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Sample records for winter temperate zone

  1. Aerosol influenza transmission risk contours: A study of humid tropics versus winter temperate zone

    Borup Birthe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, much attention has been given to the spread of influenza around the world. With the continuing human outbreak of H5N1 beginning in 2003 and the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, focus on influenza and other respiratory viruses has been increased. It has been accepted for decades that international travel via jet aircraft is a major vector for global spread of influenza, and epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions observed. Thus we wanted to study how indoor environmental conditions (enclosed locations in the tropics and winter temperate zones contribute to the aerosol spread of influenza by travelers. To this end, a survey consisting of 632 readings of temperature (T versus relative humidity (RH in 389 different enclosed locations air travelers are likely to visit in 8 tropical nations were compared to 102 such readings in 2 Australian cities, including ground transport, hotels, shops, offices and other publicly accessible locations, along with 586 time course readings from aircraft. Results An influenza transmission risk contour map was developed for T versus RH. Empirical equations were created for estimating: 1. risk relative to temperature and RH, and 2. time parameterized influenza transmission risk. Using the transmission risk contours and equations, transmission risk for each country's locations was compared with influenza reports from the countries. Higher risk enclosed locations in the tropics included new automobile transport, luxury buses, luxury hotels, and bank branches. Most temperate locations were high risk. Conclusion Environmental control is recommended for public health mitigation focused on higher risk enclosed locations. Public health can make use of the methods developed to track potential vulnerability to aerosol influenza. The methods presented can also be used in influenza modeling. Accounting for differential aerosol transmission using T and RH can potentially explain

  2. Aerosol influenza transmission risk contours: A study of humid tropics versus winter temperate zone

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, much attention has been given to the spread of influenza around the world. With the continuing human outbreak of H5N1 beginning in 2003 and the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, focus on influenza and other respiratory viruses has been increased. It has been accepted for decades that international travel via jet aircraft is a major vector for global spread of influenza, and epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions observed. Thus we wanted to study how indoor environmental conditions (enclosed locations) in the tropics and winter temperate zones contribute to the aerosol spread of influenza by travelers. To this end, a survey consisting of 632 readings of temperature (T) versus relative humidity (RH) in 389 different enclosed locations air travelers are likely to visit in 8 tropical nations were compared to 102 such readings in 2 Australian cities, including ground transport, hotels, shops, offices and other publicly accessible locations, along with 586 time course readings from aircraft. Results An influenza transmission risk contour map was developed for T versus RH. Empirical equations were created for estimating: 1. risk relative to temperature and RH, and 2. time parameterized influenza transmission risk. Using the transmission risk contours and equations, transmission risk for each country's locations was compared with influenza reports from the countries. Higher risk enclosed locations in the tropics included new automobile transport, luxury buses, luxury hotels, and bank branches. Most temperate locations were high risk. Conclusion Environmental control is recommended for public health mitigation focused on higher risk enclosed locations. Public health can make use of the methods developed to track potential vulnerability to aerosol influenza. The methods presented can also be used in influenza modeling. Accounting for differential aerosol transmission using T and RH can potentially explain anomalies of influenza

  3. Long range transport of caesium isotopes from temperate latitudes to the equatorial zone during the winter monsoon period

    An air radioactivity monitoring study carried out in Dalat, Vietnam since 1986 has revealed distinct peaks of caesium isotope concentrations in air and fallout during December-January, when the monthly average air temperature was lowest and dry fallout dominated. These peaks provide evidence of the intrusion of more radioactive cold air masses from temperate northern latitudes during the development of large-scale anti cyclones, frequently observed in the most active winter monsoon period. High dry fallout velocity (about 10 cm/s) determined from the measured concentrations, clearly demonstrates one of the most relevant features of cold air masses: behind the cold front, vertical air motion is descending. The role of other processes, such as injection of radioactive air from stratosphere and local resuspension of soil dust, has been shown to be insignificant. The interpretation of the experimental results was based on the analysis of environmental -meteorological factors as well as the behaviour of other naturally-occurring radionuclides. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  4. Recurrent winter warming pulses enhance nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms

    Schuerings, J.; Jentsch, A.; Hammerl, V.; Lenz, K.; H. A. L. Henry; A. V. Malyshev; J. Kreyling

    2014-01-01

    Winter air temperatures are projected to increase in the temperate zone, whereas snow cover is projected to decrease, leading to more extreme soil temperature variability, and potentially to changes in nutrient cycling. Therefore, we applied six winter warming pulses by infra-red heating lamps and surface heating wires in a field experiment over one winter in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms. The experiment was replicated at two sites, a colder mountainous upla...

  5. Rhizome starch as indicator for temperate seagrass winter survival

    Govers, L.L.; Suykerbuyk, W.; Hoppenreijs, J.; Giesen, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Katwijk, M.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Key-ecosystems such as seagrass beds are disappearing on a global scale. In order to counter-act local loss of seagrass beds, seagrass restoration projects have been carried out with varying degrees of success. As seagrass biomass peaks in summer, most restoration projects are monitored during this period, while wintering processes are largely ignored. We here attempted to elucidate some important bottlenecks for wintering survival in temperate areas of the intertidal model species Zostera no...

  6. Recurrent winter warming pulses enhance nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms

    J. Schuerings

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter air temperatures are projected to increase in the temperate zone, whereas snow cover is projected to decrease, leading to more extreme soil temperature variability, and potentially to changes in nutrient cycling. Therefore, we applied six winter warming pulses by infra-red heating lamps and surface heating wires in a field experiment over one winter in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms. The experiment was replicated at two sites, a colder mountainous upland site with high snow accumulation and a warmer and dryer lowland site. Winter warming pulses enhanced soil biotic activity for both sites during winter, as indicated by 35% higher nitrogen (N availability in the soil solution, 40% higher belowground decomposition and a 25% increase in the activity of the enzyme cellobiohydrolase. The mobilization of N differed between sites, and the incorporation of 15N into leaves was reduced by 31% in response to winter warming pulses, but only at the cold site, with significant reductions occurring for three of four tested plant species at this site. Furthermore, there was a trend of increased N leaching in response to the recurrent winter warming pulses. Overall, projected winter climate change in the temperate zone, with less snow and more variable soil temperatures, appears important for shifts in ecosystem functioning (i.e. nutrient cycling. While the effects of warming pulses on plant N mobilization did not differ among sites, reduced plant 15N incorporation at the colder temperate site suggests that frost damage may reduce plant performance in a warmer world, with important implications for nitrogen cycling and nitrogen losses from ecosystems.

  7. Beyond arctic and alpine: the influence of winter climate on temperate ecosystems.

    Ladwig, Laura M; Ratajczak, Zak R; Ocheltree, Troy W; Hafich, Katya A; Churchill, Amber C; Frey, Sarah J K; Fuss, Colin B; Kazanski, Clare E; Muñoz, Juan D; Petrie, Matthew D; Reinmann, Andrew B; Smith, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    Winter climate is expected to change under future climate scenarios, yet the majority of winter ecology research is focused in cold-climate ecosystems. In many temperate systems, it is unclear how winter climate relates to biotic responses during the growing season. The objective of this study was to examine how winter weather relates to plant and animal communities in a variety of terrestrial ecosystems ranging from warm deserts to alpine tundra. Specifically, we examined the association between winter weather and plant phenology, plant species richness, consumer abundance, and consumer richness in 11 terrestrial ecosystems associated with the U.S. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network. To varying degrees, winter precipitation and temperature were correlated with all biotic response variables. Bud break was tightly aligned with end of winter temperatures. For half the sites, winter weather was a better predictor of plant species richness than growing season weather. Warmer winters were correlated with lower consumer abundances in both temperate and alpine systems. Our findings suggest winter weather may have a strong influence on biotic activity during the growing season and should be considered in future studies investigating the effects of climate change on both alpine and temperate systems. PMID:27145612

  8. Hardy exotics species in temperate zone: can "warm water" crayfish invaders establish regardless of low temperatures?

    Veselý, Lukáš; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    The spreading of new crayfish species poses a serious risk for freshwater ecosystems; because they are omnivores they influence more than one level in the trophic chain and they represent a significant part of the benthic biomass. Both the environmental change through global warming and the expansion of the pet trade increase the possibilities of their spreading. We investigated the potential of four "warm water" highly invasive crayfish species to overwinter in the temperate zone, so as to predict whether these species pose a risk for European freshwaters. We used 15 specimens of each of the following species: the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), the marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis), the yabby (Cherax destructor), and the redclaw (Cherax quadricarinatus). Specimens were acclimatized and kept for 6.5 months at temperatures simulating the winter temperature regime of European temperate zone lentic ecosystems. We conclude that the red swamp crayfish, marbled crayfish and yabby have the ability to withstand low winter temperatures relevant for lentic habitats in the European temperate zone, making them a serious invasive threat to freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26572317

  9. Hardy exotics species in temperate zone: can “warm water” crayfish invaders establish regardless of low temperatures?

    Veselý, Lukáš; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    The spreading of new crayfish species poses a serious risk for freshwater ecosystems; because they are omnivores they influence more than one level in the trophic chain and they represent a significant part of the benthic biomass. Both the environmental change through global warming and the expansion of the pet trade increase the possibilities of their spreading. We investigated the potential of four “warm water” highly invasive crayfish species to overwinter in the temperate zone, so as to predict whether these species pose a risk for European freshwaters. We used 15 specimens of each of the following species: the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), the marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis), the yabby (Cherax destructor), and the redclaw (Cherax quadricarinatus). Specimens were acclimatized and kept for 6.5 months at temperatures simulating the winter temperature regime of European temperate zone lentic ecosystems. We conclude that the red swamp crayfish, marbled crayfish and yabby have the ability to withstand low winter temperatures relevant for lentic habitats in the European temperate zone, making them a serious invasive threat to freshwater ecosystems. PMID:26572317

  10. Changes in winter conditions impact forest management in north temperate forests.

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Rissman, Adena R

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may impact forest management activities with important implications for forest ecosystems. However, most climate change research on forests has focused on climate-driven shifts in species ranges, forest carbon, and hydrology. To examine how climate change may alter timber harvesting and forest operations in north temperate forests, we asked: 1) How have winter conditions changed over the past 60 years? 2) Have changes in winter weather altered timber harvest patterns on public forestlands? 3) What are the implications of changes in winter weather conditions for timber harvest operations in the context of the economic, ecological, and social goals of forest management? Using meteorological information from Climate Data Online and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models we document substantial changes in winter conditions in Wisconsin, including a two- to three-week shortening of frozen ground conditions from 1948 to 2012. Increases in minimum and mean soil temperatures were spatially heterogeneous. Analysis of timber harvest records identified a shift toward greater harvest of jack pine and red pine and less harvest of aspen, black spruce, hemlock, red maple, and white spruce in years with less frozen ground or snow duration. Interviews suggested that frozen ground is a mediating condition that enables low-impact timber harvesting. Climate change may alter frozen ground conditions with complex implications for forest management. PMID:25463581

  11. How predictable is the winter extremely cold days over temperate East Asia?

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Skillful seasonal prediction of the number of extremely cold day (NECD) has considerable benefits for climate risk management and economic planning. Yet, predictability of NECD associated with East Asia winter monsoon remains largely unexplored. The present work estimates the NECD predictability in temperate East Asia (TEA, 30°-50°N, 110°-140°E) where the current dynamical models exhibit limited prediction skill. We show that about 50 % of the total variance of the NECD in TEA region is likely predictable, which is estimated by using a physics-based empirical (P-E) model with three consequential autumn predictors, i.e., developing El Niño/La Niña, Eurasian Arctic Ocean temperature anomalies, and geopotential height anomalies over northern and eastern Asia. We find that the barotropic geopotential height anomaly over Asia can persist from autumn to winter, thereby serving as a predictor for winter NECD. Further analysis reveals that the sources of the NECD predictability and the physical basis for prediction of NECD are essentially the same as those for prediction of winter mean temperature over the same region. This finding implies that forecasting seasonal mean temperature can provide useful information for prediction of extreme cold events. Interpretation of the lead-lag linkages between the three predictors and the predictand is provided for stimulating further studies.

  12. Silicon pools in human impacted soils of temperate zones

    Vandevenne, F. I.; Barão, L.; Ronchi, B.; Govers, G.; Meire, P.; Kelly, E. F.; Struyf, E.

    2015-09-01

    Besides well-known effects of climate and parent material on silicate weathering the role of land use change as a driver in the global silicon cycle is not well known. Changes in vegetation cover have altered reservoirs of silicon and carbon in plants and soils. This has potential consequences for plant-Si availability, agricultural yields, and coastal eutrophication, as Si is a beneficial element for many crop plants and an essential nutrient for diatom growth. We here examined the role of sustained and intensive land use and human disturbance on silicon (Si) pool distribution in soils with similar climatological and bulk mineralogical characteristics. We show that land use impacts both biogenic and nonbiogenic Si pools. While biogenic Si strongly decreases along the land use change gradient (from forest to croplands), pedogenic silica fractions (e.g. pedogenic clays) increase in topsoils with a long duration of cultivation and soil disturbance. Our results suggest that nonbiogenic Si pools might compensate for the loss of reactive biogenic silicon in temperate zones.

  13. Winter warming delays dormancy release, advances budburst, alters carbohydrate metabolism and reduces yield in a temperate shrub

    Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Uffe Brandt; Andersen, Lillie

    2015-01-01

    ‘Titania’. Since ‘Narve Viking’ has a higher chilling requirement than ‘Titania’, this indicates that, in high-chillingrequiring genotypes, dormancy responses may temper the effect of warming on spring phenology. Winter Warming significantly reduced fruit yield the following summer in both cultivars...

  14. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

    Seavy, Nathaniel E; Humple, Diana L; Cormier, Renée L; Gardali, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010). We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33%) was similar to that of control birds (39%), but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines. PMID:22506055

  15. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

    Nathaniel E Seavy

    Full Text Available The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010. We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33% was similar to that of control birds (39%, but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines.

  16. Winter photosynthetic activity of twenty temperate semi-desert sand grassland species.

    Tuba, Zoltán; Csintalan, Zsolt; Szente, Kálmán; Nagy, Zoltán; Fekete, Gábor; Larcher, Walter; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K

    2008-09-29

    The winter photosynthetic activity (quantified by net CO(2) assimilation rates and chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence parameters) of 20 plant species (including two lichens and two mosses) of a Hungarian temperate semi-desert sand grassland was determined on one occasion per year in 1984, 1989 and 1994. Throughout winter, the overwintering green shoots, leaves or thalli were regularly exposed to below zero temperatures at night and daytime temperatures of 0-5 degrees C. In situ tissue temperature varied between -2.1 and +6.9 degrees C and the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) between 137 and 351 micromol m(-2)s(-1). Under these conditions 18 of the grassland species exhibited photosynthetic CO(2) uptake (range: vascular plants ca. 0.2-3.8 micromol m(-2)s(-1), cryptogams 0.3-2.79 micromol kg(-1)s(-1)) and values of 0.9-5.1 of the Chl fluorescence decrease ratio R(Fd). In 1984, Festuca vaginata and Sedum sexangulare had net CO(2) assimilation at leaf temperatures of -0.85 to -1.2 degrees C. In 1989, all species except Cladonia furcata showed net CO(2) assimilation at tissue temperatures of 0 to +3.3 degrees C, with the highest rates observed in Poa bulbosa and F. vaginata. The latter showed a net CO(2) assimilation saturation at a PPFD of 600 micromol m(-2)s(-1) and a temperature optimum between +5 and +18 degrees C. At the 1994 measurements, the photosynthetic rates were higher at higher tissue water contents. The two mosses and lichens had a net photosynthesis (range: 1.1-2.79 micromol CO(2)kg(-1)s(-1)) at 2 degrees C tissue temperature and at 4-5 degrees C air temperature. Ca. 80% of the vascular grassland plant species maintained a positive C-balance during the coldest periods of winter, with photosynthetic rates of 1.5-3.8 micromol CO(2)m(-2)s(-1). In an extremely warm beginning March of the relatively warm winter of 2006/2007, the dicotyledonous plants had much higher CO(2) assimilation rates on a Chl (range 6-14.9 micromol g(-1)Chl s(-1)) and on a dry

  17. Dams release methane even in temperate zoned; Les barrages emettent aussi du methane en zones temperees

    Lemarchand, F.

    2010-12-15

    The Wohlen lake (near Bern) is a retaining dam built 90 years ago that has undergone a campaign to measure the quantity of methane released. The campaign lasted 1 year and the result was unexpected: 0.15 g/m{sup 2}*day which one of the highest release rates in temperate zones. This result is all the more stunning since water stays only 2 days in average in the reservoir and that the drowned area is not important. In fact the river Aar that feeds the lake is loaded with organic matter coming from humane activities: agriculture and 3 sewage plants. This organic matter decays in the lake releasing methane. (A.C.)

  18. Pulsed resources at tundra breeding sites affect winter irruptions at temperate latitudes of a top predator, the snowy owl.

    Robillard, A; Therrien, J F; Gauthier, G; Clark, K M; Bêty, J

    2016-06-01

    Irruptive migration is mostly observed in species specialized on pulsed resources and is thought to be a response to unpredictable changes in food supply. We assessed two alternative hypotheses to explain the periodic winter irruptions of snowy owls Bubo scandiacus every 3-5 years in temperate North America: (a) the lack-of-food hypothesis, which states that a crash in small mammal abundance on the Arctic breeding grounds forces owls to move out of the tundra massively to search for food in winter; (b) the breeding-success hypothesis, which states that high abundance of tundra small mammals during the summer allows for high production of young, thus increasing the pool of migrants moving south the following winter. We modeled winter irruptions of snowy owls in relation to summer food resources and geographic location. Winter abundance of owls was obtained from citizen-based surveys from 1994 to 2011 and summer abundance of small mammals was collected in summer at two distant sites in Canada: Bylot Island, NU (eastern High Arctic) and Daring Lake, NWT (central Low Arctic). Winter owl abundance was positively related to prey abundance during the previous summer at both sites and tended to decrease from western to eastern temperate North America. Irruptive migration of snowy owls was therefore best explained by the breeding success hypothesis and was apparently caused by large-scale summer variations in food. Our results, combined with previous findings, suggest that the main determinants of irruptive migration may be species specific even in a guild of apparently similar species. PMID:26920901

  19. Role of temperate zone forests in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Armentano, T.V.; Hett, J. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of a workshop on carbon uptake and losses from temperate zone forests are presented. The goals of the workshop were to analyze existing data on growth and utilization of the temperate zone forest carbon pool and to identify further research needs in relation to the role of temperate forests in the global carbon cycle. Total standing stock and growth recovery transients were examined for most of the temperate region over a period from pre-settlement times to the present, with emphasis on the last three decades. Because of data availability, certain regions and topics were covered more in detail than others. Forest inventory data from most of the commercial timberlands of the north temperate zone suggest these forests have functioned over the past several decades as an annual sink for about 10/sup 9/ metric tons of carbon. Thus, net growth of these forests has withdrawn carbon from the atmosphere at a rate equivalent, approximately, to 50% of the annual rise in atmospheric carbon. Various data inadequacies make this estimate probably no more precise than plus or minus half of the value. Analysis of growth and vegetation changes in New England and the southeastern United States shows that forest biomass has partly recovered since extensive clearing took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. This regrowth represents a net withdrawal of carbon (carbon sink) from the atmosphere in recent decades, although the difference in pool size between present and original forests means that, in the longer term, the two regions have functioned as carbon sources.

  20. Economic analysis of stockless, horticultural crop rotations on a model farm in temperate zone organic systems

    Schmutz, Ulrich; Firth, Chris; Rayns, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Research draws on an organic research farm site in central England with a temperate zone climate - fairly common for the northern lowlands of Europe. The soil type is a sandy loam with 591 mm rainfall. Detailed economic and agronomic data have been collected since conversion began in 1995. The economic analysis discusses rotational gross and net margins of more than 30 different rotations with different fertility building and vegetable crops (potatoes, cabbages, onions, carrots, leeks and par...

  1. Winter

    Lawanna Holt

    2009-01-01

    Winter is snowy and cold season. Christmas iS in winter. Winter is when you get out for Christmas break. Winter is when you have hot chocolate with marshal mallows. `Winter is the season for colds and sinus problems.

  2. The northern limit of corals of the genus Acropora in temperate zones is determined by their resilience to cold bleaching

    Tomihiko Higuchi; Sylvain Agostini; Beatriz Estela Casareto; Yoshimi Suzuki; Ikuko Yuyama

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of corals in Japan covers a wide range of latitudes, encompassing tropical to temperate zones. However, coral communities in temperate zones contain only a small subset of species. Among the parameters that determine the distribution of corals, temperature plays an important role. We tested the resilience to cold stress of three coral species belonging to the genus Acropora in incubation experiments. Acropora pruinosa, which is the northernmost of the three species, bleached ...

  3. Variability and Variation Characteristics of Climate in Northern Winter Wheat Zone during 1961-2004

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the variability and variation characteristics of climate in northern winter wheat zone during 1961-2004.[Method] Based on the meteorological data (temperature,precipitation and sunshine) of 55 meteorological stations in northern winter wheat zone during 1961-2004 and the yield data of winter wheat,by using the linear regression,correlated coefficient and climatic tendency rate,the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of agricultural climatic resources (sunsh...

  4. Use of the Dynamic Model for the Assessment of Winter Chilling in a Temperate and a Subtropical Climatic Zone of Chile Utilización del Modelo Dinámico para Evaluar el Frío Invernal en una Localidad de Clima Templado y otra Subtropical de Chile

    Francisco J Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated chilling was estimated by applying three different models to the hourly autumn-winter temperature records from Santiago (33°34 S lat; 625 m.a.s.l. and Vicuña (30°02´ S lat; 643 m.a.s.l. for the years 2005 and 2006. The model of chilling hours, currently used in Chile as an agroclimatic indicator, was of limited use for effectively contrasting a subtropical condition (Vicuña with a temperate area such as Santiago. The application of the Utah model gave negative values from March to May, and even up to June in Vicuña, since in this model the chilling effect is “negated” by warmer temperatures. However, a modified version of the Utah model named Positive Chilling Units (PCU, in which negative values are omitted, showed differences in the accumulated chilling between both regions, although these differences were of small magnitude and were noted only from July onwards. The Dynamic Model, which considers that chilling is irreversibly accumulated as quantum or Chill Portions (CP, showed that chilling in Santiago doubled that of Vicuña, and that these differences in location were already expressed at the beginning of autumn, confirming, thus, the suitability of the model for subtropical conditions. In this work the advantages of the dynamic model over other models are discussed.Se evaluó el frío invernal acumulado en Santiago (33°34´ lat. Sur; 625 m.s.n.m.; Región Metropolitana y Vicuña (30°02´ lat. Sur; 643 m.s.n.m.; Región de Coquimbo durante las temporadas 2005 y 2006 aplicando tres diferentes modelos. El modelo de horas-frío (CH, actualmente empleado como indicador agroclimático en Chile, resultó de poca utilidad para contrastar efectivamente la condición subtropical de Vicuña con la condición templada de Santiago. Al utilizar el modelo de Utah se obtuvieron valores negativos de marzo a mayo e incluso hasta el mes de junio en Vicuña, ya que, precisamente, con este modelo el efecto del frío es anulado por las

  5. Using weather indices to predict survival of winter wheat in a cool temperate environment

    Hayhoe, H. N.; Lapen, D. R.; Andrews, C. J.

    2002-10-01

    Seven years of winter survival data for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were collected on a loam soil located on the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, Ontario (45°23'N, 75°43'W). The site was low-lying and subject to frequent winter flooding and ice-sheet formation. Two cultivars, a soft white and a hard red winter wheat, were planted in September. Crop establishment was measured in late fall and the percentage survival was measured in April of the following year. Meteorological data, which were available from the nearby weather site, were used to develop a large set of monthly weather indices that were felt to be important for winter survival. The objective of the study was to use genetic selection algorithms and artificial neural networks to select a subset of critical weather factors and topographic features and to model winter survival. The six weather indices selected were the total rain depth for December (mm), the total rain depth for February (mm), the number of days of the month with snow on the ground for January, the extreme minimum observed daily air temperature for March (°C), the number of days of the month with snow on the ground for March, and the number of days of April with a daily maximum air temperature greater than 0 °C. It was found 89% of the variation in winter survival could be explained by these six weather indices, the cultivar, elevation and plot location.

  6. Urban spring phenology in the middle temperate zone of China: dynamics and influence factors

    Liang, Shouzhen; Shi, Ping; Li, Hongzhong

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization and its resultant urban heat island provide a means for evaluating the impact of climate warming on vegetation phenology. To predict the possible response of vegetation phenology to rise of temperature, it is necessary to investigate factors influencing vegetation phenology in different climate zones. The start of growing season (SOS) in seven cities located in the middle temperate humid, semi-humid, semi-arid, and arid climate zones in China was extracted based on satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. The dynamics of urban SOS from 2000 to 2009 and the correlations between urban SOS and land surface temperatures (LST), precipitation, and sunshine duration, respectively, were analyzed. The results showed that there were no obvious change trends for urban SOS, and the heat island induced by urbanization can make SOS earlier in urban areas than that in adjacent rural areas. And the impact of altitude on SOS was also not negligible in regions with obvious altitude difference between urban and adjacent rural areas. Precipitation and temperature were two main natural factors influencing urban SOS in the middle temperate zone, but their impacts varied with climate zones. Only in Harbin city with lower sunshine duration in spring, sunshine duration had more significant impact than temperature and precipitation. Interference of human activities on urban vegetation was non-negligible, which can lower the dependence of urban SOS on natural climatic factors.

  7. The effect of introducing a winter forage rotation on CO2 fluxes at a temperate grassland

    Leahy, Paul G.; Kiely, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Temperate grasslands have the potential to sequester carbon, helping to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The ability of grasslands to absorb CO2 is influenced by site elevation, soil type, management practices, climate and climatic variability. There is a need for long-term observations and field experiments to quantify the effects of the key drivers of management and climate variability. This paper presents over 4 years of eddy covariance measurements of CO2 flux over a manage...

  8. Precipitation variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa during the last 1400 yr linked to the austral westerlies

    J. C. Stager

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The austral westerlies strongly influence precipitation and ocean circulation in the southern temperate zone, with important consequences for cultures and ecosystems. Global climate models anticipate poleward retreat of the austral westerlies with future warming, but the available paleoclimate records that might test these models have been limited to South America and New Zealand, are not fully consistent with each other and may be complicated by influences from other climatic factors. Here we present the first high-resolution diatom and sedimentological records from the winter rainfall region of South Africa, representing precipitation in the equatorward margin of the westerly wind belt during the last 1400 yr. Inferred rainfall was relatively high ∼1400–1200 cal yr BP, decreased until ∼950 cal yr BP, and rose notably through the Little Ice Age with pulses centred on ∼600, 530, 470, 330, 200, 90, and 20 cal yr BP. Synchronous fluctuations in Antarctic ice core chemistry strongly suggest that these variations were linked to changes in the westerlies. Equatorward drift of the westerlies during the wet periods may have influenced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation by restricting marine flow around the tip of Africa. Apparent inconsistencies among some aspects of records from South America, New Zealand and South Africa warn against the simplistic application of single records to the Southern Hemisphere as a whole. Nonetheless, these findings in general do support model projections of increasing aridity in the austral winter rainfall zones with future warming.

  9. Microclimate buffering of winter temperatures by pine stumps in a temperate forest

    Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    In the presented study we evaluated the role of wood in buffering its inhabitants against winter temperatures. We followed the microscale temperature patterns inside and outside decaying pine stumps during two winter periods. We analyzed the data by extracting the minimum, maximum and mean temperatures for the episodes of snow, frost or no frost. We compared the temperature variation by applying an absolute values calculation (=modulus) for the subsequent measurements. Finally, we tested the buffering effect of the horizontal depth inside the stumps by comparing the pattern for 5 and 15 cm depths. The results show that (1) the minimum temperature was significantly higher inside than outside the stumps, while temperature variation tended to be larger outside than inside, (2) the dynamics of temperature varied between weather episodes, i.e. the periods characterized by the presence/absence of snow and of frost, (3) the minimum temperature inside the stumps increased with the horizontal depth, while temperature variation decreased. The results presented are the first truly microclimatic data on wood buffering and they are important for the understanding of the possible effects of climate change on the thermal relationships at the microscale.

  10. Global warming and the regional persistence of a temperate-zone insect (Tenodera sinensis)

    Rooney, T.P. [Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA (United States); Smith, A.T. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Hurd, L.E. [Washington & Lee Univ., Lexington, VA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Models based on the paleoecological record predict that animals in temperate regions will respond to global warming by migrating poleward to remain within their temperature tolerance ranges. The effect of global warming on invertebrates is of great concern because of their critical role in ecosystem structure and function. Migration poses a problem for many species because of their limited dispersal abilities. The life cycle of a typical temperature zone univoltine insect. Tenodera sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) is constrained by degree-days per season: too few prevent maturation before the killing frost in the autumn; too many allow egg hatch before a killing frost. We used field and laboratory observation on the life history and ecology of this species to predict the effect of global warming on the regional distribution of this insect by the end of the next century. Based on the simplified, best-case, biological assumptions of our model, the geographical range of T. sinensis in eastern North America would be compressed toward the northern part of its present contiguous regional distribution. This and other univoltine temperate species with long maturation periods and low vagility could face regional extinction if global warming predictions are accurate. 61 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Conference on the Rehabilitation of Severely Damaged Land and Freshwater Ecosystems in Temperate Zones

    Woodman, M

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at a conference on "The rehabilitation of severely damaged land and freshwater eco­ systems in temperate zones", held at Reykjavik, Iceland, from 4th to 11th July, 1976. The meeting was held under the auspices of the Ecosciences Panel of the N.A.T.O. Science Committee, and the organising expenses and greater part of the expenses of the speakers and chairmen were provided by N.A.T.O. The scientific programme was planned by M. W. Holdgate and M. J. Woodman, in consultation with numerous colleagues, and especially with the Administrative Director of the Conference in Iceland, Dr. Sturla Fridriksson. Iceland proved a particularly suitable location for such a Conference. Geologically, it is one of the youngest countries 1n the world, owing its origin to the up-welling of volcanic rock along the spreading zone of the mid-Atlantic ridge within the past 20 million years. Its structure, northern oceanic situation, recent glaciation and continuing volcanic activity make it dis...

  12. Hardy exotics species in temperate zone: can “warm water” crayfish invaders establish regardless of low temperatures?

    Lukáš Veselý; Miloš Buřič; Antonín Kouba

    2015-01-01

    The spreading of new crayfish species poses a serious risk for freshwater ecosystems; because they are omnivores they influence more than one level in the trophic chain and they represent a significant part of the benthic biomass. Both the environmental change through global warming and the expansion of the pet trade increase the possibilities of their spreading. We investigated the potential of four “warm water” highly invasive crayfish species to overwinter in the temperate zone, so as to p...

  13. The northern limit of corals of the genus Acropora in temperate zones is determined by their resilience to cold bleaching.

    Higuchi, Tomihiko; Agostini, Sylvain; Casareto, Beatriz Estela; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yuyama, Ikuko

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of corals in Japan covers a wide range of latitudes, encompassing tropical to temperate zones. However, coral communities in temperate zones contain only a small subset of species. Among the parameters that determine the distribution of corals, temperature plays an important role. We tested the resilience to cold stress of three coral species belonging to the genus Acropora in incubation experiments. Acropora pruinosa, which is the northernmost of the three species, bleached at 13 °C, but recovered once temperatures were increased. The two other species, A. hyacinthus and A. solitaryensis, which has a more southerly range than A. pruinosa, died rapidly after bleaching at 13 °C. The physiological effects of cold bleaching on the corals included decreased rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification, similar to the physiological effects observed with bleaching due to high temperature stress. Contrasting hot bleaching, no increases in antioxidant enzyme activities were observed, suggesting that reactive oxygen species play a less important role in bleaching under cold stress. These results confirmed the importance of resilience to cold stress in determining the distribution and northern limits of coral species, as cold events causing coral bleaching and high mortality occur regularly in temperate zones. PMID:26680690

  14. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite–Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions

    Currie, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors) and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated higher DWV was

  15. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite-Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions.

    Desai, Suresh D; Currie, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors) and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated higher DWV was

  16. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite-Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions.

    Suresh D Desai

    Full Text Available Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV, Kashmir bee virus (KBV, and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated

  17. Retrospective genomic analysis of sorghum adaptation to temperate-zone grain production

    Thurber, Carrie S.; Ma, Justin M; Higgins, Race H; Brown, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sorghum is a tropical C4 cereal that recently adapted to temperate latitudes and mechanized grain harvest through selection for dwarfism and photoperiod-insensitivity. Quantitative trait loci for these traits have been introgressed from a dwarf temperate donor into hundreds of diverse sorghum landraces to yield the Sorghum Conversion lines. Here, we report the first comprehensive genomic analysis of the molecular changes underlying this adaptation. Results We apply genotyping-by-se...

  18. Winter energy behaviour in multi-family block buildings in a temperate-cold climate in Argentina

    Filippin, C. [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); Larsen, S. Flores [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); INENCO - Instituto de Investigaciones en Energias No Convencionales, U.N.Sa., CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150 - CP 4400, Salta Capital (Argentina); Mercado, V. [LAHV-Laboratorio de Ambienet Humano y Vivienda (INCIHUSA-CCT-CONICET) (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    This paper analyzes the thermal and energy behaviour of apartments in three-story block buildings located along a NE-SW axis (azimuth = 120 ) in a temperate-cold climate (latitude: 36 57'; longitude: 64 27') in the city of Santa Rosa, La Pampa, central Argentina. Four apartments had been monitored during May and June 2009. Three of them are located in Block 126. Two of these apartments face South: 15 and 23 on the SE end, ground and first floor, respectively; 18 faces N on the second floor. Finally apartment, 12 is located in Block 374, on the first floor, faces N and shows a carpentry-closed balcony. The purpose of this work is - to study the evolution of the indoor temperature in each apartment; to analyze energy consumption and comfort conditions; to study energy potential and energy intervention in order to reduce energy consumption; to analyze bioclimatic alternatives feasibility and the possibility to extrapolate results to all blocks. On the basis of the analysis of natural gas historical consumption records, results showed that regarding heating energy consumption during the period May-June, Apartment 12, facing N, with its only bedroom facing NW and its carpentry-closed, transparent glass balcony, presented a mean temperature of 21.2 C, using a halogen heater for 6 h/day between 9 pm and 2 am (0.16 kWh/day/m{sup 2}). Apartment 15, on the SE end, first floor of the block consumed 22.5 kWh/day (0.43 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.2 C). Apartment 23, located on the second and top floor (on top of Apartment 15) with higher energy loss, consumed 28 kWh/day (0.54 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature 23.7 C). Apartment 18, also on the second floor and facing N, located in the centre and with its only bedroom facing SE, consumed 18.8 kWh/day (0.48 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.3 C). Apartment 23, with higher thermal loss through its envelope, but with heat transfer from the apartment located below, is the one that showed the highest

  19. Spatially explicit modeling of conflict zones between wildlife and snow sports: prioritizing areas for winter refuges.

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2011-04-01

    Outdoor winter recreation exerts an increasing pressure upon mountain ecosystems, with unpredictable, free-ranging activities (e.g., ski mountaineering, snowboarding, and snowshoeing) representing a major source of stress for wildlife. Mitigating anthropogenic disturbance requires the spatially explicit prediction of the interference between the activities of humans and wildlife. We applied spatial modeling to localize conflict zones between wintering Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a declining species of Alpine timberline ecosystems, and two free-ranging winter sports (off-piste skiing [including snow-boarding] and snowshoeing). Track data (snow-sports and birds' traces) obtained from aerial photographs taken over a 585-km transect running along the timberline, implemented within a maximum entropy model, were used to predict the occurrence of snow sports and Black Grouse as a function of landscape characteristics. By modeling Black Grouse presence in the theoretical absence of free-ranging activities and ski infrastructure, we first estimated the amount of habitat reduction caused by these two factors. The models were then extrapolated to the altitudinal range occupied by Black Grouse, while the spatial extent and intensity of potential conflict were assessed by calculating the probability of human-wildlife co-occurrence. The two snow-sports showed different distribution patterns. Skiers' occurrence was mainly determined by ski-lift presence and a smooth terrain, while snowshoers' occurrence was linked to hiking or skiing routes and moderate slopes. Wintering Black Grouse avoided ski lifts and areas frequented by free-ranging snow sports. According to the models, Black Grouse have faced a substantial reduction of suitable wintering habitat along the timberline transect: 12% due to ski infrastructure and another 16% when adding free-ranging activities. Extrapolating the models over the whole study area results in an overall habitat loss due to ski infrastructure of

  20. Exposure and respiratory health in farming in temperate zones--a review of the literature.

    Omland, Øyvind

    2002-01-01

    To review studies in farming populations from temperate zones focusing on: (1) exposure to dust, bacteria, moulds, endotoxin, and ammonia, (2) sensitisation to common airborne allergens, (3) prevalence, incidence and risk factors of chronic bronchitis, asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and (4) measurements of lung function. Working in animal housings can be associated with exposure to organic dust, bacteria, moulds, endotoxin, and ammonia in concentrations that can induce cellular and immunological responses and result in respiratory diseases. Working in poultry housing might be associated with higher exposures to dust, bacteria, and ammonia than in swine and cow housings, and endotoxin exposure seems to be higher in North America than in Europe. Working exposure might influence the domestic area on farms, and there might be a protective effect of being raised on a farm regarding sensitisation and allergic diseases. Sensitisation to mites seems to be the most prevalent of the common inhalant allergens. Chronic bronchitis is frequent and data suggests that it is work related in farmers. Findings concerning asthma are less uniform, and data regarding bronchial hyperresponsiveness are too sparse and inconsistent to evaluate the effect on farming. Several risk factors have been described, and age is shared for all three clinical manifestations, while male gender, atopy, smoking, pig farming, and animal production are common risk factors for chronic bronchitis and asthma. FEV(1), and FEV(1)/FVC seems to be reduced in farmers, and longitudinal studies indicate an increased annual loss in FEV(1) in farmers, especially in pig farmers. The increased annual decline has been associated with lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, smoking, automatic dry feeding systems, and endotoxin. Despite studies with methodological weaknesses, heterogenity in sampling times, measurement techniques, equipment, and diagnostic criteria, the review has revealed that the exposure

  1. Challenges in the nutrition and management of herbivores in the temperate zone.

    van Vuuren, A M; Chilibroste, P

    2013-03-01

    The expected higher global demand for animal proteins and the competition for starch and sugars between food, fuel and feed seem to favour herbivores that convert solar energy captured in fibrous plants into animal products. However, the required higher production level of herbivores questions the sustainability of this conversion. An increase in herbivore production can be achieved by increasing the number of animals associated with the increasing demand of plant biomass or by improving the efficiency with which plant biomass is converted into meat and milk. The potential to increase food production by cattle, the main food-producing herbivore in the temperate zones outside China, was considered in three production systems: grassland-based, mixed rain-fed and mixed irrigated systems. The potential to increase plant biomass production in grassland-based systems seems limited, unless fertiliser is imported in large quantities and crop production is increased, sacrificing valuable, high-quality grasslands, which often conflicts with sustainable production methods. Also, in mixed systems with high inputs of fertiliser or water, improvements in plant biomass production seem marginal and the main challenges for these systems are in breeding high-quality plant biomass at lower levels of fertiliser and the use of new co-products from food processing and bio-based economies. Consequently, the main challenge in herbivore nutrition management is to improve the efficiency of plant biomass utilisation. Stocking rate management along with seasonal variation in the grazing capacity of grasslands and moderate use of fertiliser may increase meat production in grassland-based systems by 400%. Improving plant biomass utilisation in the more industrialised mixed rain-fed systems seems possible by better feed storage technologies and for dairy cattle by improving animal health and lifetime production level. Managing the transition period seems crucial to achieve more sustainable mixed

  2. Fresh Water Lens Persistence and Root Zone Salinization Hazard Under Temperate Climate

    Stofberg, Sija F.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Pauw, Pieter S.; Louw, de Perry G.B.; Leijnse, Anton; Zee, van der Sjoerd E.A.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    In low lying deltaic areas in temperate climates, groundwater can be brackish to saline at shallow depth, even with a yearly rainfall excess. For primary production in horticulture, agriculture, and terrestrial nature areas, the fresh water availability may be restricted to so-called fresh water

  3. Fresh Water Lens Persistence and Root Zone Salinization Hazard Under Temperate Climate

    Stofberg, Sija F.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Pauw, Pieter S.; De Louw, Perry G.B.; Leijnse, A.; van der Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    In low lying deltaic areas in temperate climates, groundwater can be brackish to saline at shallow depth, even with a yearly rainfall excess. For primary production in horticulture, agriculture, and terrestrial nature areas, the fresh water availability may be restricted to so-called fresh water len

  4. Biological, chemical and physical characteristics of downwelling and upwelling zones in the hyporheic zone of a north-temperate stream

    Franken, R.J.M.; Storey, R.G.; Williams, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    Along a single stream riffle, there is a typical flow pattern in which surface water enters the hyporheic zone in a downwelling zone at the head of the riffle and hyporheic water returns to the stream surface in an upwelling zone at the tail of the riffle. Distinct patterns of physical and chemical

  5. Radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope compositions of chemically fractionated soil organic matter in a temperate-zone forest

    To better understand the role of soil organic matter in terrestrial carbon cycle, carbon isotope compositions in soil samples from a temperate-zone forest were measured for bulk, acid-insoluble and base-insoluble organic matter fractions separated by a chemical fractionation method. The measurements also made it possible to estimate indirectly radiocarbon (14C) abundances of acid- and base-soluble organic matter fractions, through a mass balance of carbon among the fractions. The depth profiles of 14C abundances showed that (1) bomb-derived 14C has penetrated the first 16 cm mineral soil at least; (2) Δ14C values of acid-soluble organic matter fraction are considerably higher than those of other fractions; and (3) a significant amount of the bomb-derived 14C has been preserved as the base-soluble organic matter around litter-mineral soil boundary. In contrast, no or little bomb-derived 14C was observed for the base-insoluble fraction in all sampling depths, indicating that this recalcitrant fraction, accounting for approximately 15% of total carbon in this temperate-zone forest soil, plays a role as a long-term sink in the carbon cycle. These results suggest that bulk soil organic matter cannot provide a representative indicator as a source or a sink of carbon in soil, particularly on annual to decadal timescales

  6. Fresh Water Lens Persistence and Root Zone Salinization Hazard Under Temperate Climate

    Stofberg, Sija F.; G. H. P. Oude Essink; Pauw, Pieter S.; De Louw, Perry G.B.; Leijnse, A.; van der Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    In low lying deltaic areas in temperate climates, groundwater can be brackish to saline at shallow depth, even with a yearly rainfall excess. For primary production in horticulture, agriculture, and terrestrial nature areas, the fresh water availability may be restricted to so-called fresh water lenses: relatively thin pockets of fresh groundwater floating on top of saline groundwater. The persistence of such fresh water lenses, as well as the quantity and quality of surface water is expected...

  7. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-temperate zone.

    Spiecker, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    In Europe temperate forests play a prominent role in timber production, nature protection, water conservation, erosion control and recreation. For centuries temperate forests in Europe have been affected by forest devastation and soil degradation. Applying great efforts to eliminate the severe wood shortage of those days, countermeasures were taken during the last 150 years by regenerating and tending highly productive forests. High growth rates and an increasing growing stock of these forests indicate that formerly stated goals have been successfully achieved. Coniferous species were often favoured because they were easy to establish and manage, and gave reason for high volume growth expectations. Today coniferous forests expand far beyond the limits of their natural ranges. These changes have been accompanied by a loss of biodiversity, a shift to nonsite adapted tree species and reduce the resistance against storms, snow, ice, droughts, insects and fungi. Some of these hazards were further intensified by the increasing average stand age, as well as in some areas by severe air pollution. Climatic fluctuations, especially changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme warm and dry climatic conditions and of heavy storms, had considerable impact on forest ecosystems. The changing demands of today require a widened scope of forest management. Society is asking for sustainable forestry emphasizing biodiversity and naturalistic forest management. It is of great economic and ecological relevance to know on which sites today's forests are most susceptible to climatic and other environmental changes and hazards. In those areas adjustments of management through a conversion the prevailing forests towards more site adapted mixed forests needs to be considered with priority. The high diversity in site conditions, ownership, economic and socio-cultural conditions require strategies adapted to the local and regional needs. Higher resistance of forests will increase economic

  8. Effect of summer throughfall exclusion, summer drought, and winter snow cover on methane fluxes in a temperate forest soil

    Borken, W.; Davidson, E.A.; Savage, K.; Sundquist, E.T.; Steudler, P.

    2006-01-01

    Soil moisture strongly controls the uptake of atmospheric methane by limiting the diffusion of methane into the soil, resulting in a negative correlation between soil moisture and methane uptake rates under most non-drought conditions. However, little is known about the effect of water stress on methane uptake in temperate forests during severe droughts. We simulated extreme summer droughts by exclusion of 168 mm (2001) and 344 mm (2002) throughfall using three translucent roofs in a mixed deciduous forest at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. The treatment significantly increased CH4 uptake during the first weeks of throughfall exclusion in 2001 and during most of the 2002 treatment period. Low summertime CH4 uptake rates were found only briefly in both control and exclusion plots during a natural late summer drought, when water contents below 0.15 g cm-3 may have caused water stress of methanotrophs in the A horizon. Because these soils are well drained, the exclusion treatment had little effect on A horizon water content between wetting events, and the effect of water stress was smaller and more brief than was the overall treatment effect on methane diffusion. Methane consumption rates were highest in the A horizon and showed a parabolic relationship between gravimetric water content and CH4 consumption, with maximum rate at 0.23 g H2O g-1 soil. On average, about 74% of atmospheric CH4 was consumed in the top 4-5 cm of the mineral soil. By contrast, little or no CH4 consumption occurred in the O horizon. Snow cover significantly reduced the uptake rate from December to March. Removal of snow enhanced CH4 uptake by about 700-1000%, resulting in uptake rates similar to those measured during the growing season. Soil temperatures had little effect on CH4 uptake as long as the mineral soil was not frozen, indicating strong substrate limitation of methanotrophs throughout the year. Our results suggest that the extension of snow periods may affect the annual rate

  9. Hydraulic conductivity, photosynthesis and leaf water balance in six evergreen woody species from fall to winter.

    Taneda, Haruhiko; Tateno, Masaki

    2005-03-01

    To confirm that freeze-thaw embolism is a primary stress for evergreen woody species in winter, hydraulic conductivity, photosynthesis and leaf water potential were measured during fall and winter in trees growing in a cool temperate zone (Nikko) and in a warm temperate zone (Tokyo). We examined two evergreen conifers that naturally occur in the cool temperate zone (Abies firma Siebold & Zucc. and Abies homolepis Siebold & Zucc.), and four evergreen broad-leaved woody species that are restricted to the warm temperate zone (Camellia japonica L., Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, Ilex crenata Thunb. and Quercus myrsinaefolia Blume). In Tokyo, where no freeze-thaw cycles of xylem sap occurred, hydraulic conductivity, photosynthesis and water balance remained constant during the experimental period. In Nikko, where there were 38 daily freeze-thaw cycles by February, neither of the tracheid-bearing evergreen conifers showed xylem embolism or leaf water deficits. Similarly, the broad-leaved evergreen trees with small-diameter vessels did not exhibit severe embolism or water deficits and maintained CO(2) assimilation even in January. In contrast, the two broad-leaved evergreen trees with large-diameter vessels showed significantly reduced hydraulic conductivity and shoot die-back in winter. We conclude that freeze-thaw embolism restricts evergreen woody species with large-diameter vessels to the warm temperate zone, whereas other stresses limit the distribution of broad-leaved trees, that have small-diameter vessels, but which are restricted to the warm temperate zone. PMID:15631978

  10. Towards a better understanding of the systematics and diversity of Cortinarius, with an emphasis on species growing in boreal and temperate zones of Europe and North America

    Liimatainen, Kare

    2013-01-01

    Towards a better understanding of the systematics and diversity of Cortinarius, with an emphasis on species growing in boreal and temperate zones of Europe and North America Cortinarius is the largest genus of Agaricales with a global distribution and thousands of species. Cortinarius species are important ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with different trees. At the moment, any estimation of the true diversity of Cortinarius is impossible to determine. Species level taxonomy is the foun...

  11. Holocene climate variability in the Winter Rainfall Zone of South Africa

    S. Weldeab

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes and grain size of terrigenous fraction, and δ18O and δ13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700–100 yr BP. Wet phases were accompanied by strengthened coastal water upwellings, a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the southern Atlantic, and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS between 9000 and 5500 yr BP parallel with increase of dust deposition over Antarctica and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the southeastern Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and leakage of warm water in southern Atlantic, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies that may result in a decline of rainfall over southwest Africa and a weakened upwelling with implication for phytoplankton productivity and fish stocks. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation that is critical as moisture source for the endemic flora of the Namaqualand.

  12. Holocene climate variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa

    S. Weldeab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes, grain size of terrigenous fraction, and δ18O and δ13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the winter rainfall zone (WRZ of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700–100 cal years BP most likely in response to a northward shift of the austral westerlies. Wet phases and strengthened coastal water upwellings are companied by a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the South Atlantic and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica, as indicated in previous studies. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS between 9000 and 5500 cal years BP parallel with increase of dust deposition over Antarctica and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the eastern South Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and leakage of warm water in the South Atlantic, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation.

  13. Temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon after land-use change in the temperate zone – carbon response functions as a model approach

    Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel; Vesterdal, Lars; Leifeld, Jens; van Wesemaels, Bas; Schumacher, Jens; Gensior, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Land-use change (LUC) is a major driving factor for the balance of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and the global carbon cycle. The temporal dynamic of SOC after LUC is especially important in temperate systems with a long reaction time. On the basis of 95 compiled studies covering 322 sites in...... the temperate zone, carbon response functions (CRFs) were derived to model the temporal dynamic of SOC after five different LUC types (mean soil depth of 30±6 cm). Grassland establishment caused a long lasting carbon sink with a relative stock change of 128±23% and afforestation on former cropland a...... sink of 116±54%, 100 years after LUC (mean±95% confidence interval). No new equilibrium was reached within 120 years. In contrast, there was no SOC sink following afforestation of grasslands and 75% of all observations showed SOC losses, even after 100 years. Only in the forest floor, there was carbon...

  14. Holocene climate variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa

    S. Weldeab

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes, grain size of terrigenous fraction, and δ18O and δ13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off Western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700–100 yr BP. Wet phases were accompanied by strengthened coastal water upwellings, a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the Southern Atlantic, and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the Southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS between 9000 and 5500 yr BP parallel with evidence of a poleward shift of the austral mid-latitude westerlies and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the Southeastern Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and changes in the amount of Agulhas water leakage into the Southern BUS. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies that may result in a decline of rainfall over Southwest Africa and a weakened upwelling with implication for phytoplankton productivity and fish stocks. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the Southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation that is

  15. Relation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sensitive Reflectance Ratios to Carbon FluxMeasurements ofMontanne Grassland and Norway Spruce Forest Ecosystems in the Temperate Zone

    Ač, Alexander; Malenovský, Z.; Urban, Otmar; Hanuš, Jan; Zitová, Martina; Navrátil, M.; Vráblová, M.; Olejníčková, Julie; Špunda, V.; Marek, Michal V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), s. 1-13. ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * carbon flux * forest ecosystems * Norway Spruce * temperate zone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2012

  16. Diversification rates and chromosome evolution in the most diverse angiosperm genus of the temperate zone (Carex, Cyperaceae).

    Escudero, Marcial; Hipp, Andrew L; Waterway, Marcia J; Valente, Luis M

    2012-06-01

    The sedge family (Cyperaceae: Poales; ca. 5600 spp.) is a hyperdiverse cosmopolitan group with centres of species diversity in Africa, Australia, eastern Asia, North America, and the Neotropics. Carex, with ca. 40% of the species in the family, is one of the most species-rich angiosperm genera and the most diverse in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, making it atypical among plants in that it inverts the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Moreover, Carex exhibits high rates of chromosome rearrangement via fission, fusion, and translocation, which distinguishes it from the rest of the Cyperaceae. Here, we use a phylogenetic framework to examine how the onset of contemporary temperate climates and the processes of chromosome evolution have influenced the diversification dynamics of Carex. We provide estimates of diversification rates and map chromosome transitions across the evolutionary history of the main four clades of Carex. We demonstrate that Carex underwent a shift in diversification rates sometime between the Late Eocene and the Oligocene, during a global cooling period, which fits with a transition in diploid chromosome number. We suggest that adaptive radiation to novel temperate climates, aided by a shift in the mode of chromosome evolution, may explain the large-scale radiation of Carex and its latitudinal pattern of species richness. PMID:22366369

  17. Uptake of and follow-up supply with [benzene ring-U-14C]triademinol via the caryopsis and from dressed zones after seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat using a dry dressing formula

    The paper on hand studies the following issues: 1) What is the course of uptake of the agent and/or its metabolites into the plant following dry seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat with [benzene ring-U-14C] triadimenol and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 2) What is the relevance of uptake and follow-up supply from the dressed zones of plants in neighbouring rows. 3) What is the extent of uptake and follow-up supply via the roots from dressed zones of neighbouring plants within the same row. 4) What is the course of dressed-zone formation following dry treatment of winter barley and winter wheat and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 5) What is the quantitative distribution of the agent on the pericarp of winter wheat caryopses following dry seed treatment. 6) Will the 14C-labelled agent be taken up, too, via the caryopsis and be translocated in scion and root. 7) What are the pathways of the agent from the caryopsis into the embryo. 8) How long will follow-up supply via the scutellum continue. The results concerning issues 1 to 4 were taken from tests with field lysimeters. Experiments concerning issues 6-8 were performed without soil in an climatic chamber. (orig./MG)

  18. GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF WINTER BARLEY IN THE CENTRAL ZONE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Sysenko I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a combination of different methods of cultivation of winter barley on the background of plowing, and their impact on growth, development and crop yield. The main technological factors allowing implementing the biological potential of culture are adaptive variety, quality seeds, predecessors, sowing and harvesting, fertilizer, soil fertility, crop care, including protection from weeds, pests and diseases. Barley is the culture of versatile use, which is grown for food and feed purposes. Intensification of cultivation methods of this phenomenon is essential and significantly affects the grain yield of this crop. Under the natural fertility of the soil and favorable weather conditions for black earth of Kuban it is possible to get 3,0-3,5 tons per hectare of winter crops of grain, and this requires the creation of an optimal diet, because one of the main factors affecting the productivity of field crops, including one phenomenon are fertilizers. In addition, the level of soil fertility and protection system of weeds, pests and diseases has great importance. Since these types of issues are relevant for agriculture, we have carried out studies to identify the optimal combination of different methods on growth, development and productivity of a single phenomenon

  19. Optimized Simulation Design of Double Glass Curtain Wall Shading System in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone

    Li-Sha He; Lin-Sen Mu; Jie Shen

    2014-01-01

    The glass curtain wall is widely favored by the owners for its good appearance modeling effect. In using process, however, excessive energy consumption, low level indoor comfort and other problems of glass curtain wall are often exposed. Aiming at office buildings in hot Summer and cold Winter zone, taking the optimization of thermal comfort of double glass curtain wall in the summer and the reduction of building energy consumption throughout the year as the breakthrough point, using the method of energy simulation analysis, through changing the size of internal shading component in the simulated room, this paper analyzes and summarizes the variation law of its energy consumption value, to explore the relatively reasonable design plan of shading systems of the building with glass curtain wall.

  20. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk; Czesława Trąba

    2013-01-01

    The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spi...

  1. Evaluation on energy and thermal performance for residential envelopes in hot summer and cold winter zone of China

    As a result of rapid economic growth in the last several decades, energy issue is becoming more and more important in today's world because of a possible energy shortage in the future; the usage of residential electricity has increased rapidly in China and building energy efficiency is included as one of the 10 key programs targeting energy efficiency improvement in the 11th Five-Year Plan. In response to the growing concerns about energy conservation in residential buildings and its implications for the environment, systematic evaluation on energy and thermal Performance for residential envelops (EETP) is put forward to assess the energy efficiency of envelop designs and to calculate the energy consumption of cooling and heating systems. Hot summer and cold winter zone of China was selected for EETP analysis because of its rigorous climatic and huge energy consumption. The correlations between EETPs and electricity consumptions in cooling season, heating season, and the whole year were built in Shanghai, Changsha, Shaoguan and Chengdu, which represent A, B, C and D subzone of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, respectively. Illustrations indicate that the algorithm is simple and effective, energy and thermal performance of residential envelopes can be evaluated easily. The maximum allowable values of EETPs were determined when just meeting the compulsory indices of Standard JGJ134-2001, the corresponding allowable EETPs were also gained when achieving different energy-saving degrees on basis of it. EETP method can suggest possible ways to improve the energy efficiency for envelope designs of new building and retrofits of existing buildings and provide governments some useful information for the establishment of new policy on energy efficiency buildings. It has important meanings to carry out sustainable residential building designs with high thermal comfort and low energy consumption.

  2. Outflow Characteristics of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorous of an Andisol Paddy Field in the Cool-temperate Zone during a Cropping Period

    Yuto, Matsuura; Eikichi, Shima; Nagamitsu, Maie

    We investigated the water budget and outflow characteristics of total phosphorous (T-P) and total nitrogen (T-N) of an irrigated paddy field on an Andisol in the cool-temperate zone area. Total effluent flux of water from the paddy field during one cropping period was 2192 mm, 1490 mm (ca. 70%) of which flowed out through the downward percolation. The net discharge of T-P and T-N from the paddy field during one cropping period was 0.47 kg/ha and 35.9 kg/ha, respectively, most of which flowed out through downward percolation. Amounts of T-P and T-N discharged through sublayer soil to the ground water with the downward water percolation corresponded to 23% and 80% of those leached out from the plow layer soil, respectively.

  3. Annual soil CO2 efflux in a cold temperate forest in northeastern China: effects of winter snowpack and artificial nitrogen deposition

    Liu, Boqi; Mou, Changcheng; Yan, Guoyong; Xu, Lijian; Jiang, Siling; Xing, Yajuan; Han, Shijie; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Qinggui

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a snow depth 0 cm (non-snowpack), 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and natural depth) gradient experiment under four quantities of nitrogen addition (control, no added N; low-N, 5 g N m-2 yr-1 medium-N, 10 g N m-2 yr-1 and high-N, 15 g N m-2 yr-1) and took an-entire-year measurements of soil respiration (Rs) in Korean pine forests in northeastern China during 2013-2014. No evidence for effects of N on Rs could be found during the growing season. On the other hand, reduction of snowpack decreased winter soil respiration due to accompanied relatively lower soil temperature. We found that winter temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs were significantly higher than the growing season Q10 under all the N addition treatments. Moderate quantities of N addition (low-N and medium-N) significantly increased temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs, but excessive (high-N) addition decreased it during winter. The Gamma empirical model predicted that winter Rs under the four N addition treatments contributed 4.8. ± 0.3% (control), 3.6 ± 0.6% (low-N), 4.3 ± 0.4% (medium-N) and 6.4 ± 0.5% (high-N) to the whole year Rs. Our results demonstrate that N deposition will alter Q10 of winter Rs. Moreover, winter Rs may contribute very few to annual Rs budget.

  4. A zone-specific fish-based biotic index as a management tool for a temperate estuary (Zeeschelde, Belgium)

    Breine, J.J.; Quataert, P.; STEVENS, M.; Ollevier, F. P; Volckaert, F.A.M.J.; Maes, J

    2009-01-01

    Fish-based indices monitor changes in surface waters and are invaluable to summarise complex information on the environment (Harrison & Whitfield, 2004). A Zone-specific fishbased multimetric Estuarine index of Biotic Integrity (Z-EBI) was developed based on a 13 year time series of fish surveys from the Zeeschelde estuary (Belgium). Sites were preclassified using indicators of anthropogenic impact. Metrics showing a monotone response with pressure classes were selected for further analysis. ...

  5. A study of energy performance and audit of commercial mall in hot-summer/warm-winter climate zone in China

    Zhisheng, Li; Jiawen, Liao; Xiaoxia, Wang [School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006 (China); Lin, Yaolin [Building Energy Solutions and Technologies, Inc, San Jose Office, San Jose, CA 95134 (United States); Xuhong, Liu [School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510643 (China)

    2013-08-15

    The building energy performance improvement of large-scale public buildings is very important to release China's energy shortage pressure. The aim of the study is to find out the building energy saving potentials of large-scale public and commercial buildings by energy audit. In this paper, the energy consumption, energy performance, and audit were carried out for a typical commercial mall, the so-called largest mall in Asia, located in a hot-summer and warm-winter climate zone. The total annual energy consumption reaches 210.01 kWh/m{sup 2}, of which lighting energy consumption accounts for 30.03 kWh/m{sup 2} and the lift and elevator energy consumption accounts for 40.46 kWh/m{sup 2}. It is by far higher than that of the average building energy consumption in the same category. However, the annual heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) energy consumption is only 87.19 kWh/m{sup 2} even though they run 24/7. It proves that the energy performance of the HVAC system is good. Therefore, the building energy savings potential mainly relies on reducing the excessive usage of lighting, lifts, and elevators.

  6. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  7. Prevalence of tide-induced transport over other metal sources in a geologically enriched temperate estuarine zone (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Ospina-Álvarez, Natalia; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Prego, R.

    2014-01-01

    Tide-induced transport, diffuse fluxes and river inputs of arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel were studied in an estuarine zone located at the Ria of Ortigueira in the Galician coast of NW Spain to evaluate comparatively the magnitude of trace-element inputs in the estuarine ecosystem. Short-sediment cores and flooding water were collected at the intertidal area of La-Caleira Inlet in spring and summer 2008 during the first 50 min of tidal inundation. High concentrations of disso...

  8. Temperate grasslands

    Alba, Christina

    Ipswich: Salem Press - EBSCO Publishing, 2013 - (Howarth, R.), s. 182-187 ISBN 978-1-4298-3813-9 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : grassland * temperate biome * ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  9. The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape

    Wohlfart, T; Exbrayat, J F; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    their overall minor share of the agricultural land (12.9%). On the other hand, organic soil frequency was positively correlated to the corresponding dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Croplands also had a significant influence but with weaker correlations. For our case study we conclude that soil...... northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and...... dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged...

  10. Temperate climate - Innovative outputs nexus

    Coccia, M.

    2014-01-01

    Technological change is a vital human activity that interacts with geographic factors and environment. The purpose of the study here is to analyse the relationship between geo-climate zones of the globe and technological outputs in order to detect favourable areas that spur higher technological change and, as a consequence, human development. The main finding is that innovative outputs are higher in geographical areas with a temperate climate (latitudes). In fact, warm temperate climates are ...

  11. Research on Two Types of Buffer Zone Impact on Surrounding Office Space Environment in Winter in Cold Climate Zone-a Fieldwork in Architectural Design Institute Building of Tsinghua University, Beijing

    YeHao Song; JunJie Li; Ning Zhu; JiaLiang Wang; ShiMeng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Building buffer zone space is not only one of essential approaches for better mental quality of interior building space, but also an important factor that may influence interior thermal comfort and energy consumption. This study aims to analyze regulative advantages of buffer zone to the surrounding functional spaces. Based on a fieldwork test in a typical office building in cold climate zone in Beijing, China, the monitor data show interior physical performance in the Winter. The research selects two types of different buffer zones in the same building. One is a south⁃faced greenhouse which has large dimension with plenty of vegetation, and the other is a simple atrium in the middle of five floor building with mount of skylights. The factors and their influence to surrounding functional spaces and the whole building are found out from the comparisons of collected data by floor to floor monitor test on both buffer zones at the same time. The comparisons of two types of buffer zones conclude that the greenhouse is more effective to air quality regulation but not so clearly well⁃performed to thermal buffering as expected due to the dominate active central heating in the Winter. This fieldwork test results for building performance can be helpful for both architects and engineers in the early phase of sustainable design.

  12. The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape

    T. Wohlfart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebaekken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. One northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. On each sampling day, 20 points along the stream were sampled as well as eight drain outlets and two groundwater wells. Total dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling.

    Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially for nitrate concentrations with average values of 9.6 mg N l−1, 1.4 mg N l−1 and 3.0 mg N l−1, respectively. Furthermore, throughout the sampling period DON concentrations increased from 0.1 mg N l−1 to 2.8 mg N l−1 and from 0.1 mg N l−1 to 0.8 mg N l−1in the northern and southern streams, respectively. This corresponded to a contribution of up to 81% to total dissolved nitrogen. Multiple-linear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape charateristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land

  13. Seasonal succession of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental factors of North Temperate Zone water of the Zhalong Wetland, in China.

    Ma, Yun; Li, Guibai; Li, Jing; Zhou, Hao; Jiang, Bing

    2014-05-01

    A data set of phytoplankton community and environmental parameters in a hydrological integrity period, i.e. a poor water term, a medium term and a rich water term of North Temperate Zone climate, was analyzed in order to describe seasonal variation of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental variables in the Zhalong Wetland of China. The algal population of the Zhalong Wetland was not abundant, with a mean density of 5.08 × 10(7) cell/L (ranged from 4.54 × 10(7) cell/L in a poor term to 5.56 × 10(7) cell/L a medium term). However, its diversity was essentially limited to Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta being the group with highest densities. There were considerable seasonal variations in phytoplankton composition. In general, the dominance of Bacillariophyceae was found in a medium term, which was higher than the other period (p < 0.05). The rich water period also showed Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyta dominance while the phytoplankton was dominated by Cryptophyta erosa in a poor water term. 10 environmental variables, which were significant (p < 0.05) during the studied periods in one-way analysis of covariance, were selected to explore the relationship between phytoplankton structure and environmental factors by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results of the CCA applied to the environmental factors indicated that water temperature (WT) and ammonia (NH3-N) significantly influenced the phytoplankton community (p < 0.05; Monte Carlo test of first constrained axis). Besides WT and NH3-N, the most discriminate physic-chemical variables were nitrite (NO2-N), suspend solid, nitrate (NO3-N), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and all the 10 physical-chemical parameters had a higher marginal effect and λA in the series of constrained CCAs though they were not significant. PMID:24756328

  14. The nitrate leached below maize root zone is available for deep-rooted wheat in winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain

    Zhou Shunli [Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: zhoushl@cau.edu.cn; Wu Yongcheng [Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100094 (China); College of Agronomy, Si Chuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Wang Zhimin [Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Farming System, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100094 (China); Lu Laiqing; Wang Runzheng [Wuqiao Experimental Station, China Agricultural University, Hebei 061802 (China)

    2008-04-15

    In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the North China Plain, maize roots do not extend beyond 1.2 m in the vertical soil profile, but wheat roots can reach up to 2.0 m. Increases in soil nitrate content at maize harvest and significant reductions after winter wheat harvest were observed in the 1.4-2.0 m depth under field conditions. The recovery of {sup 15}N isotope (calcium nitrate) from various (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 m) soil depths showed that deep-rooting winter wheat could use soil nitrate up to the 2.0 m depth. This accounted partially, for the reduced nitrate in the 1.4-2.0 m depth of the soil after harvest of wheat in the rotation system. - Deep-rooted wheat can recycle nitrate leached from maize root zone in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system.

  15. The nitrate leached below maize root zone is available for deep-rooted wheat in winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain

    In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the North China Plain, maize roots do not extend beyond 1.2 m in the vertical soil profile, but wheat roots can reach up to 2.0 m. Increases in soil nitrate content at maize harvest and significant reductions after winter wheat harvest were observed in the 1.4-2.0 m depth under field conditions. The recovery of 15N isotope (calcium nitrate) from various (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 m) soil depths showed that deep-rooting winter wheat could use soil nitrate up to the 2.0 m depth. This accounted partially, for the reduced nitrate in the 1.4-2.0 m depth of the soil after harvest of wheat in the rotation system. - Deep-rooted wheat can recycle nitrate leached from maize root zone in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system

  16. Tempered fractional calculus

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  17. Tempered fractional calculus

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series

  18. Tempering by Subsampling

    van de Meent, Jan-Willem; Paige, Brooks; Wood, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that tempering Markov chain Monte Carlo samplers for Bayesian models by recursively subsampling observations without replacement can improve the performance of baseline samplers in terms of effective sample size per computation. We present two tempering by subsampling algorithms, subsampled parallel tempering and subsampled tempered transitions. We provide an asymptotic analysis of the computational cost of tempering by subsampling, verify that tempering by subsam...

  19. The effect of psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from the root zone of winter wheat on selected biotic and abiotic factors

    Przemieniecki Sebastian Wojciech; Kurowski Tomasz Paweł; Korzekwa Karol; Karwowska Anna

    2014-01-01

    The roots of winter wheat plants, cv. Mikon, grown in 45-year monoculture, were analysed in the study. Twenty-two bacterial isolates obtained from the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and endorhizosphere that were capable of growth at 8°C and at 28°C, were selected for further analysis. The isolated psychrotrophs accounted for 25% of all bacteria present in the wheat rhizosphere and capable of growth at 8°C. Psychrotrophic bacteria were analysed at a temperature of 10°C and 28°C to determine...

  20. Elemental contents determination in two different zones of Mexico City on the 1987-88 and 1994-95 winters

    During the 1987-1988 and 1994-1995 winters, there were taken samples of aerosols in Mexico City, in two different places, using an integral type of sampler which determines the total amount of suspended particulates; these samples were analyzed by the multi-element analysis technique called PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). One of the sites corresponds to the Alvaro Obregon area and the other to the Azcapotzalco area (a place near to the18 de Marzo Refinery). There were determined 16 elements, heavy metals, whose concentrations show differences for both sites and periods, standing out for this study the behavior of S, V and Pb. (Author)

  1. Building energy saving potential in Hot Summer and Cold Winter (HSCW) Zone, China—Influence of building energy efficiency standards and implications

    Hot Summer and Cold Winter (HSCW) region plays an important role in China's building energy conservation task due to its high consumption in recent years for both climate and social reasons. National and local building energy standards according to which the buildings are built and operated can affect the building energy consumption to a great extent. This study investigated the energy saving potential in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone under different level of energy efficiency standards (China local, China national, and UK standard). Chongqing was taken as an example, and the commercial energy simulation tool eQuest was applied to analyze the building end-use energy. With the existing situation as a baseline, the building energy saving for residential section could achieve 31.5% if the Chinese national standard were satisfied, and the value would further increase to 45.0% and 53.4% when the Chongqing local and UK standard were met. For public buildings, the corresponding energy saving potentials were 62.8%, 67.4% and 75.9%. Parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted. The analysis was able to provide suggestions on energy saving implementation priorities for residential and public buildings. Indications to improve building energy standards and their implementation were also discussed. - Highlights: ► Building energy efficiency standards were compared among China, UK and the US. ► Heating energy consumption takes 1/3 of that of the residential building in HSCW Zone, China. ► Building energy saving in Chongqing is 30–70% applying various building standards. ► Public and residential buildings are most sensitive to LPD and COP respectively. ► Building energy standards should be improved and implementation should be enforced

  2. Myctophid and pelagic shrimp assemblages in the oxygen minimum zone of the Andaman Sea during the winter monsoon

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; LaluRaj, C.M.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, M.

    . These micronektonic animals show strong vertical and horizontal migrations and play a significant role in the transport and redistribution of organic matter from epipelagic to mesopelagic zones2. During the daytime they migrate to deeper suboxic waters where... like tuna, sharks, and barracudas. The abundance and distribution of the barracudas in the oceanic waters provide clues to the quantitative and qualitative nature of micronekton4. Larger animals migrate to deeper waters (300-400 m) than the smaller...

  3. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is ...

  4. Effects of Seasons on Embryo Transfer of Cattle in Different Climatic Zones

    Wang; Feng; Wang; Shenyuan; Zhang; Dong; Han; Lidong; Li; Lu; Huang; Chunhua; Zhong; Gang; Han; Jinlong; Wang; Bingping; Liu; Yiyi; Liu; Caiyun; Pan; Jing; Zhao; Zhichao; Zhou; Huanmin; Zhang; Li

    2014-01-01

    The paper was to evaluate the efficient seasons for embryo transfer of cattle in different climatic zones in China. Three climatic zones(mid-temperate zone,warm temperate zone,subtropical zone) were designed,and embryo transfers had been carried out in spring,summer,autumn and winter from 2009 to 2011,respectively. The total number of transplant recipient cattle was 22 208. The results showed that the best seasons for embryo transfers varied with different climatic zones. In mid-temperate zone,summer and autumn were better while summer was the best,and the rate of pregnant was 50. 67%(the number of pregnant cattle was 8 005). In warm temperate zone,spring and autumn were better while autumn was the best,and the rate of pregnant was 54. 99 %(the number of pregnant cattle was 551). In subtropical zone,spring and winter were better while winter was the best,and the rate of pregnant was 56. 94 %(the number of pregnant cattle was 328). The seasonal average temperatures and relative humidity of the best seasons in different climatic zones were concentrated on the same region. In mid-temperate zone,the mean temperature ranged between 22. 4 ℃ and 24. 2 ℃,and the mean relative humidity ranged from 44% to 55. 3%. In warm zone,the mean temperature ranges were between 14. 2 ℃ and 16. 2 ℃,and the mean relative humidity ranges were from 59. 3% to 71. 6%. In sub-tropical zone,the mean temperature ranges were between 3. 26 ℃ and 7. 73 ℃,and the mean relative humidity ranges were from 72% to 80. 6%. Therefore,the optimized conditions of temperature and humidity of season in different zones could be simulated. It is possible that we apply the program to bovine production in the similar agroecological zones,which is of great significance for improving the embryo transfer efficiency of livestock in production.

  5. Winter Use Plans Final Environmental Impact Statement Summary for the Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks and John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway

    United States, Department of the Interior, National Park Service

    2000-01-01

    This document presents and analyzes seven alternatives for winter use management in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Grand Teton National Park (GTNP), and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway (the Parkway). YNP, encompassing 2.22 million acres, and GTNP, comprising 310,000 acres, form the core of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, described as the last large, nearly intact ecosystem in the northern temperate zone. The approved plan will serve as a management plan for the three na...

  6. Potential effects of climate change on the temperate zones of North and South America Potenciales efectos del cambio climático en zonas templadas de América del Norte y del Sur

    W.K. LAUENROTH

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Under current conditions, large areas of temperate western North America and temperate southern South America have arid to subhumid climates that make them vulnerable to changes as a result of human-induced climate change. Predictions of climate change from global circulation models with a doubling of present atmospheric levels of CO2 suggest large changes in mean annual temperature and small to no changes in mean annual precipitation and the proportion of precipitation received during the summer. Our objective here was to evaluate how predictions of climate change from global circulation models will influence climatic patterns and by inference the distribution of temperate zone ecosystems in North and South America. Calculations of annual water deficits suggest that the area affected by very dry conditions will double as a result of climate change. This expansion will take place in the vicinity of the currently dry areas. Monthly water deficit calculations suggest that approximately half of the temperate zone on each continent is affected by at least one month of deficit. Under a doubled CO2 climate, these areas would expand to cover up to 77 % of the temperate zone of North America and up to 80 % of South America. The resulting changes to the current distribution of ecosystems will likely be an expansion of deserts at the expense of grasslands in North and South America and an expansion of grasslands at the expense of deciduous and boreal forest in North America. Our analyses assumed that future climatic changes will be encompassed by the predictions of our three doubled CO2 scenarios. The most likely situation is that actual changes, if they occur, will be different from our scenarios. Therefore, our analyses should be interpreted as indications of the sensitivity of portions of the North and South American temperate zones to increases in temperature. The key conclusion from our analyses is that any increase in temperature caused by climate

  7. Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave

    Benjamin W. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave. With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were

  8. Automatic Geographic Object Based Mapping of Streambed and Riparian Zone Extent from LiDAR Data in a Temperate Rural Urban Environment, Australia

    Stuart Phinn; Arroyo, Lara A.; Kasper Johansen; Thomas Blaschke; Dirk Tiede

    2011-01-01

    This research presents a time-effective approach for mapping streambed and riparian zone extent from high spatial resolution LiDAR derived products, i.e., digital terrain model, terrain slope and plant projective cover. Geographic object based image analysis (GEOBIA) has proven useful for feature extraction from high spatial resolution image data because of the capacity to reduce effects of reflectance variations of pixels making up individual objects and to include contextual and shape infor...

  9. Identification of paleo Arctic winter sea ice limits and the marginal ice zone: Optimised biomarker-based reconstructions of late Quaternary Arctic sea ice

    Belt, Simon T.; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Smik, Lukas; Navarro-Rodriguez, Alba; Berben, Sarah M. P.; Knies, Jochen; Husum, Katrine

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of >100 surface sediments from across the Barents Sea has shown that the relative abundances of the mono-unsaturated sea ice diatom-derived biomarker IP25 and a tri-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) lipid (HBI III) are characteristic of the overlying surface oceanographic conditions, most notably, the location of the seasonal sea ice edge. Thus, while IP25 is generally limited to locations experiencing seasonal sea ice, with higher abundances found for locations with longer periods of ice cover, HBI III is found in sediments from all sampling locations, but is significantly enhanced in sediments within the vicinity of the retreating sea ice edge or marginal ice zone (MIZ). The response of HBI III to this well-defined sea ice scenario also appears to be more selective than that of the more generic phytoplankton biomarker, brassicasterol. The potential for the combined analysis of IP25 and HBI III to provide more detailed assessments of past sea ice conditions than IP25 alone has been investigated by quantifying both biomarkers in three marine downcore records from locations with contrasting modern sea ice settings. For sediment cores from the western Barents Sea (intermittent seasonal sea ice) and the northern Norwegian Sea (ice-free), high IP25 and low HBI III during the Younger Dryas (ca. 12.9-11.9 cal. kyr BP) is consistent with extensive sea cover, with relatively short periods of ice-free conditions resulting from late summer retreat. Towards the end of the YD (ca. 11.9-11.5 cal. kyr BP), a general amelioration of conditions resulted in a near winter maximum ice edge scenario for both locations, although this was somewhat variable, and the eventual transition to predominantly ice-free conditions was later for the western Barents Sea site (ca. 9.9 cal. kyr BP) compared to NW Norway (ca. 11.5 cal. kyr BP). For both locations, coeval elevated HBI III (but absent IP25) potentially provides further evidence for increased Atlantic Water inflow

  10. Take-off time of the first generation of the overwintering small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus in the temperate zone in East Asia.

    Sachiyo Sanada-Morimura

    Full Text Available Overseas migration of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén, occurs during the winter wheat harvest season in East Asia. Knowing the take-off time of emigrating L. striatellus is crucial for predicting such migrations with a simulation technique because winds, carriers of migratory insects, change continuously. Several methods were used in China and Japan from late May to early June 2012 and again in 2013 to identify the precise timing of take-off. These methods included: a tow net trap mounted to a pole at 10 m above the ground, a helicopter-towed net trap, and a canopy trap (which also had video monitoring set over wheat plants. Laodelphax striatellus emigrated from wheat fields mainly in the early evening, before dusk. The insects also emigrated during the daytime but rarely emigrated at dawn, showing a pattern that is unlike the bimodal emigration at dusk and dawn of two other rice planthoppers, the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, and the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth. There was no significant difference in the temporal pattern of take-off behavior between females and males of Japanese L. striatellus populations.

  11. The Impact of Nutrient State and Lake Depth on Top-down Control in the Pelagic Zone of Lakes: A Study of 466 Lakes from the Temperate Zone to the Arctic

    Jeppesen, E.; Jensen, J. P.; Jensen, C.;

    2003-01-01

    Using empirical data from 466 temperate to arctic lakes covering a total phosphorus (TP) gradient of 2-1036 mug L-1, we describe how the relative contributions of resource supply, and predator control change along a nutrient gradient. We argue that (a) predator control on large-bodied zooplankton...... is unimodally related to TP and is highest in the most nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor lakes and generally higher in shallow than deep lakes, (b) the cascading effect of changes in predator control on phytoplankton decreases with increasing TP, and (c) these general patterns occur with significant......%, respectively, at all TP levels. Moreover, deep lakes (more than 6 m) had a higher percentage of Daphnia than shallow (less than 6 m) lakes. The median percentage of Daphnia peaked at 0.15 mg L-1 in shallow lakes and 0.09 mg L-1 in deep lakes. The assumption that fish are responsible for the unimodality was...

  12. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    Hope, Paul R.; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zepeda-Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Razgour, Orly; Jones, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the pote...

  13. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    Hope, Paul R.; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zepeda-Mendoza, Marie; Razgour, Orly; Jones, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the pote...

  14. The Need for Temperance

    Karl Inge Tangen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how temperance as a virtue relates to organizational leadership. The study begins with a short survey of classical Greek and Christian notions of temperance before proceeding to ex-plore temperance in relation to self-leadership, visionary and strategic leadership, and relational lead-ership. The final part of the article offers reflections on how temperance might be cultivated from a theological perspective. Temperance is understood not only as sound thinking but also as embodied self-control and active patience. On the level of self-leadership, it is argued that temperance enables the leader to establish forms of integrity that protect the leader’s self from chaos and destruction. Moreover, temperance may also nurture focused visionary leadership that accepts ethical limits and has an eye to the common good. The study also suggests that organizations should cultivate a culture of strategic discipline that is capable of realizing such visions. On the interpersonal level, temperance is viewed as critical in terms of enabling leaders to treat co-workers with respect and wisdom and han-dle conflict with consideration. Finally, is argued that that the cultivation of temperance is not a one-way street from the inside to the outside or a subordination of feelings to reason but rather a very complex process that includes interpersonal humility, finds vision in an encounter with the good, and yet remains a personal responsibility.

  15. The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone

    F. Renou-Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a two-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB of two such sites. We determined greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes and waterborne carbon emissions in a nutrient rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient poor organic soils: a deep drained and a shallow drained site. GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient rich site was an annual source of CO2 (NEE 233 g C m−2yr−1, CH4 neutral, and a small source of nitrous oxide (1.6 kg N2O-N ha−1yr−1. NEE at the shallow drained site was −89 and −99 g C m−2yr−1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep drained site was +85 and −26 g C m−2yr−1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m−2yr−1 were recorded at the shallow drained nutrient poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient rich site totalled 69.8 g C m−2yr−1 with 54% as dissolved organic C (DOC. Waterborne C losses from the nutrient poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m−2yr−1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m−2yr−1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient rich grassland was 663 g C m−2yr−1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient poor deep drained site was less than half of the nutrient rich site (2 year mean 267 g C m−2yr−1. Although NEE at the nutrient poor shallow drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2 year mean NECB 103 g

  16. Determinação por cromatografia gasosa de açúcares em frutíferas de clima temperado Gas chromatography determination of sugars in temperate-zone fruit trees

    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available As frutíferas de clima temperado apresentam o fenômeno da dormência. Na saída da dormência, há a conversão do amido para açúcares solúveis, como substrato para a retomada de crescimento na primavera. Visando à maior compreensão da fisiologia das plantas em respostas a eventos, como as variações climáticas, estresses e problemas de adaptação, desenvolveu-se este trabalho, no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado, com o objetivo de descrever uma metodologia para a determinação das concentrações dos açúcares solúveis (frutose, sorbitol, alfa-glicose, beta-glicose e sacarose, em tecidos vegetais de frutíferas, via cromatografia gasosa. O cromatógrafo utilizado para as análises dos açúcares por essa metodologia é o GAS CHROMATOGRAPH e a coluna do tipo Packed Column J. K. de 3,2mm de diâmetro por 2m de comprimento, empacotada com Silicone SE-52 Uniport HP 80/100 mesh. Através da cromatografia gasosa, obtêm-se eficiência e resolução cromatográfica, para análises de açúcares solúveis, sendo, desta forma, vantajoso e executável esse tipo de análise pelo método descrito.The temperate-zone deciduous fruit trees present the phenomenon of dormancy. In that period, there is the conversion of the starch in soluble sugars, as substratum for the resumption of growth in the spring. Seeking to better understanding the physiology of the plants in answers to events as the climatic variations, stresses and adaptation problems, this study was done in the Laboratory of Crop Physiology of Embrapa Temperate Climate, with the objective of describing a methodology for determination of concentrations of the soluble sugars (fructose, sorbitol, alpha-glucose, beta-glucose and sucrose, in tissues of fruit tree, through gaseous chromatography. The chromatograph used for the analyses of the sugars was the GAS CHROMATOGRAPH with the column of the type Packed Column J. K. of 3,2mm of diameter for 2m of length

  17. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Dalsgaard, Sofie B; Thomsen, Jane F; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kærgaard, Anette; Kærlev, Linda; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that o...... outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression.......At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that...

  18. Accelerated simulated tempering

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method

  19. Accelerated simulated tempering

    Li, Yaohang; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Gorin, Andrey

    2004-08-01

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method.

  20. Winter Flings

    Nicole Sy

    2012-01-01

    Summer flings.Those summer days of fun under the sun,careless and worryfree,drifting away into those breezy summer nights.It's a concept somewhat romanticized by the media but still pretty common in Western societies,and seemingly other cultures infiltrated by Western media.One can only imagine my surprise when my friend told me there were such things as winter flings too.That's right,winter flings.Strange as it seems,this was introduced to me by a friend from Toronto,a city on the east coast of Canada.I'm from the west coast of the country,so we cower in our homes when it hits -15℃.Our pipes freeze,we have no running water,and sometimes we have no electricity.Toronto lies on the east so it gets pretty nasty winters,sometimes dipping to -40℃.I'm a winter wuss.

  1. Patrones geográficos de distribuci��n de árboles y arbustos en la zona de transición climática mediterráneo-templada de Chile Geographic patterns of distribution of trees and shrubs in the transitional Mediterranean-temperate climatic zone of Chile

    ERNESTO A. TENEB

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales objetivos de la biogeografía es determinar si las especies se distribuyen en el espacio en forma aleatoria o si existen grupos de especies con patrones de distribución comunes. En el presente estudio determinamos a través de técnicas cuantitativas si existen corotipos, es decir, grupos de especies con patrones de distribución común entre los árboles y arbustos en la zona de transición climática mediterráneo-templada de Chile, Octava Región de Chile. Adicionalmente, evaluamos la relación entre el clima y la distribución de los diferentes grupos de árboles y arbustos de la Octava Región. El análisis de agrupamiento de especies permitió definir 24 corotipos significativos, de los cuales 18 responden significativamente con alguna variable ambiental analizada. La temperatura media anual, la temperatura media invernal y la temperatura media de verano resultaron ser las variables que mejor explican el patrón de distribución de la mayoría de los corotipos. Las tendencias geográficas de los corotipos y su relación con las variables ambientales fueron evaluadas mediante un análisis de ordenación. Los resultados señalan que los corotipos con distribución en la cordillera de los Andes se correlacionan con la temperatura de invierno en tanto que los corotipos con distribución costera se correlacionan con la mediterraneidad. Se discute respecto de la utilización de una nueva aproximación para el análisis fitogeográfico y de su utilidad en el estudio de la relación entre la vegetación y los factores ambientales que determinan su distribuciónOne main aim of biogeography is to determine if species are randomly distributed or if there exist groups of species with common distributional patterns known as chorotypes. In this study, we determined through quantitative techniques if there exists such chorotypes for trees and shrubs in the transitional Mediterranean-temperate climatic zone of Chile, Eigth

  2. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias; Dalsgaard, Sofie B; Thomsen, Jane F; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kærgaard, Anette; Kærlev, Linda; Mors, Ole; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2011-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that...... outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression....

  3. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias; Dalsgaard, Sofie B;

    2011-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that...

  4. Choosing weights for simulated tempering

    Park, Sanghyun; Pande, Vijay S.

    2007-07-01

    Simulated tempering is a method to enhance simulations of complex systems by periodically raising and lowering the temperature. Despite its advantages, simulated tempering has been overshadowed by its parallel counterpart, replica exchange (also known as parallel tempering), due to the difficulty of weight determination in simulated tempering. Here we propose a simple and fast method to obtain near-optimal weights for simulated tempering, and demonstrate its effectiveness in a molecular dynamics simulation of Ala10 polypeptide in explicit solvent. We believe simulated tempering now deserves another look.

  5. Greater understanding is need of whether warmer and shorter winters associated with climate change could reduce winter mortality

    Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-11-01

    In temperate regions, mortality is higher during winter than summer seasons. Assuming this seasonality is associated with ambient temperature, assessments often conclude that climate change will likely reduce winter mortality. However, there has been limited evaluation of the extent to which cold temperatures are actually the proximal cause of winter mortality in temperate regions. Kinney et al (2015 Environ Res. Lett. 10 064016) analyzed multi-decadal data from 39 cities in the US and France and concluded that cold temperatures are not a primary driver of most winter excess mortality. These analyses suggest that increases in heat-related mortality with climate change will unlikely be balanced by reductions in winter mortality, reinforcing the importance of health systems continuing to ensure adequate health protection against cold temperatures even as temperatures warm.

  6. Candidate gene association mapping for winter survival and spring regrowth in perennial ryegrass.

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Pijut, Paula M; Byrne, Stephen; Asp, Torben; Bai, Guihua; Jiang, Yiwei

    2015-06-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a widely cultivated cool-season grass species because of its high quality for forage and turf. Susceptibility to freezing damage limits its further use in temperate zones. The objective of this study was to identify candidate genes significantly associated with winter survival and spring regrowth in a global collection of 192 perennial ryegrass accessions. Significant differences in winter survival (WS), percentage of canopy green cover (CGC), chlorophyll index (Chl), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were found among accessions. After controlling population structure, LpLEA3 encoding a late embryogenesis abundant group 3 protein and LpCAT encoding a catalase were associated with CGC and Chl, while LpMnSOD encoding a magnesium superoxide dismutase and LpChl Cu-ZnSOD encoding a chlorophyll copper-zinc superoxide dismutase were associated with NDVI or Chl. Significant association was also discovered between C-repeat binding factor LpCBF1b and WS. Three sequence variations identified in LpCAT, LpMnSOD, and LpChl Cu-ZnSOD were synonymous substitutions, whereas one pair of adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LpLEA3 and one SNP in LpCBF1b resulted in amino acid change. The results demonstrated that allelic variation in LpLEA3 and LpCBF1b was closely related to winter survival and spring regrowth in perennial ryegrass. PMID:25900564

  7. Widespread green algae Chlorella and Stichococcus exhibit polar-temperate and tropical-temperate biogeography.

    Hodač, Ladislav; Hallmann, Christine; Spitzer, Karolin; Elster, Josef; Faßhauer, Fabian; Brinkmann, Nicole; Lepka, Daniela; Diwan, Vaibhav; Friedl, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Chlorella and Stichococcus are morphologically simple airborne microalgae, omnipresent in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. The minute cell size and resistance against environmental stress facilitate their long-distance dispersal. However, the actual distribution of Chlorella- and Stichococcus-like species has so far been inferred only from ambiguous morphology-based evidence. Here we contribute a phylogenetic analysis of an expanded SSU and ITS2 rDNA sequence dataset representing Chlorella- and Stichococcus-like species from terrestrial habitats of polar, temperate and tropical regions. We aim to uncover biogeographical patterns at low taxonomic levels. We found that psychrotolerant strains of Chlorella and Stichococcus are closely related with strains originating from the temperate zone. Species closely related to Chlorella vulgaris and Muriella terrestris, and recovered from extreme terrestrial environments of polar regions and hot deserts, are particularly widespread. Stichococcus strains from the temperate zone, with their closest relatives in the tropics, differ from strains with the closest relatives being from the polar regions. Our data suggest that terrestrial Chlorella and Stichococcus might be capable of intercontinental dispersal; however, their actual distributions exhibit biogeographical patterns. PMID:27279416

  8. Study on Risk Assessment of Winter Wheat Frost Damage in Huanghuai Wheat Production Zone%黄淮地区冬小麦霜冻灾害风险评估

    沈鸿; 孙雪萍; 林晓梅

    2011-01-01

    Huanghuai Region is the main production zone of winter wheat,the main food crops in China.It is vulnerable to frost disasters,and studying disaster risk on frost disaster risk in the region has practical significance for the protection of our food security.Combine with winter wheat phenophase partition and the frost indicators,extracted records on frost days based on daily minimum temperature data of 56 weather stations in the region from 1951 to 2005.Get probability disaster maps of ≥ 10%,20%,30%,40%,50% yearly reduction rate of winter wheat frost risk through IDW,based on the yearly frost days-yearly reduction rate curve,according to the information diffusion theory.Frost disaster risk of winter wheat in Huanghuai region is assessed.The main conclusions:(1) With the same disaster intensity,the risk areas were usually connected.(2) With the different disaster intensity,the high risk areas concentrated in two areas: first,northern Shandong and southern Hebei,and second,border region of Shaanxi,Shanxi and Henan.In comparison,probability of risk of low-altitude or low latitude regions was lower.(3) Frost disaster of low intensity generally had high risk probability in the region;as the intensity increases,the probability decreases.As the reduction rate caused by disaster ≥ 40%,probability of risk of most areas was below 0.1;as the reduction rate 50%,probability of most areas was below 0.001.%黄淮地区是我国主要粮食作物冬小麦的主产区,易受霜冻灾害的影响,研究该区的霜冻灾害风险对保障我国粮食安全具有现实意义。结合分区的冬小麦物候期及其霜冻指标,以该地区56个气象站点1951—2005年日最低气温为基础数据,提取霜冻日记录。并基于年霜日数-年减产率曲线,以信息扩散理论为指导,通过IDW插值得到减产率≥10%、20%、30%、40%、50%下的冬小麦霜冻灾害概率风险图,由此评估黄淮地区冬小麦霜冻灾害

  9. Carbon sinks in temperate forests

    Martin, P.H.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Aubinet, M.; Karjalainen, T.; Vine, E.L.; Kinsman, J.; Heath, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to being scientifically exciting, commercially important, and environmentally essential, temperate forests have also become a key diplomatic item in international climate negotiations as potential sinks for carbon. This review presents the methods used to estimate carbon sequestration, i

  10. Solar ventilation and tempering

    Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  11. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests

    Robert B Allen; Forsyth, David M.; Allen, Roy K. J.; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2015-01-01

    Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand’s temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult m...

  12. Time-temperature equivalence in Martensite tempering

    Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas, Grant A. [CSM; Speer, John G. [CSM; Matlock, David K. [CSM; Krauss, George [CSM

    2008-06-16

    The relationship between time and temperature is of great consequence in many materials-related processes including the tempering of martensite. In 1945, Hollomon and Jaffe quantified the 'degree of tempering' as a function of both tempering time, t, and tempering temperature, T, using the expression, T(log t + c). Here, c is thought to be a material constant and appears to decrease linearly with increasing carbon content. The Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameter is frequently cited in the literature. This work reviews the original derivation of the tempering parameter concept, and presents the use of the characteristics diffusion distance as an alternative time-temperature relationship during martensite tempering. During the tempering of martensite, interstitial carbon atoms diffuse to form carbides. In addition, austenite decomposes, dislocations and grain boundaries rearrange, associated with iron self diffusion. Since these are all diffusional processes, it is reasonable to expect the degree of tempering to relate to the extent of diffusion.

  13. Integrated index construction and zoning of drought risk:a case study of winter wheat area in Hebei Province%干旱综合风险指标的构建及风险区划——以河北省冬麦区为例

    吴荣军; 史继清; 关福来; 姚树然

    2013-01-01

    Taking winter wheat growing areas in Hebei Province as example, and based on the natural water deficiency rate index, precipitation anomaly percentage index and drought resistance index, this paper constructed an integrated drought risk index, and carried out risk zoning. Also, by use of the percentage reduction of the yield of winter wheat due to drought and the regional historical drought occurrence frequency, the paper compared and validated the integrated drought risk index and risk zoning results. The results showed that the constructed integrated drought risk index in this paper is applicable for winter wheat drought risk zoning, and could give a reference to risk assessment and prediction of yield reduction of winter wheat caused by drought.%以河北省冬小麦种植区为例,基于自然水分亏缺率指数、降水距平百分率指数和抗旱指数,构建了干旱风险综合指标,并开展了风险区划;同时,利用冬小麦单产减产百分率和该区域历史旱灾发生频次资料,比较并验证了干旱风险综合指标和风险区划结果.结果表明,所构建的干旱风险综合指标适用于冬小麦的干旱风险区划,对于冬小麦因旱灾造成减产的风险评估和预测具有一定的参考价值.

  14. Annual CO2 balance of a temperate bog

    Lund, Magnus; Lindroth, Anders; Christensen, Torben R.; Ström, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Peatlands are generally small sinks for atmospheric CO2. However, the sustainability of this sink functioning is threatened in a changing climate. We measured the CO2 exchange in a temperate bog between August 2005 and July 2006 using the eddy covariance technique. During this period, the CO2 balance was –78.6 ± 20.0 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, which is a lower uptake than others have reported for comparable ecosystems, but in accordance with average Holocene uptake rates. Average winter emissions were s...

  15. Shifts in Köppen-Geiger climate zones over southern Africa in relation to key global temperature goals

    Engelbrecht, Christien J.; Engelbrecht, Francois A.

    2016-01-01

    Potential changes in Köppen-Geiger climate zones over southern Africa (Africa south of 22 °S) under future climate change are investigated using an ensemble of high-resolution projections of a regional climate model. The projections are performed under the A2 scenario of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES), and changes are presented for those times in the future when the increase in global average surface temperature reaches thresholds of 1, 2, and 3 °C, relative to the present-day baseline climatology. Widespread shifts in climate regimes are projected, of which the southern and eastern expansion of the hot desert and hot steppe zones is the most prominent. From occupying 33.1 and 19.4 % of southern Africa under present-day climate, these regions are projected to occupy between 47.3 and 59.7 % (hot desert zone) and 24.9 and 29.9 % (hot steppe zone) of the region in a future world where the global temperature has increased by 3 °C. The cold desert and cold steppe zones are projected to decrease correspondingly. The temperate regions of eastern South Africa, the Cape south coast, and winter rainfall region of the southwestern Cape are also projected to contract. An expansion of the hot steppe zone into the cold steppe and temperate zones may favor the intrusion of trees (and therefore the savanna biome) into the most pristine grasslands of southern Africa. However, the correlative climate-vegetation approach of using projected changes in Köppen-Geiger zones to infer future vegetation patterns is of limited value in the savanna complex of southern Africa, where complex feedbacks occur between carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, trees, C4 grasses, fire, and climate. The present-day temperate Cape Fynbos regime may come under increasing pressure as the encompassing temperate zone is invaded mainly from the east by the hot steppe climate regime under climate change, with the incidence of Fynbos fires also becoming more likely in a generally warmer and

  16. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  17. Employment and winter construction

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  18. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  19. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    with those with only 50%. Heterosis was numerically greater for most traits for An × Br (11 to 64%) compared with An × Ro and Br × Ro (3 to 42%), which were similar. In a subset of the steers (n = 261), G:F was not influenced by level of tropical breeding, but tropically adapted steers were more efficient (P < 0.05) by residual feed intake. No heterosis was evident. These data show that in temperate zones, winter is the period when productivity of tropically adapted cattle is compromised. PMID:22247114

  20. Winter flight of flies (Diptera in Hongneung Arboretum, Seoul, Korea

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter phenology (diapause and activity of insects is expected to change more significantly than that of other seasons, because temperature will increase more in winter than in other seasons in temperate regions. However, studies on winter phenology of insects are rare. It is expected that winter flights of flies (Diptera will increase as climate warms. This study aims to find the relationship between flight of flies and temperature. The survey on flies and weather (temperature and rainfall was carried out in the Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, Korea. Flies were collected weekly from December 2012 to February 2013 using sweeping and Malaise trap. In the survey, 106 flies belonging to 28 morphospecies and 17 families were collected. Richness and abundance of flies were positively correlated with temperature.

  1. Tempered stable laws as random walk limits

    Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.

  2. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  3. 基于机载激光雷达的寒温带典型森林高度制图研究%Typical forest height mapping in cold temperate zone using airborne LiDAR data

    2015-01-01

    Based on the airborne LiDAR point cloud data and 66 sample plots data from field inventory of Chaocha Forest Farm in Genhe City, Inner Mongolia, we set the cold temperate primary and secondary forests as research subjects. The model training accuracy and estimating accuracy of different forest height models were compared ( crown area weighted height model, arithmetic mean height model, LiDAR percentile height model) , which were generated by field-measured forest height ( Lorey's height, crown area weighted height, arithmetic mean height) , LiDAR crown area weighted height, LiDAR arithmetic mean height and LiDAR percentile height, respectively. LiDAR crown area weighted height and LiDAR arithmetic mean height were extracted by double tangent tree crown recognition algorithm, and LiDAR percentile height was extracted from LiDAR point cloud directly. Then we investigated the applicability of the double tangent tree crown recognition algorithm in the study area, revealed the difference between Lorey's height and crown area weighted height, and determined the optimal explanatory variables and selected the optimal forest height model. Afterwards, the optimal tree height model was used to calculate the spatial distribution of forest height in the study area, which would provide reference data for subsequent studies of biomass and carbon storage. The results showed that the training accuracy and estimating accuracy of the field crown area weighted forest height model were well consistent with Lorey's height, yet slightly lower than the results of Lorey's height. And 50% percentile height was well fitted with the field-measured height (R2 = 0.869, RMSE = 1.366 m for Lorey's height, and R2 = 0.839, RMSE = 1.392 m for crown area weighted height) . Estimating accuracy of each independently validated sample plot was all higher than 85%, with the average accuracy of 94.73% and the highest accuracy of 99.78%. The average estimating accuracy for mixed forests was 96.72%, higher

  4. Transformation and tempering behavior of 12Cr-1Mo-0.3V martensitic stainless steel weldments

    Autogeneous, bead-on-plate gas tungsten-arc (GTA) and laser welds in a 12Cr-1Mo-0.3V (HT9) martensitic stainless steel were evaluated using both optical metallography and microhardness techniques. The as-welded fusion zone microstructures consisted of a mixture of untempered martensite and metastable delta ferrite and exhibited a hardness in the range of Rsub(c) 48-55. Four distinct microstructural regions were identified in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the GTA welds and could be related to specific phase regions on the equilibrium phase diagram. The tempering behavior of the GTA and laser welds was similar. The tempering response was relatively sluggish at temperatures below 6000C (11100F). Tempering for 1 hour at 8000C (14700F) reduced the hardness of both the fusion zone and HAZ to the level of the quenched and tempered base metal. (orig.)

  5. Spatial variation of biomass of seaweed assemblages in the temperate-tropical transition zone of Baja California Peninsula, Mexico Variación espacial de la biomasa de macroalgas en una zona de transición templado-tropical en la Península de Baja California, México

    Margarita Casas Valdez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass changes of seaweed assemblages in four locations in a temperate-tropical transition zone were analyzed between October 1996 and August 1997. Locations with lower temperature, a high index of upwelling, and high quantities of hard substrate presented the largest values of biomass of seaweed (El Cardoncito (7.2 kg m-2, and Las Boyitas (6.2 kg m-2 and the biggest quantity of species of temperate affinity. Conversely, El Datilito (0.366 kg m-2, with a higher temperature, no evidence of upwelling, sandy substrate, and located in protected shallow waters, presented the lowest values of biomass and the lowest proportion of temperate affinity seaweed. The PCA and similarity analysis showed a close relationship between El Cardoncito and Las Boyitas. El Datilito was categorized as independent location, while Chester Rock (4.3 kg m-2 displayed intermediate characteristics. The close relationship observed between the first two locations can be explained by the similarity of their high biomass and physiographic and environmental characteristics. El Datilito has very different physiographic and environmental characteristics and a very low biomass.Se analizaron los cambios en la biomasa de las asociaciones de macroalgas en una zona de transición templado-tropical entre octubre de 1996 y agosto de 1997 en cuatro localidades. Las localidades con la temperatura más baja, alto índice de surgencias y mayor dominancia de sustrato duro presentaron los mayores valores de biomasa de macroalgas (El Cardoncito (7.2 kg m-2 y Las Boyitas (6.2 kg m-2 y la mayor cantidad de especies de afinidad templada. Por el contrario El Datilito (0.366 kg m-2 en donde la temperatura fue más alta, no hay evidencia de surgencias, el sustrato es arenoso, es un área más somera y protegida, presentó el menor valor de biomasa de macroalgas y la menor proporción de algas de afinidad templada. Los análisis de componentes principales y similaridad mostraron una estrecha relaci

  6. Protective coating of austenitic steel using robotized GMAW temper-bead technique; Rechargement d'inox austenitique en MAG temperbead robotise

    Carpreau, J.M. [Electricite de France (EDF/R and D), Recherche et Developpement, 92 - Chatou (France); Dainelli, P. [Institut de Soudure, 57 - Yutz (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper summarises experimental results obtained in a study of GMAW temper-bead on low alloyed steel with austenitic consumables. Temper-bead on low alloyed steel with austenitic consumables is mainly used for repairing operations of heavy components such as vessel reactor of nuclear power plants. Experimental work aims at showing the performance of GMAW compared to GTAW and the consequences of GMAW temper-bead on 2OMND5 heat affected zones. (authors)

  7. Continuous Tempering Molecular Dynamics: A Deterministic Approach to Simulated Tempering.

    Lenner, Nicolas; Mathias, Gerald

    2016-02-01

    Continuous tempering molecular dynamics (CTMD) generalizes simulated tempering (ST) to a continuous temperature space. Opposed to ST the CTMD equations of motion are fully deterministic and feature a conserved quantity that can be used to validate the simulation. Three variants of CTMD are discussed and compared by means of a simple test system. The implementation features of the most stable and simplest variant CTMD-[Formula: see text] in the program package Iphigenie are described. Two applications - alanine dipeptide (Ac-Ala-NHMe) in explicit water and octa-alanine (Ac-(Ala)8-NHMe) simulated in a dielectric continuum - demonstrate the functionality of CTMD-[Formula: see text]. Furthermore, they serve to evaluate its sampling efficiency. Here, CTMD-[Formula: see text] outperforms ST by 35% and replica exchange even by 75%. PMID:26760910

  8. Analysis on optimum insulation thickness of residential roof in hot summer and cold winter zone%夏热冬冷地区居住建筑屋顶保温层最佳厚度分析

    于靖华; 田利伟; 杨昌智

    2012-01-01

    考虑太阳辐射对屋顶传热影响及空调采暖设备全天和夜间2种运行模式,采用等效空调和采暖度时数计算空调采暧能耗.在此基础上应用P1 -P2经济性模型和全生命周期理论对夏热冬冷地区上海、长沙、韶关和成都居住建筑不同外表面颜色典型屋顶的4种保温层最佳厚度进行研究,并对采用最佳厚度保温层时的生命周期总投资、净收益及回收周期进行计算.研究结果表明:保温层最佳厚度由大到小依次为胶粉聚苯颗粒、膨胀聚苯乙烯、无机保温砂浆、挤塑聚苯乙烯;空调采暖设备全天运行时,4种材料保温层厚度为85~161 mm,生命周期总投资为125.4~251.4元/m2,净收益为363.9-787.3元/m2.与之相比,空调采暖设备在夜间运行时保温层最佳厚度、生命周期总投资和净收益分别减小约21%,16%,40%.%Considering the effect of solar radiation on beat transfer through roof and the two schedules of 24 h and nighttime operations for cooling and heating equipments, the equivalent cooling and heating degree-hours were used to calculate the energy consumption for cooling and beating. On this basis, the optimum insulation thicknesses of four insulation materials for a typical roof with different surface colors were studied using the P1-P2 economic model and life cycle analysis in cities of hot summer and cold winter zone including Shanghai, Changsha, Shaoguan and Chengdu. Life cycle costs, life cycle savings and payback periods in employing the insulation material with optimum thickness were also calculated. The results show that the optimum insulation thicknesses from high to low in turn are colloidal polypbenyl granular, expanded polystyrene, inorganic insulation mortar and extruded polystyrene. For 24 h operation of cooling and heating equipments, the optimum thicknesses of four materials are between 85-161 mm, the life cycle costs range from 125.4 to 251.4 RMB Yuan/m2 and life cycle net

  9. Effect of climate, intra and inter-annual variability, on nutrients emission (C,N, P) in stream water: lessons from an agricultural long term observatory of the temperate zone

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Remi, Dupas; Patrick, Durand; Ophélie, Fovet; Gerard, Gruau; Anne, Jaffrezic; Guillaume, Humbert; Philippe, Merot; Gu, Sen

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture greatly contributes to modify C, N and P cycles, particularly in animal breeding regions due to high inputs. Climatic conditions, intra and inter-annual variabilities, modify nutrient stream water emissions, acting in time on transfer and transformation, accumulation and mobilization processes, connecting and disconnecting in time different compartments (soil, riparian areas, groundwater). In agricultural catchments, nutrient perturbations are dominated by agricultural land use, and decoupling human activities and climate effects is far from easy. Climate change generally appears as a secondary driver compared to land use. If studied, generally only one nutrient is considered. Only long term, high frequency and multiple element data series can decouple these two drivers. The Kervidy-Naizin watershed belongs to the AgrHyS environmental research observatory (http://www6.inra.fr/ore_agrhys_eng), itself included in RBV (French catchment network of the CZO). On this catchment, 6 years of daily data on DOC, NO3, SRP, TP concentrations allow us to analyze the effect of seasonal and inter-annual climatic variabilities on water quality (C, N, P). Different papers have been published on the effect of climate on nitrate (Molenat et al, 2008), SRP and TP (Dupas et al, 2015) and DOC (Humbert et al, 2015). We will present first results comparing the effect of climate on these three major solute forms of C, N and P. While C and P dynamics are very close and controlled by fluctuation of water table downslope, i.e. in riparian areas, mobilizing C and P in time, nitrate dynamics is controlled by GW dynamics upslope acting as the major N reservoir. As example, the dryness conditions in summer appears a key factor of the C and P emissions in autumn. All the three solute forms interact when anoxic conditions are observed in riparian zones. These basic processes explain how climatic variability can influence and explain interactions between C, N and P emissions in stream

  10. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. PMID:26986796

  11. Winterizing the Water Garden

    Swanson, Lynette; Fox, Laurie; Andruczyk, Mike; French, Sue; Gilland, Traci

    2009-01-01

    Preparation for the winter months is especially important for the survival of both the aquatic plants and the wildlife in and around the pond. Prepare the pond for the winter months by managing the plants, cleaning the pond, and monitoring the water conditions.

  12. Winters fuels report

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  13. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter...

  14. On choice of tempered steels

    For the purpose of developing a graphical method for choosing structural steels, a change in the propagation work of a crack and in the critical temperature of brittleness of 40, 40Kh, 40KhN, and 40KhNM steels, was examined depending on the hardness after hardening and tempering. A diagram enabling to choose the grade of steel for making an article of known dimensions according to the preset values of its mechanical properties has been plotted. The developed selection scheme takes into account the hardenability of steels and the influence of the hardness after thermal treatment on the cold-shortness of steel

  15. Coastal karren features in temperate microtidal settings: spatial organization and temporal evolution

    Lluís Gómez-Pujol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Basin pools are the diagnostic feature of Coastal Karren landscape at temperate settings. According to the size and connectivity parameters four morphological zones are identified along limestone coastal profiles. Each zone reflects the balance between the effects of physical and chemical weathering-erosion agents. Broadly, marine abrasion, bioerosion and biological driven solution show a larger influence seaward, whereas non-biological driven solution enhances its participation landward

  16. Sperm competition in tropical versus temperate zone birds

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Kleven, O.; Kreisinger, J.; Laskemoen, T.; Omotoriogun, T. C.; Ottosson, U.; Reif, J.; Sedláček, O.; Hořák, D.; Robertson, R. J.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 1752 (2013), s. 20122434. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1617; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : clutch size * extra-pair paternity * life history * post-copulatory sexual selection * sperm phenotype Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.292, year: 2013

  17. Cave visitation by temperate zone bats: effects of climatic factors

    Berková, Hana; Zukal, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 4 (2010), s. 387-395. ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1555; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : automatic registration * bats * flight activity * hibernaculum * seasonal changes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.787, year: 2010

  18. Winter Weather Checklists

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Checklists Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  19. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Outdoor Safety Winter PSAs and Podcasts Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  20. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were...

  1. CSW Newsletter Winter, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The Winter 1991 CSW newsletter includes articles on Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Middle East, Prenatal Diagnostic Testing, Feminism and Psychoanalytic theory, Immigrant Women, Lesbian Literature, and Latina lives.

  2. CSW Newsletter Winter 1992

    1992-01-01

    The Winter 1992 CSW Newsletter features articles on the "Learning from Latin America" conference, women and post-communist transition, Gender and International Trade, women and democratic citizenship, and feminism and Chinese literature.

  3. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree. PMID:27446160

  4. A selective integrated tempering method.

    Yang, Lijiang; Qin Gao, Yi

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, based on the integrated tempering sampling we introduce a selective integrated tempering sampling (SITS) method for the efficient conformation sampling and thermodynamics calculations for a subsystem in a large one, such as biomolecules solvated in aqueous solutions. By introducing a potential surface scaled with temperature, the sampling over the configuration space of interest (e.g., the solvated biomolecule) is selectively enhanced but the rest of the system (e.g., the solvent) stays largely unperturbed. The applications of this method to biomolecular systems allow highly efficient sampling over both energy and configuration spaces of interest. Comparing to the popular and powerful replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), the method presented in this paper is significantly more efficient in yielding relevant thermodynamics quantities (such as the potential of mean force for biomolecular conformational changes in aqueous solutions). It is more important that SITS but not REMD yielded results that are consistent with the traditional umbrella sampling free energy calculations when explicit solvent model is used since SITS avoids the sampling of the irrelevant phase space (such as the boiling water at high temperatures). PMID:19968339

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Clad and Post-cladding Tempered AISI H13 Tool Steel

    Telasang, Gururaj; Dutta Majumdar, Jyotsna; Wasekar, Nitin; Padmanabham, G.; Manna, Indranil

    2015-05-01

    This study reports a detailed investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties (wear resistance and tensile strength) of hardened and tempered AISI H13 tool steel substrate following laser cladding with AISI H13 tool steel powder in as-clad and after post-cladding conventional bulk isothermal tempering [at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 hours] heat treatment. Laser cladding was carried out on AISI H13 tool steel substrate using a 6 kW continuous wave diode laser coupled with fiber delivering an energy density of 133 J/mm2 and equipped with a co-axial powder feeding nozzle capable of feeding powder at the rate of 13.3 × 10-3 g/mm2. Laser clad zone comprises martensite, retained austenite, and carbides, and measures an average hardness of 600 to 650 VHN. Subsequent isothermal tempering converted the microstructure into one with tempered martensite and uniform dispersion of carbides with a hardness of 550 to 650 VHN. Interestingly, laser cladding introduced residual compressive stress of 670 ± 15 MPa, which reduces to 580 ± 20 MPa following isothermal tempering. Micro-tensile testing with specimens machined from the clad zone across or transverse to cladding direction showed high strength but failure in brittle mode. On the other hand, similar testing with samples sectioned from the clad zone parallel or longitudinal to the direction of laser cladding prior to and after post-cladding tempering recorded lower strength but ductile failure with 4.7 and 8 pct elongation, respectively. Wear resistance of the laser surface clad and post-cladding tempered samples (evaluated by fretting wear testing) registered superior performance as compared to that of conventional hardened and tempered AISI H13 tool steel.

  6. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Allen, Robert B; Forsyth, David M; Allen, Roy K J; Affeld, Kathrin; MacKenzie, Darryl I

    2015-01-01

    Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species) would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species). Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut), we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011) to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat. PMID:26061426

  7. Solar Radiation Determines Site Occupancy of Coexisting Tropical and Temperate Deer Species Introduced to New Zealand Forests.

    Robert B Allen

    Full Text Available Assemblages of introduced taxa provide an opportunity to understand how abiotic and biotic factors shape habitat use by coexisting species. We tested hypotheses about habitat selection by two deer species recently introduced to New Zealand's temperate rainforests. We hypothesised that, due to different thermoregulatory abilities, rusa deer (Cervus timorensis; a tropical species would prefer warmer locations in winter than red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus; a temperate species. Since adult male rusa deer are aggressive in winter (the rut, we also hypothesised that rusa deer and red deer would not use the same winter locations. Finally, we hypothesised that in summer both species would prefer locations with fertile soils that supported more plant species preferred as food. We used a 250 × 250 m grid of 25 remote cameras to collect images in a 100-ha montane study area over two winters and summers. Plant composition, solar radiation, and soil fertility were also determined for each camera location. Multiseason occupancy models revealed that direct solar radiation was the best predictor of occupancy and detection probabilities for rusa deer in winter. Multistate, multiseason occupancy models provided strong evidence that the detection probability of adult male rusa deer was greater in winter and when other rusa deer were present at a location. Red deer mostly vacated the study area in winter. For the one season that had sufficient camera images of both species (summer 2011 to allow two-species occupancy models to be fitted, the detection probability of rusa deer also increased with solar radiation. Detection probability also varied with plant composition for both deer species. We conclude that habitat use by coexisting tropical and temperate deer species in New Zealand likely depends on the interplay between the thermoregulatory and behavioural traits of the deer and the abiotic and biotic features of the habitat.

  8. Characteristic Study on Cool Storage in Transition Period of Cooling Tower-Ground Coupled Heat Pump in Hot-summer and Cold-winter Zone%夏热冬冷地区冷却塔—土壤耦合热泵过渡季蓄冷特性研究

    谢莉; 刘金祥; 刘凯

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a soil cool storage model for cooling tower-ground coupled heat pump in transition period based on cooling and heating load characteristics in hot-summer and cold-winter zone,establishes a simulation model for the soil cool storage system of cooling tower-ground coupled heat pump in transition period by means of software TRNSYS,conducts working condition simulation analysis of the two main influencing factors of the model regarding soil cool storage in transition period and proposes a control strategy regarding soil cool storage in transition period for cooling tower-ground coupled heat pump.Besides,this paper also strives to explore an effective method to relieve yearly thermal imbalance of ground-source heat pump in hot-summer and cold-winter zone and improve system operation efficiency based on the researches above.%本文针对夏热冬冷地区冷热负荷特性,提出了冷却塔—土壤耦合热泵过渡季土壤蓄冷模式,采用软件TRNSYS建立了冷却塔—土壤耦合热泵过渡季土壤蓄冷系统仿真模型,并利用该模型针对过渡季土壤蓄冷的两个主要影响因素进行了工况模拟分析,,在此基础上提出了冷却塔—土壤耦合热泵过渡季节土壤蓄冷的控制策略.本文力图通过上述研究探索出缓解夏热冬冷地区土壤源热泵系统全年热失衡问题、提高该系统运行效率的有效途径.

  9. The nuclear winter

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  10. Field study on indoor thermal comfort of shopping malls in hot summer and warm winter zone%夏热冬暖地区商场冬季室内热舒适研究

    李利文; 闫军威; 周璇; 冯家亮

    2015-01-01

    以广州某大型综合商场为研究对象,采用问卷调查和现场测试相结合的方式,对商场冬季室内热舒适性进行了调查研究,并对调查测试结果进行了统计回归分析。研究结果显示:商场冬季室内实测热中性温度为19.4℃,90%满意度热舒适温度范围为16.1~22.7℃;而根据 PMV 计算得到的室内热中性温度为16.8℃,90%满意度热舒适温度范围为13.3~20.4℃;PMV 模型预测的热感觉比现场问卷调查得到的平均热感觉MTS 要高,与实际感觉存在一定偏差。基于实测热舒适数据,进一步分析了室内热中性温度与室外空气温度的相关性,确立了商场冬季室内热中性温度与室外空气温度的近似线性关系,建立了商场冬季室内热舒适气候适应性模型。%Taking a large integrated shopping mall in Guangzhou as the research object,carries out the indoor thermal comfort research through the questionnaires and field measurement in winter.Conducts a statistical regression analysis on the survey data.The results show that the measured thermal neutral temperature of the mall in winter is 19.4 ℃,and the thermal comfort temperature which meets a satisfaction degree of 90% ranges from 16.1 ℃ to 22.7 ℃.Meanwhile,the indoor thermal neutral temperature calculated by PMV model is 16.8 ℃,and the thermal comfort temperature which meets a satisfaction degree of 90% ranges from 13.3 ℃ to 20.4 ℃.The thermal sensation predicted by the PMV model is much higher than the actual thermal feeling.Based on the survey data,analyses the correlation between the indoor thermal neutral temperature and outdoor air temperature, and establishes the approximate linear relationship between the mall's indoor thermal neutral temperature and outdoor air temperature.Sets up a winter thermal comfort climate adaptation model for the shopping mall.

  11. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  12. Environmental predictors of seasonal influenza epidemics across temperate and tropical climates.

    James D Tamerius

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza infections exhibit a strong seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low specific humidity conditions facilitate the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus in temperate regions, resulting in annual winter epidemics. However, this relationship is unlikely to account for the epidemiology of influenza in tropical and subtropical regions where epidemics often occur during the rainy season or transmit year-round without a well-defined season. We assessed the role of specific humidity and other local climatic variables on influenza virus seasonality by modeling epidemiological and climatic information from 78 study sites sampled globally. We substantiated that there are two types of environmental conditions associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: "cold-dry" and "humid-rainy". For sites where monthly average specific humidity or temperature decreases below thresholds of approximately 11-12 g/kg and 18-21°C during the year, influenza activity peaks during the cold-dry season (i.e., winter when specific humidity and temperature are at minimal levels. For sites where specific humidity and temperature do not decrease below these thresholds, seasonal influenza activity is more likely to peak in months when average precipitation totals are maximal and greater than 150 mm per month. These findings provide a simple climate-based model rooted in empirical data that accounts for the diversity of seasonal influenza patterns observed across temperate, subtropical and tropical climates.

  13. The interaction between freezing tolerance and phenology in temperate deciduous trees

    Yann eVitasse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperate climates are defined by a distinct temperature seasonality with large and often unpredictable weather during any of the four seasons. To thrive in such climates, trees have to withstand a cold winter and the stochastic occurrence of freeze events during any time of the year. The physiological mechanisms trees adopt to escape, avoid and tolerate freezing temperatures include a cold acclimation in autumn, a dormancy period during winter (leafless in deciduous trees, and the maintenance of a certain freezing tolerance during dehardening in early spring. The change from one phase to the next is mediated by complex interactions between temperature and photoperiod. This review aims at providing an overview of the interplay between phenology of leaves and species-specific freezing resistance. First, we address the long-term evolutionary responses that enabled temperate trees to tolerate certain low temperature extremes. We provide evidence that short term acclimation of freezing resistance plays a crucial role both in dormant and active buds, including re-acclimation to cold conditions following warm spells. This ability declines to almost zero during leaf emergence. Second, we show that the risk that native temperate trees encounter freeze injuries is low and is confined to spring and underline that this risk might be altered by climate warming depending on species-specific phenological responses to environmental cues.

  14. Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002

    Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak.

  15. Lytic to temperate switching of viral communities

    Knowles, B.; Silveira, C. B.; Bailey, B. A.; Barott, K.; Cantu, V. A.; Cobián-Güemes, A. G.; Coutinho, F. H.; Dinsdale, E. A.; Felts, B.; Furby, K. A.; George, E. E.; Green, K. T.; Gregoracci, G. B.; Haas, A. F.; Haggerty, J. M.; Hester, E. R.; Hisakawa, N.; Kelly, L. W.; Lim, Y. W.; Little, M.; Luque, A.; McDole-Somera, T.; McNair, K.; de Oliveira, L. S.; Quistad, S. D.; Robinett, N. L.; Sala, E.; Salamon, P.; Sanchez, S. E.; Sandin, S.; Silva, G. G. Z.; Smith, J.; Sullivan, C.; Thompson, C.; Vermeij, M. J. A.; Youle, M.; Young, C.; Zgliczynski, B.; Brainard, R.; Edwards, R. A.; Nulton, J.; Thompson, F.; Rohwer, F.

    2016-03-01

    Microbial viruses can control host abundances via density-dependent lytic predator–prey dynamics. Less clear is how temperate viruses, which coexist and replicate with their host, influence microbial communities. Here we show that virus-like particles are relatively less abundant at high host densities. This suggests suppressed lysis where established models predict lytic dynamics are favoured. Meta-analysis of published viral and microbial densities showed that this trend was widespread in diverse ecosystems ranging from soil to freshwater to human lungs. Experimental manipulations showed viral densities more consistent with temperate than lytic life cycles at increasing microbial abundance. An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes showed a relative increase in the abundance of hallmark genes encoded by temperate viruses with increased microbial abundance. Based on these four lines of evidence, we propose the Piggyback-the-Winner model wherein temperate dynamics become increasingly important in ecosystems with high microbial densities; thus ‘more microbes, fewer viruses’.

  16. Appropriate welding conditions of temper bead weld repair for SQV2A pressure vessel steel

    Temper bead welding technique is one of the most important repair welding methods for large structures for which it is difficult to perform the specified post weld heat treatment. In this study, appropriate temper bead welding conditions to improve the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) are studied using pressure vessel steel SQV2A corresponding to ASTM A533 Type B Class 1. Thermal/mechanical simulator is employed to give specimens welding thermal cycles from single to quadruple cycle. Charpy absorbed energy and hardness of simulated CGHAZ by first cycle were degraded as compared with base metal. Improvability of these degradations by subsequent cycles is discussed and appropriate temper bead thermal cycles are clarified. When the peak temperature lower than Ac1 and near Ac1 in the second thermal cycle is applied to CGAHZ by first thermal cycle, the characteristics of CGHAZ improve enough. When the other peak temperatures (that is, higher than Ac1) in the second thermal cycle are applied to the CGHAZ, third or more thermal cycle temper bead process should be applied to improve the properties. Appropriate weld condition ranges are selected based on the above results. The validity of the selected ranges is verified by the temper bead welding test. (orig.)

  17. Temperate climate - Innovative outputs nexus

    Coccia, M.

    2014-01-01

    Technological change is a vital human activity that interacts with geographic factors and environment. The purpose of the study here is to analyse the relationship between geo-climate zones of the globe and technological outputs in order to detect favourable areas that spur higher technological chan

  18. Deciduous Plant Twigs in Winter

    Clark, Eloise

    1977-01-01

    Describing, via illustration and narrative, the winter twigs found in the U.S., this article presents a sophisticated discussion of: beech, white ash, aspen, sycamore, red oak, butternut, and other winter twigs. (JC)

  19. Winter camelina in the Northern U.S. and the potential of its use in double-cropping

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) seed oil can serve as feedstock for advanced biofuels and may be produced more cheaply than traditional oilseeds such as soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. In cool, temperate climates such as that of the Corn Belt Region of the U.S., camelina can be grown as a winter or ...

  20. Climatic forcing of carbon-oxygen isotopic covariance in temperate-region marl lakes

    Drummond, C. N.; Patterson, W. P.; Walker, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen stable isotopic compositions of lacustrine carbonate from a southeastern Michigan marl lake display linear covariance over a range of 4.0% Peedee belemnite (PDB) in oxygen and 3.9% (PDB) in carbon. Mechanisms of delta 13 C-delta 18 O coupling conventionally attributed to lake closure in arid-region basins are inapplicable to hydrologically open lake systems. Thus, an alternative explanation of isotopic covariance in temperate region dimictic marl lakes is required. We propose that isotopic covariance is a direct record of change in regional climate. In short-residence-time temperate-region lake basins, summer meteoric precipitation is enriched in 18O relative to winter values, and summer organic productivity enriches epilimnic dissolved inorganic carbon in 13C. Thus, climate change toward longer summers and/or shorter winters could result in greater proportions of warm-month meteoric precipitation, longer durations of warm-month productivity, and net long-term enrichment in carbonate 18O and 13C. Isotopic covariance observed in the Michigan marl lake cores is interpreted to reflect postglacial warming from 10 to 3 ka followed by cooler mean annual temperature, a shift toward greater proportions of seasonal summer precipitation, a shortening of the winter season, or some combination of these three factors.

  1. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  2. FUELING INCUBATION : DIFFERENTIAL USE OF BODY STORES IN ARCTIC-AND TEMPERATE-BREEDING BARNACLE GEESE (BRANTA LEUCOPSIS)

    Eichhorn, Goetz; van der Jeugd, Henk P.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Drent, Rudolf H.; McWilliams, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the use of body stores in breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) in traditional Arctic colonies in the Barents Sea with that in recently established temperate-zone breeding colonies in the Baltic Sea and North Sea by studying female body-mass loss and use of fat and protein stores du

  3. Freshwater ecosystems in China——Temperate limnology in a tropical setting

    Stanley I.Dodson

    2008-01-01

    @@ Clean safe water is increasingly valuable everywhere.Everyone lives in a watershed and desires high quality water.However,many activities lower water quality by way of increased productivity and pollution.Traditional limnological knowledge has been successfully applied to improve temperate zone lakes and streams.Research in the tropics will develop strategies to reduce productivity and control toxic chemicals related to biomagnification and endocrine disruption.

  4. Postglacial evolution and spatial differentiation of seasonal temperate rainforest in western Canada

    Brown, K. J; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fitton, R. J.; Hebda, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Surface samples from Vancouver Island, Canada, were used to assess the relationship between discrete seasonal temperate rainforest (STR) plant communities and their corresponding pollen signatures. Pollen from ten sediment cores was further used to evaluate the postglacial development of these communities. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the surface data revealed the distinctiveness of the modern pollen rain, with samples from the Coastal Douglas Fir (CDF) zone, the dry Coastal Western...

  5. Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of tempered 9%Cr-1% Mo steel

    The influence of the subsurface hydrogen activity on the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of a tempered 9%Cr-1%Mo ferritic-martensitic steel (T91) has been studied by constant extension rate tests (CERT) performed under cathodic charging during straining at 20 degrees C. changes in the hydrogen activity on the surface were obtained by varying the cathodic current density imposed during a tensile test completed to fracture. The broken samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show a strong dependence of the extent of the brittle zone with the subsurface hydrogen activity. This effect could be attributed to an enhancement of the apparent diffusion coefficient of hydrogen when increasing H activity. Increasing H activity could enhance both the trapping rate on pre-existing and strain-induced traps and H dragging by moving traps such as dislocations. (authors)

  6. First Temperate Exoplanet Sized Up

    2010-03-01

    Combining observations from the CoRoT satellite and the ESO HARPS instrument, astronomers have discovered the first "normal" exoplanet that can be studied in great detail. Designated Corot-9b, the planet regularly passes in front of a star similar to the Sun located 1500 light-years away from Earth towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake). "This is a normal, temperate exoplanet just like dozens we already know, but this is the first whose properties we can study in depth," says Claire Moutou, who is part of the international team of 60 astronomers that made the discovery. "It is bound to become a Rosetta stone in exoplanet research." "Corot-9b is the first exoplanet that really does resemble planets in our solar system," adds lead author Hans Deeg. "It has the size of Jupiter and an orbit similar to that of Mercury." "Like our own giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, the planet is mostly made of hydrogen and helium," says team member Tristan Guillot, "and it may contain up to 20 Earth masses of other elements, including water and rock at high temperatures and pressures." Corot-9b passes in front of its host star every 95 days, as seen from Earth [1]. This "transit" lasts for about 8 hours, and provides astronomers with much additional information on the planet. This is fortunate as the gas giant shares many features with the majority of exoplanets discovered so far [2]. "Our analysis has provided more information on Corot-9b than for other exoplanets of the same type," says co-author Didier Queloz. "It may open up a new field of research to understand the atmospheres of moderate- and low-temperature planets, and in particular a completely new window in our understanding of low-temperature chemistry." More than 400 exoplanets have been discovered so far, 70 of them through the transit method. Corot-9b is special in that its distance from its host star is about ten times larger than that of any planet previously discovered by this method. And unlike all such

  7. Initiation of winter phytoplankton blooms within the Gironde plume waters in the Bay of Biscay

    Labry, Claire; Herbland, Alain; Delmas, Daniel; Laborde, P.; Lazure, Pascal; Froidefond, J; Jegou, Anne-marie; Sautour, B.

    2001-01-01

    Thermostratification and seasonal Light increase are generally considered the first causes of phytoplankton spring blooms in temperate waters. The objective of this study is to confirm the existence of winter phytoplankton blooms, responsible for the early exhaustion of phosphate, within the Gironde plume waters (southeast Bay of Biscay), and to understand what may initiate them so early. Two cruises, BIOMET 2 and BIOMET 3, were carried out respectively in early (8 to 21 January) and late win...

  8. Summable families in tempered distribution spaces

    Carfí, David

    2011-01-01

    In this note we define summable families in tempered distribution spaces and we state some their properties and characterizations. Summable families are the analogous of summable sequences in separable Hilbert spaces, but in tempered distribution spaces, having elements (functional) realizable as generalized vectors indexed by real Euclidean spaces (not pointwise defined ordered families of scalars indexed by real Euclidean spaces in the sense of distributions). Any family we introduce here is summable with respect to every tempered system of coefficients belonging to a certain normal space of distributions, in the sense of superpositions. The summable families we present in this note are one possible rigorous and simply manageable mathematical model for the infinite families of vector-states appearing in the formulation of the continuous version of the celebrated Principle of Superpositions in Quantum Mechanics.

  9. Bats Swarm Where They Hibernate: Compositional Similarity between Autumn Swarming and Winter Hibernation Assemblages at Five Underground Sites.

    van Schaik, Jaap; Janssen, René; Bosch, Thijs; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Dekker, Jasja J A; Kranstauber, Bart

    2015-01-01

    During autumn in the temperate zone of both the new and old world, bats of many species assemble at underground sites in a behaviour known as swarming. Autumn swarming behaviour is thought to primarily serve as a promiscuous mating system, but may also be related to the localization and assessment of hibernacula. Bats subsequently make use of the same underground sites during winter hibernation, however it is currently unknown if the assemblages that make use of a site are comparable across swarming and hibernation seasons. Our purpose was to characterize the bat assemblages found at five underground sites during both the swarming and the hibernation season and compare the assemblages found during the two seasons both across sites and within species. We found that the relative abundance of individual species per site, as well as the relative proportion of a species that makes use of each site, were both significantly correlated between the swarming and hibernation seasons. These results suggest that swarming may indeed play a role in the localization of suitable hibernation sites. Additionally, these findings have important conservation implications, as this correlation can be used to improve monitoring of underground sites and predict the importance of certain sites for rare and cryptic bat species. PMID:26153691

  10. Bats Swarm Where They Hibernate: Compositional Similarity between Autumn Swarming and Winter Hibernation Assemblages at Five Underground Sites.

    Jaap van Schaik

    Full Text Available During autumn in the temperate zone of both the new and old world, bats of many species assemble at underground sites in a behaviour known as swarming. Autumn swarming behaviour is thought to primarily serve as a promiscuous mating system, but may also be related to the localization and assessment of hibernacula. Bats subsequently make use of the same underground sites during winter hibernation, however it is currently unknown if the assemblages that make use of a site are comparable across swarming and hibernation seasons. Our purpose was to characterize the bat assemblages found at five underground sites during both the swarming and the hibernation season and compare the assemblages found during the two seasons both across sites and within species. We found that the relative abundance of individual species per site, as well as the relative proportion of a species that makes use of each site, were both significantly correlated between the swarming and hibernation seasons. These results suggest that swarming may indeed play a role in the localization of suitable hibernation sites. Additionally, these findings have important conservation implications, as this correlation can be used to improve monitoring of underground sites and predict the importance of certain sites for rare and cryptic bat species.

  11. Winter School Les Houches

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  12. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  13. Arithmetic Brownian motion subordinated by tempered stable and inverse tempered stable processes

    Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the subordinated processes have become popular and found many practical applications. Therefore in this paper we examine two processes related to time-changed (subordinated) classical Brownian motion with drift (called arithmetic Brownian motion). The first one, so called normal tempered stable, is related to the tempered stable subordinator, while the second one - to the inverse tempered stable process. We compare the main properties (such as probability density functions, Laplace transforms, ensemble averaged mean squared displacements) of such two subordinated processes and propose the parameters' estimation procedures. Moreover we calibrate the analyzed systems to real data related to indoor air quality.

  14. Winter mortality and its causes

    Keatinge, W R

    2002-01-01

    In the 1970s scientific research focussed for the first time on dramatic rises in mortality every winter, and on smaller rises in unusually hot weather. Following the recent decline in influenza epidemics, approximately half of excess winter deaths are due to coronary thrombosis. These peak about two days after the peak of a cold spell. Approximately half the remaining winter deaths are caused by respiratory disease, and these peak about 12 days after peak cold. The rapid coronary deaths are ...

  15. MARKETING WINTER VEGETABLES FROM MEXICO

    Calvin, Linda; Barrios, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    The North American winter-vegetable industry is highly integrated, with Mexican production supplying a large part of U.S. winter consumption needs. Imports from Mexico undergo a rigorous inspection procedure before entering the United States. In addition to Mexican firms, many U.S. firms are also involved in sourcing winter vegetables from Mexico. To compete well, both U.S. and Mexican firms must adapt to the changing market pressures, which reward firms that can source from many locations to...

  16. Tempered glass and thermal shock of ceramic materials

    Bunnell, L. Roy

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that shows students the different strengths and fracture toughnesses between tempered and untempered glass. This paper also describes how glass is tempered and the materials science aspects of the process.

  17. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  18. Winter fuels report

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  19. Winter fuels report

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  20. Winter weather scorecard

    Last fall's 3-month winter weather prediction by National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters was not terrific, but it was not too far off the mark, either. A comparison of the predicted temperatures and precipitation (Eos, December 25, 1984, p. 1241) to the observed conditions (see Figures 1 and 2) during the months of December, January, and February shows that the forecasters were generally correct where they were most confident in their predictions.According to Donald Gilman, chief of the Predictions Branch at NWS's National Climate Analysis Center, the overall temperature forecast was probably better than that for precipitation. “The temperature forecast was pretty good in the West,” said Gilman. “East of the Mississippi, however, was a mixed picture.”

  1. Dissolved organic matter uptake by temperate macrophytes

    Van Engeland, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Morris, E.P.; Brun, F.G.; Peralta, G.; Lara, M.; Hendriks, I.E.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Veuger, B.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems dominated by seagrasses often exhibit low inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Given the high productivity in these systems, recycling of nitrogen is expected to be high. We investigated the use of inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds by co-occuring primary producers in a temperate macr

  2. Evolution of cold-tolerant fungal symbionts permits winter fungiculture by leafcutter ants at the northern frontier of a tropical ant–fungus symbiosis

    Mueller, Ulrich G.; Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Hong, Eunki; Sen, Ruchira; Warren, Dan L.; Solomon, Scott E.; Ishak, Heather D.; Cooper, Mike; Miller, Jessica L.; Shaffer, Kimberly A.; Juenger, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The obligate mutualism between leafcutter ants and their Attamyces fungi originated 8 to 12 million years ago in the tropics, but extends today also into temperate regions in South and North America. The northernmost leafcutter ant Atta texana sustains fungiculture during winter temperatures that would harm the cold-sensitive Attamyces cultivars of tropical leafcutter ants. Cold-tolerance of Attamyces cultivars increases with winter harshness along a south-to-north temperature gradient across...

  3. Rotating arc horizontal narrow gap welding of high strength quenched and tempered steel

    Guo Ning; Yang Chunli; Han Yanfei; Jia Chuanbao; Du Yongpeng; Zhang Linlin

    2010-01-01

    Rotating arc horizontal narrow gap welding of quenched & tempered ( Q&T) steel was innovatively performed for solving the bottleneck that the molten pool sagged due to the gravity. The shapely multilayer single pass horizontal joint could be obtained by using the rotating arc welding process. The cold crack was not observed in the joint without controlling the heat input and selecting the consumables intentionally. Mkrostructure of the joint could be divided into three zones:base metal zone ( BMZ) , heat-affected zone (HAZ) and weld zone ( WZ). Because of the characteristic of the rotating arc horizontal welding process, the defects in the joints were slag inclusion formed at the inUrlayer of lower side wall. The tensile strength and hardness of HAZ and WZ were larger than those of BMZ. The impact toughness in WZ, HAZ and BM at 0℃ is equal to 115, 212 and 236 J, respectively.

  4. The effects of tempering reactions on temper embrittlement of alloy steels

    Qu, Z.; McMahon, C. J.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of tempering reactions which produce molybdenum-rich carbides on the temper embrittlement of NiCrMo, NiCrMoV, CrMo, and CrMoV steels, particularly embrittlement due to phosphorus segregation, are reviewed. Molybdenum can act as an effective scavenger for phosphorus and other embrittling impurities, but the scavenging is lost when the molybdenum is precipitated in carbides as a result of continued tempering during service at elevated temperatures. This leads to very slow embrittlement, controlled by the rates of alloy carbide formation, rather than by the diffusion of phosphorus, for example. The presence of vanadium apparently retards the embrittlement process even more by interfering with the formation of the molybdenum-rich carbides. Observations of the temper embrittlement behavior, and of the effects of service exposure, in three CrMoV steam turbine rotors are also reported and are shown to be consistent with the previous results.

  5. Winter ecology of the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala in Pangchen Valley, western Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India.

    Mendiratta, Uttara; Kumar, Ajith; Mishra, Charudutt; Sinha, Anindya

    2009-11-01

    The newly described Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala occurs largely in sub-tropical to temperate environments at elevations of c. 1,800-3,000 m in Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. We studied its over-wintering strategy by comparing the diet, ranging, and behavior of a troop of 24 individuals during winter and spring (December 2005 to May 2006) through instantaneous scan sampling (3,002 records, 448 scans, 112 hr of observation). We also monitored the phenology of food plants. The macaques spent more time (41-66%) feeding in the winter than in spring (33-51%), whereas time spent moving and resting was greater in spring. The diet composed largely of plants, with animal matter being eaten rarely. The number of plant species in the diet increased from 18 to 25 whereas food types rose from 18 to 36 from winter to spring, respectively. Although only two species formed 75% of the winter diet, seven species comprised this proportion in spring. Availability of fruits and young leaves increased in spring; the troop moved more and utilized a larger part of its range during this time. Seasonal changes in behavior could be explained by the scarcity of food and the costs of thermoregulation in winter. Our study suggests that the Arunachal macaque inhabits a highly seasonal environment and has an over-wintering strategy that includes subsisting on a high-fiber diet by increasing the time spent feeding, and minimizing energy expenditure by reducing the time spent moving. PMID:19655365

  6. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. PMID:24239817

  7. Winter fuels report

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  8. Winter fuels report

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  9. "Winter is coming"

    Kostov, Veselin; Hartman, Nikolaus; Guzewich, Scott; Rogers, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Those that do not sow care little about such mundane things as equinoxes or planting seasons, or even crop rotation for that matter. Wherever and whenever the reavers reave, the mood is always foul and the nights are never warm or pleasant. For the rest of the good folks of Westeros, however, a decent grasp of the long-term weather forecast is a necessity. Many a maester have tried to play the Game of Weather Patterns and foretell when to plant those last turnip seeds, hoping for a few more years of balmy respite. Tried and failed. For other than the somewhat vague (if not outright meaningless) omens of "Winter is Coming", their meteorological efforts have been worse than useless. To right that appalling wrong, here we attempt to explain the apparently erratic seasonal changes in the world of G.R.R.M. A natural explanation for such phenomena is the unique behavior of a circumbinary planet. Thus, by speculating that the planet under scrutiny is orbiting a pair of stars, we utilize the power of numerical three-...

  10. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  11. Marine Biodiversity in Temperate Western Australia: Multi-Taxon Surveys of Minden and Roe Reefs

    Zoe Richards

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that temperate marine ecosystems are being tropicalised due to the poleward extension of tropical species. Such climate mediated changes in species distribution patterns have the potential to profoundly alter temperate communities, as this advance can serve to push temperate taxa, many of which are southern Australian endemics, southward. These changes can lead to cascading effects for the biodiversity and function of coastal ecosystems, including contraction of ranges/habitats of sensitive cool water species. Hence there is growing concern for the future of Australia’s temperate marine biodiversity. Here we examine the diversity and abundance of marine flora and fauna at two reefs near Perth’s metropolitan area—Minden Reef and Roe Reef. We report the presence of 427 species of marine flora and fauna from eight taxon groups occurring in the Perth metropolitan area; at least three species of which appear to be new to science. Our data also extends the known range of 15 species, and in numerous instances, thousands of kilometres south from the Kimberley or Pilbara and verifies that tropicalisation of reef communities in the Perth metropolitan area is occurring. We report the presence of 24 species endemic to south-west Australia that may be at risk of range contractions with continued ocean warming. The results of these surveys add to our knowledge of local nearshore marine environments in the Perth metropolitan area and support the growing body of evidence that indicates a diverse and regionally significant marine fauna occurs in temperate Western Australia. Regular, repeated survey work across seasons is important in order to thoroughly document the status of marine biodiversity in this significant transition zone.

  12. 基于风险区划的农业干旱保险费率厘定--以河北省冬麦区为例%Agricultural Drought Premium Ratemaking Based on Risk Zoning for Winter Wheat Region in Hebei Province

    吴荣军; 史继清; 关福来; 姚树然

    2013-01-01

    提近年来,在气候变化和极端天气气候事件频发的背景下,干旱等农业气象灾害的频发已对我国尤其是河北省的粮食生产和农业发展的可持续性带来了严重威胁。选择或构建合适的农业干旱灾害风险指标开展干旱风险区划,并在此基础上进行灾害的保险费率厘定对于丰富农业保险模式,促进农业保险经营的稳定和发展具有重要的应用价值。本文基于作物水分亏缺率指数、降水距平百分率指数和抗旱指数等指标,构建干旱综合风险指数并开展风险区划研究;利用修正后的纯保险费率,得到适用于本研究区的保险费率厘定模型,探寻一种能较全面改善目前农业保险经营弊端的保险模式,从而实现冬小麦农业保险的持续健康发展。%In recent years,in the context of climate change and extreme climate events,drought agro-mete-orological disasters which occur frequently has taken a serious threat for our food production and agricul-tural sustainable development.Selecting or building suitable agricultural drought disaster risk indicators for drought risk zoning,and on this basis,determining premium rates is very valuable in enriching agricul-tural insurance model and promoting the stability and development of the agricultural insurance business. Based on the natural water deficit rate index,precipitation anomalies of the percentage rate and drought in-dex,this paper builds drought comprehensive risk index,and carries out drought risk zoning study.Then, using the revised premium rate,the premium ratemaking model applicable to the study area is worked out so as to search for a more comprehensive improvement of the current agricultural insurance business insur-ance model,and achieve the sustainable and healthy development of the winter wheat agricultural insur-ance.

  13. The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates.

    Siri eFjellheim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, which includes important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons, so that flowering and seed production coincide with favourable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can adapt cereals or grasses to different climates and geographical regions. The possible evolutionary origins of the seasonal flowering responses of the Pooideae are discussed and key questions for future research highlighted. These include the need to develop a better understanding of the molecular basis for seasonal flowering in perennial Pooideae and in temperate grasses outside the core Pooideae group.

  14. Schwartz families in tempered distribution spaces

    Carfí, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we define Schwartz families in tempered distribution spaces and prove many their properties. Schwartz families are the analogous of infinite dimensional matrices of separable Hilbert spaces, but for the Schwartz test function spaces, having elements (functions) realizable as vectors indexed by real Euclidean spaces (ordered families of scalars indexed by real Euclidean spaces). In the paper, indeed, one of the consequences of the principal result (the characterization of summability for Schwartz families) is that the space of linear continuous operators among Schwartz test function spaces is linearly isomorphic with the space of Schwartz families. It should be noticed that this theorem is possible because of the very good properties of Schwartz test function spaces and because of the particular structures of the Schwartz families viewed as generalized matrices; in fact, any family of tempered distribution, regarded as generalized matrix, has one index belonging to a Euclidean space and one belon...

  15. Lightweight dividing walls : adaptation to temperate climates

    Mendonça, Paulo, ed. lit.; Macieira, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    This paper intends to prove that it is possible to use lightweight membranes on interior partition walls and on external façades, even in housing buildings at temperate climate regions, if their properties are well explored. The few material used, even less than conventional lightweight solutions - the most common is plasterboard with light steel frame structure - allow a lower specific embodied energy and other more favourable environmental impact indicators. Compared to conventional heavywe...

  16. Phosphorous dynamics in a temperate intertidal estuary

    Lillebø, A. I.; Neto, J. M.; Flindt, M. R.; Marques, J C; Pardal, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Conservation and management of aquatic systems require detailed information of the processes that affect their functioning and development. The objectives of the present work were to describe the phosphorus dynamics during a complete tidal cycle and to quantify the relative contribution of the most common estuarine areas (e.g. seagrass beds, salt marshes, mud- and sand-flats without vegetation) to phosphorus net internal loading in a temperate intertidal estuary.

  17. Feedback-optimized parallel tempering Monte Carlo

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Trebst, Simon; Huse, David A.; Troyer, Matthias

    2006-03-01

    We introduce an algorithm for systematically improving the efficiency of parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations by optimizing the simulated temperature set. Our approach is closely related to a recently introduced adaptive algorithm that optimizes the simulated statistical ensemble in generalized broad-histogram Monte Carlo simulations. Conventionally, a temperature set is chosen in such a way that the acceptance rates for replica swaps between adjacent temperatures are independent of the temperature and large enough to ensure frequent swaps. In this paper, we show that by choosing the temperatures with a modified version of the optimized ensemble feedback method we can minimize the round-trip times between the lowest and highest temperatures which effectively increases the efficiency of the parallel tempering algorithm. In particular, the density of temperatures in the optimized temperature set increases at the 'bottlenecks' of the simulation, such as phase transitions. In turn, the acceptance rates are now temperature dependent in the optimized temperature ensemble. We illustrate the feedback-optimized parallel tempering algorithm by studying the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet and the two-dimensional fully frustrated Ising model, and briefly discuss possible feedback schemes for systems that require configurational averages, such as spin glasses.

  18. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  19. Reproductive arrest and stress resistance in winter-acclimated Drosophila suzukii.

    Toxopeus, Jantina; Jakobs, Ruth; Ferguson, Laura V; Gariepy, Tara D; Sinclair, Brent J

    2016-06-01

    Overwintering insects must survive the multiple-stress environment of winter, which includes low temperatures, reduced food and water availability, and cold-active pathogens. Many insects overwinter in diapause, a developmental arrest associated with high stress tolerance. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is an invasive agricultural pest worldwide. Its ability to overwinter and therefore establish in temperate regions could have severe implications for fruit crop industries. We demonstrate here that laboratory populations of Canadian D. suzukii larvae reared under short-day, low temperature, conditions develop into dark 'winter morph' adults similar to those reported globally from field captures, and observed by us in southern Ontario, Canada. These winter-acclimated adults have delayed reproductive maturity, enhanced cold tolerance, and can remain active at low temperatures, although they do not have the increased desiccation tolerance or survival of fungal pathogen challenges that might be expected from a more heavily melanised cuticle. Winter-acclimated female D. suzukii have underdeveloped ovaries and altered transcript levels of several genes associated with reproduction and stress. While superficially indicative of reproductive diapause, the delayed reproductive maturity of winter-acclimated D. suzukii appears to be temperature-dependent, not regulated by photoperiod, and is thus unlikely to be 'true' diapause. The traits of this 'winter morph', however, likely facilitate overwintering in southern Canada, and have probably contributed to the global success of this fly as an invasive species. PMID:27039032

  20. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold

    ... Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Snowstorms & Extreme Cold This page explains what actions to take when ... snowstorm or extreme cold. Before Snowstorms and Extreme Cold To prepare for a winter storm you should ...

  1. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  2. Winter waterfowl survey, southeastern Alaska

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known of the total numbers of wintering waterfowl within the north pacific coastal region. The random stratified plot sampling methods used in 1980, as...

  3. A Warm and Cleaner Winter

    2010-01-01

    Beijing municipal and district governments have taken measures to keep residents warm and the winter sky blue In a bungalow in Xisi North Fifth Alley in the Xicheng District of Beijing,Li has lived for nearly seven decades.

  4. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  5. Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes located above the tree line attenuate UV-A radiation more strongly than typical temperate alpine lakes

    Aguilera, X.; Lazzaro, Xavier; Coronel, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical high-altitude Andean lakes are physically harsh ecosystems. Located above the treeline (>= 4000 m a.s.l.), they share common features with temperate alpine lakes, which impose extreme conditions on their aquatic organisms: e. g., strong winds, broad diel variations in water temperature, and intense solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, because of their latitude, they differ in two major ecological characteristics: they lack ice cover during the winter and they do not present su...

  6. Timing of eclosion affects diapause development, fat body consumption and longevity in Osmia lignaria, a univoltine, adult-wintering solitary bee.

    Bosch, Jordi; Sgolastra, Fabio; Kemp, William P

    2010-12-01

    Most insects from temperate areas enter diapause ahead of winter. Species diapausing in a feeding stage and accumulating metabolic reserves during permissive pre-wintering conditions are expected to enter diapause shortly before the onset of winter. In contrast, species diapausing in a non-feeding stage are expected to lower their metabolism as soon as possible to avoid excessive consumption of metabolic reserves. The solitary bee Osmia lignaria winters as a non-feeding adult within its cocoon, but previous studies show important weight losses and increased winter mortality in populations pre-wintered for extended periods. We measured respiration rates to assess diapause initiation and maintenance during pre-wintering, and tested whether timing of adult eclosion affected fitness by measuring fat body depletion, winter mortality and post-winter longevity. We worked with different cohorts of a population reared under natural conditions, and manipulated pre-wintering duration in a population reared under artificial conditions. In agreement with our expectation, O. lignaria lower their metabolic rates within a few days of adult eclosion, but nonetheless suffer strong weight loss during pre-wintering. Early developing individuals suffer greater weight loss and fat body depletion, and have short post-winter longevity. Although, we found no differences in winter mortality among treatments, our results indicate that increased mortality may occur in years with late winter arrivals. We discuss fundamental ecophysiological differences between adult and prepupal diapause within the Megachilidae, and hypothesize that species wintering as adults will be more negatively affected by a situation of extended summers under a scenario of global warming. PMID:20816851

  7. Ecological Causes and Consequences of Intratropical Migration in Temperate-Breeding Migratory Birds.

    Stutchbury, Bridget J M; Siddiqui, Raafia; Applegate, Kelly; Hvenegaard, Glen T; Mammenga, Paul; Mickle, Nanette; Pearman, Myrna; Ray, James D; Savage, Anne; Shaheen, Tim; Fraser, Kevin C

    2016-09-01

    New discoveries from direct tracking of temperate-breeding passerines show that intratropical migration (ITM) occurs in a growing number of species, which has important implications for understanding their evolution of migration, population dynamics, and conservation needs. Our large sample size ([Formula: see text]) for purple martins (Progne subis subis) tracked with geolocators to winter sites in Brazil, combined with geolocator deployments at breeding colonies across North America, allowed us to test hypotheses for ITM, something which has not yet been possible to do for other species. ITM in purple martins was not obligate; only 44% of individuals exhibited ITM, and movements were not coordinated in time or space. We found no evidence to support the resource hypothesis; rainfall and temperature experienced by individual birds during their last 2 weeks at their first roost site were similar to conditions at their second roost site after ITM. Birds generally migrated away from the heavily forested northwestern Amazon to less forested regions to the south and east. ITM in this aerial insectivore appears to support the competition-avoidance hypothesis and may be triggered by increasing local density in the core wintering region. Full life cycle models and migratory networks will need to incorporate ITM to properly address seasonal carryover effects and identify which wintering regions are most important for conservation. PMID:27513909

  8. Seasonal determinations of algal virus decay rates reveal overwintering in a temperate freshwater pond.

    Long, Andrew M; Short, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    To address questions about algal virus persistence (i.e., continued existence) in the environment, rates of decay of infectivity for two viruses that infect Chlorella-like algae, ATCV-1 and CVM-1, and a virus that infects the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina parva, CpV-BQ1, were estimated from in situ incubations in a temperate, seasonally frozen pond. A series of experiments were conducted to estimate rates of decay of infectivity in all four seasons with incubations lasting 21 days in spring, summer and autumn, and 126 days in winter. Decay rates observed across this study were relatively low compared with previous estimates obtained for other algal viruses, and ranged from 0.012 to 11% h(-1). Overall, the virus CpV-BQ1 decayed most rapidly whereas ATCV-1 decayed most slowly, but for all viruses the highest decay rates were observed during the summer and the lowest were observed during the winter. Furthermore, the winter incubations revealed the ability of each virus to overwinter under ice as ATCV-1, CVM-1 and CpV-BQ1 retained up to 48%, 19% and 9% of their infectivity after 126 days, respectively. The observed resilience of algal viruses in a seasonally frozen freshwater pond provides a mechanism that can support the maintenance of viral seed banks in nature. However, the high rates of decay observed in the summer demonstrate that virus survival and therefore environmental persistence can be subject to seasonal bottlenecks. PMID:26943625

  9. Physiological basis of seasonal trend in leaf photosynthesis of five evergreen broad-leaved species in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro

    2006-02-01

    The physiological basis of photosynthesis during winter was investigated in saplings of five evergreen broad-leaved species (Camellia japonica L., Cleyera japonica Thunb., Photinia glabra (Thunb.) Maxim., Castanopsis cuspidata (Thunb.) Schottky and Quercus glauca Thunb.) co-occurring under deciduous canopy trees in a temperate forest. We focused on temperature dependence of photosynthetic rate and capacity as important physiological parameters that determine light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis at low temperatures during winter. Under controlled temperature conditions, maximum rates of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylation and electron transport (Vcmax) and Jmax, respectively) increased exponentially with increasing leaf temperature. The temperature dependence of photosynthetic rate did not differ among species. In the field, photosynthetic capacity, determined as Vcmax and Jmax at a common temperature of 25 degrees C (Vcmax(25) and Jmax(25)), increased until autumn and then decreased in species-specific patterns. Values of Vcmax(25) and Jmax(25) differed among species during winter. There was a positive correlation of Vcmax(25) with area-based nitrogen concentration among leaves during winter in Camellia and Photinia. Interspecific differences in Vcmax(25) were responsible for interspecific differences in light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis during winter. PMID:16356922

  10. The macroalgal carbonate factory at a cool-to-warm temperate marine transition, Southern Australia

    James, Noel P.; Reid, Catherine M.; Bone, Yvonne; Levings, Andrew; Malcolm, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    The shallow neritic seafloor to depths of ~ 30 m along the coast of southwestern Victoria Australia, is the site of rocky reefs on volcanic and aeolianite bathymetric highs. The region, located near the warm- to cool-temperate environmental transition, is a site of prolific macroalgae (kelp) growth. Kelps are most prolific and diverse in high-energy, open-ocean environments whereas broad-leafed seagrasses, at their cold-water eastern limit, are restricted to local protected embayments. The seagrasses are reduced to one species of Amphibolis whereas the kelps are diverse and include the large intertidal bull kelp (Durvillaea), not present in warmer waters. The macroalgal forest extends from the intertidal to ~ 30 mwd (metres water depth) as a series of distinct biomes; 1) the Peritidal, 2) the Phaeophyte Forest (0-17 mwd), 3) the Rhodophyte Thicket (17-15 mwd), and 4) the Invertebrate Coppice (> 25 mwd). The Phaeophyte Forest is partitioned into a Durvillaea zone (0-2 mwd), a Phyllospora zone (2-10 mwd) and an Ecklonia zone (10-17mwd). The two major habitats within each biome comprise 1) an upward facing illuminated surface that supports a macroalgal canopy over an understorey of coralline algae and herbivorous gastropods, and 2) a separate, cryptic, shaded habitat dominated by a diverse community of filter-feeding invertebrates. These communities produce two different sediments; 1) geniculate and encrusting corallines and diverse gastropods from the upper surface, and 2) bryozoans, molluscs, barnacles, chitons, serpulids, and benthic foraminifers from the shaded, cryptic habitats. These particles are blended together with the latter becoming proportionally more abundant with increasing depth. Results of this study, when integrated with recent investigations in warm-temperate (South Australia) and cool-temperate (New Zealand) environments now define carbonate sedimentology of the macroalgal reef depositional system in this part of the northern Southern Ocean.

  11. Postponed reproduction as an adaptation to winter conditions in Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for clinal variation under semi-natural conditions.

    Mitrovski, P.; Hoffmann, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Patterns of climatic adaptation in drosophila and other insects have largely been inferred from laboratory comparisons of traits that vary clinally. Here, we extend this research to comparisons under semi-natural conditions. To test for clinal variation in reproductive patterns and survival over winter, Drosophila melanogaster populations were initiated from seven collection sites along the eastern coast of Australia, ranging from tropical to temperate regions. The fecundity and survival of t...

  12. Development of temper bead welding by under water laser welding

    Toshiba has developed temper bead welding by under water laser welding as SCC counter measure for aged components in PWR and BWR nuclear power plants. Temper bead welding by under water laser welding technique recovers toughness of low alloy steel reactor vessel by employing proper the number of cladding layers and their welding conditions. In this report, some evaluation results of material characteristics of temper bead welded low alloy steel are presented. (author)

  13. Enhanced Sampling in the Well-Tempered Ensemble

    Bonomi, M.; Parrinello, M

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the well-tempered ensemble (WTE) which is the biased ensemble sampled by well-tempered metadynamics when the energy is used as collective variable. WTE can be designed so as to have approximately the same average energy as the canonical ensemble but much larger fluctuations. These two properties lead to an extremely fast exploration of phase space. An even greater efficiency is obtained when WTE is combined with parallel tempering. Unbiased Boltzmann averages are computed on the ...

  14. Heading for Next Winter Haven

    2007-01-01

    Approaching its 47th month of a Mars surface mission originally planned to last three months, NASA's Spirit rover was also approaching the northern edge of a low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The rover's operators selected an area with north-facing slope there as a destination where Spirit would have its best chance of surviving low-solar-energy conditions of oncoming Martian winter. The yellow line on this map of the Home Plate area indicates Spirit's route from early February 2006, entering the mapped area from the north (top), to late November 2007, on the western edge of the bright-toned Home Plate plateau. The map covers an area about 160 meters (525 feet) across from west to east. Labels indicate the area intended for Spirit to spend many months spanning the rover's third Martian winter, the site where it spent about seven months (April to November 2006) spanning its second winter, and the site where it lost use of the drive motor for one of its six wheels. A north-facing slope helps Spirit maximizes electric output from its solar panels during winter months because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, so the sun appears only in the northern sky during winter. For the third winter, which will reach its minimum solar-energy days in early June 2008, Spirit faces the challenge of having more dust on its solar panels than it had during its second winter. The base image for this map is a portion of a color image taken on Jan. 9, 2007, by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  15. Why bacteria are smaller in the epilimnion than in the hypolimnion? A hypothesis comparing temperate and tropical lakes

    Roberto Bertoni; Cristiana Callieri; J. Salvador Hernandez-Aviles; Miroslav Macek

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial size and morphology are controlled by several factors including predation, viral lysis, UV radiation, and inorganic nutrients. We observed that bacterial biovolume from the hypolimnion of two oligotrophic lakes is larger than that of bacteria living in the layer from surface to 20 m, roughly corresponding to the euphotic/epilimnetic zone. One lake is located in the temperate region at low altitude (Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy) and the other in the tropical region at high altitude ...

  16. Control of weldability : Research leading to the development of two new quenched and tempered tool steels

    Hansson, Per

    2004-01-01

    The understanding of the hardenability is important in steel development with respect to weldability of steels as well as to the design of quenched and tempered steels.The common way to judge if steel is suitability to welding is the use of a carbon equivalent, which reflects the alloy content to the hardenability of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Most common of these equivalent is the IIW carbon equivalent wich has been in use for decades. However, this is an empirical equivalent, developed f...

  17. Biodiversity of Chironomidae at the North Temperate Lakes LTER Site

    Berg, M. B.; Olson, S.; Hayford, B.; Gresens, S. E.; Kennedy, J.; Bouchard, R. W.; Ferrington, L. C.

    2005-05-01

    The National Science Foundation has established a network of Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites to enhance research at large spatial scales, extended temporal scales, and to facilitate intersite comparisons of system structure and processes. Present knowledge of Chironomidae community structure at LTER sites is insufficient to accomplish these goals. Our project objectives are to determine species composition of Chironomidae in a wide variety of aquatic habitats at LTERs, describe all undescribed species/life stage associations, determine the temporal seasonality of emergence and develop a data base of species by habitat and emergence times. Our methods include light trapping and sweep netting for adults, dip-netting and hand-picking wood/aquatic vegetation for larvae, collecting surface-floating pupal exuviae, and rearing to associate life stages. Our initial focus on the North Temperate Lakes LTER in Wisconsin and has documented 80 genera (representing > 125 species, including 18 undescribed species and/or unknown life stages) from 11 lakes, 5 streams and 2 bogs. Taxa include species with larvae that are: epiphytic, endophytic, xylophagic, phoretic on mollusks or other aquatic insects, specialized to feed on freshwater sponges, predators of black fly pupae, and those occurring in hyporheic zones, marginal semi-aquatic habitats or terrestrial soils.

  18. Tempered Fractional Feynman-Kac Equation

    Wu, Xiaochao; Barkai, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Functionals of Brownian/non-Brownian motions have diverse applications and attracted a lot of interest of scientists. This paper focuses on deriving the forward and backward fractional Feynman-Kac equations describing the distribution of the functionals of the space and time tempered anomalous diffusion, belonging to the continuous time random walk class. Several examples of the functionals are explicitly treated, including the occupation time in half-space, the first passage time, the maximal displacement, the fluctuations of the occupation fraction, and the fluctuations of the time-averaged position.

  19. Robust Parameter Selection for Parallel Tempering

    Hamze, Firas; Dickson, Neil; Karimi, Kamran

    This paper describes an algorithm for selecting parameter values (e.g. temperature values) at which to measure equilibrium properties with Parallel Tempering Monte Carlo simulation. Simple approaches to choosing parameter values can lead to poor equilibration of the simulation, especially for Ising spin systems that undergo first-order phase transitions. However, starting from an initial set of parameter values, the careful, iterative respacing of these values based on results with the previous set of values greatly improves equilibration. Example spin systems presented here appear in the context of Quantum Monte Carlo.

  20. Gas Enclosures in a Temperate Glacier

    Coachman, L. K.; Hemmingsen, E.; Scholander, P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Techniques are described for separating gas from glacier ice and analyzing for oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. A systematic survey of a temperate glacier for enclosed gas showed 1) no general loss of gas from the glacier, but a specific loss of oxygen from the gas from the upper to the lower part of the glacier, and 2) the gas pressure and ice density increased from the upper to the lower part of the glacier. Present evidence indicates that a chemical reduction is responsible for the ox...

  1. Myxomycetes associated with pipevine, a temperate liana

    Coelho IL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinevine (Aristolochia macrophylla Lam., a climbing woody vine native to temperate forests of eastern North America, is morphologically similar to many of the lianas characteristic of moist tropical forests. In August 2010, samples of dead pinevine collected from a study site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park were used to prepare a series of 50 moist chamber cultures. Thirty-seven of the 50 cultures (74% yielded evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies of myxomycetes. Fourteen species representing seven genera were recorded, with members of the Trichiales (41% of all records and Physarales (49% of all records the most abundant.

  2. Winter soil CO2 efflux in two contrasting forest ecosystems on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    Zhenfeng Xu; Feifei Zhou; Huajun Yin; Qing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Significant CO2 fluxes from snow-covered soils occur in cold biomes. However, little is known about winter soil respiration on the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China. We therefore measured winter soil CO2 fluxes and estimated annual soil respiration in two contrasting coniferous forest ecosystems (a Picea asperata plantation and a natural forest). Mean winter soil CO2 effluxes were 1.08 lmol m-2 s-1 in the plantation and 1.16 lmol m-2 s-1 in the natural forest. These values are higher than most reported winter soil CO2 efflux values for temperate or boreal forest ecosystems. Winter soil respiration rates were similar for our two forest ecosystems but mean soil CO2 efflux over the growing season was higher in the natural forest than in the plantation. The estimated winter and annual soil effluxes for the natural forest were 176.3 and 1070.3 g m-2, respectively, based on the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, which were 17.2 and 9.7 % greater than their counterparts in the plantation. The contributions of winter soil respiration to annual soil efflux were 15.4 % for the plantation and 16.5 % for the natural forest and were statistically similar. Our results indicate that winter soil CO2 efflux from frozen soils in the alpine coniferous forest ecosystems of the eastern Tibetan Plateau was considerable and was an important component of annual soil respiration. Moreover, reforestation (natural coniferous forests were deforested and reforested with P. asperata plantation) may reduce soil respiration by reducing soil carbon substrate availability and input.

  3. Effects of initial temperature and tempering medium on thermal tempering of dental porcelains.

    Hojjatie, B; Anusavice, K J

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that quenching of porcelain in silicone oil rather than in compressed air will significantly increase the flexure strength by reducing the potential for crack formation during transient cooling. A secondary hypothesis to be tested is that the initial tempering temperature can be reduced significantly below the porcelain maturing temperature of 982 degrees C but well above Tg without a decrease in strength. Opaque-body porcelain disks, 16 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness, with a thermal contraction mismatch (delta alpha) of -1.5, 0, and +3.2 ppm/degrees C were tempered from initial temperatures of 650, 750, 850, and 982 degrees C in silicone oil with kinematic viscosities of 50, 1000, and 5000 centistokes. Porcelain disks were also subjected to three cooling procedures in air: slow cooling in a furnace (SC), free convective cooling in a laboratory bench (FC), and tempering (T) by blasting the surface of body porcelain with air. The crack size induced by a Vickers microhardness indenter was measured within one minute after crack development. For determination of the influence of initial cooling temperature on biaxial flexure strength, six body porcelain disks (delta alpha = 0) were tempered in air from initial temperatures of 650, 750, 850, and 982 degrees C. The mean crack size of specimens tempered in oil was significantly smaller (p < or = 0.001) than that of specimens that were slowly-cooled or fast-cooled in air for all thermal contraction mismatch cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8450115

  4. Solar energy reflector for steel tempering

    Solar energy is a vital source of energy. It attracted the attention of many nations. In fact two aspects promote the use of solar energy specially for the low temperature heat treatment of metal: 1- Environmental protection. 2- Economical issue. The search for the implementation of solar energy as a source remains a key issue in widening the scope of solar energy application and use in industry. This paper is an attempt to explore the feasibility and efficiency of using solar reflector in the tempering treatment of steel. A solar reflector in constructed, basically by a rolled steel plate with glass mirror strips glued to the rolled steel plate. A heating chamber is constructed at the focal site of the parabola in which small steel specimens were placed and then under the effect of solar sun shine the temperature of the specimens raise and for a period of time they were subjected to tempering. The temperature in the chamber was monitored and it was found that it reaches 110 degree centigrade in the months July and August just past middy 12:35.(Author)

  5. Seasonal in situ observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the temperate oceans of the Southern Hemisphere

    S. J. Lawson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal have been measured with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH cartridges and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, optimised for dicarbonyl detection, in clean marine air over the temperate Southern Hemisphere (SH oceans. Measurements of a range of dicarbonyl precursors (volatile organic compounds, VOCs were made in parallel. These are the first in situ measurements of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the remote temperate oceans. Six 24 h samples were collected in late summer (February–March over the Chatham Rise in the South West Pacific Ocean during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP voyage in 2012, while 34 24 h samples were collected at Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in late winter (August–September 2011. Average glyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 7 ppt at Cape Grim, and 24 ppt over Chatham Rise. Average methylglyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 28 ppt at Cape Grim and 12 ppt over Chatham Rise. The mixing ratios of glyoxal at Cape Grim are the lowest observed over the remote oceans, while mixing ratios over Chatham Rise are in good agreement with other temperate and tropical observations, including concurrent MAX-DOAS observations. Methylglyoxal mixing ratios at both sites are comparable to the only other marine methylglyoxal observations available over the tropical Northern Hemisphere (NH ocean. Ratios of glyoxal : methylglyoxal > 1 over Chatham Rise but 14 molecules cm−2 at both sites. This discrepancy may be due to the incorrect assumption that all glyoxal observed by satellite is within the boundary layer, or may be due to challenges retrieving low VCDs of glyoxal over the oceans due to interferences by liquid water absorption, or use of an inappropriate normalisation reference value in the retrieval algorithm. This study provides much needed data to verify the presence of these short lived gases over the remote ocean and provide further evidence of

  6. Influence of climate change on the flowering of temperate fruit trees

    Perez-Lopez, D.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Sánchez-Sánchez, E.; Centeno, A.; Prieto-Egido, I.; Lopez-de-la-Franca, N.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that winter chilling is necessary for the flowering of temperate trees. The chilling requirement is a criterion for choosing a species or variety at a given location. Also chemistry products can be used for reducing the chilling-hours needs but make our production more expensive. This study first analysed the observed values of chilling hours for some representative agricultural locations in Spain for the last three decades and their projected changes under climate change scenarios. Usually the chilling is measured and calculated as chilling-hours, and different methods have been used to calculate them (e.g. Richarson et al., 1974 among others) according to the species considered. For our objective North Carolina method (Shaltout and Unrath, 1983) was applied for apples, Utah method (Richardson et al. 1974) for peach and grapevine and the approach used by De Melo-Abreu et al. (2004) for olive trees. The influence of climate change in temperate trees was studied by calculating projections of chilling-hours with climate data from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) at high resolution (25 km) from the European Project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). These projections will allow for analysing the modelled variations of chill-hours between 2nd half of 20C and 1st half of 21C at the study locations.

  7. On the transgranular type of tempered martensite embrittlement

    Martensitic alloy steels are subject to tempering because of their low toughness in the as-quenched state. When tempered in the range of 250--400 C, however, the toughness drops in spite of the decrease in strength with increasing the tempering temperature. This phenomenon is referred to as tempered martensite embrittlement (TME). TME can be classified into two types according to the fracture mode; intergranular and transgranular TME. The transgranular type was suggested to be caused by the formation of coarse carbides at the lath boundaries following the decomposition of retained austenite. In this study, the transgranular type of TME has been analyzed in terms of impact toughness, fracture behavior and microstructure on isothermal tempering. The experimental alloy systems chosen are the Mo and MoW steels in which alloying elements, Mo and W, may decrease the intrinsic toughness and thus produce easy transgranular brittle fracture

  8. Evolution of cold-tolerant fungal symbionts permits winter fungiculture by leafcutter ants at the northern frontier of a tropical ant-fungus symbiosis.

    Mueller, Ulrich G; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Hong, Eunki; Sen, Ruchira; Warren, Dan L; Solomon, Scott E; Ishak, Heather D; Cooper, Mike; Miller, Jessica L; Shaffer, Kimberly A; Juenger, Thomas E

    2011-03-01

    The obligate mutualism between leafcutter ants and their Attamyces fungi originated 8 to 12 million years ago in the tropics, but extends today also into temperate regions in South and North America. The northernmost leafcutter ant Atta texana sustains fungiculture during winter temperatures that would harm the cold-sensitive Attamyces cultivars of tropical leafcutter ants. Cold-tolerance of Attamyces cultivars increases with winter harshness along a south-to-north temperature gradient across the range of A. texana, indicating selection for cold-tolerant Attamyces variants along the temperature cline. Ecological niche modeling corroborates winter temperature as a key range-limiting factor impeding northward expansion of A. texana. The northernmost A. texana populations are able to sustain fungiculture throughout winter because of their cold-adapted fungi and because of seasonal, vertical garden relocation (maintaining gardens deep in the ground in winter to protect them from extreme cold, then moving gardens to warmer, shallow depths in spring). Although the origin of leafcutter fungiculture was an evolutionary breakthrough that revolutionized the food niche of tropical fungus-growing ants, the original adaptations of this host-microbe symbiosis to tropical temperatures and the dependence on cold-sensitive fungal symbionts eventually constrained expansion into temperate habitats. Evolution of cold-tolerant fungi within the symbiosis relaxed constraints on winter fungiculture at the northern frontier of the leafcutter ant distribution, thereby expanding the ecological niche of an obligate host-microbe symbiosis. PMID:21368106

  9. Linking energetics and overwintering in temperate insects.

    Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering insects cannot feed, and energy they take into winter must therefore fuel energy demands during autumn, overwintering, warm periods prior to resumption of development in spring, and subsequent activity. Insects primarily consume lipids during winter, but may also use carbohydrate and proteins as fuel. Because they are ectotherms, the metabolic rate of insects is temperature-dependent, and the curvilinear nature of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship means that warm temperatures are disproportionately important to overwinter energy use. This energy use may be reduced physiologically, by reducing the slope or elevation of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship, or because of threshold changes, such as metabolic suppression upon freezing. Insects may also choose microhabitats or life history stages that reduce the impact of overwinter energy drain. There is considerable capacity for overwinter energy drain to affect insect survival and performance both directly (via starvation) or indirectly (for example, through a trade-off with cryoprotection), but this has not been well-explored. Likewise, the impact of overwinter energy drain on growing-season performance is not well understood. I conclude that overwinter energetics provides a useful lens through which to link physiology and ecology and winter and summer in studies of insect responses to their environment. PMID:26615721

  10. Trichinella in arctic, subarctic and temperate regions

    Kapel, C. M O

    1997-01-01

    The transmission and occurrence of Trichinella spp according to the zoogeography of different climatic conditions, socioeconomy and human activity are discussed. Comparing arctic, subarctic and temperate regions, it appears that the species of Trichinella present, the composition of the fauna and...... domestic trichinellosis differ widely. Denmark is regarded as Trichinella-free, in the case of domestic trichinellosis and sylvatic trichinellosis is very rare. In Sweden and Norway. Trichinella is found in wildlife but domestic trichrnellosis is rare. In Finland, both domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis...... have increased dramatically during the last decade. Among the Scandinavian countries, Finland also has the largest populations of carnivorous mammals. In the Baltic states, Trichinella is frequently found in wildlife and domestic trichinellosis is increasingly diagnosed. The high prevalence in the...

  11. Temperate Ice Depth-Sounding Radar

    Jara-Olivares, V. A.; Player, K.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, P.

    2008-12-01

    Glaciers in several parts of the world are reported to be retreating and thinning rapidly over the last decade. Radar instruments can be used to provide a wealth of information regarding the internal and basal conditions of large and small ice masses. These instruments typically operate in the VHF and UHF regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For temperate-ice sounding, however, the high water content produces scattering and attenuation in propagating radar waves at VHF and UHF frequencies, which significantly reduce the penetration depths. Radars operating in the HF band are better suited for systematic surveys of the thickness and sub-glacial topography of temperate-ice regions. We are developing a dual-frequency Temperate-Ice-Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR) that can penetrate through water pockets, thus providing more accurate measurements of temperate ice properties such as thickness and basal conditions. The radar is a light-weight, low power consumption portable system for surface-based observations in mountainous terrain or aerial surveys. TIDSoR operates at two different center frequencies: 7.7 MHz and 14 MHz, with a maximum output peak power of 20 W. The transmit waveform is a digitally generated linear frequency-modulated chirp with 1 MHz bandwidth. The radar can be installed on aircrafts such as the CReSIS UAV [1], DCH-6 (Twin Otter), or P-3 Orion for aerial surveys, where it could be supported by the airplane power system. For surface based experiments, TIDSoR can operate in a backpack configuration powered by a compact battery system. The system can also be installed on a sled towed by a motorized vehicle, in which case the power supply can be replaced by a diesel generator. The radar consists of three functional blocks: the digital section, the radio-frequency (RF) section, and the antenna, and is designed to weigh less than 2 kg, excluding the power supply. The digital section generates the transmit waveforms as well as timing and control signals

  12. Why Be Temperate: Lessons from Bacteriophage λ.

    Gandon, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    Many pathogens have evolved the ability to induce latent infections of their hosts. The bacteriophage λ is a classical model for exploring the regulation and the evolution of latency. Here, I review recent experimental studies on phage λ that identify specific conditions promoting the evolution of lysogenic life cycles. In addition, I present specific adaptations of phage λ that allow this virus to react plastically to variations in the environment and to reactivate its lytic life cycle. All of these different examples are discussed in the light of evolutionary epidemiology theory to disentangle the different evolutionary forces acting on temperate phages. Understanding phage λ adaptations yield important insights into the evolution of latency in other microbes, including several life-threatening human pathogens. PMID:26946976

  13. Four-year measurement of methane flux over a temperate forest with a relaxed eddy accumulation method

    Sakabe, A.; Kosugi, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Hamotani, K.; Takahashi, K.; Iwata, H.; Itoh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are generally assumed to be an atmospheric methane (CH4) sink (Le Mer and Roger, 2001). However, under Asian monsoon climate, forests are subject to wide spatiotemporal range in soil water status, where forest soils often became water-saturated condition heterogeneously. In such warm and humid conditions, forests may act as a CH4 source and/or sink with considerable spatiotemporal variations. Micrometeorological methods such as eddy covariance (EC) method continuously measure spatially-representative flux at a canopy scale without artificial disturbance. In this study, we measured CH4 fluxes over a temperate forest during four-year period using a CH4 analyzer based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy detection with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method (Hamotani et al., 1996, 2001). We revealed the amplitude and seasonal variations of canopy-scale CH4 fluxes. The REA method is the attractive alternative to the EC method to measure trace-gas flux because it allows the use of analyzers with an optimal integration time. We also conducted continuous chamber measurements on forest floor to reveal spatial variations in soil CH4 fluxes and its controlling processes. The observations were made in an evergreen coniferous forest in central Japan. The site has a warm temperate monsoon climate with wet summer. Some wetlands were located in riparian zones along streams within the flux footprint area. For the REA method, the sonic anemometer (SAT-550, Kaijo) was mounted on top of the 29-m-tall tower and air was sampled from just below the sonic anemometer to reservoirs according to the direction of vertical wind velocity (w). After accumulating air for 30 minutes, the air in the reservoirs was pulled into a CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-840, Li-Cor) and a CH4 analyzer (FMA-200, Los Gatos Research). Before entering the analyzers, the sampled air was dried using a gas dryer (PD-50 T-48; Perma Pure Inc.). The REA flux is obtained from the difference in the mean concentrations

  14. Study on tempering behaviour of AISI 410 stainless steel

    Martensitic stainless steels find extensive applications due to their optimum combination of strength, hardness and wear-resistance in tempered condition. However, this class of steels is susceptible to embrittlement during tempering if it is carried out in a specific temperature range resulting in significant reduction in toughness. Embrittlement of as-normalised AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel, subjected to tempering treatment in the temperature range of 673–923 K was studied using Charpy impact tests followed by metallurgical investigations using field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Carbides precipitated during tempering were extracted by electrochemical dissolution of the matrix and identified by X-ray diffraction. Studies indicated that temper embrittlement is highest when the steel is tempered at 823 K. Mostly iron rich carbides are present in the steel subjected to tempering at low temperatures of around 723 K, whereas chromium rich carbides (M23C6) dominate precipitation at high temperature tempering. The range 773–823 K is the transition temperature range for the precipitates, with both Fe2C and M23C6 types of carbides coexisting in the material. The nucleation of Fe2C within the martensite lath, during low temperature tempering, has a definite role in the embrittlement of this steel. Embrittlement is not observed at high temperature tempering because of precipitation of M23C6 carbides, instead of Fe2C, preferentially along the lath and prior austenite boundaries. Segregation of S and P, which is widely reported as one of the causes for temper embrittlement, could not be detected in the material even through Auger electron spectroscopy studies. - Highlights: • Tempering behaviour of AISI 410 steel is studied within 673–923 K temperature range. • Temperature regime of maximum embrittlement is identified as 773–848 K. • Results show that type of carbide precipitation varies with temperature of tempering

  15. Effect of rare earths on cold brittleness and temper brittleness and temper brittleness of structural steels

    The following problems are discussed: the possibility to bind phosphorus in steel with rare-earth metals and concentrations of these metals; the effect produced on mechanical properties of steels at static and dynamic tests. The study has been made on the 35KhGS and 38KhS steels prone to reversible temper brittleness. It is shown that small practically adopted (up to 0.15%) additions of rare-earth metals to structural steels do not produce any significant effect on the position of cold brittleness threshold after improvement and additional embrittling tempering. Alloying Cr-Mn-Si steels with large additions of rare-earth metals (0.40 to O.65%) shifts the cold brittleness threshold of the improved steel by more than 100 deg C towards the region of low temperatures and practically eliminates its tendency to reversible temper brittleness. It has been established as a result of micro-X-ray spectrum studies that rare-earth metals do not produce alloying effect on the solid solution and do not enrich grain boundaries but can be found as a whole in nonmetallic inclusions. It is demonstrated that the main reason for the considerably lower cold brittleness threshold in the alloying with large additions of rare-earth metals lies in the fact that they bind phosphorus and its analogues into nonmetallic inclusions

  16. Nulhegan Deer Wintering Area Management Plan 1994

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the Nulhegan basin lies the Nulhegan Deer Wintering Area, an approximately 15,000-acre tract of land. In addition to being the largest deer wintering area in...

  17. Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a continuation of the annual winter waterfowl survey which is conducted in the United States and Mexico. Since the...

  18. Legacies of North American Olympic Winter Games

    Zimmerman, Kate

    2011-01-01

    These reports were commissioned by the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) to gain insight into the legacies of previous North American Olympic Winter Games, held in Lake Placid, Calgary, and Salt Lake City. With this information readily available, VANOC staff can make and encourage references to Winter Games held on this continent and discourage irrelevant comparisons to Olympic Winter and Summer Games held elsewhere. The report begins with...

  19. Organic winter wheat: optimising planting

    Haigh, Z. E. L.; Baddeley, J. A.; Boyd, H. E.; Clarke, S.; Jones, H; Rees, R. M.; Wolfe, M S

    2008-01-01

    Data from the second year of experiments at three sites (Wakelyns in SE and Sheepdrove in SW England; and Chapel Farm in SE Scotland) to investigate the effects of interactions among a range of agronomic practices (row spacing, seed density, weeding and undersowing with clover) on winter wheat performance are presented, and compared with first year results. Trends seen at all years and sites indicate that narrow row drill arrangements with high seed rates result in the highest yields. This co...

  20. Neural network prediction of hardness in HAZ of temper bead welding using the proposed thermal cycle tempering parameter (TCTP)

    A new thermal cycle tempering parameter (TCTP) to characterize the tempering effect during multi-pass thermal cycles has been proposed by extending the Larson-Miller parameter (LMP) to non-isothermal heat treatment. Experimental results revealed that the hardness in synthetic HAZ of low-alloy steel subjected to multi-pass tempering thermal cycles has a good linear relationship with the TCTP. The new hardness prediction system was constructed by using a neural network taking into consideration of the tempering effect during multi-pass welding, estimated by using the TCTP. Based on the thermal cycles numerically obtained by FEM and the experimentally obtained hardness database, the hardness distribution in HAZ of low-alloy steel welded with temper bead welding method was calculated. The predicted hardness was in good accordance with the experimental results. It follows that our new prediction system is effective for estimating the tempering effect in HAZ during multi-pass welding and hence enables us to assess the effectiveness of temper bead welding. (author)

  1. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. PMID:26790603

  2. Enhanced Sampling in the Well-Tempered Ensemble

    Bonomi, M.; Parrinello, M.

    2010-05-01

    We introduce the well-tempered ensemble (WTE) which is the biased ensemble sampled by well-tempered metadynamics when the energy is used as collective variable. WTE can be designed so as to have approximately the same average energy as the canonical ensemble but much larger fluctuations. These two properties lead to an extremely fast exploration of phase space. An even greater efficiency is obtained when WTE is combined with parallel tempering. Unbiased Boltzmann averages are computed on the fly by a recently developed reweighting method [M. Bonomi , J. Comput. Chem. 30, 1615 (2009)JCCHDD0192-865110.1002/jcc.21305]. We apply WTE and its parallel tempering variant to the 2d Ising model and to a Gō model of HIV protease, demonstrating in these two representative cases that convergence is accelerated by orders of magnitude.

  3. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants.

    Bower, Andrew D; St Clair, J Bradley; Erickson, Vicky

    2014-07-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum temperature and aridity (as measured by annual heat : moisture index), each classified into discrete bands. This results in the delineation of 64 provisional seed zones for the continental United States. These zones represent areas of relative climatic similarity, and movement of seed within these zones should help to minimize maladaptation. Superimposing Omernik's level III ecoregions over these seed zones distinguishes areas that are similar climatically yet different ecologically. A quantitative comparison of provisional seed zones with level III ecoregions and provisional seed zones within ecoregions for three species showed that provisional seed zone within ecoregion often explained the greatest proportion of variation in a suite of traits potentially related to plant fitness. These provisional seed zones can be considered a starting point for guidelines for seed transfer, and should be utilized in conjunction with appropriate species-specific information as well as local knowledge of microsite differences. PMID:25154085

  4. Induction Tempering vs Conventional Tempering of a Heat-Treatable Steel

    Sackl, Stephanie; Zuber, Michael; Clemens, Helmut; Primig, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    An induction heat treatment is favorable compared to a conventional one mainly due to significant time and cost savings. Therefore, in this study, the microstructure property relationships during induction and conventional heat treatment of a heat treatable steel 42CrMo4 is investigated. The yield strength and hardness is slightly higher for the conventionally heat-treated steel, whereas the induction heat-treated condition exhibits a roughly 30 J/cm2 higher impact energy. In a previous investigation of the authors, it has been proved that the difference in yield strength originates from the smaller block size of the conventionally heat-treated steel, which was already present after hardening. In the present work, it can be shown that during tempering the martensitic blocks become equi-axed ferrite grains due to recrystallization as revealed by electron back scatter diffraction. Nevertheless, a larger grain size usually is less favorable for the impact toughness of steels. Therefore, another mechanism is responsible for the higher impact energy of the induction hardened and tempered steel. With the aid of transmission electron microscopy a finer distribution of cementite was observed in the induction heat-treated samples. The delay of recovery is the reason for the presence of finer cementite in case of the induction heat-treated steel. Here, the higher heating rates and shorter process times reduce the annihilation of dislocation and as a consequence provide more nucleation sites for precipitation of cementite during tempering. From the obtained experimental results, it is believed that the finer distribution of carbides causes the observed higher impact toughness.

  5. Behavioural plasticity in wintering Mediterranean ospreys revealed by stable isotopes analyses and GPS tracking.

    Monti, Flavio; Robert, Aloïs; Dominici, Jean-Marie; Sforzi, Andrea; Triay Bagur, Rafel; Muñoz Navarro, Antoni; Guillou, Gaël; Bentaleb, Ilham; Duriez, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    To infer wintering ecology in Mediterranean ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) we relied on a dual and complementary approach, using both GPS tracking and multi stable isotope tracer approaches. A control sample of feathers from 80 individuals (mostly chicks) was collected over a large latitudinal gradient (from Lapland to Africa) to assess the variability of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotope ratios between breeding sites and habitat types across the Western Palearctic. Then, C, N and S isotopic compositions from an experimental set of 18 Mediterranean adults were examined to infer wintering ground locations and habitat types used during the inter-breeding period. Additionally, 12 adult ospreys were fitted with GPS devices and tracked during migration and the wintering season. By combining the two techniques we evidenced a partial migratory population with 41.7% of tagged individuals being resident and 58.3% that actually migrated. Ospreys spent the winter at temperate latitudes and showed a high plasticity in habitat selection. They made use of marine bays, coastal lagoons/marshland and inland freshwater sites. Movements and home range areas were reduced during the season. Wintering grounds were largely spread over the coasts of different countries of the basin, rather than concentrated in one single area. Such behavioural plasticity in the choice of location and habitat type suggests the implementing of broad-scale approaches for the protection of important areas for ospreys in winter. To contribute at assuring a right level of conservation of the osprey populations in the Mediterranean basin, a harmonization of the management protocols of wetland sites among countries is necessary.

  6. The tempered polymerization of human neuroserpin.

    Rosina Noto

    Full Text Available Neuroserpin, a member of the serpin protein superfamily, is an inhibitor of proteolytic activity that is involved in pathologies such as ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB. The latter belongs to a class of conformational diseases, known as serpinopathies, which are related to the aberrant polymerization of serpin mutants. Neuroserpin is known to polymerize, even in its wild type form, under thermal stress. Here, we study the mechanism of neuroserpin polymerization over a wide range of temperatures by different techniques. Our experiments show how the onset of polymerization is dependent on the formation of an intermediate monomeric conformer, which then associates with a native monomer to yield a dimeric species. After the formation of small polymers, the aggregation proceeds via monomer addition as well as polymer-polymer association. No further secondary mechanism takes place up to very high temperatures, thus resulting in the formation of neuroserpin linear polymeric chains. Most interesting, the overall aggregation is tuned by the co-occurrence of monomer inactivation (i.e. the formation of latent neuroserpin and by a mechanism of fragmentation. The polymerization kinetics exhibit a unique modulation of the average mass and size of polymers, which might suggest synchronization among the different processes involved. Thus, fragmentation would control and temper the aggregation process, instead of enhancing it, as typically observed (e.g. for amyloid fibrillation.

  7. Error and efficiency of simulated tempering simulations.

    Rosta, Edina; Hummer, Gerhard

    2010-01-21

    We derive simple analytical expressions for the error and computational efficiency of simulated tempering (ST) simulations. The theory applies to the important case of systems whose dynamics at long times is dominated by the slow interconversion between two metastable states. An extension to the multistate case is described. We show that the relative gain in efficiency of ST simulations over regular molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is given by the ratio of their reactive fluxes, i.e., the number of transitions between the two states summed over all ST temperatures divided by the number of transitions at the single temperature of the MD or MC simulation. This relation for the efficiency is derived for the limit in which changes in the ST temperature are fast compared to the two-state transitions. In this limit, ST is most efficient. Our expression for the maximum efficiency gain of ST simulations is essentially identical to the corresponding expression derived by us for replica exchange MD and MC simulations [E. Rosta and G. Hummer, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 165102 (2009)] on a different route. We find quantitative agreement between predicted and observed efficiency gains in a test against ST and replica exchange MC simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model. Based on the efficiency formula, we provide recommendations for the optimal choice of ST simulation parameters, in particular, the range and number of temperatures, and the frequency of attempted temperature changes. PMID:20095723

  8. Effect of climate change on temperate forest ecosystems

    Brolsma, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    In temperate climates groundwater can have a strong effect on vegetation, because it can influence the spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture and therefore water and oxygen stress of vegetation. Current IPCC climate projections based on CO2 emission scenarios show a global temperature rise and change in precipitation regime, which will affect hydrological and vegetation systems. This thesis provides a quantitative framework for studying eco-hydrology in groundwater influenced temperate...

  9. Determining efficient temperature sets for the simulated tempering method

    Valentim, A.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Fiore, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    In statistical physics, the efficiency of tempering approaches strongly depends on ingredients such as the number of replicas $R$, reliable determination of weight factors and the set of used temperatures, ${\\mathcal T}_R = \\{T_1, T_2, \\ldots, T_R\\}$. For the simulated tempering (SP) in particular -- useful due to its generality and conceptual simplicity -- the latter aspect (closely related to the actual $R$) may be a key issue in problems displaying metastability and trapping in certain reg...

  10. Contribution to the modelling of chocolate tempering process.

    Debaste, Frédéric; Kegelaers, Yves; Ben Amor, Hatem; Halloin, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    The tempering of chocolate, i.e. the process of crystallization of the desired morph; is a key step in its manufacturing by professional chocolatiers. In this work, a model of a tempering process based on seeding with solid chocolate grains is developed to enhance understanding and control of the system. The model aims to predict temperature field during melting and crystallization of the product. Therefore a mechanical stirrer is designed to simulate the manual mixing. Resulting flow field i...