneficios laboristas y factores asociados al mantenimiento de los índices de amamantamiento entre madres trabajadoras. MÉTODOS: La muestra fue constituida por 200 mujeres trabajadoras formales que retornaron al trabajo antes del niño completar seis meses de vida, en el municipio de Piracicaba, SP. Entre las participantes, 100 dúos madre-lactante recibieron orientaciones y apoyo para la práctica de la lactancia en un programa de prevención en salud bucal y los otros 100 dúos fueron abordados en una campaña de vacunación infantil. Se realizó análisis de regresión logística múltiple para identificar variables relacionadas al destete al cuarto mes de vida. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de las participantes era primípara, pasó por cesárea, inició el amamantamiento en menos de cuatro horas posterior al parto y permaneció con su hijo en alojamiento conjunto. Tuvieron mayor probabilidad de parar el amamantamiento: madres no participantes del programa de incentivo (OR= 3,04 [IC95% 1,35;6,85], madres que no tenían intervalo de 30 minutos durante la jornada laboral (OR= 4,10 [IC95% 1,81;9,26] y madres cuyos hijos utilizaban chupete (OR= 2,68 [IC95% 1,23;5,83] o tetero (OR= 14,47 [IC95% 1,85;113,24]. CONCLUSIONES: Las madres que participaron en el grupo de incentivo de la lactancia, no ofrecieron chupete y tetero a los hijos y tenían intervalo durante el trabajo pararon el amamantamiento posterior al cuarto mes. Apoyo, informaciones sobre el manejo de la lactancia y sobre sus derechos garantizados por ley, en conjunto con la ampliación del tiempo de licencia maternidad, podrán tener un papel importante en el mantenimiento de la práctica de la lactancia materna.OBJECTIVE: To analyze employment benefits and factors associated with the maintenance of breastfeeding indexes among working mothers. METHODS: The sample was constituted by 200 formal women workers who returned to work before the child had reached six months of life, in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil. Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify variables related to weaning in the fourth month of life. RES

Aline Alves Brasileiro

2012-08-01

160

Prevention of waste from textile in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the population growing gradually and economy booming in the world, the need of textile product accordingly increases rapidly, which results in the big generation of textile waste. The disposal of textile waste brings in many adverse effects on environment, such as the landfill occupation. The production of textile product itself also causes much environmental concerning. In order to cope with the increasing textile waste and reduce the pressure of waste management, waste prevention is pr...

Shenxun, Yuan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Textiles of the Phu Thai of Laos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis documents the hand-woven textiles that the Phu Thai ethnic group living in Savannakhet Province, Laos, produce. The various stages of textile production and the uses of textiles in Phu Thai society, especially as identity markers, are also examined. Textiles of neighboring groups are also investigated to how knowledge of textile technology, types, and aesthetics are transferred between the Phu Thai and other ethnicities, specifically the Lao and Katang. The study's field research ...

Mcintosh, Linda Susan

2009-01-01

162

Textiles in Transit. An Investigation of Contract Textiles in Airport Terminals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The selection of textiles for public spaces is an essential task for interior designers, as they must decide whether and where textiles are needed as well as to what extent. Due to the wide availability and variety of textiles, the choice of materials and qualities becomes a challenging task, requiring interdisciplinary dialogue between textile and interior professionals. The objective of this thesis is to describe the contract textile business, the relationship between textile designers ...

Fislage, Victoria

2012-01-01

163

Doubly periodic textile patterns  

CERN Multimedia

Knitted and woven textile structures are examples of doubly periodic structures in a thickened plane made out of intertwining strands of yarn. Factoring out the group of translation symmetries of such a structure gives rise to a link diagram in a thickened torus. Such a diagram on a standard torus is converted into a classical link by including two auxiliary components which form the cores of the complementary solid tori. The resulting link, called a kernel for the structure, is determined by a choice of generators u and v for the group of symmetries. A normalised form of the multi-variable Alexander polynomial of a kernel is used to provide polynomial invariants of the original structure which are essentially independent of the choice of generators. It gives immediate information about the existence of closed curves and other topological features in the original textile structure. Because of its natural algebraic properties under coverings we can recover the polynomial for kernels based on a proper subgroup ...

Morton, H R

2008-01-01

164

Co-operative Workplace Relations in East Germany? : A Study of Works Councils in the Textile Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"This study has two aims: firstly to examine the general pattern of works councillor attitudes towards management in the East German textile industry; secondly to investigate the effectiveness of these works councils in representing workers' interests. A survey of works councillors in over fifty mostly privatised textile firms provided some initial indication that they have a cautious, co-operative attitude towards management and are surely not „extended arms of management“...

Frege, Carola

1997-01-01

165

Disruptores endocrinos utilizados en la industria textil-confección en España Endocrine disruptors used in textile industry in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39. Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias.Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk prevention in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organizations agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39. Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.

Rafael Gadea

2009-03-01

166

Disruptores endocrinos utilizados en la industria textil-confección en España / Endocrine disruptors used in textile industry in Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del [...] textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39). Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias. Abstract in english Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk preventi [...] on in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions and selected through management and trade union organizations agreement. Occupational health technicians from the local trade unions visited participating companies and gathered information about chemicals in use through observation of available labels and safety data sheets and through personal interviews with technicians, safety representatives and workers using standardized questionnaires. Results: Participating companies cover a wide range of typical activities in the textile industry, most of them being medium sized (51-250 workers, n=39). Seventeen different chemicals acting as endocrine disrupters were identified in a variety of jobs, including fibre and tissues elaboration, washing, dyeing and finishing, among other. Conclusions: It would be needed to evaluate the level of exposure to endocrine disruptors in these tasks in order to prioritize necessary preventive actions.

Rafael, Gadea; Laura, Mundemurra; Tatiana, Santos; Ruth, Jiménez; Ana M., García.

167

Auxetic warp knit textile structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, manufacturing and characterization of warp knit textile structures with enhanced drapeability and energy absorption is reported in this paper. Four textile structures were produced, all based on a triangular or double arrowhead structure, which is known to lead to a negative Poisson's ratio {nu}. Mechanical testing has confirmed that textile structures can be produced which are auxetic at {+-} 45 to the warp direction, with {nu} of up to -0.22 {+-} 0.03. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Alderson, Kim; Alderson, Andrew; Anand, Subhash; Simkins, Virginia; Nazare, Shonali; Ravirala, Naveen [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, The University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15

168

Problems of energy intensity of textile industry and efficiency of measures for energy conservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years the energy intensity of the textile industry has risen by 18.6%. An examination is made of the effect of price reform of the specific weight of energy outlays in the total costs of production. The absence of material interest of the industrial worker in energy conservation is noted. This complicates the effective energy-conserving measures.

Fisiak, W.

1982-01-01

169

Wearable solar cells by stacking textile electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new and general method to produce flexible, wearable dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) textiles by the stacking of two textile electrodes has been developed. A metal-textile electrode that was made from micrometer-sized metal wires was used as a working electrode, while the textile counter electrode was woven from highly aligned carbon nanotube fibers with high mechanical strengths and electrical conductivities. The resulting DSC textile exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency that was well maintained under bending. Compared with the woven DSC textiles that are based on wire-shaped devices, this stacked DSC textile unexpectedly exhibited a unique deformation from a rectangle to a parallelogram, which is highly desired in portable electronics. This lightweight and wearable stacked DSC textile is superior to conventional planar DSCs because the energy conversion efficiency of the stacked DSC textile was independent of the angle of incident light. PMID:24789065

Pan, Shaowu; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Peining; Deng, Jue; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

2014-06-10

170

NICE3 Textile Finishing Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This new energy-saving approach to fabric finishing can help our domestic textile industry compete in an increasingly competitive global market. Learn how this new technology can lower your maintenance costs and increase your productivity.

Blazek, S.

1999-01-29

171

TEXTILE DYEBATH RECONSTITUTION AND REUSE  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discusses the recent demonstration of the application of an important wastewater recycle technology (reconstitution and reuse of spent dyebath solutions) to the textile industry. After several months of bench and pilot testing, the technology was demonstrated under prod...

172

Nanotechnology in Fibres and Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are considered tobe the key technology for the recent era. Efforts are beingworldwide to create smart and intelligent textiles byincorporating various nano particles or by creatingnanostructured surfaces and nanofibres which lead tounprecedented level of textile performance such as stainresistant, self cleaning, antistatic, UV protective and variouschemical and mechanical properties. The purpose of this paperis to examine the implications of nanotechnology for the fibreand textile industries in the world. The basics and impacts ofnanotechnology are discussed in terms of various advancedproducts by different manufactured along with the properties ofthe products. With an appreciation of what nanotechnologies areemerging globally in the fibre and textile areas, the localindustry will have the necessary background to ask the rightquestions and make informed decisions.

Mr. Subhankar Maity

2013-11-01

173

Antimicrobial Agents Used on Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

The featured molecules of this month come from the article "Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles" by Gang Sun and S. Dave Worley on the history and chemistry of biocidal textiles for use in the health care industry. All of these molecules can be bound to cellulose in a fabric through chemical modification, illustrating yet again the importance of such polymer-bound substrates in a wide-range of chemistries.

174

Lover, mother or worker : women's multiple roles and the HIV/AIDS and reproductive health agenda in Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

International and national campaigns to prevent HIV/AIDS and efforts to promote reproductive health remain separate in terms of conceptualisation and implementation. Local negotiations around reproductive health issues similarly seem to lack explicit attention to HIV/AIDS. This paper argues that even in reproductive health clinics a gap exists between the extent of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and AIDS talk. There also appears to be a mismatch between collective knowledge of the behavioural and biomedical context of HIV/AIDS and the socio-economic context of AIDS as a lived experience. Using an ethnographic account, I explore how one woman's lived experience and her knowledge of AIDS can teach us to take HIV/AIDS into account when theorising, promoting or providing services for improving African women's reproductive health. The background for this ethnography comes from data collected during 25 months of fieldwork at 10 maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) clinic sites in the Morogoro, Ruvuma and Kilimanjaro regions of Tanzania. Rehema's story shows that AIDS, like other diseases, is significantly linked to host-susceptibility and economic vulnerability. Separate and competing vertical programmes on AIDS and MCH/FP, as commonly encountered throughout Africa, cannot meet the needs of women in countries like Tanzania. Yet, we still hear most often of abstinence, anti-retrovirals and condom use as the primary focus of HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention in Africa.

Richey, Lisa Ann

2005-01-01

175

Kaposi`s sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection among female sex workers and general population women in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Limited information on epidemiologic patterns of KSHV, with none focusing on heterosexual transmission, is available in mainland China. To clarify this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of female sex workers (FSW) and general population women (GW) in Shanghai, China. Methods An anonymous questionnaire interview was administrated among 600 FSW and 600 GW. Blood samples were collected and tested for antibodies to KSHV, HSV-2, HIV, syphilis and HBsAg. Correlates of KSHV and HSV-2 were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results None of the study participants were tested positive for HIV. The seroprevalence of KSHV, HSV-2 , HBV and syphilis was 10.0%, 52.2%, 12.3% and 10.5%, respectively for FSW, and was 11.0%, 15.3%, 9.8% and 2.8%, respectively for GW. KSHV seropositivity was not associated with syphilis and HSV-2 infection as well as sexual practices among either FSW or GW. Nevertheless, HSV-2 infection among FSW was independently associated with being ever married (OR?=?1.59; 95%CI: 1.04-2.45), >5 years of prostitution (OR?=?2.06; 95%CI: 1.16-3.68) and being syphilis positive (OR?=?2.65; 95%CI: 1.43-4.93). HSV-2 infection among GW was independently associated with an age of >35 years (OR?=?2.29; 95%CI: 1.07-4.93), having had more than 2 sex partners in the prior 12 months (OR?=?6.44; 95%CI: 1.67-24.93) and being syphilis positive (OR?=?3.94; 95%CI: 1.38-11.23). A gradual increase of prevalence with the prostitution time group was also detected for HSV-2 and syphilis, but not for KSHV. Conclusions KSHV is moderately and equivalently prevalent among FSW and GW. Heterosexual contact is not a predominant route for KSHV transmission among Chinese women.

2014-01-01

176

Textiles para turistas: tejedoras y comerciantes en los Altos de Chiapas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work investigates the role played by indigenous women as producers and sellers of textile pieces, considered handworks and indigenous tradition, with high demand in the tourism market in the region to the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. The presence of tourism in the area has led to the consolidation of a complex local market of textiles in which intertwine weavers, distributors and traders, commercial chains and multiple retail spaces. Through this female agency and marketing of “indigenous”, the research studied a local context that allows indigenous women take new social positions while it integrates social global goods and imaginary aspects.

Eugenia Bayona Escat

2013-04-01

177

Enhancing Benefits or Increasing Harms: Community Responses for HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men, Transgender Women, Female Sex Workers, and People Who Inject Drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

: Studies completed over the past 15 years have consistently demonstrated the importance of community-level determinants in potentiating or mitigating risks for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or mitigate HIV-related outcomes for key populations. The results of the review suggest that although health communication programs represent community-level strategies that have demonstrated the effectiveness in increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the experienced stigma among people living with HIV, there are limited studies focused on key populations in low- and middle-income settings. Moreover, interpretation from the 22 studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria reinforce the importance of the continued measurement of community-level determinants of HIV risks and of the innovation in tools to effectively address these risks as components of the next generation of the HIV response. Consequently, the next generation of effective HIV prevention science research must improve our understanding of the multiple levels of HIV risk factors, while programming for key populations must address each of these risk levels. Failure to do so will cost lives, harm communities, and undermine the gains of the HIV response. PMID:25007203

Baral, Stefan; Holland, Claire E; Shannon, Kate; Logie, Carmen; Semugoma, Paul; Sithole, Bhekie; Papworth, Erin; Drame, Fatou; Beyrer, Chris

2014-08-15

178

Development of Textile Industrial Clusters in Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research investigates the textile industry clusters in Pakistan. A cross sectional data were collected from 30 textile industries by using simple random technique and data were analysis by using E-Views software. Structural questionnaire was the basic tool for measures the performance of textile clusters in Pakistan. It was revealed that the industry is in urgent need of financial and technological investments. However, according to recent official figures, the Pakistan textile industry ...

Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal; Shaikh, Faiz M.; Babak Mahmood; Kamran Shafiq

2010-01-01

179

A biological treatment technique for wool textile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A biological treatment technique for wool textile was carried out by enzymes degradation coupled with H2O2 oxidation. The results demonstrated that the technique had ideal effects on wool textile such as better softness, plump and less loss of bursting stress. Because of mild reaction conditions, less textile damage and less environmental pollution, this technique for wool textile treatment could have promising prospect.

Yu Xiao-Wei

2005-09-01

180

A biological treatment technique for wool textile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A biological treatment technique for wool textile was carried out by enzymes degradation coupled with H2O2 oxidation. The results demonstrated that the technique had ideal effects on wool textile such as better softness, plump and less loss of bursting stress. Because of mild reaction conditions, less textile damage and less environmental pollution, this technique for wool textile treatment could have promising prospect.

Yu Xiao-Wei; Wen-Jun Guan; Li Yong-Quan; Guo Ting-Jing; Zhou Ji-Dong

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Respuesta sexual en mujeres de edad mediana trabajadoras de la salud / Sexual response in mean age health workers women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la incorporación al trabajo insertado y el escenario laboral son factores sociales implicados en la función sexual de la mujer en etapa reproductiva, sin embargo, sus significados no están bien establecidos en la mujer en etapa de climaterio. Objetivo: identificar algunos aspectos rela [...] tivos a la respuesta sexual en mujeres de edad mediana que laboran en centros de salud de Ciudad de la Habana. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal que consistió en entrevistar a las 59 mujeres de edad mediana que respondieron a la convocatoria de participar en el estudio, todas trabajadoras de 2 centros asistenciales del sector salud del municipio San Miguel del Padrón, en Ciudad de La Habana, y todas con edades entre 38 y 59 años y con pareja sexual estable. Se empleó una encuesta autoadministrada para explorar aspectos sociodemográficos, y cambios en la respuesta sexual (deseo, excitación y orgasmo) en los últimos 6 meses. Como variables a controlar se utilizaron: la edad actual, la etapa de climaterio, las características de las relaciones de pareja y la sobrecarga de género. Se emplearon estadígrafos descriptivos y ANOVA para establecer diferencias entre grupos (valor de p Abstract in english Introduction: to be incorporated into work and the working environment are social factors involved in sexual function of woman in reproductive stage, however, its meanings are not well established in the woman in climateric stage. Objective: our objective was to identify some features related to sex [...] ual response in mean age women working in health centers of Ciudad de La Habana. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to interview 59 mean age women participant in such study working in two assistance centers of health sector from the San Miguel del Padrón municipality in Ciudad de La Habana aged between 38 and 59 and with a stable sexual partner. A self-administered opinion poll was used to explore the sociodemographic features and the changes in sexual response (desire, excitation and orgasm) during the past months. The variables to be controlled were: present age, climateric stage, features of partner relationships and genre overload. Descriptive stadigraphs were used and ANOVA to establish differences among groups (value of p

Yaquelín, González Ricardo; Taira, Maceo Coello; Daysi Antonia, Navarro Despaigne; Emma, Domínguez Alonso.

182

Textile Design for the Real World  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile design is a multimillion-dollar business that affects all of us. However, the idea of textile design is often ignored in art classes. This paper describes a project that challenges students to identify functional art in their everyday lives. In this project, students analyze textile designs, then create their own motifs and repeat them to…

Cassano, Denise M.

2007-01-01

183

Photonic textiles for pulse oximetry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomedical sensors, integrated into textiles would enable monitoring of many vitally important physiological parameters during our daily life. In this paper we demonstrate the design and performance of a textile based pulse oximeter, operating on the forefinger tip in transmission mode. The sensors consisted of plastic optical fibers integrated into common fabrics. To emit light to the human tissue and to collect transmitted light the fibers were either integrated into a textile substrate by embroidery (producing microbends with a nominal diameter of 0.5 to 2 mm) or the fibers inside woven patterns have been altered mechanically after fabric production. In our experiments we used a two-wavelength approach (690 and 830 nm) for pulse wave acquisition and arterial oxygen saturation calculation. We have fabricated different specimens to study signal yield and quality, and a cotton glove, equipped with textile based light emitter and detector, has been used to examine movement artifacts. Our results show that textile-based oximetry is feasible with sufficient data quality and its potential as a wearable health monitoring device is promising. PMID:18711536

Rothmaier, Markus; Selm, Bärbel; Spichtig, Sonja; Haensse, Daniel; Wolf, Martin

2008-08-18

184

Cyborgs and Knowledge Workers? Gendered Constructions of Workers in Vocational Education and Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussions of knowledge workers are gender blind and ignore or devalue women's work. A more useful conception of the worker as cyborg illuminates questions of ownership of skills and knowledge and the blurring of boundaries between humans and technologies. (SK)

Connole, Helen

1996-01-01

185

Plasma treatment advantages for textiles  

CERN Multimedia

The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

Sparavigna, Amelia

2008-01-01

186

A indústria têxtil, suas trabalhadoras e os censos da população de Minas Gerais do século XIX: uma reavaliação The textile industry, women's work, and the 19th century censuses of the population of Minas Gerais: a new appraisal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é reavaliar as informações sobre as ocupações dos habitantes de Minas Gerais, de modo a retificar o lugar de destaque da indústria têxtil na economia da Província. As evidências aqui apresentadas são inéditas e resultaram de um novo esquema de classificação das ocupações originárias de dois registros oficiais, a saber, as Listas Nominativas da População de Minas Gerais de 1831-32 e o Recenseamento Geral do Império de 1872. Com base nessa classifica- ção, pôde-se recompor a estrutura ocupacional da população e, então, confirmar e reabilitar a importância da indústria têxtil, e de suas mulheres trabalhadoras, na economia do período.The aim of this paper is to reconsider the information about occupation of the population of Minas Gerais, in order to rectify the prominence of the textile industry in its economy. The evidence presented here is original and has been derived from a new classificatory scheme based on data provided by two official records, namely the Nominative Lists of the Population of Minas Gerais for the years 1831-32 and the 1872 General Census of the Empire. On the basis of such scheme, it was then possible to reconstruct the occupational structure of the population, and therefore reinforce as well as restore the importance of textiles, and of female labour, in the economy of the time.

Concessa Vaz de Macedo

2006-06-01

187

A indústria têxtil, suas trabalhadoras e os censos da população de Minas Gerais do século XIX: uma reavaliação / The textile industry, women's work, and the 19th century censuses of the population of Minas Gerais: a new appraisal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo é reavaliar as informações sobre as ocupações dos habitantes de Minas Gerais, de modo a retificar o lugar de destaque da indústria têxtil na economia da Província. As evidências aqui apresentadas são inéditas e resultaram de um novo esquema de classificação das ocupações orig [...] inárias de dois registros oficiais, a saber, as Listas Nominativas da População de Minas Gerais de 1831-32 e o Recenseamento Geral do Império de 1872. Com base nessa classifica- ção, pôde-se recompor a estrutura ocupacional da população e, então, confirmar e reabilitar a importância da indústria têxtil, e de suas mulheres trabalhadoras, na economia do período. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to reconsider the information about occupation of the population of Minas Gerais, in order to rectify the prominence of the textile industry in its economy. The evidence presented here is original and has been derived from a new classificatory scheme based on data provided b [...] y two official records, namely the Nominative Lists of the Population of Minas Gerais for the years 1831-32 and the 1872 General Census of the Empire. On the basis of such scheme, it was then possible to reconstruct the occupational structure of the population, and therefore reinforce as well as restore the importance of textiles, and of female labour, in the economy of the time.

Concessa Vaz de, Macedo.

188

Electrical Conductivity in Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

2006-01-01

189

Os melhores empregados: a inserção e a formação da mão-de-obra feminina em fábricas têxteis mineiras no final do século XIX / "The best employees": the insertion and training of the female workforce in textile factories in Minas Gerais State in the late 19th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute o processo de inserção e formação da mãode-obra feminina na indústria têxtil em Minas Gerais no final do século XIX, tomando para análise a Companhia de Fiação e Tecidos Cedro e Cachoeira. Como ocorrido em muitas outras fábricas têxteis, as mulheres foram durante muito tempo o ma [...] ior conjunto de trabalhadores desta Cia. Trabalhando como fiandeiras e tecelãs, as operárias ingressavam, muitas vezes, ainda jovens, passando boa parte da vida dentro das fábricas, inseridas em um tipo de relação que lhes ensinava a serem operárias e, ao mesmo tempo, as educava enquanto mulheres, a partir de determinados valores culturais, dentre os quais se destaca a religiosidade. Nesse sentido busca-se aqui refletir sobre como esse processo se materializava no cotidiano das fábricas, os aspectos aí envolvidos e suas principais implicações para a vida das trabalhadoras. Abstract in english This paper discusses the process of insertion and training of the female workforce in the textile industry in Minas Gerais State in the late nineteenth century, and for this purpose the Company of Textiles and Spinning Cedro e Cachoeira will be analyzed. As also happened in many other textile factor [...] ies, women have been for a long time the largest group of employees of that Company. Working as spinners and weavers, the women often started working at a young age, spending much of their life inside the factories, being part of a relationship that taught them to be workers and at the same time, educated them from certain cultural values, being the religion a relevant issue in this context. In this sense, reflections will be searched in order to understand how this process occurred in the daily life of plants, the aspects involved and their main implications for the lives of workers.

Junia de Souza, Lima.

190

The Textile Form of Sound  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex three-dimensional geometries of interfering spheres are created. Textiles are generally a very good sound dampening material. To dampen the sound most effective it should be placed where the sound energy is highest. To find these invisible spots of energy and to reveal the geometry of them, two experiments were carried out. One experiment was done in a laboratory with a sound measure instrument andtextiles arranged in different positions and shapes. Here the high energy spots were located. The other experiment is ongoing and is an investigation of how textiles can take the shape of the sound goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form.

Bendixen, Cecilie

191

Virtual Museum of Textile Arts  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from an Italian lace making firm isn't just a mere company website. The "Virtual Museum" contains more than a dozen peopled scenes from the 1400s to the 1900s, and it highlights the lace-centric textiles in each scene. The textiles are listed below the scene, and when visitors click on the listed textiles, they are taken to the textile in the scene, where a few details are given about it. Each scene can be navigated with three sets of arrows for 360-degree views. There is also an excellent explanatory paragraph or two accompanying each scene that gives context to the scene, including relevant historical and political details. Visitors will notice the lack of faces on the people in the scenes, and the rationale for it is not given. Those visitors interested in seeing a brief demonstration of how needle lace and bobbin lace is made by hand should definitely check out the "Technique" link, for the two short videos. Also, paragraphs accompany each video, explaining the history and use of each type of lace.

Caprai, Arnaldo, 1933-

192

19 CFR of - Textile Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

...the production of the articles in question, such...records; and (v) Accounting books and documents...production of the finished article which must be referenced...purchases made during the accounting period and the inventory...Other Non-Textile Articles Source:...

2009-04-01

193

Automated visual inspection of textile  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A method for automated inspection of two types of textile is presented. The goal of the inspection is to determine defects in the textile. A prototype is constructed for simulating the textile production line. At the prototype the images of the textile are acquired by a high speed line scan camera. The vertical threads are located using a vertical projection of the image. It is thereby possible to identify the defects in the vertical threads. A structural model of the horizontal threads is formulated. The model consists of a Markov random field which represents a priori knowledge about the position and structure of the horizontal threads and an observation model that incorporates knowledge about the visual appearance of the threads given their position and structure. Using this model the horizontal threads are located. Features are calculated from the located threads to identify the defects. To go from the protype to a production line system we only need to gain a speed factor of 4.

Jensen, Rune Fisker; Carstensen, Jens Michael

1997-01-01

194

EDIPTEX : Environmental assessment of textiles  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EDIPTEX project has three main deliverables. These are 1. Modelling of the lifecycle of six textile products and calculation of the connected environmental impact 2. Obtaining almost 500 textile unit processes following the EDIP unit process data format 3. Calculation of equivalency factors for a number of chemicals For each of the deliverables extensive documentation material exists, which is published in this report. In the EDIPTEX project, a number of lifecycle assessments (environmental assessments) were carried out on textile products. But an extensive and detailed lifecycle assessment case is not particularly information friendly - only to other lifecycle assessment experts and consultants. The Programme for Cleaner Products etc. has therefore supported a dissemination project "Information on EDIPTEX". In this dissemination project the six EDIPTEX environmental assessments were transformed into six leaflets which, on only four pages each and in a professional layout, outline the environmental profile of the six products. The six environmental assessments include: A T-shirt of 100% cotton /1/ A jogging suit of nylon microfibres with a cotton lining /2/ A work jacket of 65 per cent polyester and 35 per cent cotton /3/ A blouse of viscose, nylon and elastane /4/ A tablecloth of cotton /5/ A floor covering of nylon and polypropylene /6/ The present report informs in detail about methods and principles used in the environmental assessments of the six selected EDIPTEX textile products. The major part of the lifecycle is common for many textile products, e.g. energy production, production of raw materials (e.g. cultivation and harvesting cotton), certain production processes (such as dyeing polyester), washing and ironing in the use phase and incineration during disposal. Such basic data have been established during the EDIPTEX project. The EDIPTEX project has been based upon the nationally and internationally recognised environmental assessment method EDIP - "Environmental Design of Industrial Products". The project has obtained environmental data for several hundred processes "from cradle to grave" in the lifecycle of textiles. EDIPTEX environmental data and a PC tool provide the possibility for combining the lifecycle of a textile product from cradle to grave, process by process, on the computer screen through a modelling, and letting the computers calculate the equivalency impacts. EDIPTEX environmental data and the environmental assessments, which can be modelled on the basis of these data, thus represent a unique tool in connection with e.g. preparing and documenting lifecycle assessments and environmental declarations for goods. In connection with the project "Information on EDIPTEX" a leaflet has been prepared "EDIP environmental data for textiles - a survey" /7/, which gives an overview of the environmental data, so that others can use the data during environmental assessment of textiles. All data are now also available in the PC tool GaBi EDIP - the successor of the EDIP PC tool. For anumber of commonly occurring emissions (discharges) and for emissions which have been assessed in previous projects within EDIP, equivalency factors had already been established. But for a number emissions, no equivalency factors had been calculated. If these emissions were to be included in the calculations of the contribution of a product on the impact categories regarding toxicity, equivalency factors for the substances would have to be calculated, and they would have to be included in the PC tool. In the EDIPTEX case scenarios, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity for approx. 50 textile specific chemicals are used. Within the EDIPTEX project, equivalency factors for ecotoxicity and human toxicity have been calculated for approx. 35 different substances, which are part of the very often composite chemicals. Further, approx. 20 substances are assessed as unproblematic regarding ecotoxicity and human toxicity in discharges via wastewater treatment plants. Fate factors for the technosphere for the substances h

Laursen, Søren Ellebæk; Hansen, John

2007-01-01

195

Curriculum Guide, English as a Second Language for the Workplace, Worker Education Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide describes a worker-centered, holistic, English-language training program for the textile industry in Illinois, now in its fifth funding cycle. The program, which provides training to approximately 500 workers, requires cooperation among business, labor unions, and educational organizations. A 5-unit curriculum covers work issues, health…

Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago. Chicago Teachers' Center.

196

Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.

Ramdayal

2013-05-01

197

Towards an Indigenous Perspective on HRM: A Study of Textile Industry of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify external and internal forces shaping HRM practices in textile industry of Pakistan. The study aimed at describing the context-specific HRM practices in textile industry. Interviews were used as a source of primary data collection. Taking Faisalabad city as a case, top HRM officials from ten respondent organizations in textile industry were interviewed. An interpretive approach to research design was adopted using ‘human as an instrument’ for data analysis. Findings suggest that due to extensive competition in last few years HR planning has received serious attention in textile industry. Countries like China, India, and Bangladesh are posing huge threats to the industry. The industry is at best dominated by family owned businesses and now the young generation, after education from abroad, is taking charge of their parents. Assumptions about workers are getting transformed. Fresh leaders are thinking different from their predecessors. However, there is a state of inertia in textile industry where young leaders have an uphill task ahead to remove the obstacles in the course of change.

Qamar Ali

2012-12-01

198

16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Commercial...STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal...

2009-01-01

199

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2010-01-01

200

Workers' Page  

Science.gov (United States)

... in working conditions rather than just relying on masks, gloves, ear plugs or other types of personal ... a worker for using their rights under the law. Your right to report injuries As a worker ...

 
 
 
 
201

Electronics in textiles – adhesive bonding technology for reliably embedding electronic modules into textile circuits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interconnection of electronics and textile circuits is still a main challenge for the fabrication of reliable smart textiles. This paper investigates the thermoplastic adhesive bonding technology. Electronic modules are bonded to textile substrates with a thermoplastic nonconductive adhesive (NCA) film. The modules are placed onto textile circuits with an NCA-film inbetween. By applying pressure and heat, the adhesive melts and contact partners touch. Subsequently cooling solidifies the N...

Krshiwoblozki, Malte Von; Linz, Torsten; Neudeck, Andreas; Kallmayer, Christine

2013-01-01

202

The Language of Textiles : Description and Judgement on Textile Pattern Composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study concerns ways to describe, judge and discuss aesthetic qualities of designed textile patterns. Specific aims were to study how colours and compositions used in Old Amish Quilts can be systematically described, to study how simple and complex patterns in printed textile fabrics are perceived and expressed verbally and to study judgements, concepts and values in relation to designed textile patterns as expressed by schoolchildren, consumers, teachers of textile handicraft and ...

Homlong, Siri

2006-01-01

203

Study of screen-printed electroconductive textile materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last decade, a lot of research is done in screen printing with conductive silver-based inks on different woven and nonwoven textile fabrics. This method offers flexible and lightweight conductive textiles with excellent electroconductive properties to be used in smart textiles. Furthermore, those printed textiles can be used in different applications such as textile antennas, feed lines, simple one-layer routing structures, electrodes and circuits. Maintenance of the printed textil...

Kazani, Ilda

2012-01-01

204

Application of enzymes for textile fibres processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review highlights the use of enzymes in the textile industry, covering both current commercial processes and research in this field. Amylases have been used for desizing since the middle of the last century. Enzymes used in detergent formulations have also been successfully used over the past 40 years. The application of cellulases for denim finishing and laccases for decolourization of textile effluents and textile bleaching are the most recent commercial advances. New developments rely...

Arau?jo, Rita; Casal, Margarida; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

2008-01-01

205

DESIGNING TIMELESS PATTERNS FOR INTERIOR TEXTILE INDUSTRIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project was conducted in collaboration with a Helsinki based design studio, Saara Renvall Design. The task was to design patterns for interior textiles. This thesis describes about the processes that took place during creating the ideas for three different textile patterns. The whole thesis can be divided into two parts. The thesis first describes about a material research which was conducted to gather the information about textile patterns from different periods and ethnic groups. The...

Bashyal, Anita

2012-01-01

206

MUSEOS TEXTILES EN CANADÁ, GUATEMALA Y MÉXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los productos textiles no suelen ser protagónicos en las prácticas museográficas tradicionales; se les considera objetos decorativos, piezas de arte popular o elementos etnográficos, pero generalmente apoyan discursos de otras tipologías museales, más convencionales y establecidas. Por ello, este texto compara los fondos y los sistemas expositivos de tres instituciones dedicadas exclusivamente al objeto textil: el Textile Museum of Canada (fundado en Toronto en 1975; el Museo Ixchel del Traje Indígena (inaugurado en Guatemala en 1977; y el Museo Textil de Oaxaca (abierto al público en 2008. Se propone que los museos textiles son entidades híbridas y sugerentes, con frágiles acervos que requieren soluciones museográficas provenientes de la antropología, la historia del arte occidental “culta” y las artes populares. Si bien el discurso curatorial de los museos textiles ha sido relativamente periférico, también es polivalente: (reafirma identidades nacionales, pero construye nuevas visiones —más incluyentes— de diversidad cultural. Textile artifacts are not central devices in generalized curatorial practices: even if these objects might be considered simultaneously as decorative items, popular art pieces or ethnographical resources, they are certainly not independent from more traditionalist and established kinds of exhibits. For those reasons, this article will compare the collections and displays of three important institutions exclusively related to textile artifacts: the Textile Museum of Canada (inaugurated in Toronto in 1975; the Museum Ixchel of the Indigenous Garment (opened to the public in 1977 in Guatemala; and the Museum Textil of Oaxaca, Mexico (founded in 2008. Some institutional, architectonical and technical aspects of these three museums will be compared. The article will suggest some patrimonial possibilities latent in textile museums, according to their precise typological traits, with the main idea that textile museums show a very specific and challenging and kind of cultural heritage.

Francisco López Ruiz

2012-01-01

207

TEXTILE WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Textile dye wastewater has always been cleaned by means of several useful techniques but, due to its complex composition , there is still no adequate universal cleaning process. The use of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), based on the biodegradation of textile wastewater by activated sludge in combination with the physical process of membrane filtration, has become particularly interesting because of its number of advantages during textile wastewater treatment, and has thus rapidly developed over...

2010-01-01

208

Textile antenna for 50 ohm applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The new generation of textile materials have the capability to conduct electricity and at the same time be wearable. There are much more applications involved if an antenna is made from parts that are totally wearable. This new property of conductivity in textile materials is used to implement the wireless functions to clothing. In general, the antennas are made of highly conductive metal with is a solid structure, which results in stable output. The challenge with textile antenna is output s...

Robi Dahal; Demet Mercan; Lukas Vojtech; Marek Neruda

2012-01-01

209

STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation on the waste management, have determined the diversification and increasing the number and the capacity of recovery and disposal of waste in Romania. We found the most textile waste in Romania was deposited in deposits onto or into land, in the proportion of 18.51%. This proportion is under the EU average of 34.03%, but is much higher than in other European country. Also, has been an increase in the number of incinerators, in the last years. With all of this, the interest in textile waste management in Romania is far from being to the level of European, where are associations who dealing with the collection and recycling of textiles and is achieved a selective collection of textile waste in the points especially designed for this thing. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the EUROSTAT database and INSSE database analysis and by Internet.

TRIPA Simona

2014-05-01

210

Ultrahydrophobic Textiles Using Nanoparticles: Lotus Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well established that the water wettability of ma-terials is governed by both the chemical composition and the geometrical microstructure of the surface.1 Traditional textile wet processing treatments do in-deed rely fundamentally upon complete wetting out of a textile structure to achieve satisfactory perform-ance.2 However, the complexities introduced through the heterogeneous nature of the fiber surfaces, the nature of the fiber composition and the actual con-struction of the textile material create difficulties in attempting to predict the exact wettability of a par-ticular textile material. For many applications the ability of a finished fabric to exhibit water repellency (in other words low wettability is essential2 and po-tential applications of highly water repellent textile materials include rainwear, upholstery, protective clothing, sportswear, and automobile interior fabrics. Recent research indicates that such applications may benefit from a new generation of water repellent ma-terials that make use of the “lotus effect” to provide ultrahydrophobic textile materials.3,4 Ultrahydropho-bic surfaces are typically termed as the surfaces that show a water contact angle greater than 150°C with very low contact angle hysteresis.4 In the case of tex-tile materials, the level of hydrophobicity is often determined by measuring the static water contact angle only, since it is difficult to measure the contact angle hysteresis on a textile fabric because of the high levels of roughness inherent in textile structures.

Karthik Ramaratnam, Ph.D.

2008-12-01

211

Respiratory cancer in chrysotile textile and mining industries: exposure inferences from lung analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an attempt to explain the much greater risk of respiratory cancer at the same cumulative exposure in asbestos textile workers in Charleston, South Carolina, than in Quebec miners and millers, both exposed to chrysotile from the same source, 161 lung tissue samples taken at necropsy from dead cohort members were analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Altogether 1828 chrysotile and 3270 tremolite fibres were identified; in both cohorts tremolite predominated and fibre dimensions were ...

Sebastien, P.; Mcdonald, J. C.; Mcdonald, A. D.; Case, B.; Harley, R.

1989-01-01

212

Indoor off-body wireless MIMO communication with dual polarized textile antennas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Off-body data communication for firefighters and other rescue workers is an important area of development. The communication with a moving person in an indoor environment can be very unreliable due to channel fading. In addition, when considering off-body communication by means of textile antennas, propagation is affected by shadowing caused by the human body. By transmitting and receiving signals using multipleinput, multiple-output antennas (MIMO communication) a large improvement in reliab...

Torre, Patrick; Vallozzi, Luigi; Hertleer, Carla; Rogier, Hendrik; Moeneclaey, Marc; Verhaevert, Jo

2011-01-01

213

Plasma treatment advantages for textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now exist...

Sparavigna, Amelia

2008-01-01

214

Textile forwork for concrete shell  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fabric formwork is a new application for textile membranes that provides numerous advantages and new opportunities for architecture and engineering compared to well known traditional formworks. The installation of fabric formwork requires less manual labor and has reduced material, storage, and transportation costs. But the most significant advantage of fabric moulds is the form freedom and structural performance they offer to shell design. This paper presents the state of the art of t...

Adriaenssens, Sigrid; Termmerman, Niels; Laet, Lars; Guldentops, Laurent; Mollaert, Marijke

2009-01-01

215

Textile production in Quartier Mu  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  The most common archaeological evidence for weaving in the Aegean is the presence of loom weights, which indicate the use of the warp-weighted loom.  A wide variety of loom weight shapes have been recorded. In the past, this diversity has generally been explained in terms of cultural, geographical and chronological factors.  In contrast, recent research has considered some aspects of shape as an expression of loom weight function. This new approach, which draws on experimental archaeology, has made it possible to render textile craft visible, even if the textiles themselves are not preserved (Mårtensson et al. 2009). It is this approach that has been adopted in the following analysis of the loom weights from Quartier Mu. The chapter divided into four parts. The first part gives an outline of general textile techniques and presents the methodology. The second part consists of an overview of the Quartier Mu loom weights, whilst the third part focuses on their contexts. The results of the analysis are discussed in the fourth and final part.

Cutler, Joanne; Andersson Strand, Eva Birgitta

2013-01-01

216

THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of production and outsourcing strategies using the "diamond" model of M. Porter, we can say that is one of the viable solutions for gaining competitive advantages necessary for proper European companies to face competition from countries outside Europe. As developing countries do not meet certain environmental standards or norms of European law, but in terms of product innovation and development of new materials, they do not have the necessity for technology. We conducted an analysis of the factors that play a key role in the production of textiles, representing how they are used in the favor of European companies such investments to be supplemented can be found in how these factors act on the total costs.

PRUNEA ANA

2014-05-01

217

Modeling, estimation and validation of cotton dust and endotoxin exposures in Chinese textile operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In support of an epidemiological study of cancer incidence among cotton textile workers in Shanghai, PRC, historical estimates of exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin were developed for subjects drawn from a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers. A large dataset of historical cotton dust measurements were available from 56 of the study factories. Using these data, a series of models were developed to estimate cotton dust exposure by year, factory and process. Model estimates were validated by comparing with independently collected measurements gathered over a 15 year period and indicated a low relative bias (cotton dust by major processes obtained in five separate surveys in these factories. The validated exposures were assigned to the 7,242 jobs held by the 3,812 study subjects. Among the exposed workers, the mean cumulative exposure levels were 113.8 mg m(-3)*years for cotton dust and 6,707.7 EU m(-3)*years for endotoxin, respectively. The overall correlation among cotton dust and endotoxin exposures for these subjects was r = 0.58. Using an unusually rich set of historical cotton dust measurements, along with independently collected exposure measurements for validation and conversion to endotoxin levels, validated estimates of cumulative exposure were constructed for this large case-cohort study in the textile industry. PMID:16632488

Astrakianakis, George; Seixas, Noah S; Camp, Janice E; Christiani, David C; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B; Checkoway, Harvey

2006-08-01

218

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL: TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual contains information relating to the design of air, water and solids pollution abatement systems for the textile industry. It is intended for use by process design engineers, consultants, and engineering companies active in the design or upgrading of textile waste tre...

219

Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits  

Science.gov (United States)

Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

2012-01-01

220

Problem Based Learning in Constructed Textile Design  

Science.gov (United States)

Staff observing undergraduate students enrolled on the BSc Hons Textile Design and Design Management programme in The School of Materials, The University of Manchester, identified difficulties with knowledge retention in the area of constructed textile design. Consequently an experimental pilot was carried out in seamless knitwear design using a…

Sayer, Kate; Wilson, Jacquie; Challis, Simon

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Chemistry of Durable and Regenerable Biocidal Textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial textiles can be categorized into two groups, biocidal and biostatic materials, according to their functions. Biostatic functions refer to inhibiting growth of microorganisms on textiles and preventing the materials from biodegradation and biocidal materials are able to kill microorganisms, thus eliminating their growth, sterilizing…

Gang Sun; Worley, S. Dave

2005-01-01

222

Potentialities of interior textile membrane partition walls  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research of new architectural textile membrane materials allows extending its possibilities to interior partitions in order to fulfil contemporary demands of comfort. This paper pretends to present the state of the art of textile membranes application in interior partition walls and the potentialities of Polymers and natural fibres used in these building elements

Macieira, Mo?nica; Mendonc?a, Paulo

2012-01-01

223

Contingent workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses. PMID:21366200

Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

2011-03-01

224

Textile Antenna for 50 ohm Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new generation of textile materials have the capability to conduct electricity and at the same time be wearable. There are much more applications involved if an antenna is made from parts that are totally wearable. This new property of conductivity in textile materials is used to implement the wireless functions to clothing. In general, the antennas are made of highly conductive metal with is a solid structure, which results in stable output. The challenge with textile antenna is output stability which is given by pure textile material of the radiating element, dielectric material and also ground, which can be can be folded and twisted. The paper presents the design and fabricated output results of the textile antenna which is used for the 50 ohm system (as GPS or WLAN at 2,45 GHz.

Robi Dahal

2012-01-01

225

Cost benefit of patch testing with textile finish resins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eleven years experience of textile finish resin patch testing of suspected textile dermatitis patients revealed 15 cases of allergic textile dermatitis among 428 patients tested. Ten of the 15 patients had a relevant positive patch test to one or more of a limited series of textile finishes; 1 was negative and 4 were not tested with textile finishes. All 15 patients were formaldehyde sensitive. No unexpected, relevant, positive textile finish resin patch test was found. In this study a negative patch test to formaldehyde virtually excluded allergic contact dermatitis from textile finishes.

Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

1982-01-01

226

Application of membrane technologies for the treatment of textile wastewater and synthetic textile dyes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile industry is characterized by using a great variety of chemicals and by large water consumption. In this way, textile effluents contains many types of dyes, detergents, solvents and salts depending on the particular textile mill processes (dyeing, printing, finishing...) and on the raw matter. For those reasons, textile industry is one of the main sources of industrial pollution, producing effluents discharges characterized by high conductivities and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values and strong colour. Process selection and operating conditions are important issues to optimize technically and economically the textile effluent treatment. This work presents the results of the laboratory-scale membrane experiments of textile industry effluents and synthetic textile dyes. Different types of Ultrafiltration (UF) and Nano filtration (NF) membranes were evaluated for permeate flux and their suitability in separating COD, colour, conductivity. Experiments demonstrated that membrane treatment is a very promising advanced treatment option for pollution control for textile industry effluents. The results of this work show that the direct ultrafiltration seems to be a realistic method in the pretreatment of the textile wastewater. In fact, NF process was successfully used to improve permeate quality of synthetic dyeing textile wastewater, but this process presented some limitations in the treatment of textile industry effluents because of membrane fouling problems. So, this process requires an efficient and appropriate technique such as ultrafiltration as a pre-treatment step for textile wastewater reuse. For direct nano filtration of synthetic textile dyes aqueous solutions, with a weak salt concentration (500 ppm), good results were obtained. More than 95 pour cent of color was removed from the treated water accompanied with a reduction of 92 pour cent of conductivity and COD. Based on the experiments; NF membranes are suitable for producing permeate of reusable quality.

2009-12-19

227

LACTOSE TO NATURALIZE TEXTILE DYES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many natural dyes, for example carminic acid, are soluble in water. We present a simple strategy to naturalize synthetic azadyes through their linkage with lactose to induce their water solubility. The dyeing process of textile fibres then becomes possible in water without additives such as surfactants and mordants, which result in products that are difficult to eliminate. Glyco-azadyes (GADs we are presenting here are obtained through a diether linker to bond the azadye and the sugar. Tinctorial tests were carried out with fabrics containing wool, polyester, cotton, nylon, and acetate. GADs were found to be multipurpose and capable of dyeing many fabrics efficiently under mild conditions.

Jalal Isaad

2007-11-01

228

Na costura do sapato, o desmanche das operárias: estudo das condições de trabalho e saúde das pespontadeiras da indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil / Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo é fundamentado em pesquisa que teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre as condições de trabalho na indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil, e os problemas de saúde relatados pelas trabalhadoras especializadas na atividade de pesponto (costura mecânica). A pesquisa de car [...] áter qualitativo foi embasada teórica e metodologicamente no materialismo histórico-dialético e combinou técnicas de pesquisas sociológicas e etnográficas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevistas gravadas, focadas na história de vida e trabalho, na observação sistematizada do processo de trabalho, na consulta a documentos históricos e na produção imagética. A análise dos dados permitiu compreender os efeitos do trabalho na saúde das trabalhadoras empregadas nas fábricas e no domicílio, que vivenciam processos laborais precários que se objetivam na intensificação e ampliação da jornada de trabalho, na cobrança por metas de produção, na insegurança do emprego e nos ambientes de trabalho insalubres. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical mate [...] rialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

Taísa Junqueira, Prazeres; Vera Lucia, Navarro.

229

Na costura do sapato, o desmanche das operárias: estudo das condições de trabalho e saúde das pespontadeiras da indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil / Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo é fundamentado em pesquisa que teve como objetivo estabelecer relações entre as condições de trabalho na indústria de calçados de Franca, São Paulo, Brasil, e os problemas de saúde relatados pelas trabalhadoras especializadas na atividade de pesponto (costura mecânica). A pesquisa de car [...] áter qualitativo foi embasada teórica e metodologicamente no materialismo histórico-dialético e combinou técnicas de pesquisas sociológicas e etnográficas. A coleta de dados se deu por entrevistas gravadas, focadas na história de vida e trabalho, na observação sistematizada do processo de trabalho, na consulta a documentos históricos e na produção imagética. A análise dos dados permitiu compreender os efeitos do trabalho na saúde das trabalhadoras empregadas nas fábricas e no domicílio, que vivenciam processos laborais precários que se objetivam na intensificação e ampliação da jornada de trabalho, na cobrança por metas de produção, na insegurança do emprego e nos ambientes de trabalho insalubres. Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical mate [...] rialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

Taísa Junqueira, Prazeres; Vera Lucia, Navarro.

230

Energy-Aware Routing for E-Textile Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the scale of electronic devices shrinks, "electronic textiles" (e-textiles) will make possible a wide variety of novel applications which are currently unfeasible. Due to the wearability concerns, low-power techniques are critical for e-textile applications. In this paper, we address the issue of the energy-aware routing for e-textile platforms and propose an efficient algorithm to solve it. The platform we consider consists of dedicated components for e-textiles, including computational m...

Kao, Jung-chun; Marculescu, Radu

2005-01-01

231

Health Workers for Change: developing the initiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an intervention developed in South Africa for health workers at the health facility level, and designed to explore interpersonal relations among health workers and between health workers and female clients. Several participatory methods to explore the provider-client relationship were tested with health workers. Health workers identified many constraints to the provision of adequate health services and that these constraints affected their work in general and their relationship with women clients in particular. Constraints included inadequacies and inefficiencies in management and the lack of gender sensitivity training. The participatory approach was found to be acceptable to the participants and effective in exploring interpersonal relationships. PMID:11599664

Fonn, S; Xaba, M

2001-09-01

232

Environmental and medical study of byssinosis and other respiratory conditions in the cotton textile industry in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted in a typical Egyptian textile plant located in Alexandria. Male workers from all operations (N . 506) were examined and their dust exposures were assessed. Results showed that airborne dust concentrations were very high and that the plant fraction is mostly concentrated in respirable dust. Byssinosis prevailed in 21% of workers in opening and cleaning sections and in 13% in carding and combing rooms, but was found in none of the workers in drawing, twisting, and spinning operations, in only 1.1% in weaving, and in 3.1% of workers in other ''auxiliary'' occupations. The rare prevalence of byssinosis among the latter workers groups was attributed to the workers continuous exposure without fixed weekend interruption, the personal and family history of exposure to cotton, the low proportion of plant materials in dust evolved in related operations, the fine quality of Egyptian cotton, and/or the population characteristics of Egyptian workers. Reduction in FEV 1.0 at the end of the first work shift after absence from work occured more often than byssinosis, which indicates the importance of this test for the early detection of effects of cotton dust exposure. It is suggested that a nationwide study in the cotton textile industry is indicated.

Noweir, M.H.; Noweir, K.H.; Osman, H.A.; Moselhi, M.

1984-01-01

233

Nutritional Status Assessment of Tea Garden Women Workers (18-35 Years In Darjeeling District From A View Point of Nutrition Parameters Hemoglobin Level and Disease Susceptibility : Impact of Nutritional Awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed for assessing the nutrition level on different physiological parameters and disease susceptibility of the adult tea garden women worker belong to poor economic group of Darjeeling district.Methods: The study was made on one hundred women (18-35 yrs of Phansidewa block. The subjects were divided into control and experimental groups. Nutritional awareness was given to the experimental group for six month. Physiological parameters and disease susceptibility were recorded for both the groups before and after delivering awareness. Results: We found that the mean height of the respondents in control (C and experimental (E group before delivery of awareness were 150.64 cm and 150.36 cm and after deliberation of awareness these were 150.68 cm and 150.44 cm, respectively. A significant increase was observed in weight of the subjects of the experimental group after the nutritional awareness. The percentages of severe, moderate and mild degree of chronic energy deficiency were decreased after awareness in the experimental group and the percentages of low weight normal and normal women were increased. The hemoglobin level of the subjects under experimental group was also increased significantly. The percentages of severe and moderate degree of anemia were decreased after awareness given and the percentage of mild anemia was increased. The women with normal hemoglobin level were increased after awareness in the experimental group. The levels of blood pressure of the control and experimental group were not changed significantly. Subjects under experimental group improved their cooking practices, diet pattern, food hygiene, sanitation and ultimately decreased disease susceptibility. Conclusion: We found that nutritional awareness has a great impact on the nutritional status of the women particularly on weight and hemoglobin level. Mothers gladly learned the values of different local vegetables and pulses and incorporated there in their diet and improved their health status. They also improved food hygiene and sanitation and changed cooking practices.

Prabir Kumar Manna

2012-06-01

234

Viewpoints About Potential Stimulation And Possibilities Of Investments On Textile Industry Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uzbek light industry, in particular, the textile sector is one of the strategically  important  and dynamic  sectors of  the national economy. Textile industry of Uzbekistan possesses high  ranks in the sectors directed to exportation, therefore it contains wide specter of export ranging from thread up to ready­made product (made of stockinet, sewing, silk and carpet cloth.  Contemporarily textile industry gains the fifth rank in the gross domestic product contribution and a third of all the workers in the field of industry is occupied in textile. Uzbek light industry still has significant untapped investment potential, all the conditions for  the further rapid growth. Necessary to  increase the production of  goods for  the domestic market to meet the growing needs of the population. This requires investment in  projects for  the production of finished cotton fabrics, blended fabrics, silk fabrics, garments and knitwear for  the establishment of mobile industries with mandatory formation in their composition structures, responsible for design, marketing, quick  changeovers production with fashion and demand.In the foreseeable future for the light industry remains a key role  in  the development  of  industrial  production  in  the country. Experts believe that more needs to  be done to develop the significant potential that lies in the light industry of the country.

Shakhrukh Madjidov

2013-09-01

235

Development of Textile Industrial Clusters in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research investigates the textile industry clusters in Pakistan. A cross sectional data were collected from 30 textile industries by using simple random technique and data were analysis by using E-Views software. Structural questionnaire was the basic tool for measures the performance of textile clusters in Pakistan. It was revealed that the industry is in urgent need of financial and technological investments. However, according to recent official figures, the Pakistan textile industry contributes more than 60% to the country’s total exports, which amounts to around 5.2 billion US dollars. The manufacturing sector contributes to around half of the total exports and textile sector contributes around 46% of the manufacturing sector’s contribution. The negative growth of 2.6 % declining from $ 16.4 billion last year to $ 16.0 billion in July-April 2008-09. Ministry of Textile Industry should launch and endorse the development of cluster-based textiles vision. It further revealed that Government should emphasis on increase Efficiency and Productivity with the help of research and development department and identifies key areas for process.

Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal

2010-10-01

236

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1994-01-01

237

STRATEGIES FOR SHAOXING TEXTILE COMPANIES IN ECONOMIC CRISIS. CASE STUDY: BOLA TEXTILE COMPANY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last decades, China witnesses the fastest growth in World’s economy, and has played the significant role, but in 2008, because of the global crisis, international market shrank dramatically. In this crisis, Shaoxing, located in the Yangtze River delta and the main area dealing with textile manufacturing and processing, got severe influence in the textile industry. Because of that, the recession on the international market results in the heavy burden to Shaoxing textile and garmen...

Hu, Qing

2010-01-01

238

Application of cyclodextrins in textile processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are water soluble cyclic sugars with a hydrophobic nanometric cavity that permits the formation of host/guest inclusion complexes with a large variety of molecules, alternating their physical-chemical properties. In the present review CD research related to the processing of textiles is revised and discussed. CDs may function as encapsulating, dispersing and levelling agents in the dyeing and washing of textiles. Furthermore they may be anchored to polymers and textile fibers in order to impart special properties such as odor reduction, UV protection or for the controlled release of perfumes, aromas, mosquito repellents or substances with therapeutical effects. (author)

2010-01-01

239

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-11-01

240

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1994-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

242

Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

243

Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, Ulla

2012-01-01

244

Women in American Society: A Historical and Demographic Profile. Population Profiles, Unit No. 15.  

Science.gov (United States)

An historical and contemporary analysis of the role of women in American society is presented. Specifically, the report considers women's involvement in the labor force. During the colonial period, most women worked in the home, producing cloth, clothing, shoes, and food. With the development of the textile industry, women obtained jobs in…

Reilly, Mary Ellen; Bouvier, Leon F.

245

Time for Textiles in the Primary Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines how a group of primary teachers developed a range of design briefs using textiles, and describes how students were taught explicit skills which enabled them to successfully solve the design tasks. (WRM)

Paige, Kathy

1999-01-01

246

Allergic contact dermatitis induced by textile necklace  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav

2013-01-01

247

Radiation-induced aftertreatment of textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques to improve the properties of textiles by graft polymerization of acrylic acid, metacrylic acid, etc. on natural and synthetic fibers by irradiation of electron beam or ? ray were developed and put into practical use. Such graft polymerization by irradiation is effective technique to give synthetic fibers hydrophilic property, heat-shrinkage resistance, dye affinity, static electricity prevention, combustion resistance, etc.. Irradiation is also applied for adhesion of nonwoven fabric, coating processing of textiles, and printing processing of fabrics. Thus, the processing of textiles by radiation, especially electron beam, is effective to give new properties to textiles, but its importance has been also recognized as energy saving and public nuisance-avoiding processes. A great deal of energy reduction can be expected by electron beam irradiation method. (Kobatake, H.)

1978-01-01

248

Coordinated Textile Industry Noise Reduction Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The progress between April 1974 and October 1977 of a noise reduction program for the textile industry was reviewed. The goals of the program included: collecting noise control information and data on effective noise control measures; conducting noise con...

1978-01-01

249

Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis.

Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik H?jgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

2013-01-01

250

Control of Bypass Transition for Textile Surface  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research deals with turbulent friction reduction for bypass transition on a flat plate with a textile surface. Unique boundary layers such as those found in swimsuits, sail wings, or skiwear, where certain boundary layer trip structure-like folded edges or masts of a sailboat exist, contain limited turbulence level in the boundary layer even under laminar conditions. A turbulent transition delay in such boundary layers is observed for textile surfaces.

Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shimoji, Masayuki; Watanabe, Hideo; Kohama, Yasuaki

251

Innovation in the Canadian textile industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the innovation and business strategies of Canadian textile firms. The results show that the textile industry is in a state of decline due mainly to competitive pressures resulting from economic and regulatory changes. The results also show that while the industry recognizes the need for innovation, the current strategies and practices do not seem to be aligned to their strategic goals of fostering innovation.

Sona Kollarova

2013-07-01

252

Composite materials from new textile technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper describes in a general way the most important of the advanced textile technologies which are oriented to the manufacturing of organic matrix composite materials, the paper presents their applications and the possibilities of future development. The use of these advanced weaving techniques allows the production of near-net-shaped preforms, which results in important savings in processing costs; moreover, these textile processes offer the possibility of introducing out-of plan...

Jime?nez, M. A.; Castejo?n, L.; Miravete, A.

1997-01-01

253

Development Strategy for a Textile Firm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The researched firm is a state-owned company of more than forty years of operation and is one of pioneer companies providing textile and garment to Vietnam market. Its vision is to be the sustainable multidisciplinary firm which operates in three main areas: textile and gament industry, travel – real estate and financial investment in global market. After more than forty years of operation in the market, company has obtained some recognized results but these are still low and do no...

Luu Trong Tuan

2012-01-01

254

Examination on the textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Korean industry has a highly energy consuming structure. The amount of energy that these industries are using reaches 57.5% of the total amount of energy used. From this fact, energy saving in industry is a very urgent issue. With the high oil price, the pressure on reducing carbon dioxide according to the UNFCCC has been very powerful. Therefore, the future compatibility of industry is up to how efficiently energy is used. To promote an efficient use of energy in industries, it is going to introduce new energy saving technologies by categorizing each type of industries based on highly energy consuming industry and examining energy consuming situation for each industry. In this issue, it is going to examine a textile industry for the seventh. (author).

NONE

2000-08-01

255

Electroflocculation for textile wastewater treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF process for chemical oxygen demand (COD, turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: current density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum; and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.

A. Cerqueira

2009-12-01

256

Electroflocculation for textile wastewater treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work reports on the viability of the electroflocculation (EF) process for chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity and color removal from a raw effluent originated from a particular textile industry related to hemp manufacture. Firstly, the following operational parameters were optimized: curren [...] t density; initial pH; electrolysis time; material of the electrode (iron, aluminum or iron-aluminum); and interelectrode distance. Additionally, the effects of these parameters on specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC) were studied under the optimum conditions. The best removal efficiencies obtained were 93% for color, 99% for turbidity and up to 87% for COD using an aluminum electrode, the initial pH was 5, the cell time operation was 30 min and current density was 15 A/m². These results indicate that, under the studied operational conditions, electroflocculation of these efluents may constitute a viable alternative for COD, turbidity and color removal.

Cerqueira, A.; Russo, C.; Marques, M. R. C..

257

Total design for textile products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Product development is less than 20-30 years old and a relatively new area of research compared to the other classic academic disciplines. Integrated product development is a philosophy that systematically employs the teaming of functional disciplines to integrate and concurrently apple all the necessary processes to produce an effective and efficient product that satisfies customer needs. Product development might also be understood as a multidisciplinary field of research. The disciplines directly participating in product development include engineering design, innovation, manufacturing, marketing and management. A background contribution is also generated by disciplines such as psychology, social sciences and information technology. This article is an overview that introduces this philosophy to textile product development.

Zafirova Koleta

2004-01-01

258

Women--Working More, Earning Less.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increased number of women workers and sex fairness federal legislation, the earning power and job status of women workers has not increased. The earnings gap between men and women has actually widened. The author looks at ways to improve the situation through education and training. (MF)

Bomboy, Marylee

1979-01-01

259

“ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILES: A NEED OF TODAY AND TOMMOROW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food, clothing and shelter are the primary needs of human being. Today in clothing ,textile industry is playing important role. Textile industry is second largest employer after agriculture. In modern world,consumer are now aware of many things especially eco-friendly textile. Their demand for eco-friendly textile is also related with quality, quantity ,price. For this Government ,Production dept of textile, Manager and also Consumers are playing important role .There are ill effects on health to overcome this problem some solutions are suggested ,also government role ,managerial role ,production department role are important factor to make India eco friendly textile.

AMRUTA.S.DUDHEDIA

2012-12-01

260

Research and development in the textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at improving the energy efficiency and productivity of textile production processes. Many projects in this area have been successfully completed, and some have resulted in the development and implementation of new technologies (e.g., foam processing) for various process steps. Other projects have produced technical results that have later been utilized by the industry in other capacities (e.g., hyperfiltration). Several projects at various stages of development are currently underway. This brochure describes the Office of Industrial Programs' R and D activities relevant to the textile industry. The brochure is comprised of the following: Industry Update, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Energy Consumption in the Textile Industry, Potential Energy Savings in the Textile Industry, Office of Industrial Programs, R and D Efforts, and R and D Data Base.

None

1987-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

How to motivate assembly line workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of our master thesis was to investigate what motivates assembly line workers performing low-skill jobs in a small industrial laundry business. We wanted to see what fac-tors determine and influence their motivation to work and if and how this motivation can be improved with respect to assembly line systems in general. The method of our investiga-tion was qualitative in nature, where we studied one firm that leases clean bed clothes and textiles to hotels and restaurants around Swe...

Saitovic, Maja; Jusufi, Valdete

2007-01-01

262

Resource Communication Technology and Marketing of Textile Products: A U.S. Textile Industry Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the qualitative positivistic case study was to explore whether resource communication technology has helped or would help the marketing of textile products in the U.S. textile industry. The contributions of human capital in the marketing department, the marketing-demand information system function, and the product supply chain…

Baah, Anthony

2010-01-01

263

NGO field workers in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

2009-06-01

264

A generic approach to haptic modeling of textile artifacts  

Science.gov (United States)

Haptic Modeling of textile has attracted significant interest over the last decade. In spite of extensive research, no generic system has been proposed. The previous work mainly assumes that textile has a 2D planar structure. They also require time-consuming measurement of textile properties in construction of the mechanical model. A novel approach for haptic modeling of textile is proposed to overcome the existing shortcomings. The method is generic, assumes a 3D structure for the textile, and deploys computational intelligence to estimate the mechanical properties of textile. The approach is designed primarily for display of textile artifacts in museums. The haptic model is constructed by superimposing the mechanical model of textile over its geometrical model. Digital image processing is applied to the still image of textile to identify its pattern and structure through a fuzzy rule-base algorithm. The 3D geometric model of the artifact is automatically generated in VRML based on the identified pattern and structure obtained from the textile image. Selected mechanical properties of the textile are estimated by an artificial neural network; deploying the textile geometric characteristics and yarn properties as inputs. The estimated mechanical properties are then deployed in the construction of the textile mechanical model. The proposed system is introduced and the developed algorithms are described. The validation of method indicates the feasibility of the approach and its superiority to other haptic modeling algorithms.

Shidanshidi, H.; Naghdy, F.; Naghdy, G.; Wood Conroy, D.

2009-08-01

265

Workers’ Conformism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.

Nikolay Ivantchev

2013-10-01

266

Pawaa Appu! Women Only Unions in Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women-only unions in Japan organise women workers in a variety of ways, including across enterprises and employment status boundaries. As their appearance is recent an analysis of their development is also a new area of research. The formation of autonomous women-only unions in Japan continues a tradition of women's activism which has challenged both management and the male domination of the union movement. This article argues that the formation of women-only unions is a positive development for women workers and the broader workers' movement.

BROADBENT, Kaye

2005-10-01

267

Submicrometre particle filtration with a dc activated plasma textile  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma textiles are novel fabrics incorporating the advantages of cold plasma and low-cost non-woven or woven textile fabrics. In plasma textiles, electrodes are integrated into the fabric, and a corona discharge is activated within and on the surface of the fabric by applying high voltages above 10 kV between the electrodes. When the plasma textile is activated, submicrometre particles approaching the textile are charged by the deposition of ions and electrons produced by the corona, and then collected by the textile material. A stable plasma discharge was experimentally verified on the surface of the textile that was locally smooth but not rigid. A filtration efficiency close to 100% was observed in experiments conducted on salt particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 300 nm. Unlike conventional fibrous filters, the plasma textile provided uniform filtration in this range, without exhibiting a maximum particle penetration size.

Rasipuram, S. C.; Wu, M.; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Levine, J. F.; Jasper, W. J.; Saveliev, A. V.

2014-01-01

268

Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially i...

A. Hasanbeigi

2010-01-01

269

Reproductive Counseling by Clinic Healthcare Workers in Durban, South Africa: Perspectives from HIV-Infected Men and Women Reporting Serodiscordant Partners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Understanding HIV-infected patient experiences and perceptions of reproductive counseling in the health care context is critical to inform design of effective pharmaco-behavioral interventions that minimize periconception HIV risk and support HIV-affected couples to realize their fertility goals. Methods: We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews with 30 HIV-infected women (with pregnancy in prior year) and 20 HIV-infected men, all reporting serodiscordant partners and acce...

Crankshaw, T.; Giddy, J.; Kaida, A.; Smit, J. A.; Matthews, Lynn Turner; Psaros, Christina; Ware, Norma Clara; Bangsberg, David Roy

2012-01-01

270

Reproductive Counseling by Clinic Healthcare Workers in Durban, South Africa: Perspectives from HIV-Infected Men and Women Reporting Serodiscordant Partners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding HIV-infected patient experiences and perceptions of reproductive counseling in the health care context is critical to inform design of effective pharmaco-behavioral interventions that minimize periconception HIV risk and support HIV-affected couples to realize their fertility goals. Methods. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews with 30 HIV-infected women (with pregnancy in prior year) and 20?HIV-infected men, all reporting serodiscordant partners and accessing...

Matthews, Lynn; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Giddy, Janet; Kaida, Angela; Psaros, C.; Ware, Norma; Smit, Jennifer; Bangsberg, David

2012-01-01

271

Research on Textile Enterprises to Broaden the Financing Channels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Textile industry exposes many problems under financing crisis: lack of innovation, extensive growth, etc. To solve these problems, the textile industry must achieve industrial upgrading and enhance the core competence. However, the shortage of capital has restricted the development of textile industry. The paper, referring to some scholars’ recommendations, discussed how to broaden financing channels to solve the current financing problems for textile enterprises.

Minfang Gao

2009-12-01

272

Optimum Conditions for the Synthesis of Dimethylol Urea Textile Fixer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Being a major textile exporting country, Pakistan exports textile products and earns a lot of money. On the other hand it spends huge amount of foreign exchange on importing textile auxiliaries like dye intermediates, dye fixing agents, fluorescent brighteners etc. formaldehyde precondensates with amino compounds and this forms an important class of polymers like Phenol-formaldehyde, Melamine-formaldehyde etc. used largely and effectively in textile industry as dye fixing agents. At present D...

Fiyyaz Ahmad Chughtai; Khalid Pervez Bhatti; Muhammad Zuber; Sofia Nosheen

2003-01-01

273

Uzbekistan: Forming a cluster strategy for textile industry development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article confers urgency of establishing clusters in textile industry. Particular focus is given to resource interaction among compound elements of national textile cluster. Policy recommendations targeted to development of cluster in the textile sector of Uzbekistan are provided.

Dilyafruz Nasirkhodjaeva

2010-02-01

274

The application of cyclodextrins in textile area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of Cyclodextrins for textiles was reviewed in this paper. Cyclodextrins are crystalline, water soluble, cyclic, non-reducing oligosaccharides consisting of six, seven, or eight glucopyranose units. Cyclodextrins are known as products which are able to form inclusion complexes. The ability of Cyclodextrins to form inclusion complexes can be used, e.g., to remove malodor from textile materials, etc. Furthermore, some modifications of the parent Cyclodextrins are possible. The derivatives can be reactive (e.g. cyclodextrin with a monochlorotriazinyl group, more hydrophilic (by means of hydrophilic side groups, such as hydroxypropyl and hydroxyethyl, less hydrophilic (by means of lipophilic side groups, such as ethylhexyl glycidyl or ionic (by means of ionic side groups, such as hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride.The methods for treating textiles are thus quite simple. The method using anchor-bearing Cyclodextrins is especially useful, since no fixation agent is needed, enabling they use of conventional textile treatment techniques and equipment. Furthermore, this method has virtually no limitations with respect to the textile materials that can be used.

?or?evi? Dragan

2006-01-01

275

Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women) were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2%) or in public services (23.9%). Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activi...

2012-01-01

276

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Excluding dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents exclusive of dyes. Topics include the recovery of lubricants, lye, sizing agents, polyvinyl alcohol, zinc, dirt, and heat from textile effluents. Air and water pollution control technology that is effective in treating textile effluents is discussed. Effluents from synthetic fiber manufacture and wool scouring processes are emphasized. Effluents that contain dyes are discusssed in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-09-01

277

Employment Security as Moderator on the Effect of Job Security on Worker’s Job Satisfaction and Well Being  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic instability around the world has resulted in many organizations having to lay off workers and also shut down to save their business. This economic strain and stress have impact on the worker’s job satisfaction and well being through job insecurity. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effects of employment security on job security and job satisfaction and well being among workers in the banking sectors and manufacturing sectors who were most affected by the economic downturn. Participants were 600 workers of which 200 represented the workers who work in the bank, 200 in electronic industry and 200 in textile industry. They were randomly selected to participate in the research. A set of questionnaire comprising of Employment Security Scale, Job Security Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale and Well-Being Scale were used to measure the variables. Results from the multiple regression analysis showed that employment security did not moderate the relationship between job security and job satisfaction and well being of workers. However, job security had a direct relationship with job satisfaction and well being of workers. Thus, result from this study implicated that it was not the employment security that worried the workers but the security of their job that they were holding that impacted on their job satisfaction and well-being.

Fatimah O.

2012-06-01

278

Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

2010-09-29

279

Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

Alica Grilec Kauri?

2009-12-01

280

Textile dyeing by dyestuffs of natural origin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry is one of the biggest industrial consumers of water especially dye houses which utilize synthetic dyes and other chemicals. Natural dyes are generally environmental friendly and have many advantages over synthetic dyes with respect to production and application. In recent years, there has been an interest in the application of these dyes due to their bio-degradability and higher compatibility with the environment. A review of previous work in the field of applying dyestuffs of natural source as possible textile dyes is given. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes by 'natural products' in textile dyeing may be feasible and may represent not only a strategy to reduce risks and pollutants, but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses which can develop from the inclusion of ecology in trade policy.

Šmelcerovi? Miodrag

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Wearable Textile Electrodes for ECG Measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG is one of the most important parameters for monitoring of the physiological state of a person. Currently available systems for ECG monitoring are both stationary and wearable, but the comfort of the monitored person is not at a satisfactory level because these systems are not part of standard clothing. This article is therefore devoted to the development and measurement of wearable textile electrodes for ECG measurement device with high comfort for the user. The electrode material is made of electrically conductive textile. This creates a textile composite that guarantees high comfort for the user while ensuring good quality of ECG measurements. The composite is implemented by a carrier (a T-shirt with flame retardant and sensing electrodes embroidered with yarn based on a mixture of polyester coated with silver nanoparticles and cotton. The electrodes not only provide great comfort but are also antibacterial and antiallergic due to silver nanoparticles.

Lukas Vojtech

2013-01-01

282

Textiles and Costumes: Henry Art Gallery  

Science.gov (United States)

Costumes and Textiles is the first in a series of Digital Interactive Galleries (DIG) presented by the Henry Art Gallery at the University of Washington. These galleries are "experimental, web-based introductions to specific mediums, subjects, and issues in art and design, all illustrated with images of objects in the Henry's collection." The Costumes and Textiles series provides several ways to explore this area of museum collecting. For example, view images of garments worn for specific occasions, such as a strapless evening gown with a full skirt, designed by Norman Norell, seen in the pages of the February 1950 issue of Vogue magazine and once worn by Lauren Bacall. In the textile section, view examples by structure or by type of embellishment. Finally, explore the global connections of Henry Art Gallery objects using Google Earth.

283

Emotional Value of Applied Textiles : Dialogue-oriented and participatory approaches to textile design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present PhD thesis is conducted as an Industrial PhD project in collaboration with the Danish company Gabriel A/S (Gabriel), which designs and produces furniture textiles and â??related productsâ?? for manufacturers of furniture. A â??related textile productâ?? is e.g. processing of piece goods, upholstery, mounting etc. This PhD project addresses the challenges of the textile industry, where the global knowledge economy increasingly forces companies to include user-participation and value innovation in their product development. My project revolves around the challenges which the textile designers at Gabriel face while trying to implement an innovative and process-oriented business strategy. The focal point has been the section of the strategy which aims at developing Blue Ocean products, which have a functional and an emotional value for the user. The thesis examines and explores emotional value of applied textiles. The objective is to operationalise the strategic term â??emotional valueâ?? as it relates to applied textiles. The procedure includes the development of user- and stakeholder-centred approaches, which are valuable for the textile designer in the design process. The research approach is application-oriented and practical. In chapter two, I explain the â??programmatic approachâ?? to design research, in which design experiments are the core of the project. The research programme is dynamic; it is developing in the course of the project and in tandem with the knowledge generated. The outcome of the research is â??exemplaryâ?? and the research contributions are presented as â??exemplarsâ??, â??frameworksâ??, â??toolsâ?? and â??structuresâ??, which are relevant for the design process or can be the subject of critique and further investigation by other researchers. The project is a contribution to the broad and multifaceted field of design research with a particular focus on textile design including the discourse and methodology used in the field of design. In addition the project relates to the Participatory Design approach and to the design research fields which focus on emotional aspects of design. Based on my experiences with the programmatic approach I propose a distinction between â??overall challengesâ?? and â??research questionsâ??. I view this thesis as a research contribution which facilitates a programmatic approach to a project such as this one. The â??overall challengesâ?? (challenges within the field of textile design) is a constant variable against which the programme (challenges which Gabrielâ??s textile designers face) can be benchmarked. Thus the â??research questionsâ?? (emotional value and user and stakeholder involvement) are â??shapableâ?? and situation-specific, and they constantly interact with the experiments (procedures of user and stakeholder involvement). In the course of the thesis I explain and elaborate on four themes each of which contributes to the outcome of the project. 1) Creating a frame of reference for the textile design process and a systematic approach to applied textiles. In chapter three I compare a textile design process with Donald Schönâ??s definition of design as â??a conversation with the materials of a situationâ??. Subsequently, through design experiments involving several participants, I develop the â??Tripod Approachâ??â?? a structured and systematic approach to design and research of applied textiles. 2) Understanding and exploring emotional value related to design of applied textiles. In chapter four I argue â?? based on Jesse Prinzâ??s and Antonio Damasioâ??s emotion research â?? for a perception of emotional value of applied textiles which acknowledges bodily feedback as a core concept in the process which leads to â??emotionâ??. This approach is used when exploring and adjusting Patrick Jordanâ??s framework of â??the four pleasuresâ?? to the study of emotional value of applied textiles as presented in this thesis. My expe

Bang, Anne Louise

2011-01-01

284

Working Women Portrayed on Evening Television Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Even television programs are thought to distort the real-life occupational distribution of women workers by favoring sex stereotypes and representing a narrow range of portrayed occupations for women. (Author)

Kaniuga, Nancy; And Others

1974-01-01

285

Work related asthma in the textile industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the world. In some countries the textile industry remains an important source of potential agents causing occupational asthma. In the textile industry several agents such as cotton dust and dyes may cause occupational asthma. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management and prevention specific to occupational asthma in the textile industry.Work-related asthma risk is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many textile agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination or reduction of exposure to the offending agent and early use of convenient therapy according to disease severity may play an important role in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Its prevention in the textile industry should be both technical and medical. It depends on the difficulties to reduce dust level, the limits in arranging work station or in occupational rehabilitation. These difficulties are increased in small textile industry companies. Persistent occupational asthma in this sector is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reduce the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. This review also outlines different patents on the diagnosis and treatment of asthma. PMID:21184667

Chaari, Neila; Amri, Charfeddine; Allagui, Irtyah; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed-Adnène; Bchir, Nouri; Akrout, Mohamed; Khalfallah, Taoufik

2011-01-01

286

Under the New Situation of the Textile Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China's entry into the WTO, all the textiles with the formal abolition of restrictions on Chinese textile and garment industry entered the free trade era, the increasingly fierce international competition, but also brought unprecedented opportunities to the Chinese textile and apparel industry. China's textile and garment industry required in this particular under the new situation to meet the challenges and seize the opportunity to be successful. Under the new situation China's textile and garment industry facing difficulties and the opportunities this article will do a specific analysis and put forward some feasible options for enterprises to adopt.

Wenzhuan Sun

2009-03-01

287

Efficient air conditioning system for textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air conditioning of production rooms in the field of textile industry is absolutely necessary because of the higher demands on quality on one hand and an efficient production process on the other. Apart from plants which must be often installed in walls because of their constructional properties and which are not transportable there are also requirements for plant constructions which can easily be assembled and disassembled. Thus an industrial air conditioning system was developed. It is adapted to the special requirements of the textile industry.

Hoenes, E.

1983-01-01

288

Upholstery textile performance following exposure to daylight  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research investigated the effects of exposure to daylight on upholstery textiles. Eleven fabrics preferred by consumers were exposed to daylight in outdoor test cabinets for six months. Exposed and unexposed specimens were tested for tensile strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, and colorfastness. Statistical analysis indicated highly significant fabric/exposure interactive effects; significant losses in warp and filling strength, warp and filling elongation, and the resistance to abrasion in most of the exposed upholstery textiles tested. Color change was also found in the majority of exposed fabrics. Results indicate that careful selection of upholstery fabrics is required by energy-conscious consumers and designers

1986-01-01

289

NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research work is part of the FP7 No-Bug project (Novel release system and biobased utilities for insect repellent textiles). The main interest of the project is personal protective textiles against insects (mosquitoes) for application not only in tropical areas where vector borne diseases are a major threat to the public health but also in European countries where the presence of mosquitoes can be nuisance. Malaria and dengue fever are well known diseases that cause a lot of deaths in th...

2011-01-01

290

Instruídas e trabalhadeiras trabalho feminino no final do século XX / Educated and earnest workers: women's work at the end of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com base em informações oficiais do IBGE/Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, do MTE/Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego e do MEC/Ministério da Educação e Cultura, o texto mostra a consolidação do acesso das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho na década de noventa e sua manutenção no mercado in [...] formal e formal, apesar das crises econômicas da década. Com ênfase na escolaridade, o artigo revela que a escolaridade feminina supera a masculina a partir do 2º grau, as jovens concluem os cursos técnicos e profissionais, assim como o ensino médio, em maior número do que os rapazes e constituem cerca de 60% dos que cursam o superior. Contudo, as moças concentram-se em algumas áreas do conhecimento - artes, humanas, biológicas e saúde - que as qualificam para ocupar posteriormente, no mercado de trabalho, os chamados guetos profissionais femininos. Abstract in english Based on official data provided by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), by the Ministry of Labor and Employment, and by the Ministry of Education and Culture, this text shows the consolidation of women's access to the labor market during the 90's. It also shows that their pres [...] ence remained unchanged, both in the formal and in the informal market in spite of the economic crisis of that decade. Emphasizing the schooling level, the article reveals that after elementary school, girls tend to conclude technical and professional courses, as well as achieve high school degrees, in a higher number than boys. Young women account for 60% of college students. However, young girls concentrate their preference in some areas of knowledge such as Humanities, Social Sciences, Arts, Biological Sciences and Health. Therefore, they end up as skilled professionals in the so-called ghettos of female laborforce.

Bruschini, Cristina; Lombardi, Maria Rosa.

291

Instruídas e trabalhadeiras trabalho feminino no final do século XX Educated and earnest workers: women's work at the end of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com base em informações oficiais do IBGE/Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, do MTE/Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego e do MEC/Ministério da Educação e Cultura, o texto mostra a consolidação do acesso das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho na década de noventa e sua manutenção no mercado informal e formal, apesar das crises econômicas da década. Com ênfase na escolaridade, o artigo revela que a escolaridade feminina supera a masculina a partir do 2º grau, as jovens concluem os cursos técnicos e profissionais, assim como o ensino médio, em maior número do que os rapazes e constituem cerca de 60% dos que cursam o superior. Contudo, as moças concentram-se em algumas áreas do conhecimento - artes, humanas, biológicas e saúde - que as qualificam para ocupar posteriormente, no mercado de trabalho, os chamados guetos profissionais femininos.Based on official data provided by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, by the Ministry of Labor and Employment, and by the Ministry of Education and Culture, this text shows the consolidation of women's access to the labor market during the 90's. It also shows that their presence remained unchanged, both in the formal and in the informal market in spite of the economic crisis of that decade. Emphasizing the schooling level, the article reveals that after elementary school, girls tend to conclude technical and professional courses, as well as achieve high school degrees, in a higher number than boys. Young women account for 60% of college students. However, young girls concentrate their preference in some areas of knowledge such as Humanities, Social Sciences, Arts, Biological Sciences and Health. Therefore, they end up as skilled professionals in the so-called ghettos of female laborforce.

Cristina Bruschini

2002-01-01

292

Industrial Agglomerations and Clusters. The Textile and Textile Products Industry from Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this article is to identify the formal clusters and potential clusters from the textile and the textile products from Romania. The statistical method has been used to delimit the potential clusters. In addition, there have been studied all the available works and internal and international reports on Romania, having as topic this type of industrial organization. The research conclusions are the following: (1 there are two young formal clusters, holding the premises of a “triple helix”: Astrico North-East and TMV South-East; (2 the spreading of the textile organizations, next to the structure of formal clusters, suggests the possibility of the natural building of three clusters: a common one for the North Eastern and Eastern regions, another one for the Central region and the third for the North-Western and Western regions. With reference to the professional literature, this work brings the picture of the spatial distribution of the textile industry in Romania.

Liliana CR?CIUN

2011-06-01

293

"Over here, it's just drugs, women and all the madness": The HIV risk environment of clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV vulnerability depends upon social context. Based on broader debates in social epidemiology, political economy, and sociology of health, Rhodes' (2002) "risk environment" framework provides one heuristic for understanding how contextual features influence HIV risk, through different types of environmental factors (social, economic, policy, and physical) which interact at different levels of influence (micro, macro). Few data are available on the "risk environment" of male clients of female sex workers (FSWs); such men represent a potential "bridge" for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high- to low-prevalence populations. Using in-depth interviews (n = 30), we describe the HIV risk environment of male clients in Tijuana, Mexico, where disproportionately high HIV prevalence has been reported among FSWs and their clients. A number of environmental themes influence risky sex with FSWs and the interplay between individual agency and structural forces: social isolation and the search for intimacy; meanings and identities ascribed to Tijuana's Zona Roja (red light district) as a risky place; social relationships in the Zona Roja; and economic roles. Our findings suggest that clients' behaviors are deeply embedded in the local context. Using the HIV "risk environment" as our analytic lens, we illustrate how clients' HIV risks are shaped by physical, social, economic, and political factors. The linkages between these and the interplay between structural- and individual-level experiences support theories that view structure as both enabling as well as constraining. We discuss how the "embeddedness" of clients' experiences warrants the use of environmental interventions that address the circumstances contributing to HIV risk at multiple levels. PMID:21414702

Goldenberg, Shira M; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Gallardo, Manuel; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D; Patterson, Thomas L

2011-04-01

294

Ultrasound in textile dyeing an the decolouration/mineralization of textile dyes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades ultrasound has established an important place in different industrial processes such as the medical field, and has started to revolutionize environmental protection. The idea of using ultrasound in textile wet processes is not a new one. On the contrary there are many reportsfrom the 1950s and 1960s describing the beneficial effects of ultrasound in textile wet processes. The aim of this paper is to review some fundamentals of ultrasound, its broad application and gather som...

Vajnhandl, Simona; Majcen Le Marechal, Alenka

2012-01-01

295

Kept Textiles among the Inca : Fine textiles seen in the light of kinship, reproduction and power  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis concerns the restricted exchange and keeping of textiles among the Inca. My aim was to show how certain fine textiles were only exchanged among the Inca kinship group and with leaders of high status from the ethnic groups in the provinces surrounding Cuzco. My intention was also to show how the dominant power position of the Incas was reproduced through this restricted exchange. My source of data has been texts written by Spaniards in the 16th century. The theoretical framew...

2002-01-01

296

Laboratory assessment of the thyroid system in women working at concentrating factory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the article is to examine the state of thyroid system in workers of mining and processing plant, working in harmful conditions. Materials and Methods: The working conditions of 407 workers of concentrator (study group) and 128 women workers of energy department (control group). The level of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine, anti-thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin has been determined in 88 women-workers of the main group and 82 women workers of control group. 80 ...

Lozovaya E.V.; Gaynullina ?.?.; Masyagutova L.M.; Karimova L.K.

2013-01-01

297

Energy use in textiles - an analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The single most important energy efficiency measure, as seen by the textile industry itself, is heat recovery. Other measures in descending order of perceived importance are the installation of improved boiler controls, thermal insulation of building and steam mains, and the adoption of new process technologies.

Clarke, G.; Schaffer, R.

1987-01-01

298

Research and Development in the Textile Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Included in the portfolio of IP's projects are the R and D activities for several advanced technologies targeted at the textile industry, one of the top ten energy intensive industries in the country. These R and D projects have primarily been aimed at im...

1987-01-01

299

Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique

1999-06-01

300

Energy saving examples of Japanese textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It examines energy saving examples of Japanese textile industry. It describes electric power saving of utility facility in Fukusima factory of Ildong spinning company and mutual assisting electric power in synthetic process and reduction of heat load of YKK. 3 figs.

NONE

2000-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

HYPERFILTRATION FOR TEXTILE PREPARATION CAUSTIC DISCHARGE REDUCTION  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study, joining a hyperfiltration (HF) system with an operating caustic scour and preparation range in an integrated textile dye and finishing plant. (HF is a membrane separation technique widely used in desalination of natural water and in some indus...

302

Production line for irradiating planar textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention has been aimed at meeting all radiation protection requirements in hydrophilic, antistatic or antibacterial finishing of planar textile products by irradiation with electrons. This could be achieved by special shielding arrangements and using radiation monitors for controlling the production line

1983-01-01

303

Enzymatic decolorization of textile dyeing effluents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commercial azo, triarylmethane, antraquinonic, and indigoid textile dyes are efficiently decolorized with enzyme preparations from Pleuratus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, Neurospora crassa, Polvporus sp., Sclerotium rolfsii, Trametes villosa, and Myceliophtora thermophila. The nature of substituents on the dyes' benzene rings influences enzyme activity, and hydroxyl and amino groups enhance decolorization. The presence of lignin peroxidase and/or manganese peroxidase in addition to Iaccas...

Abadulla, Ellias; Silva, Lui?sa M.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Robra, K. H.; Gu?bitz, Georg M.

2000-01-01

304

Modelling of failure of structural textile composites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper summarizes extensive experimental work regarding the manufacture, mechanical characterization and modelling of textile thermoplastic composites produced by means of commingled yarns. These composites are believed to have a high potential for applications in structural automotive components. However, methods need to be developed for faster manufacturing and reliable prediction of the component mechanical performance and failure. A practical approach of finite element ...

Svensson, N.; Gilchrist, M. D.

2000-01-01

305

State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

306

Masters and Apprentices of Textile Craft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes how the craftsmen at the workroom at Handarbetets vänner, Stockholm, learned their craft skills during the years 1948?2012. What this knowledge consisted of and how the apprentices’ knowledge grows into skillfulness. Interviews with 15 weavers and embroiderers who have worked during the time period form the empirical material. The period of time was chosen according to the informants´ times of employment.The strategies for learning are affected by dialogue between the craftsmen, both a verbal and a silent dialogue. The dialogue is an important part of the learning even though the making is central. The workroom forms its own way of making textile art, a way of doing that is learned from master to apprentice. In this situated knowledge, the different masters have their own ways of for instance mixing color and material, all corresponding with core values. The learning is also affected by the artistic leader and the artist.The learning within the workroom occurs in the making of objects, but never at the cost of the quality of the objects. The core values of the establishments, and the fact that there is a strive to be profitable, makes the circumstances. The collaboration with the artist in creating unique textile art is the primary goal; the learning is something that is taken for granted in order to withhold the competence in the establishment.Keywords: textile craft, master and apprentice, craftsmen, textile art, workroom

Annelie Holmberg

2013-10-01

307

Contactless EMG sensors embroidered into textile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To obtain maximum unobtrusiveness with sensors for monitoring health parameters on the human body, two technical solutions are combined. First we propose contactless sensors for capacitive electromyography measurements. Secondly, the sensors are integrated into textile, so complete fusion with a wearable garment is enabled. We are presenting the first successful measurements with such sensors.

Linz, Torsten; Gourmelon, L.; Langereis, G.

2007-01-01

308

Surface electromyography using textile-based electrodes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is a fundamental method for study the biomechanical behavior of a person, allowing the extraction of valuable information for health professionals. This paper presents a research conducted with the purpose of developing textile electrodes for noninvasive surface electromyography. Conducting fibers were used in a specifc arrangement taking into consideration SENIAM recommendations and embedded

Catarino, Andre? P.; Carvalho, Helder; Barros, Lui?s; Dias, M. J.

2012-01-01

309

American Women in World War I.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contends that women experienced World War I differently from any other war. Asserts that, although thorough physical examinations prevented women from fighting while disguised as men, women played significant roles as nurses and on the home front. Relates accounts of women who participated as volunteers, clerical workers, and journalists. (CFR)

Schneider, Carl J.; Schneider, Dorothy

1994-01-01

310

Development of smart textiles with embedded fiber optic chemical sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Smart textiles are defined as textiles capable of monitoring their own health conditions or structural behavior, as well as sensing external environmental conditions. Smart textiles appear to be a future focus of the textile industry. As technology accelerates, textiles are found to be more useful and practical for potential advanced technologies. The majority of textiles are used in the clothing industry, which set up the idea of inventing smart clothes for various applications. Examples of such applications are medical trauma assessment and medical patients monitoring (heart and respiration rates), and environmental monitoring for public safety officials. Fiber optics have played a major role in the development of smart textiles as they have in smart structures in general. Optical fiber integration into textile structures (knitted, woven, and non-woven) is presented, and defines the proper methodology for the manufacturing of smart textiles. Samples of fabrics with integrated optical fibers were processed and tested for optical signal transmission. This was done in order to investigate the effect of textile production procedures on optical fiber performance. The tests proved the effectiveness of the developed methodology for integration of optical fibers without changing their optical performance or structural integrity.

Khalil, Saif E.; Yuan, Jianming; El-Sherif, Mahmoud A.

311

Paragraph 20 Laundering or Otherwise Cleaning Waste Textiles with a View to Recovery or ...  

...20 Laundering or Otherwise Cleaning Waste Textiles with a View to Recovery or...laundering or otherwise cleaning of waste textiles with a view to their recovery...PermittedWaste Textiles.Storage...

312

78 FR 52907 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-08-27

313

76 FR 22608 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of Acceptance of...from certain members of the clothing textile industry to reduce unnecessary retesting of clothing textiles that have been tested already and...

2011-04-22

314

78 FR 35875 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Clothing Textiles...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection; Comment Request: Clothing Textiles, Vinyl Plastic Film AGENCY: Consumer...manufacturers and importers of clothing, textiles and related materials intended for use...Standard for the Flammability of Clothing Textiles (16 CFR part 1610) and the...

2013-06-14

315

75 FR 51016 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements for Accreditation of Third...Flammable Fabrics Act relating to clothing textiles. The Commission is issuing this notice...Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements for Accreditation of...

2010-08-18

316

75 FR 75664 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2010-12-06

317

78 FR 17642 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-22

318

78 FR 16662 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the United...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-18

319

76 FR 16531 - Country of Origin of Textile and Apparel Products; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1505-AB60) Country of Origin of Textile and Apparel Products; Correction AGENCIES...provisions relating to the country of origin of textile and apparel products. The final rule...INFORMATION CONTACT: Roberts Abels, Textile Operations, Office of International...

2011-03-24

320

78 FR 16661 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-18

 
 
 
 
321

75 FR 11845 - Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting A meeting of the Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee will be held on...surmounting of barriers to the expansion of textile exports, and on methods of...

2010-03-12

322

75 FR 48931 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2010-08-12

323

76 FR 16734 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2011-03-25

324

78 FR 7414 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-02-01

325

77 FR 8221 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2012-02-14

326

78 FR 11159 - Determination under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-02-15

327

76 FR 52640 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2011-08-23

328

16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.33 Country where textile fiber products are processed or...

2010-01-01

329

78 FR 17923 - Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision of the Dominican...  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Determination Under the Textile and Apparel Commercial Availability Provision...AGENCY: The Committee for the Implementation of Textile Agreements. ACTION: Determination to...

2013-03-25

330

Evaluation of the relationship between blood lead level and prevalence of oral complications in Koushk lead mine workers, Yazd province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Lead is one of the most dangerous metallic poisons which can lead to acute and chronic poisoning with a broad range of systemic and oral signs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of oral complications and blood lead level in workers employed in Koushk lead mines, Yazd province. Materials and Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 70 subjects employed in Koushk lead mines and 70 workers in Yazdbaf textile factory as contro...

Tabrizizadeh M; Boozarjomehri F; Mh, Akhavan Karbasi; Maziar F

2006-01-01

331

Analysis of the Restrictive Elements of China's Textile Industry in Upgrading Based on “Value Chain”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our country’s textile industry is in the producing and processing field in the global value chain, so textiles’ added
value is low and profit margins is narrow. Developed countries take up fields of high-grade fabrics production
and advanced textile machinery manufacture. Because textile fabrics, textile machinery and equipment of
China's textile industry fall behind developed countries, product quality and product variety can not yet fully
meet...

Tong Yang; Meilin He; Aixiang Zhang

2010-01-01

332

Detection of the Deformation of an Intelligent Textile in a Specific Point  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An intelligent textile is a textile structure that measures and reacts in front of external agents or stimulus with or without integrated electronic equipment. . The finality of the present textile is to take one more step towards intelligent textile, considering the integration of electronics and textile needs, to be industrially viable and to keep up the necessary competitiveness, raising the final price as little as possible. The finality of these experiments is to develop a textile that v...

Maria Alsina; Francesc Escudero; Jordi Margalef; Vicente Cambra; José Gisbert

2007-01-01

333

Do Ghanaians Prefer Imported Textiles to Locally Manufactured Ones?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper ascertains whether consumers prefer locally made textile to imported ones or vice versa and what accounts for the choice. The study uses survey data of industry, traders and consumers to explain the issue. The results show that most consumers prefer locally-made textiles to imported ones. More than half of those who prefer locally-made textiles claimed local textile products are of a better quality. Others claimed they are more affordable and attractive while a few claimed local textiles are cheaper. This appears to contradict the country-of-origin effect and the results of previous studies in Africa and other developing countries. Im-plications for traders, governments and local manufacturers are also discussed. The study provides insights with respect to Ghanaians’ preference of locally-produced textiles to foreign-made ones.

Peter Quartey

2011-02-01

334

Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK B188 Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature. This summary refers to work done in approximately the twelve months to the present in our contract ''Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature,'' which commenced in August, 1997. Our activities have consisted mainly of measurements of creep-controlled crack growth in ceramic matrix composites (CMCS) at high temperature; imaging of deformation fields in textile CMCS; the assessment of mechanisms of damage in textile composites, especially those with through-thickness reinforcement; the formulation of models of delamination crack growth under fatigue in textile composites; analytical models of the bridging traction law for creeping fibers in a CMC at high temperature; and an analytical model of a bridging fiber tow in a textile composite.

Cox, Brian

1999-03-01

335

Coal Mine Workers' Compensation  

Science.gov (United States)

... Forms | About DOL | Contact Us | Español Office of Workers' Compensation Programs DOL Home > OWCP > DCMWC > DCMWC TOC Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation (DCMWC) Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Home ...

336

PREPARATION OF CELLULOSIC FIBERS FROM SUGARCANE FOR TEXTILE USE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of natural fibers is not sufficient to accommodate the textile needs of the growing world population. Therefore, textile research is exploring alternative natural resources to produce fibers. Though typically known for its nutritional use, the sugarcane can also be used for textile production because of its high fiber content.The aim of our study was to extract fibers from sugarcane and to analyze their mechanical behavior. Cane particles were treated with an alkaline solution ...

Michel, Davina; Bachelier, Bruno; Drean, Jean-yves; Harzallah, Omar

2013-01-01

337

Electrochemical techniques in textile processes and wastewater treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The textile industry uses the electrochemical techniques both in textile processes (such as manufacturing fibers, dyeing processes, and decolorizing fabrics) and in wastewaters treatments (color removal). Electrochemical reduction reactions are mostly used in sulfur and vat dyeing, but in some cases, they are applied to effluents discoloration. However, the main applications of electrochemical treatments in the textile sector are based on oxidation reactions. Most of electrochemical oxidation...

Sala Gasto?n, Mireia; Gutie?rrez Bouza?n, Mari?a Carmen

2012-01-01

338

Study on the Features of Textile Industry Cluster in Guangzhong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Xi'an and Xianyang is two famous textile towns in Guangzhong, it formed a cotton textile industry-oriented
research, production systems and international market networks which have great influence throughout the
country. The textile industry cluster in the region is now in cluster development infancy, being a free competitive
market structure. According to the cluster features it explores the main form factors: Well-known local
entrepreneurs, social...

Tong Yang

2010-01-01

339

Electrochemical degradation of reactive blue 19 dye in textile wastewater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Textile wastewater is notoriously known to contain strong colour, a highly fluctuating pH and significant COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) values. Because of these characteristics, treatment of these effluents has been rather difficult. Traditional methods for dealing with textile wastewater consist of various combinations of biological, physical and chemical methods. Because of the large variability of the composition of textile wastewaters, most of these traditional methods are becoming inadequ...

Esteves, M. Fa?tima; Silva, J. Dinis

2004-01-01

340

Deposition of conductive materials on textile and polymeric flexible substrates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the study, analysis and selection of textile and similar materials to be used as flexible substrates for thin conductive film deposition, in the context of integrating electronics into textiles. Kapton® polyimide was chosen as reference substrate material, was characterized regarding mechanical and electrical properties and was used as a basis for a comparison with several textile substrates. Samples were fabricated using physical vapour deposition (thermal evaporation) ...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Bacterial Growth on Chitosan-Coated Polypropylene Textile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerge...

Erben, D.; Hola, V.; Jaros, J.; Rahel, J.

2012-01-01

342

Thread Based Battery for Low Power E-textile Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Textile electronic systems, or e-textiles, are on the rise but their utility is limited by its power demand. Potential applications include point-of-care diagnostic systems that would enable medical monitoring at the site of care. A small, inexpensive, and easy to use battery would enhance the capabilities of e-textile. Here we propose a thread based battery that attempts to satisfy these requirements. The thread based battery uses chemistry similar to an alkaline battery. The fabrication pro...

2013-01-01

343

Strategy for Introducing Nanotechnology in Textile Industry of Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Textile Industry is one of the oldest industries in Pakistan and considered as the backbone of the country’s economy, even then, it is lagging behind in competition among the global textile players and losing its position because of traditional conservative culture of the industry. Thus, industrial and technological revolution is direly needed in the industry to stay competitive in the international market. Textile industry in the global world is adopting more promising technologies to achi...

2011-01-01

344

Analysis of the Restrictive Elements of China's Textile Industry in Upgrading Based on “Value Chain”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our country’s textile industry is in the producing and processing field in the global value chain, so textiles’ addedvalue is low and profit margins is narrow. Developed countries take up fields of high-grade fabrics productionand advanced textile machinery manufacture. Because textile fabrics, textile machinery and equipment ofChina's textile industry fall behind developed countries, product quality and product variety can not yet fullymeet the market demand, and can not compete with developed countries. In order to quicken the upgrade pace oftextile industry, this paper brings forward some measures on the Chinese textile fabrics and textile machinerydeficiencies.

Tong Yang

2010-05-01

345

Time for a forum on terms used for textile fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advances in manufactured fibers and textiles have garnered interest and excitement of textile artists and consumers alike for a myriad of reasons, including health, environmental, and fashion. The chemical and molecular nature of these advances, however leads to confusion and misunderstanding of the new fibers in the materials. This is exacerbated by the current climate of distrust for chemical words and desire for "green" products and the unregulated (misinformation and marketing on the web. Textile artists, consumers, and the clothing and household textile industry need clear names and labels to identify the materials they are using.

Zawistoski, P. S.

2012-11-01

346

Verification of Surface Conductance Model of Textile Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface conductance is one of the main parameters which describes basic characteristics of specific textile materials.These textile materials are used, for example, in environments with higher requirements on hardware electrostaticprotection during their production process. Published measurement standardized methods are followed by modelingmethods which do not reach satisfactory results. This paper is therefore focused on the modeling of surfaceconductance of textile materials. The results show that the structure of textile materials can be seen as serial-parallelconnections of resistors. A derivation of this model is described.

M. Neruda

2012-08-01

347

Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Berg River Textiles, Mr. Juan Laubscher, and external consultants from the South African â?? Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project, Mr. Zsig Schneider and Mr. Henrik Wenzel. This team of people collected information on recipes and flow schematics on the various wet treatment operations in the dyehouse, and water and energy balances were made to the extent data allowed. A number of options for saving water, energy and chemicals were identified. The potentials monetary savings and necessary investments were estimated, and a list of priority projects including milestone plans for their implementation was made. A saving potential of around 3 mill. R was identified with a pay-back period of around 0.2 years as average of the identified options. The company implemented a large number of the options right away.

Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

2003-01-01

348

Environmental impact of plasma application to textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma technology is currently implemented in a wide range of industrial processes due to high efficiency, low environmental impact and simplicity. Low-temperature plasma treatment can be an alternative to traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing, causing modification of the fibre surface, which is mainly responsible for the material end-use properties i.e. wettability, dyeability, printability, shrinking, pilling etc. Appropriate choice of gas and control of plasma operation conditions provide a variety of effects on textiles (improvement of dyeability, printability and colour fastness, improvement of adhesion properties of coated fabrics, increase in hydrophobicity and water resistance, etc.). However, in spite of extraordinary efficiency, multifunctionality and simplicity, low-temperature plasma treatments still cannot replace all wet finishing processes, though they can be viable pretreatments that offer plenty of environmental and economical benefits

2007-05-01

349

Nanolevel Functionalization of Natural Fiber Textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the main tasks of presented research are to impact the additional value on natural fabrics by adding them new properties with a metal nano-level coating, evaluate coating technologies. Having the ability to control the surface of a natural fiber offers great rewards that go far beyond pure economics as natural fibers are renewable and biodegradable. The paper describes the process of vacuum evaporation and magnetron sputtering of copper coatings on cotton textile materials, analysis of the metal coated textile surface by laser laboratory complex and SEM. The investigation results evince that laser laboratory complex measurements of reflected and through covered material transmitted light can be applied to trace the unevenness of deposited metal film on the covered fabric surface and its changes from exploitation impacts without samples destruction.

2011-06-23

350

Energy saving examples of foreign textile industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It introduces the following energy saving cases in foreign textile industry: measuring and monitoring of energy needed for fiber processing, filtering and recycling of fiber processing exhaustion gas, dyeing and drying of wool material using electric high frequency energy, energy efficiency in carpet factory, drying of heavy fabrics, inhaling slot dehydrating of fabric processing, fabric drying using a radio beam in North Carolina, and producing hot water for a work process through fuel optimization.

NONE

2000-08-01

351

Preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces on cotton textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated by the complex coating of silica nanoparticles with functional groups onto cotton textiles to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with stearic acid, 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane or their combination. The wettability and morphology of the as-fabricated surfaces were investigated by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Characterizations by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis were also conducted.

Chao-Hua Xue et al

2008-01-01

352

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE EVOLUTIONS OF TEXTILE SECTOR ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complete liberalization of international trade led to important changes in financial performancesof the national enterprises. This paper has in view to present the consequences of these changes fromthe macroeconomic level to microeconomic level. Thus, indicators of the financial performance forthree enterprises at the textile sector from Galati are studied selectively. The scope of this study isboth to realize a financial performance hierarchy and to present of their evolution directions in thefuture.

Nicoleta BARBUTA MISU

2005-01-01

353

Respiratory symptoms in Lancashire textile weavers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate a large population of cotton textile weavers for reported respiratory symptoms relative to occupational factors, smoking, and exposure to dust. Cotton processing is known to produce a respiratory disease known as byssinosis particularly in the early processes of cotton spinning. Relatively little is known about the respiratory health of the cotton weavers who produce cloth from spun cotton. By the time cotton is woven many of the original contaminants have bee...

Raza, S. N.; Fletcher, A. M.; Pickering, C. A.; Niven, R. M.; Faragher, E. B.

1999-01-01

354

Modeling embroidered contacts for electronics in textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For over a decade, textile circuits have been realized by embroidering conductive yarns onto fabric. Even machine embroidery has been applied. The standard method for connecting these circuits with electronic components has been hand sewing. However, volume production requires the integration of the connection process into the machine embroidery process. For end-user satisfaction and market acceptance, reliability of the contacts is vital. This publication, for the first time, develops a comp...

Linz, Torsten; Simon, Erik; Walter, Hans

2012-01-01

355

Wearable textile electrodes for ECG measurement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most important parameters for monitoring of the physiological state of a person. Currently available systems for ECG monitoring are both stationary and wearable, but the comfort of the monitored person is not at a satisfactory level because these systems are not part of standard clothing. This article is therefore devoted to the development and measurement of wearable textile electrodes for ECG measurement device with high comfort for the user. The el...

Vojte?ch, Luka?s?; Bortel, Radoslav; Neruda, Marek; Koza?k, Milos?

2013-01-01

356

Wearable Textile Electrodes for ECG Measurement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most important parameters for monitoring of the physiological state of a person. Currently available systems for ECG monitoring are both stationary and wearable, but the comfort of the monitored person is not at a satisfactory level because these systems are not part of standard clothing. This article is therefore devoted to the development and measurement of wearable textile electrodes for ECG measurement device with high comfort for the user. The el...

Lukas Vojtech; Radoslav Bortel; Marek Neruda; Milos Kozak

2013-01-01

357

China Apparel in Textiles World Values Chains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the expansion of China's clothing industry in world textile value chains. Using data from interviews and observations throughout factory visits in China and other countries we show how private Guangdong entrepreneurs started China's clothing manufacturing. Lacking experience in consumer markets and designing, original equipment manufacturing was the route Chinese firms took to expand into garment manufacturing. Low wages and low margins of profits became their original sou...

Ruffier, Jean

2012-01-01

358

Bacterial Influence on Textile Wastewater Decolorization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aims to isolate and optimize bacterial strains having the ability to degrade and decolorize azo dyes produced in the final effluent of textile dying industries. In this regard, ten bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater treatment plants, and most of them were subjected to the colored effluents resulting from dilapidated houses. The ability of these bacterial isolations to use a wide range of azo dyes to determine the sole carbon source was determined. According to these scr...

Aamr Alalewi; Cuiling Jiang

2012-01-01

359

Photocatalytic decolourisation of textile azo dyes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four model dyes were synthesised using classical preparative techniques. They represent the molecular structures frequently used in the production of industrial textile mordant dyes. Dyes decolourisation was developed in a lab-scale thin film photoreactor equipped with a white lamp and quartz tube, in the presence of different semiconductors, such as TiO2, ZnO and Fe2O3. The quantum yields of photochemical degradation were determined.

Miranda, Teresa; Soares, Grac?a M. B.; Campos, Ana M. F. Oliveira; Kaja, Martin; Hrdina, Radim; Machalicky, Oldrich

2003-01-01

360

Challenging Textiles - A study of self-supporting and translucent upholstery in the field of contract textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In my thesis I am investigating the field of contract textiles from the perspective of a textile designer. My focus is on the specific area of self-supporting upholstery for seating furniture. The research is linked to a cooperation project with the doctoral student Bogdan Chernyakevich who researches at the Aalto University Furniture Design Department. In this project a fabric for an armchair will be developed. Driven by the search for a textile material which is translucent, self-supporting...

Brecheis, Carmen

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Manufactura textil en México: Un enfoque sistémico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo es resultado de un trabajo de investigación, cuyo objetivo establece la determinación y análisis de los factores que inciden en la competitividad de la manufacturera textil y del vestido. Aplicando el modelo de competitividad sistémica, se profundizó en los distintos factores que influyen en los niveles sistémicos (micro, meso, macro y meta, con el fin de proponer las condiciones necesarias para generar el desarrollo del sector. La infraestructura productiva textil se integra en 99,5% de micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES, que revelan diferentes problemáticas y no logran interactuar debidamente con las instituciones de apoyo. Por su parte el Estado ha mantenido un entorno propicio para la competitividad y ha establecido políticas industriales dirigidas a un cambio en los tipos de organización industrial (clusters y empresas integradoras. Pero para participar con éxito en los nuevos sistemas de competencia internacional se deben lograr consensos entre actores sociales que permitan hacer los cambios necesarios para encauzarse hacia una competitividad sostenida en la industria textil.

Lizbeth Fernández Chalè

2006-01-01

362

E-Textile Antennas for Space Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to integrate antennas and other radio frequency (RF) devices into wearable systems is increasingly important as wireless voice, video, and data sources become ubiquitous. Consumer applications including mobile computing, communications, and entertainment, as well as military and space applications for integration of biotelemetry, detailed tracking information and status of handheld tools, devices and on-body inventories are driving forces for research into wearable antennas and other e-textile devices. Operational conditions for military and space applications of wireless systems are often such that antennas are a limiting factor in wireless performance. The changing antenna platform, i.e. the dynamic wearer, can detune and alter the radiation characteristics of e-textile antennas, making antenna element selection and design challenging. Antenna designs and systems that offer moderate bandwidth, perform well with flexure, and are electronically reconfigurable are ideally suited to wearable applications. Several antennas, shown in Figure 1, have been created using a NASA-developed process for e-textiles that show promise in being integrated into a robust wireless system for space-based applications. Preliminary characterization of the antennas with flexure indicates that antenna performance can be maintained, and that a combination of antenna design and placement are useful in creating robust designs. Additionally, through utilization of modern smart antenna techniques, even greater flexibility can be achieved since antenna performance can be adjusted in real-time to compensate for the antenna s changing environment.

Kennedy, Timothy F.; Fink, Patrick W.; Chu, Andrew W.

2007-01-01

363

Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-09-01

364

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD), a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel phases). The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no preced...

Alfredo Rosenzweig; Bat - ami Artzi

2011-01-01

365

Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins in surgical uniforms and nonwoven textile masks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a trend for reduction in the concentration of free formaldehyde in textiles, formaldehyde textile resin (FTR) allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains an important clinical issue and is likely underdiagnosed. Patients with FTR ACD may react to formaldehyde released from the resin or to the resin itself. Screening with formaldehyde and ethyleneurea/melamine formaldehyde resin will uncover most cases. Patch testing with the suspected offending fabric most often leads to false-negative results. We present a case of a 49-year-old pediatrician who developed a severe widespread dermatitis caused by contact with FTRs from her hospital "greens" ("scrubs") and mask. PMID:17303043

Donovan, Jeff; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy

2007-03-01

366

Thyroid diseases in workers occupationally exposed to ionization radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We studied thyroid diseases in workers who are occupationally exposed to low-level radiation. We found out that workers have struma nodosa and struma diffusa. Women more than men have thyroid diseases, ages between 30-40 years old. None of them has thyroid carcinoma. (author). 4 refs.; 4 tabs

1987-01-01

367

Economic Effects of Recent Immigration on American Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines two opposing positions of economists about immigration's impacts. Reports empirical analysis of wages and employment effects of recent undocumented aliens and settled migrants on native-born workers. Separate native-born worker estimates are provided for men and women, subdivided by race and Spanish origin. (FMW)

DeFreitas, Gregory

1988-01-01

368

Trade Liberalisation and Women  

Science.gov (United States)

A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.

369

WOMEN AND WORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PROFILE OF WOMEN WORKERS Women form an important part of the Indian Workforce. According to the information provided by the Registrar General of India, the work participation rate for women was 25.68 per cent in 2001. This is an improvement from 22.73 per cent in 1991 and 19.67 per cent in 1981. The two important aspects that require mention are that while there has been an improvement in the work participation rate of women, it continues to be substantially less in comparison to the work participation rate of men. In 2001, the work participation rate for men was 51.93 per cent. Secondly, there seem to be a rural urban divide in so far as work participation of women is concerned. In 2001, work participation rate for women in rural areas was 30.98 per cent as compared to 11.55 per cent in the urban areas. In the rural areas, women are mainly involved as cultivators and agricultural labourers. In the urban areas, almost 80 per cent of the women workers are working in the unorganized sectors like household industries, petty trades and services, buildings and construction.

Hanamantharayya Baragali

2014-04-01

370

To Study the Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Morbidities and Related Epidemiological Factors among Spinning Mill Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cotton and synthetic textile industry in India is the largest industry in the country accounting for 14 percent of industrial output and providing employment to around 35 million workers. The workers are at risk of suffering from various chronic respiratory illnesses like byssinosis, chronic bronchitis due to exposure to the cotton dust in the worksites. Even though quite a few studies have been conducted in textile mills in India enough emphasis has not been given on the epidemiological aspects of chronic respiratory illness among the workers in these mills. The present study was, therefore, undertaken with two fold objectives to determine prevalence of respiratory morbidities and to find out the epidemiological aspects of the respiratory morbidities in spinning mill workers. Methodology: A Cross sectional study was conducted among 462 cotton textile workers in Babashaheb Kedar Sut Girni Pvt. Ltd. of Central India. Interview technique was used to collect sociodemographic, anthropometric & addiction information on a predesigned proforma followed by detailed general and systemic examination.Results: Present study revealed that among 462 workers (25.3% workers had chronic respiratory morbidities. The morbidities included Byssinosis (11.7 %, chronic bronchitis (5.8%, Bronchial asthma (4.5%, Tuberculosis (1.5%, other obstructive pulmonary diseases (1.7 % All the workers were male and age ranged from 21 – 58 years. Majority of the study subjects i.e. 97.4 % were literate and 94.6% belonged to class III & IV according to modified Kuppu swamy’s classification. The spinning process was carried out in seven main sections. Majority of the workers belonged to ring frame section (47%. The present study showed that (32.7% had cotton dust exposure for more than 20 years. Only masks were provided as protective devices and (41.3% of the workers were using it. Total (34.7 % workers were smokers. Conclusion: Advancing age, sections, duration of exposure, non usage of protective devices and smoking were seen as major determinants of chronic respiratory morbidities in spinning mill workers. Key Words: Spinning Mill workers, smoking, Byssinosis, chronic respiratory morbidities

Ajeet Vasantrao Saoji

2010-09-01

371

Production and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles for use as historic textile substitutes in stabilisation treatment studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background For millennia, iron-tannate dyes have been used to colour ceremonial and domestic objects shades of black, grey, or brown. Surviving iron-tannate dyed objects are part of our cultural heritage but their existence is threatened by the dye itself which can accelerate oxidation and acid hydrolysis of the substrate. This causes many iron-tannate dyed textiles to discolour and decrease in tensile strength and flexibility at a faster rate than equivalent undyed textiles. The current lack of suitable stabilisation treatments means that many historic iron-tannate dyed objects are rapidly crumbling to dust with the knowledge and value they hold being lost forever. This paper describes the production, characterisation, and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles as substitutes for historic iron-tannate dyed textiles in the development of stabilisation treatments. Spectrophotometry, surface pH, tensile testing, SEM-EDX, and XRF have been used to characterise the model textiles. Results On application to textiles, the model dyes imparted mid to dark blue-grey colouration, an immediate tensile strength loss of the textiles and an increase in surface acidity. The dyes introduced significant quantities of iron into the textiles which was distributed in the exterior and interior of the cotton, abaca, and silk fibres but only in the exterior of the wool fibres. As seen with historic iron-tannate dyed objects, the dyed cotton, abaca, and silk textiles lost tensile strength faster and more significantly than undyed equivalents during accelerated thermal ageing and all of the dyed model textiles, most notably the cotton, discoloured more than the undyed equivalents on ageing. Conclusions The abaca, cotton, and silk model textiles are judged to be suitable for use as substitutes for cultural heritage materials in the testing of stabilisation treatments.

Wilson Helen

2012-05-01

372

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: OVERVIEW AND PRIORITIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM TEXTILE MANUFACTURING  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives an overview of air pollution emission levels and a ranking of the public health hazard potential of textile manufacturing operations. The textile industry was defined and categorized by Bureau of the Census Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes. Flow cha...

373

Radio frequency and infrared drying of sized textile warp yarns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Drying sized textile warp yarns without contacting the warp is easily accomplished by either radio frequency or infrared techniques. Although the process is more expensive than conventional drying, the substantial savings accrued during subsequent weaving and finishing of the cloth can help keep the US textile industry competitive and support electrical load. 5 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

Ruddick, H.G. (West Point Foundry and Machine Co., GA (USA))

1990-11-01

374

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICS STUDY, PHASE II  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study concerned with BATEA for the textile manufacturing industry. The level of removal of specific toxic pollutants and toxicity (measured by results of bioassays) attained by selected tertiary systems treating secondary effluents from textile plant...

375

Identification and Characterization of Textile Fibers by Thermal Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile fibers are ubiquitous in the sense that they are present in the fabric of clothing, furniture, and floor and wall coverings. A remarkable variety of textile fibers with different chemical compositions are produced for many different commercial applications. As fibers are readily transferred, they are frequently recovered from crime scenes…

Gray, Fiona M.; Smith, Michael J.; Silva, Magda B.

2011-01-01

376

Sustainability Knowledge and Behaviors of Apparel and Textile Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze changes in undergraduate student knowledge of issues of sustainability relevant to the apparel and textiles industry. Assessment occurred prior to and upon completion of a course that addressed topics specific to the global production and distribution of apparel and textile goods. The study also…

Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; Kozar, Joy M.

2012-01-01

377

A study of textile & clothing supply chain in Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The expansion of textile and clothing production to Asian regions has both, increased competition and created a need for integration with the textile and clothing global supply chain. Strategies are being designed to improve competitiveness and responsiveness of the chains with increasing diversification of products.

Hussain, Deedar; Figueiredo, Manuel; Tereso, Anabela Pereira; Ferreira, Fernando

2010-01-01

378

Importing textile and apparel products from Guatemala to Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis was to research the aspects that should be taken into consideration when importing textile and apparel products from Guatemala to Finland. The angles for the research were the requirements and conditions for exporting from Guatemala, importing to Finland, and also the special standards set by the textile industry.

Eloranta, Mari

2012-01-01

379

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG WOMEN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a labour surplus and capital hungry country like India jobs are very important to individuals. They help to determine standards of living, places of residence, status and even one's sense of self worth. Jobs are important to organizations because they are the means of accomplishing organizational objectives. Technological advances and competitive pressures may often force an organization to put more emphasis on characteristics of successful performance rather than on standard jobs duties and tasks etc. When negative stress is high it reduces job satisfaction. When a job does not correspond with employee's personal life, or is the source of anxiety and confusion, it's stressful. Work places must be in normal conditions allowing employee to do their job properly

K. SHOBHA

2012-11-01

380

Hairiness measurement of textile yarns using crossed polarizers  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the fibers making a textile yarn are not contained in the yarn body and these fibers represent the hairiness of the yarn surface. Hairiness measurement of textile yarns is very important from the point of view of the textile industry. It is necessary to have sensitive, accurate, and fast methods to measure hairiness. In this article, a method developed to measure hairiness of textile yarns is discussed. When a yarn is illuminated by a plane polarized light beam, a portion of the incident beam is scattered from the yarn body and the protruding fibers. The light beam after the yarn will contain polarized and depolarized components. An analyzer with its plane of polarization perpendicular to that of incident light will allow only the depolarized portion, which contains the information about the hairiness, to pass through. By calibrating the technique using textile yarns having known hairiness, the setup can be used to determine hairiness very accurately.

Anand, Arun; Chhaniwal, Vani K.; Narayanamurthy, C. S.

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Test Method for Compression Resilience Evaluation of Textiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A test method was proposed and a measurement system was developed to characterize the compression resilience properties of textiles based on the mechanical device, microelectronics, sensors and control system. Derived from the typical pressure-displacement curve and test data, four indices were defined to characterize the compression performance of textiles. The test principle and the evaluation method for compression resilience of textiles were introduced. Twelve types of textile fabrics with different structural features and made from different textile materials were tested. The one-way ANOVA analysis was carried out to identify the significance of the differences of the evaluation indices among the fabrics. The results show that each index is significantly different among different fabrics. The denim has the maximum compressional resilience and the polar fleece has the minimum compressional resilience.

Shui-yuan Hong

2013-02-01

382

Design Management in the Textile Industry : A Network Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we explore textile design activities and textile design management from an industrial network perspective. The textile industry is probably one of the most globalized manufacturing industries in the world and thus one of the most dispersed industries on the globe. Most studies on design management are framed inside the organisational context of the firm. In this study the role and practice of textile design is addressed in perspective of the global textile production network. The empirical data stems from six case studies exploring how different types of enterprises are organised in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design management in order to maintain the relationships in their network of customers and suppliers.

Bang, Anne Louise

2013-01-01

383

Design Management in the Textile Industry - A Network Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we explore textile design activities and textile design management from an industrial network perspective. The textile industry is probably one of the most globalized manufacturing industries in the world and thus one of the most dispersed industries on the globe. Most studies on design management are framed inside the organisational context of the firm. In this study the role and practice of textile design is addressed in perspective of the global textile production network. The empirical data stems from six case studies exploring how different types of enterprises are organised in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design management in order to maintain the relationships in their network of customers and suppliers.

Christensen, Poul Rind; Bang, Anne Louise

384

Energy-Aware Routing for E-Textile Applications  

CERN Multimedia

As the scale of electronic devices shrinks, "electronic textiles" (e-textiles) will make possible a wide variety of novel applications which are currently unfeasible. Due to the wearability concerns, low-power techniques are critical for e-textile applications. In this paper, we address the issue of the energy-aware routing for e-textile platforms and propose an efficient algorithm to solve it. The platform we consider consists of dedicated components for e-textiles, including computational modules, dedicated transmission lines and thin-film batteries on fiber substrates. Furthermore, we derive an analytical upper bound for the achievable number of jobs completed over all possible routing strategies. From a practical standpoint, for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher, the routing technique we propose achieves about fifty percent of this analytical upper bound. Moreover, compared to the non-energy-aware counterpart, our routing technique increases the number of encryption jobs completed by one order...

Kao, Jung-Chun

2011-01-01

385

IN VITRO METHOD FOR THE STUDY OF NANOPARTICLES IN TECHNICAL TEXTILES (MEDITECH AS A ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Technical Textiles previously widely termed as "Industrial fabrics" has been now redefined and named as "Technical Textiles". The Technical Textiles offers a variety of technical and functional properties and has applications in the every field and walks of life. An important and growing part of the textile industry is the medical and related healthcare and hygiene sector

Abhishek K Mishra

2014-04-01

386

Women, Education and the Big, Bad Society  

Science.gov (United States)

History has a habit of ignoring women. Thirty years ago one thought that re-emerging women's movement would never be dumped in the same way previous feminist generations were consigned to the dustbin of history. It took feminist activists and scholars; women trade unionists and health workers; feminist writers, publishers and artists; and the…

Thompson, Jane

2011-01-01

387

Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system. PMID:24755300

Shehzadi, Maryam; Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Islam, Ejazul; Mobin, Amina; Anwar, Samina; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood

2014-07-01

388

Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented.

Pedro Pinho

2012-11-01

389

Search for benzidine and its metabolites in urine of workers weighing benzidine-derived dyes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Urinary benzidine and conjugates have been used to assess the extent of occupational exposure to benzidine-based azo dyes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of benzidine and its conjugates in the urine of workers exposed to benzidine-derived dyes. Urine samples were collected from 29 workers in three textile dyehouses, two tanneries, and two dyestuff quality control laboratories in West Yorkshire and Lancashire. In 200 samples, obtained over a period of 15 months and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, no free benzidine or monoacetylbenzidine was detected. Nevertheless, after strong acid hydrolysis of urine samples taken on two separate occasions from textile dye weighers where the standard of hygiene appeared below average, trace amounts of benzidine were detected suggesting the excretion of a benzidine derived dye or a metabolite thereof.

Meal, P.F.; Cocker, J.; Wilson, H.K.; Gilmour, J.M.

1981-05-01

390

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR / UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000 - 1350 DC), descendiente de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa, en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fase [...] s Maytas/San Miguel). La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. La imagen sobre el fondo de la red de algodón blanco está formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, quizás con su interior. Abstract in english One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD), a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel [...] phases). The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no precedent for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual organs, perhaps with the interior shown also.

Alfredo, Rosenzweig; Bat - ami, Artzi.

391

A CHIRIBAYA TEXTILE WOVEN WITH HUMAN HAIR UN TEXTIL CHIRIBAYA TEJIDO CON PELO HUMANO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the textiles in the Maiman Collection is a long band that has been attributed to the Chiribaya Culture (1000 - 1350 AD, a group of Tiwanaku descendants that settled in an oasis of the Moquegua Desert in southern Peru, and in the Azapa Valley near Arica in northern Chile, (Maytas/ San Miguel phases. The textile technique used is complementary warp, meaning that both sides are identical but the design is reversed. Black human hair forms the image on white cotton net. There is no precedent for the use of human hair strands as a complementary warp in such a long textile piece. A repeating image occurs along the length of the band that we have interpreted as a segmented anthropomorphic female figure. The head bears a typical female headdress, the upper body is depicted with three parallel lines and includes breasts, and the lower body displays female sexual organs, perhaps with the interior shown also.La colección Maiman tiene una larga banda textil que ha sido atribuida a la Cultura Chiribaya (1000 - 1350 DC, descendiente de los Tiwanaku que se asentaron en un oasis en el desierto de Moquegua, en el extremo sur del Perú, y en el valle de Azapa, en el extremo norte de Chile, cerca de Arica (fases Maytas/San Miguel. La técnica es urdimbre complementaria, lo que quiere decir que los dos lados son idénticos pero el diseño es al revés. La imagen sobre el fondo de la red de algodón blanco está formada por pelo humano, del cual no hay precedentes de uso como urdimbre complementaria en un textil tan largo. Hemos identificado la figura segmentada como figura antropomorfa femenina. La cabeza tiene un tocado femenino típico, el cuerpo superior tiene contorno de tres líneas paralelas y muestra los senos, y el cuerpo inferior indica el órgano sexual femenino, quizás con su interior.

Alfredo Rosenzweig

2011-01-01

392

Corporate Social Responsibility In Textile Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of social responsibility is a fairly recent one in the business world. Awareness about the social responsibility of business organizations is rapidly on the rise and firms are also accepting this concept. The textile industry is no exception. Textile producing and trading firms are also realizing their responsibility towards the society and the environment. This article aims at analyzing the concept of social responsibility and the common ways in which textile firms try to fulfill it.When India is making a transformational progress, GDP is growing at the rate of 8-8.5 percent per annum, sensex is reaching new heights every day, world is looking at us as one of fastest emerging economies of world. Shall we assume that our society is also progressing at the same rate as the economy is growing or there is a gap between economic vs. social progress of the country. If society is progressing at the same pace as the economy is growing then it is a very healthy sign but if there is a mismatch between the two then it would be very grave situation since it may widen the gap between the different strata of society. When most societies are wrestling with an acceleration and intensification of social change, there is a revolution of rising expectations. But how this change will happen. There are various measures to bring about such changes in the form of war, revolution or planned way. But in India we believe in democracy, rationality and progress. But question arises whether the initiatives taken by government for social upliftment is sufficient or private players should also contribute or government, corporate

Neha Gupta

2012-10-01

393

La industria textil uruguaya (1900-1960  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La industria textil uruguaya se inició a comienzos del siglo XX con la instalación de algunas fábricas de tejidos de lana y de una gran hilandería de lana peinada. Desde la crisis de 1929, sustentada en la protección cambiaría, se expandió en forma acelerada durante el periodo conocido como de industrialización por sustitución de importaciones. Alcanzó su apogeo entre fines de la segunda guerra mundial y comienzos de la década de los cincuenta, al instalar hilanderías de algodón y de fibras sintéticas y cuando las exportaciones industriales laneras adquirieron una importante dimensión. El progresivo agotamiento de la sustitución de importaciones, los frenos opuestos a las exportaciones, junto al estancamiento económico del país y el desmontaje de la protección estatal, la sumieron en una profunda crisis y en la pérdida creciente de significación en la industria y en la economía uruguaya.The Uruguayan textile industry started in the early xxth century based on the production of woven fabric and wool spinning mill (tops. From the years of the 1929's crisis onwards, it went through a great expansion due to a protectionist policy based on favourable exchange rates. Those were the times of the Import Substitutive Industrialization (ISI in the country. After the Second World War and, particularly, during the fifties it reached its height with the production of cotton fabrics and synthetic fibers. Meanwhile, wool exports would grow strongly. However, in the late fifties, the ISI strategy was in trouble and the obstacles for export's growth and the economic stagnation together with the removal of the protectionist's policies, put an end to the textile industry development. As a consequence, it experienced a deep crisis and lost importance both for the industry and for the economy as a whole.

Magdalena Bertino

2009-06-01

394

Electrochemical mercerization, souring, and bleaching of textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Economical, pollution-free treatment of textiles occurs in a low voltage electrochemical cell that mercerizes (or scours), sours, and optionally bleaches without effluents and without the purchase of bulk caustic, neutralizing acids, or bleaches. The cell produces base in the cathodic chamber for mercerization and an equivalent amount of acid in the anodic chamber for neutralizing the fabric. Gas diffusion electrodes are used for one or both electrodes and may simultaneously generate hydrogen peroxide for bleaching. The preferred configuration is a stack of bipolar electrodes, in which one or both of the anode and cathode are gas diffusion electrodes, and where no hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1995-01-01

395

Challenges for eco-design of emerging technologies: The case of electronic textiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The combination of textile and electronic technologies results in new challenges for sustainable product design. Electronic textiles (e-textiles) feature a seamless integration of textiles with electronics and other high-tech materials. Such products may, if they become mass consumer applications, result in a new kind of waste that could be difficult to recycle. The ongoing innovation process of e-textiles holds opportunities to prevent future end-of-life impacts. Implementing eco-design in t...

Kohler, Andreas R.

2013-01-01

396

Becoming a Worker-Mother: Understanding the Transition  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a dramatic increase in the number of women who both work and mother into the workforce in recent years. The patriarchal structure of the typical U.S. organization is based on rational-economic models and the "economic man" model of worker. This structure systematically disadvantages women who work and mother. The HRD function within…

LaMonica, Laura Tripp

2010-01-01

397

Treatment of Textile Wastewater with Chlorine: An Effective Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the chlorination of textile wastewater achieves all the objectives of its treatment such as color removal and reduction of TDS, BOD and COD; and the treated effluents meet the standards set as per Schedule 12-B of the Environment Conservation Rules-1997 (ECR-97, Bangladesh, the treatment of textile wastewater with chlorine gas is a practical technological option for Bangladesh. If this process which is simple if adopted by the textile sector, the ETP operation would be widely practised for its low operating costs because of low price of chlorine produced by local chlor-alkali plants in the country. Satisfactory operation of the ETPs treating textile wastewater with chlorine at low costs has made this process affordable and attractive to the textile sector. Some of the perceived limitations of chlorination outweighs the greater benefits of textile wastewater treatment with chlorine gas leading to cleaner water bodies which receive these effluents otherwise.

Keywords:Textile wastewater, chlorination, ETP, wastewater treatment

DOI = 10.3329/cerb.v14i1.3206

Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin 14 (2010 59-63

 

A. K. M. Abdul Quader

2010-05-01

398

Electric energy consumption in the cotton textile processing stages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electric energy is one of the primary energy sources consumpted in cotton textile processing. Current energy cost rate is reported about 8-10% in the total production cost of an ordinary textile product manufactured in Turkey. Significantly important share of this energy cost is electric energy. The aim of this paper was to investigate unit electric energy consumption of cotton textile processing stages using real-time measurements method. Actual and estimated Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) values for electric energy was calculated in the cotton textile processing stages of spinning, warping-sizing, weaving, wet processing and clothing manufacturing. Actual electric energy consumption data are gathered from monthly records of the involved plant managements. Estimated electric energy consumption data is gathered through on-site measurement. Actual and estimated electric energy consumption data and monthly production quantities of the corresponding months are used to facilitate specific electric energy consumption of the plants. It is found that actual electric energy consumption amount per unit textile product is higher than the estimated electric energy consumption amount per unit textile product of each involved textile processing stages. (author)

Palamutcu, S. [Textile Engineering Department, Pamukkale University, Engineering Faculty, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

2010-07-15

399

The Older Worker's Stake in Workers' Compensation  

Science.gov (United States)

State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)

Berkowitz, Monroe

1975-01-01

400

Manufactura textil en México: Un enfoque sistémico / Textile Manufacturing in México: a Systemic Approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo es resultado de un trabajo de investigación, cuyo objetivo establece la determinación y análisis de los factores que inciden en la competitividad de la manufacturera textil y del vestido. Aplicando el modelo de competitividad sistémica, se profundizó en los distintos factores que influ [...] yen en los niveles sistémicos (micro, meso, macro y meta), con el fin de proponer las condiciones necesarias para generar el desarrollo del sector. La infraestructura productiva textil se integra en 99,5% de micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES), que revelan diferentes problemáticas y no logran interactuar debidamente con las instituciones de apoyo. Por su parte el Estado ha mantenido un entorno propicio para la competitividad y ha establecido políticas industriales dirigidas a un cambio en los tipos de organización industrial (clusters y empresas integradoras). Pero para participar con éxito en los nuevos sistemas de competencia internacional se deben lograr consensos entre actores sociales que permitan hacer los cambios necesarios para encauzarse hacia una competitividad sostenida en la industria textil. Abstract in english This article is a result of a research the objective of which is the determination and analysis of the factors that influence the competitiveness of the textile and garment industry in México. The systemic competitive methodology is applied in order to study the different factors that influence the [...] systemic levels (micro, meso, macro, goal) in order to propose the necessary conditions for the development of this industry. The textile productive infrastructure is 99.5% composed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSME?s), which present multiple types of problems of different kinds and which are unable to interact adequately with the supporting institutions. On the other hand, the government has maintained an adequate environment for competitiveness and has established industrial policies which pursue the change in industrial organization (?clusters? and ?integrative companies?). However, in order to be successful in new systems of international competition, consensus among the social actors will have to be achieved in order to introduce the necessary changes to sustain competitiveness in the textile industry.

Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos; Fernández Chalé, Lizbeth.

 
 
 
 
401

Textile systems on lambda-graph systems  

CERN Multimedia

The notions of symbolic matrix system and $\\lambda$-graph system for a subshift are generalizations of symbolic matrix and $\\lambda$-graph (= finite symbolic matrix) for a sofic shift respectively ([Doc. Math. 4(1999), 285-340]). M. Nasu introduced the notion of textile system for a pair of graph homomorphisms to study automorphisms and endomorphisms of topological Markov shifts ([Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 546,114(1995)]). In this paper, we formulate textile systems on $\\lambda$-graph systems and study automorphisms on subshifts. We will prove that for a forward automorphism $\\phi$ of a subshift $(\\Lambda,\\sigma)$, the automorphisms $\\phi^k \\sigma^n, k\\ge 0, n\\ge 1$ can be explicitly realized as a subshift defined by certain symbolic matrix systems coming from both the strong shift equivalence representing $\\phi$ and the subshift $(\\Lambda,\\sigma)$. As an application of this result, if an automorphism $\\phi$ of a subshift $\\Lambda$ is a simple automorphism, the dynamical system $(\\Lambda, \\phi \\circ \\sigma)$ is t...

Matsumoto, K

2006-01-01

402

Development Strategy for a Textile Firm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The researched firm is a state-owned company of more than forty years of operation and is one of pioneer companies providing textile and garment to Vietnam market. Its vision is to be the sustainable multidisciplinary firm which operates in three main areas: textile and gament industry, travel – real estate and financial investment in global market. After more than forty years of operation in the market, company has obtained some recognized results but these are still low and do not meet company’s strategic goals and company’s shareholders expectation. A need of a development of strategy which will help company to take market positioning and to develop. This research will help to have an overview of company, its business environment, its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Business environment and SWOT analysis are used for alternatives of strategies. Each activity of the company is reviewed to find the real problem that company is facing and helps to find a solution. A strategy is finally given for company’s competitiveness anddevelopment.

Luu Trong Tuan

2012-05-01

403

The Conner Prairie Museum Textile Collection  

Science.gov (United States)

The Textile Collection at Indiana University Purdue University Indiana (IUPUI) was founded by the Lilly family, of Eli Lilly pharmaceutical fame. The digitized items here offer a great way to learn about an oft-ignored area of the art world. Visitors will find the introduction to the collection to be brief, but informative. It explains the multiple reasons behind the decrease in creation of textiles at home, mainly the mechanization of cotton production and the advent of the sewing machine, but goes on to say that quilting is the "only legacy that has endured in the American conscious" and "is truly a continuing heritage for this century." Visitors can type "crazy quilt" in the "keyword search" box to see a quilt with an array of beautiful decorative stitches to hold the multi-colored pieces together. Some of the other types of items that are in the collection are samplers and coverlets. Visitors interested in seeing some samplers, pieces made by young girls to practice their skills, can simply click on "Browse this Collection" to see a number of good examples of this work.

404

Pesticides: Protecting Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Protecting workers from potential effects of pesticides is an important role of EPA's Pesticide Program. Workers in several occupations may be exposed to pesticides when they: Prepare pesticides for ...

405

State Workers' Compensation Laws.  

Science.gov (United States)

Table of Contents: Type of Law and Insurance Requirements for Private Employment; Numerical Exemptions; Coverage of Agricultural Workers; Jurisdictions in Which Workers' Compensation Laws Aply to Domestic Employment; Medical Benefits and Methods of Physic...

1990-01-01

406

E-commerce : A study on women's online purchasing behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Key words:E-commerce, women, online purchasing behavior, online shopping, Internet shopping Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to map out the present behavior of women between 40-55 years concerning Internet shopping. Fur-thermore, the research aims at finding and analyzing factors that might help marketers when persuading the target group to increase their usage of Internet as a purchasing channel for home textile and decorations. Background: Along with the increasing usage of c...

Eliasson, Malin; Holkko Lafourcade, Johanna; Smajovic, Senida

2009-01-01

407

Relationship between work style and cigarette smoking in Japanese workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

day work and shift work) and cigarette smoking in Japanese workers. We used data of 3,238 men (39.3 ± 10.5 years) and 5,111 women (37.1 ± 10.9 years), aged 20 - 59 years, by cross-sectional clinical investigation study. Work style i.e. day work and shift work, cigarette smoking, status of stress and stress coping were obtained by questionnaires by well-trained medical staff. A total of 227 men (7.0%) and 339 women (6.6%) were shift workers, and 1346 men (41.6%) and 649 women (12.7%) were cu...

Nobuyuki Miyatake; Kenji Nishii; Takeyuki Numata

2011-01-01

408

Sino-American Textile Trade Balance and Trade Friction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, there has been severe unbalance in Sino-American trade. China has remained trade surplus of large volume to America, especially in textile products trade, so America has a lot of trade friction with China. This article collects information of unbalanced condition in Sino-American Textile trade, analyzes the reasons for this kind of trade friction, and proposes an opinion that China has to modify the policy of developing country by foreign trade to realize trade balance of textile products.

Ningchuan Jiang

2009-02-01

409

Study on the Features of Textile Industry Cluster in Guangzhong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xi'an and Xianyang is two famous textile towns in Guangzhong, it formed a cotton textile industry-orientedresearch, production systems and international market networks which have great influence throughout thecountry. The textile industry cluster in the region is now in cluster development infancy, being a free competitivemarket structure. According to the cluster features it explores the main form factors: Well-known localentrepreneurs, social networks and local government. Then it brings forward the corresponding developmentstrategies: 1 nurturing local entrepreneurs, building networks and strengthening local industry localgovernment's macro-control and service functions; 2 Selecting gathering space-based development model.

Tong Yang

2010-12-01

410

Current state of the cotton and textile industry in Kazakhstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile industry of Kazakhstan is presented basically by enterprises created in period of centrally planned economy and as consequence. Low labor productivity, lacking equipment base and technologies, poor marketing are problems of the current state of industry. But, there are also advantages as a vicinity of potential cotton manufacturers - Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. A free economic zone (FEZ “Ontustik” has been established and a program of “Ontustik” FEZ development has been adopted for developing the cotton and textile cluster in Kazakhstan. The law “About development of the cotton branch” has been adopted in Kazakhstan to provide the textile enterprises with necessary raw material and to develop the domestic cotton growing.

Gulfari Azhimetova

2010-06-01

411

Radiometric determination of the amount of coating material on textiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flow chart is shown of equipment for determining the amount of coating material on textiles. Measurements were conducted using a simplified model arrangement consisting of two measuring points for determining material surface density by radiography. The measuring points consisted of a collimation shield with a radiation source (85Kr) and a detection part. The textile material coating was simulated by a polyester foil. The measurement error was assessed comprising the effects of the statistical nature of nuclear decay and the fluctuation of the textile material surface density. (H.S.)

1980-01-01

412

Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1-5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-01

413

Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process

2007-06-01

414

Biodegradability enhancement of textile wastewater by electron beam irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Textile wastewater generally contains various pollutants, which can cause problems during biological treatment. Electron beam radiation technology was applied to enhance the biodegradability of textile wastewater for an activated sludge process. The biodegradability (BOD 5/COD) increased at a 1.0 kGy dose. The biorefractory organic compounds were converted into more easily biodegradable compounds such as organic acids having lower molecular weights. In spite of the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the activated sludge process, not only high organic removal efficiencies, but also high microbial activities were achieved. In conclusion, textile wastewater was effectively treated by the combined process of electron beam radiation and an activated sludge process.

Kim, Tak-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Myun-Joo

2007-06-01

415

Earnings Determinants in the Nigerian Textile Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares the effectiveness of formal schooling with learning from experience and considers, as one of its objectives, the extent that worker productivity is related to different levels of schooling. (Author/RK)

Hinchliffe, Keith

1976-01-01

416

Comunicación y productividad en pequeñas y medianas empresas de un cluster textil en Colombia / Communication and productivity in small and medium sized businesses of a textile cluster in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza la opinión que tienen los gerentes y obreros sobre la comunicación y su incidencia en la productividad. El estudio consiste en una encuesta aplicada a una muestra de 17 empresas de un cluster textil en Colombia. Estas empresas fueron seleccionadas por conveniencia de un listado d [...] e 36 empresas de la Asociación Colombiana de las Micros, Pequeñas y Medianas empresas (ACOPI, Antioquía). Como se muestra en el artículo, los gerentes y los obreros opinan que la comunicación directa, las conversaciones y las reuniones tienen una relación con el crecimiento de la productividad. Abstract in english The paper analyzes the view of managers and workers about communication and its influence in productivity. The study consists of an applied survey to a 17 companies sample from a textile business cluster in Colombia. These companies were selected from a list of 36 companies of the Asociación Colombi [...] ana de las Micros, Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (ACOPI, Antioquia). As shown in the paper, the managers and the workers believe that face to face communication, talks and meetings have a close relation to productivity's growth.

Mario Humberto, Muñoz Hernández.

417

Disaster Rescue and Response Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Disaster Rescue and Response Workers Disaster Rescue and Response Workers Bruce H. Young, LCSW, ... psychological problems can result for rescue workers following disaster experiences? The psychological problems for workers that may ...

418

Menstrual function in workers exposed to toluene.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rates of menstrual disorders were studied in 231 female production workers with high exposure to toluene (mean 88 (range 50-150 ppm) in a factory manufacturing audio speakers and compared with a control group of 58 female production workers in other departments in the same factory who had little or no exposure to toluene (0-25 ppm). An external community control group of 187 working class women under routine care at public maternal and child health centres were also studied. Detailed menstrua...

Ng, T. P.; Foo, S. C.; Yoong, T.

1992-01-01

419

Textile industry: how control your electric power consumption?; Industrie textile: comment maitriser vos consommations electriques?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the framework of the program on the electric power demand optimization, the ADEME and the textile industry, developed a collaboration on the electric power utilization knowledge. The aim of the collaboration is the better management of this energy in the enterprise and to optimize the consumptions. This book provides recommendations on the equipment, the management and the energy sources choices. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2001-05-01

420

Waste heat recovery: Textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bibliography contains citations concerning descriptions and evaluations of waste heat recovery operations used in the textile industry. Heat recovery and utilization from wastewater streams, flue gas, finishing processes, dyeing operations, and air jet systems are presented. The use of waste heat for space heating and process preheating is considered. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

1993-08-01

 
 
 
 
421

Acute toxicity assessment of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents using Daphnia magna bioassay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquatic toxicity of textile dyes and textile and dye industrial effluents were evaluated in an acute toxicity study usi