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Aerosol influenza transmission risk contours: A study of humid tropics versus winter temperate zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, much attention has been given to the spread of influenza around the world. With the continuing human outbreak of H5N1 beginning in 2003 and the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, focus on influenza and other respiratory viruses has been increased. It has been accepted for decades that international travel via jet aircraft is a major vector for global spread of influenza, and epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions observed. Thus we wanted to study how indoor environmental conditions (enclosed locations in the tropics and winter temperate zones contribute to the aerosol spread of influenza by travelers. To this end, a survey consisting of 632 readings of temperature (T versus relative humidity (RH in 389 different enclosed locations air travelers are likely to visit in 8 tropical nations were compared to 102 such readings in 2 Australian cities, including ground transport, hotels, shops, offices and other publicly accessible locations, along with 586 time course readings from aircraft. Results An influenza transmission risk contour map was developed for T versus RH. Empirical equations were created for estimating: 1. risk relative to temperature and RH, and 2. time parameterized influenza transmission risk. Using the transmission risk contours and equations, transmission risk for each country's locations was compared with influenza reports from the countries. Higher risk enclosed locations in the tropics included new automobile transport, luxury buses, luxury hotels, and bank branches. Most temperate locations were high risk. Conclusion Environmental control is recommended for public health mitigation focused on higher risk enclosed locations. Public health can make use of the methods developed to track potential vulnerability to aerosol influenza. The methods presented can also be used in influenza modeling. Accounting for differential aerosol transmission using T and RH can potentially explain anomalies of influenza epidemiology in addition to seasonality in temperate climates.

Borup Birthe

2010-05-01

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Aerosol influenza transmission risk contours: A study of humid tropics versus winter temperate zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In recent years, much attention has been given to the spread of influenza around the world. With the continuing human outbreak of H5N1 beginning in 2003 and the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, focus on influenza and other respiratory viruses has been increased. It has been accepted for decades that international travel via jet aircraft is a major vector for global spread of influenza, and epidemiological differences between tropical and temperate regions observed. Thus we wanted to study how indoor environmental conditions (enclosed locations) in the tropics and winter temperate zones contribute to the aerosol spread of influenza by travelers. To this end, a survey consisting of 632 readings of temperature (T) versus relative humidity (RH) in 389 different enclosed locations air travelers are likely to visit in 8 tropical nations were compared to 102 such readings in 2 Australian cities, including ground transport, hotels, shops, offices and other publicly accessible locations, along with 586 time course readings from aircraft. Results An influenza transmission risk contour map was developed for T versus RH. Empirical equations were created for estimating: 1. risk relative to temperature and RH, and 2. time parameterized influenza transmission risk. Using the transmission risk contours and equations, transmission risk for each country's locations was compared with influenza reports from the countries. Higher risk enclosed locations in the tropics included new automobile transport, luxury buses, luxury hotels, and bank branches. Most temperate locations were high risk. Conclusion Environmental control is recommended for public health mitigation focused on higher risk enclosed locations. Public health can make use of the methods developed to track potential vulnerability to aerosol influenza. The methods presented can also be used in influenza modeling. Accounting for differential aerosol transmission using T and RH can potentially explain anomalies of influenza epidemiology in addition to seasonality in temperate climates. PMID:20470403

2010-01-01

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Long range transport of caesium isotopes from temperate latitudes to the equatorial zone during the winter monsoon period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An air radioactivity monitoring study carried out in Dalat, Vietnam since 1986 has revealed distinct peaks of caesium isotope concentrations in air and fallout during December-January, when the monthly average air temperature was lowest and dry fallout dominated. These peaks provide evidence of the intrusion of more radioactive cold air masses from temperate northern latitudes during the development of large-scale anti cyclones, frequently observed in the most active winter monsoon period. High dry fallout velocity (about 10 cm/s) determined from the measured concentrations, clearly demonstrates one of the most relevant features of cold air masses: behind the cold front, vertical air motion is descending. The role of other processes, such as injection of radioactive air from stratosphere and local resuspension of soil dust, has been shown to be insignificant. The interpretation of the experimental results was based on the analysis of environmental -meteorological factors as well as the behaviour of other naturally-occurring radionuclides. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

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Long range transport of caesium isotopes from temperate latitudes to the equatorial zone during the winter monsoon period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An air radioactivity monitoring study carried out at Dalat, Viet Nam, since 1986 has revealed distinct peaks of caesium isotope concentrations in air and fallout during the period of December and January when the monthly average air temperature was lowest and dry fallout dominated. These peaks provide evidence of the intrusion of more radioactive cold air masses from temperate northern latitudes during the development of large scale anticyclones, frequently observed in the most active winter monsoon period. The high dry fallout velocity (about 10 cm/s), determined from the measured concentrations, clearly demonstrates one of the most relevant features of cold air masses: behind the cold front, vertical air motion is descending. The role of other processes such as injection of radioactive air from the stratosphere and local resuspension of soil dust has been shown to be insignificant. The interpretation of the experimental results was based on the analysis of environmental-meteorological factors as well as the behaviour of other naturally occurring radionuclides. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

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Recurrent winter warming pulses enhance nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms  

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Full Text Available Winter air temperatures are projected to increase in the temperate zone, whereas snow cover is projected to decrease, leading to more extreme soil temperature variability, and potentially to changes in nutrient cycling. Therefore, we applied six winter warming pulses by infra-red heating lamps and surface heating wires in a field experiment over one winter in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms. The experiment was replicated at two sites, a colder mountainous upland site with high snow accumulation and a warmer and dryer lowland site. Winter warming pulses enhanced soil biotic activity for both sites during winter, as indicated by 35% higher nitrogen (N availability in the soil solution, 40% higher belowground decomposition and a 25% increase in the activity of the enzyme cellobiohydrolase. The mobilization of N differed between sites, and the incorporation of 15N into leaves was reduced by 31% in response to winter warming pulses, but only at the cold site, with significant reductions occurring for three of four tested plant species at this site. Furthermore, there was a trend of increased N leaching in response to the recurrent winter warming pulses. Overall, projected winter climate change in the temperate zone, with less snow and more variable soil temperatures, appears important for shifts in ecosystem functioning (i.e. nutrient cycling. While the effects of warming pulses on plant N mobilization did not differ among sites, reduced plant 15N incorporation at the colder temperate site suggests that frost damage may reduce plant performance in a warmer world, with important implications for nitrogen cycling and nitrogen losses from ecosystems.

J. Schuerings

2014-06-01

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Recurrent winter warming pulses enhance nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms  

Science.gov (United States)

Winter air temperatures are projected to increase in the temperate zone, whereas snow cover is projected to decrease, leading to more extreme soil temperature variability, and potentially to changes in nutrient cycling. Therefore, we applied six winter warming pulses by infra-red heating lamps and surface heating wires in a field experiment over one winter in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms. The experiment was replicated at two sites, a colder mountainous upland site with high snow accumulation and a warmer and dryer lowland site. Winter warming pulses enhanced soil biotic activity for both sites during winter, as indicated by 35% higher nitrogen (N) availability in the soil solution, 40% higher belowground decomposition and a 25% increase in the activity of the enzyme cellobiohydrolase. The mobilization of N differed between sites, and the incorporation of 15N into leaves was reduced by 31% in response to winter warming pulses, but only at the cold site, with significant reductions occurring for three of four tested plant species at this site. Furthermore, there was a trend of increased N leaching in response to the recurrent winter warming pulses. Overall, projected winter climate change in the temperate zone, with less snow and more variable soil temperatures, appears important for shifts in ecosystem functioning (i.e. nutrient cycling). While the effects of warming pulses on plant N mobilization did not differ among sites, reduced plant 15N incorporation at the colder temperate site suggests that frost damage may reduce plant performance in a warmer world, with important implications for nitrogen cycling and nitrogen losses from ecosystems.

Schuerings, J.; Jentsch, A.; Hammerl, V.; Lenz, K.; Henry, H. A. L.; Malyshev, A. V.; Kreyling, J.

2014-06-01

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Forecasting temperate alpine glacier survival from accumulation zone observations  

OpenAIRE

Temperate alpine glacier survival is dependent on the consistent presence of an accumulation zone. Frequent low accumulation area ratio values, below 30%, indicate the lack of a consistent accumulation zone, which leads to substantial thinning of the glacier in the accumulation zone. This thinning is often evident from substantial marginal recession, emergence of new rock outcrops and surface elevation decline in the accumulation zone. In the North Cascades 9 of the 12 examined glaciers exhib...

Pelto, M. S.

2009-01-01

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Plasmodium vivax malaria : a re-emerging threat for temperate climate zones?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plasmodium vivax was endemic in temperate areas in historic times up to the middle of last century. Temperate climate P. vivax has a long incubation time of up to 8-10 months, which partly explain how it can be endemic in temperate areas with a could winter. P. vivax disappeared from Europe within the last 40-60 years, and this change was not related to climatic changes. The surge of P. vivax in Northern Europe after the second world war was related to displacement of refugees and large movement of military personnel exposed to malaria. Lately P. vivax has been seen along the demilitarized zone in South Korea replication a high endemicity in North Korea. The potential of transmission of P. vivax still exist in temperate zones, but reintroduction in a larger scale of P. vivax to areas without present transmission require large population movements of P. vivax infected people. The highest threat at present is refugees from P. vivax endemic North Korea entering China and South Korea in large numbers.

Petersen, Eskild; Severini, Carlo

2013-01-01

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Distinct bacterial communities dominate tropical and temperate zone leaf litter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known of the bacterial community of tropical rainforest leaf litter and how it might differ from temperate forest leaf litter and from the soils underneath. We sampled leaf litter in a similarly advanced stage of decay, and for comparison, we also sampled the surface layer of soil, at three tropical forest sites in Malaysia and four temperate forest sites in South Korea. Illumina sequencing targeting partial bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene revealed that the bacterial community composition of both temperate and tropical litter is quite distinct from the soils underneath. Litter in both temperate and tropical forest was dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while soil is dominated by Acidobacteria and, to a lesser extent, Proteobacteria. However, bacterial communities of temperate and tropical litter clustered separately from one another on an ordination. The soil bacterial community structures were also distinctive to each climatic zone, suggesting that there must be a climate-specific biogeographical pattern in bacterial community composition. The differences were also found in the level of diversity. The temperate litter has a higher operational taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity than the tropical litter, paralleling the trend in soil diversity. Overall, it is striking that the difference in community composition between the leaf litter and the soil a few centimeters underneath is about the same as that between leaf litter in tropical and temperate climates, thousands of kilometers apart. However, one substantial difference was that the leaf litter of two tropical forest sites, Meranti and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), was overwhelmingly dominated by the single genus Burkholderia, at 37 and 23 % of reads, respectively. The 454 sequencing result showed that most Burkholderia species in tropical leaf litter belong to nonpathogenic "plant beneficial" lineages. The differences from the temperate zone in the bacterial community of tropical forest litter may be partly a product of its differing chemistry, although the unvarying climate might also play a role, as might interactions with other organisms such as fungi. The single genus Burkholderia may be seen as potentially playing a major role in decomposition and nutrient cycling in tropical forests, but apparently not in temperate forests. PMID:24549745

Kim, Mincheol; Kim, Woo-Sung; Tripathi, Binu M; Adams, Jonathan

2014-05-01

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Forecasting temperate alpine glacier survival from accumulation zone observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temperate alpine glacier survival is dependent on the consistent presence of an accumulation zone. Frequent low accumulation area ratio values, below 30%, indicate the lack of a consistent accumulation zone, which leads to substantial thinning of the glacier in the accumulation zone. This thinning is often evident from substantial marginal recession, emergence of new rock outcrops and surface elevation decline in the accumulation zone. In the North Cascades 9 of the 12 examined glaciers exhibit characteristics of substantial accumulation zone thinning; marginal recession or emergent bedrock areas in the accumulation zone. The longitudinal profile thinning factor, f, which is a measure of the ratio of thinning in the accumulation zone to that at the terminus, is above 0.6 for all glaciers exhibiting accumulation zone thinning characteristics. The ratio of accumulation zone thinning to cumulative mass balance is above 0.5 for glacier experiencing substantial accumulation zone thinning. Without a consistent accumulation zone these glaciers are forecast not to survive the current climate or future additional warming. The results vary considerably with adjacent glaciers having a different survival forecast. This emphasizes the danger of extrapolating survival from one glacier to the next.

M. S. Pelto

2010-01-01

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Indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the results of a comprehensive study of indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings. Forty dwellings located over an 800 km2 area in the south-east of Melbourne with a range of ages, materials and structures representative of Australian dwellings were selected. A range of indoor air quality pollutants were sampled both inside and outside for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009. Information was collected on house characteristics, the surrounding areas and occupant activities during the sampling. Weekly indoor averaged CO2 (536 ± 121 ppm), CO (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm), PM2.5 (8.4 ± 4.0 ?g m-3), temperatures (21.2 ± 2.0 °C), water vapour mixing ratios (7.9 ± 1.3 g kg-1), benzene (1.3 ± 1.1 ?g m-3), toluene (8.8 ± 7.9 ?g m-3) and xylenes (6.2 ± 6.7 ?g m-3) varied from 1.1 to approximately three times higher compared to the equivalent outdoors concentrations. Formaldehyde (12.2 ± 4.7 ppb), other carbonyls (7.9 ± 2.6 ppb) and total volatile organic compounds (181.1 ± 89.5 ?g m-3) had indoor concentrations of factors between eight and 12 times higher compared to outdoor concentrations. Weekly averaged indoor ozone (0.7 ± 0.7 ppb), NO2 (8.4 ± 3.9 ppb) and PM10 (20.4 ± 8.1 ?g m-3) were significantly lower than outdoors. Correlations and factor analysis showed the major influences on this indoor air quality were (a) dwelling age, whereby dwellings constructed in recent decades compared to older buildings were found to have increased concentrations of the highly elevated species formaldehyde, other carbonyls and total volatile organic compounds, and (b) combustion and cooking activities that increased the concentrations of multiple species including CO, CO2, NO2, H2O and particles. The indoor pollutant concentrations from this study were in general comparable with or lower than other Australian or overseas studies.

Molloy, S. B.; Cheng, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Lawson, S. J.; Powell, J. C.; Gillett, R.; Dunne, E.; Selleck, P. W.

2012-07-01

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Forecasting temperate alpine glacier survival from accumulation zone observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For temperate alpine glaciers survival is dependent on the consistent presence of an accumulation zone. The lack of a consistent and persistent accumulation zone leads to substantial thinning of the glacier in the accumulation zone. Accumulation zone thinning is evident in satellite imagery or field observation based the emergence of new rock outcrops or the recession of the margin of the glacier in the accumulation zone along a substantial portion of its perimeter. In either case the accumulation zone is no longer functioning as an accumulation zone and survival is unlikely. In both the North Cascades and Wind River Range nine of the fifteen glaciers examined are forecast not to survive the current climate or future additional warming. The results vary considerably with adjacent glaciers having a different survival forecast. This emphasizes the danger of extrapolating survival from one glacier to the next. This trait also emphasizes the value of a simple forecasting tool that can be applied to all glaciers. The automated remote sensing based glacier classification schemes developed offer the potential for automating this process based on the changes in the glacier outline.

M. S. Pelto

2009-05-01

13

Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems  

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Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m?2 d?1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m?2 d?1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m?2 d?1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (QS was higher than the one over time (interannual, QT. This can be expected because QS not only accounts for climate gradients across sites but also for (positively correlated the spatial variability of substrate quantity. Thus, if the models estimate future warming impacts on Reco based on QS rather than QT, this could overestimate the impact of temperature changes.

T. Wang

2011-07-01

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Winter to spring variations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a temperate estuary (Po River, northern Adriatic Sea).  

Science.gov (United States)

The light absorbing fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), known as chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) showed wide seasonal variations in the temperate estuarine zone in front of the Po River mouth. DOC concentrations increased from winter through spring mainly as a seasonal response to increasing phytoplankton production and thermohaline stratification. The monthly dependence of the CDOM light absorption by salinity and chlorophyll a concentrations was explored. In 2003, neither DOC nor CDOM were linearly correlated with salinity, due to an exceptionally low Po river inflow. Though the CDOM absorbance coefficients showed a higher content of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in 2004 with respect to 2003, the spectroscopic features confirmed that the qualitative nature of CDOM was quite similar in both years. CDOM and DOC underwent a conservative mixing, only after relevant Po river freshets, and a change in optical features with an increase of the specific absorption coefficient was observed, suggesting a prevailing terrestrial origin of dissolved organic matter. PMID:20416946

Berto, D; Giani, M; Savelli, F; Centanni, E; Ferrari, C R; Pavoni, B

2010-07-01

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Use of the Dynamic Model for the Assessment of Winter Chilling in a Temperate and a Subtropical Climatic Zone of Chile Utilización del Modelo Dinámico para Evaluar el Frío Invernal en una Localidad de Clima Templado y otra Subtropical de Chile  

OpenAIRE

Accumulated chilling was estimated by applying three different models to the hourly autumn-winter temperature records from Santiago (33°34 S lat; 625 m.a.s.l.) and Vicuña (30°02´ S lat; 643 m.a.s.l.) for the years 2005 and 2006. The model of chilling hours, currently used in Chile as an agroclimatic indicator, was of limited use for effectively contrasting a subtropical condition (Vicuña) with a temperate area such as Santiago. The application of the Utah model gave negative values from ...

Pe?rez, Francisco J.; Juan Ormeño N; Bryan Reynaert; Sebastián Rubio

2008-01-01

16

Influence of tropical easterlies in southern Africa's winter rainfall zone during the Holocene  

Science.gov (United States)

South Africa's southwestern Cape occupies a critical transition zone between Southern Hemisphere temperate (winter) and tropical (summer) moisture-bearing systems. In the recent geological past, it has been proposed that the relative influence of these systems may have changed substantially, but little reliable evidence regarding regional hydroclimates and rainfall seasonality exists to refine or substantiate the understanding of long-term dynamics. In this paper we present a mid-to late Holocene multi-proxy record of environmental change from a rock hyrax midden from Katbakkies Pass, located along the modern boundary between the winter and summer rainfall zones. Derived from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, fossil pollen and microcharcoal, these data provide a high resolution record of changes in humidity, and insight into changes in rainfall seasonality. Whereas previous work concluded that the site had generally experienced only subtle environmental change during the Holocene, our records indicate that significant, abrupt changes have occurred in the region over the last 7000 years. Contrary to expectations based on the site's location, these data indicate that the primary determinant of changes in humidity is summer rather than winter rainfall variability, and its influence on drought season intensity and/or length. These findings are consistent with independent records of upwelling along the southern and western coasts, which indicate that periods of increased humidity are related to increased tropical easterly flow. This substantially refines our understanding of the nature of temperate and tropical circulation system dynamics in SW Africa, and how changes in their relative dominance have impacted regional environments during the Holocene.

Chase, Brian M.; Lim, Sophak; Chevalier, Manuel; Boom, Arnoud; Carr, Andrew S.; Meadows, Michael E.; Reimer, Paula J.

2015-01-01

17

Winter photosynthetic activity of twenty temperate semi-desert sand grassland species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The winter photosynthetic activity (quantified by net CO(2) assimilation rates and chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence parameters) of 20 plant species (including two lichens and two mosses) of a Hungarian temperate semi-desert sand grassland was determined on one occasion per year in 1984, 1989 and 1994. Throughout winter, the overwintering green shoots, leaves or thalli were regularly exposed to below zero temperatures at night and daytime temperatures of 0-5 degrees C. In situ tissue temperature varied between -2.1 and +6.9 degrees C and the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) between 137 and 351 micromol m(-2)s(-1). Under these conditions 18 of the grassland species exhibited photosynthetic CO(2) uptake (range: vascular plants ca. 0.2-3.8 micromol m(-2)s(-1), cryptogams 0.3-2.79 micromol kg(-1)s(-1)) and values of 0.9-5.1 of the Chl fluorescence decrease ratio R(Fd). In 1984, Festuca vaginata and Sedum sexangulare had net CO(2) assimilation at leaf temperatures of -0.85 to -1.2 degrees C. In 1989, all species except Cladonia furcata showed net CO(2) assimilation at tissue temperatures of 0 to +3.3 degrees C, with the highest rates observed in Poa bulbosa and F. vaginata. The latter showed a net CO(2) assimilation saturation at a PPFD of 600 micromol m(-2)s(-1) and a temperature optimum between +5 and +18 degrees C. At the 1994 measurements, the photosynthetic rates were higher at higher tissue water contents. The two mosses and lichens had a net photosynthesis (range: 1.1-2.79 micromol CO(2)kg(-1)s(-1)) at 2 degrees C tissue temperature and at 4-5 degrees C air temperature. Ca. 80% of the vascular grassland plant species maintained a positive C-balance during the coldest periods of winter, with photosynthetic rates of 1.5-3.8 micromol CO(2)m(-2)s(-1). In an extremely warm beginning March of the relatively warm winter of 2006/2007, the dicotyledonous plants had much higher CO(2) assimilation rates on a Chl (range 6-14.9 micromol g(-1)Chl s(-1)) and on a dry weight basis (9-48 micromol kg(-1)dw s(-1)) than in the cold winter of 1994. However, the assimilation rates of the three investigated cryptogams (Tortula and two Cladonia) and the two grasses Festuca and Poa were not affected by this increase. The results indicate that the photosynthetic activity of temperate semi-desert sand grassland species can help somewhat in slowing the general CO(2) rise in winter and function as a potential carbon sink of the investigated semi-desert Hungarian grassland species. PMID:18346813

Tuba, Zoltán; Csintalan, Zsolt; Szente, Kálmán; Nagy, Zoltán; Fekete, Gábor; Larcher, Walter; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K

2008-09-29

18

Role of temperate zone forests in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings of a workshop on carbon uptake and losses from temperate zone forests are presented. The goals of the workshop were to analyze existing data on growth and utilization of the temperate zone forest carbon pool and to identify further research needs in relation to the role of temperate forests in the global carbon cycle. Total standing stock and growth recovery transients were examined for most of the temperate region over a period from pre-settlement times to the present, with emphasis on the last three decades. Because of data availability, certain regions and topics were covered more in detail than others. Forest inventory data from most of the commercial timberlands of the north temperate zone suggest these forests have functioned over the past several decades as an annual sink for about 10/sup 9/ metric tons of carbon. Thus, net growth of these forests has withdrawn carbon from the atmosphere at a rate equivalent, approximately, to 50% of the annual rise in atmospheric carbon. Various data inadequacies make this estimate probably no more precise than plus or minus half of the value. Analysis of growth and vegetation changes in New England and the southeastern United States shows that forest biomass has partly recovered since extensive clearing took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. This regrowth represents a net withdrawal of carbon (carbon sink) from the atmosphere in recent decades, although the difference in pool size between present and original forests means that, in the longer term, the two regions have functioned as carbon sources.

Armentano, T.V.; Hett, J. (eds.)

1979-01-01

19

Climate change and temperate zone insects: the tyranny of thermodynamics meets the world of limited resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change will result in warmer temperatures and an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events. Given that higher temperatures increase the reproductive rate of temperate zone insects, insect population growth rates are predicted to increase in the temperate zone in response to climate. This consensus, however, rests on the assumption that food is freely available. However, under conditions of limited food, the reproductive output of the Texan cricket Gryllus texensis (Cade and Otte) was highest at its current normal average temperature and declined with increasing temperature. Moreover, low food availability decreased survival during a simulated heat wave. Therefore, the effects of climate change on this species, and possibly on many others, are likely to hinge on food availability. Extrapolation from our data suggests that G. texensis will show larger yearly fluctuations in population size as climate change continues, and this will also have ecological repercussions. Only those temperate zone insects with a ready supply of food (e.g., agricultural pests) are likely to experience the predicted increase in population growth in response to climate change; food-limited species are likely to experience a population decline. PMID:23321114

Adamo, Shelley A; Baker, Jillian L; Lovett, Maggie M E; Wilson, Graham

2012-12-01

20

Bead tempering effects on flux cored arc welding heat-affected zone hardness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bead tempering is a technique used to control the maximum heat-affected zone (HAZ) hardness in the base metal. Applications have included pressure vessel repairs, pipeline hot tapping, and structural welding. Although this technique can be effective if closely controlled, its use as standard welding practice is questionable because precise control of bead placement is required. Experimental design software was used to define a test matrix to evaluate the effects of base plate carbon equivalent, heat input, and weld fusion line proximity on HAZ softening of flux cored arc welds. Some quantitative limits have been identified for the application of temperbead techniques. The results showed that tempering increased with base metal carbon equivalent and temperbead cooling time. An empirical formula was developed that is useful for estimating the amount of HAZ hardness reduction from the plate chemistry, welding parameters, and temperbead placement. The formula can determine the welding conditions needed to achieve a desired hardness reduction. Temperbead techniques can be effective for reducing HAZ hardness where very close quality control of the bead placement is possible. however, the use of bead tempering to pass welding procedure qualifications for standard production welding should be avoided because the level of close control is usually not practical.

Kiefer, J.H.

1994-12-31

21

Excremental androgen metabolite concentrations and gonad sizes in temperate zone vs. tropical Stonechats (Saxicola torquata ssp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Many songbirds in the temperate zones have comparatively short breeding seasons and are migratory. This often implies high breeding synchrony and competition for food, space, and mates. Tropical birds, in contrast, tend to be resident and react more flexibly to a more variable onset of environmental conditions conducive for breeding. Therefore, it can be expected that androgen metabolite concentrations in breeding males vary among birds from different latitudes. Studies on tropical birds, however, have revealed inconsistent results suggesting that additional factors not directly related to latitude, modify hormone levels. Furthermore, there is a potential for a phylogenetic bias when comparing birds of different taxonomic groups. In the present study, we compared androgen metabolite concentrations among closely related taxa of hand-raised male stonechats originating from tropical and temperate-zone populations in Kenya (0 degrees latitude), Kazakhstan (52 degrees N), and Ireland (52 degrees N), which differ partly in latitude of their provenance but also in the length of their breeding season (birds from Kazakhstan vs. Ireland). Hand-raised birds were housed in their natural photoperiod under otherwise identical environmental conditions. Androgen levels were determined from excrements to reduce disturbance. All three groups demonstrated a seasonal cycle of androgen metabolite concentrations concomitant with testis growth. Peak androgen metabolite concentrations were significantly lower in Kenyan stonechats compared to Kazakh stonechats. Irish birds had intermediate concentrations. Differences between Kazakh and Kenyan stonechats correlate with latitude, but data from the Irish population suggest the involvement of factors not directly related to latitude. PMID:15504389

Rödl, Thomas; Goymann, Wolfgang; Schwabl, Ingrid; Gwinner, Eberhard

2004-11-01

22

Long term CO2 enrichment in a temperate grassland increases soil respiration during late autumn and winter  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil respiration of terrestrial ecosystems, a major component in the global carbon cycle may comprise a potential positive feedback to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, analyses reflecting seasonal variability of soil CO2 fluxes under long term CO2 enrichment including winter soil respiration are rare. At the Giessen free-air CO2 enrichment in a temperate grassland (Gi-FACE), adding +20% to the ambient CO2 concentration since 1998, we analyzed the seasonal dynamics of soil respiration including dormant seasons. We defined five seasons, with respect to management practices and phenological cycles. For a period of three years (2008-2010), we performed weekly measurements of soil respiration with an LI-8100 soil CO2 efflux survey chamber from four vegetation-free subplots per FACE or control plot and tested for a CO2 effect within the defined seasons. The results revealed a pronounced and repeated increase of soil respiration during winter dormancy. However, during spring and summer season, characterized by strong above- and below-ground plant growth, no significant change in soil respiration was observed at the Gi-FACE under elevated CO2. This suggests (i) that measuring soil respiration only during the vegetative growth period in CO2 enrichment experiments may underestimate the true soil-respiratory CO2 loss (i.e. overestimate the C sequestered), (ii) that additional C assimilated by plants during the growing period, getting transferred below-ground until autumn, will quickly be lost again via enhanced heterotrophic respiration during the off-season, driving the increased winter soil respiration under elevated CO2.

Keidel, Lisa; Moser, Gerald; Kammann, Claudia; Grünhage, Ludger; Müller, Christoph

2014-05-01

23

Photoreceptive oscillators within neurons of the premammillary nucleus (PMM) and seasonal reproduction in temperate zone birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathway for light transmission regulating the reproductive neuroendocrine system in temperate zone birds remains elusive. Based on the evidence provided from our studies with female turkeys, it is suggested that the circadian clock regulating reproductive seasonality is located in putatively photosensitive dopamine-melatonin (DA-MEL) neurons residing in the premammillary nucleus (PMM) of the caudal hypothalamus. Melanopsin is expressed by these neurons; a known photopigment which mediates light information pertaining to the entrainment of the clock. Exposure to a gonad stimulatory photoperiod enhances the activity of the DAergic system within DA-MEL neurons. DAergic activity encoding the light information is transmitted to the pars tuberalis, where thyroid-stimulating hormone, beta (TSH?) cells reside, and induces the release of TSH. TSH stimulates tanycytes lining the base of the third ventricle and activates type 2 deiodinase in the ependymal which enhances triiodothyronine (T3) synthesis. T3 facilitates the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I which stimulates luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone release and gonad recrudescence. These data taken together with the findings that clock genes are rhythmically expressed in the PMM where DA-MEL neurons are localized imply that endogenous oscillators containing photoreceptors within DA-MEL neurons are important in regulating the DA and MEL rhythms that drive the circadian cycle controlling seasonal reproduction. PMID:23453962

Kosonsiriluk, Sunantha; Mauro, Laura J; Chaiworakul, Voravasa; Chaiseha, Yupaporn; El Halawani, Mohamed E

2013-09-01

24

Geographic variation in the age of temperate-zone reptile and amphibian species: Southern Hemisphere species are older  

OpenAIRE

Despite controversy over alternative definitions, the species is the fundamental operational unit of biodiversity, and species are the building-blocks of conservation. But is a ‘species’ from one part of the world the same as a ‘species’ from elsewhere? Our meta-analysis of molecular phylogenetic data reveals that reptile and amphibian species distributed in temperate-zone areas of the Northern Hemisphere are younger than taxa from the Southern Hemisphere, probably reflecting the grea...

Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, Richard

2010-01-01

25

Extractable atrazine and its metabolites in agricultural soils from the temperate humid zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extractable atrazine and its metabolites (hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine) were evaluated in agricultural soils from the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) under laboratory conditions. The experiment was performed with five soils with different properties (organic C, soil texture and atrazine application history), both unamended and treated with atrazine at field application rate. Measurements of the atrazine compounds were made at different time intervals (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) during a 3-month incubation period. Results showed that only hydroxyatrazine was detected in the extractable fraction of the unamended soils, with values remaining relatively constant throughout the incubation period. Atrazine addition notably increased the concentration of the parent compound and its degradation products; deisopropylatrazine and hydroxyatrazine were the main metabolites detected in the extractable fraction of the treated soils, whereas deethylatrazine was not detected. After 7 days incubation, values of total extractable residues, expressed as percentage of initially added atrazine, ranged from 75 to 86% (25-68% of atrazine, 7-11% of hydroxyatrazine and 9-57% of deisopropylatrazine). The values decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks of incubation, showing values of 2-8% in soils with higher atrazine application and from 28 to 30% in soils with lower application history. At the end of the incubation, 2-8% of total extractable residues were still detected (0-4% of atrazine, 2-3% of hydroxyatrazine and 0-2% of deisopropylatrazine), indicating a residual effect of atrazine addition. These variations in the extractable fraction indicated that most added atrazine was rapidly degraded, especially in soils with higher application history. PMID:18246432

Mahía, J; Martín, A; Díaz-Raviña, M

2008-04-01

26

Effects of winter temperature and summer drought on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a temperate peatland  

Science.gov (United States)

Northern peatlands are one of the most important global sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); their ability to sequester C is a natural feedback mechanism controlled by climatic variables such as precipitation, temperature, length of growing season and period of snow cover. In the UK it has been predicted that peatlands could become a net source of carbon in response to climate change with climate models predicting a rise in global temperature of ca. 3oC between 1961-1990 and 2100. Land-atmosphere exchange of CO2in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variations, which have significant short- and long-term effects on carbon sink strength. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) at Auchencorth Moss (55° 47'32 N, 3° 14'35 W, 267 m a.s.l.), a temperate peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Auchencorth Moss is a low-lying, ombrotrophic peatland situated ca. 20 km south-west of Edinburgh. Peat depth ranges from 5 m and the site has a mean annual precipitation of 1155 mm. The vegetation present within the flux measurement footprint comprises mixed grass species, heather and substantial areas of moss species (Sphagnum spp. and Polytrichum spp.). The EC system consists of a LiCOR 7000 closed-path infrared gas analyser for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and water vapour and of a Gill Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer. Over the 10 year period, the site was a consistent yet variable sink of CO2 ranging from -34.1 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -69.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing seasons and mean winter air temperature explained 93% of the variability in summertime sink strength, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant development and productivity were stunted by colder winters causing a net reduction in the annual carbon sink strength of this peatland where autotrophic processes are thought to be dominant. The site is wet throughout most of the year (water table depth < 5 cm below the peat surface), but there are indications that drought enhanced heterotrophic respiration and depressed gross primary productivity (GPP); a sustained drought during the summer of 2010 (maximum water table depth 36 cm below surface) was accompanied by a two-fold increase in total respiration and a 30% decrease in GPP. The cold preceding winter could also have contributed to lowering GPP, and disentangling the confounding adverse effects of drought and winter climate on GPP is thus not straightforward. Whilst 2010 had the smallest NEE in the 2002-2012 period, the largest values were found for years with warm winters and relatively wet growing seasons. A simple parameterisation of the effects of PAR on GPP of and air temperature on ecosystem respiration, suggest that a rise in air temperature of 1° C between 2012 and 2065 could lead to a 73% increase in the carbon sink strength of the peatland, provided hydrological conditions remain unchanged. This demonstrates that climate change is not likely to change this peatland into a carbon source by 2100.

Helfter, Carole; Campbell, Claire; Dinsmore, Kerry; Drewer, Julia; Coyle, Mhairi; Anderson, Margaret; Skiba, Ute; Nemitz, Eiko; Billett, Michael; Sutton, Mark

2014-05-01

27

Radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope compositions of chemically fractionated soil organic matter in a temperate-zone forest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To better understand the role of soil organic matter in terrestrial carbon cycle, carbon isotope compositions in soil samples from a temperate-zone forest were measured for bulk, acid-insoluble and base-insoluble organic matter fractions separated by a chemical fractionation method. The measurements also made it possible to estimate indirectly radiocarbon (14C) abundances of acid- and base-soluble organic matter fractions, through a mass balance of carbon among the fractions. The depth profiles of 14C abundances showed that (1) bomb-derived 14C has penetrated the first 16 cm mineral soil at least; (2) ?14C values of acid-soluble organic matter fraction are considerably higher than those of other fractions; and (3) a significant amount of the bomb-derived 14C has been preserved as the base-soluble organic matter around litter-mineral soil boundary. In contrast, no or little bomb-derived 14C was observed for the base-insoluble fraction in all sampling depths, indicating that this recalcitrant fraction, accounting for approximately 15% of total carbon in this temperate-zone forest soil, plays a role as a long-term sink in the carbon cycle. These results suggest that bulk soil organic matter cannot provide a representative indicator as a source or a sink of carbon in soil, particularly on annual to decadal timescales

28

Anomalous winter winds decrease 2014 transition zone productivity in the NE Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

transport from the North Pacific in winter provides nutrients to a highly productive region in the transition zone between the subarctic and subtropics. This region supports many species of fish, marine mammals, and seabirds. In winter 2013/2014, anomalous winds from the south weakened nutrient transport in the eastern North Pacific, resulting in substantial decreases in phytoplankton biomass. By January 2014, waters were warmer than usual by 3.5°C at the center of an affected area covering ~1.5 × 106 km2. South of this area, winter chlorophyll levels dropped to the lowest levels seen since the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor satellite began taking measurements in 1997. It is anticipated that impacts will be felt in some fisheries and among migrating predators this coming year.

Whitney, Frank A.

2015-01-01

29

Picophytoplankton during the ice-free season in five temperate-zone rivers  

OpenAIRE

Although picophytoplankton (PP) (0.2–2 µm) are ubiquitous in lakes and oceans, their importance in rivers has rarely been studied. We examined PP assemblages during the ice-free period in five rivers of a temperate region varying in trophic state (9–107 µg/L total phosphorus) and water discharge (1–87 m3/s). In these rivers, PP abundance reached concentrations as high as those observed in lakes and oceans (?104–105 cells/mL). The highest density of PP (4.9 × 105 cells/mL) was ob...

Contant, Jacinthe; Pick, Frances R.

2013-01-01

30

Spatially explicit modeling of conflict zones between wildlife and snow sports: prioritizing areas for winter refuges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outdoor winter recreation exerts an increasing pressure upon mountain ecosystems, with unpredictable, free-ranging activities (e.g., ski mountaineering, snowboarding, and snowshoeing) representing a major source of stress for wildlife. Mitigating anthropogenic disturbance requires the spatially explicit prediction of the interference between the activities of humans and wildlife. We applied spatial modeling to localize conflict zones between wintering Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a declining species of Alpine timberline ecosystems, and two free-ranging winter sports (off-piste skiing [including snow-boarding] and snowshoeing). Track data (snow-sports and birds' traces) obtained from aerial photographs taken over a 585-km transect running along the timberline, implemented within a maximum entropy model, were used to predict the occurrence of snow sports and Black Grouse as a function of landscape characteristics. By modeling Black Grouse presence in the theoretical absence of free-ranging activities and ski infrastructure, we first estimated the amount of habitat reduction caused by these two factors. The models were then extrapolated to the altitudinal range occupied by Black Grouse, while the spatial extent and intensity of potential conflict were assessed by calculating the probability of human-wildlife co-occurrence. The two snow-sports showed different distribution patterns. Skiers' occurrence was mainly determined by ski-lift presence and a smooth terrain, while snowshoers' occurrence was linked to hiking or skiing routes and moderate slopes. Wintering Black Grouse avoided ski lifts and areas frequented by free-ranging snow sports. According to the models, Black Grouse have faced a substantial reduction of suitable wintering habitat along the timberline transect: 12% due to ski infrastructure and another 16% when adding free-ranging activities. Extrapolating the models over the whole study area results in an overall habitat loss due to ski infrastructure of 10%, while there was a > 10% probability of human-wildlife encounters on 67% of the remaining area of suitable wintering habitat. Only 23% of the wintering habitat was thus free of anthropogenic disturbance. By identifying zones of potential conflict, while rating its relative intensity, our model provides a powerful tool to delineate and prioritize areas where wildlife winter refuges and visitor steering measures should be implemented. PMID:21639058

Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

2011-04-01

31

Respiratory and cutaneous water loss of temperate-zone passerine birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured respiratory water loss (RWL) and cutaneous water loss (CWL) of 12 species of passerine birds, all from a temperate environment, and related their CWL to classes of lipids within the stratum corneum (SC). We purposed to gain insight into the generality of patterns of CWL in birds that have been generated mostly from studies on species from deserts, and we addressed the hypothesis that CWL is a passive diffusion process. Despite taxonomic and ecological differences among 12 species of temperate birds, mass-specific RWL and surface-specific CWL were statistically indistinguishable across species. When the birds were dead, CWL was reduced by 16.3% suggesting that CWL is, in part, under physiological control. We found that ceramides, cerebrosides, dioscylceramides, cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate, fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acid, sterol esters, and triacylglycerol constituted the intercellular lipids of the avian SC. CWL was positively associated with amount of ceramide 3, but this lipid class represented less than 2% of the total SC lipids. Combining direct measurements (n=24) of RWL with indirect estimates (n=25) yielded the equation log RWL (g H(2)O/d)=-0.86+0.73 (log body mass, g). PMID:20167283

Ro, Jennifer; Williams, Joseph B

2010-06-01

32

Winter energy behaviour in multi-family block buildings in a temperate-cold climate in Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes the thermal and energy behaviour of apartments in three-story block buildings located along a NE-SW axis (azimuth = 120 ) in a temperate-cold climate (latitude: 36 57'; longitude: 64 27') in the city of Santa Rosa, La Pampa, central Argentina. Four apartments had been monitored during May and June 2009. Three of them are located in Block 126. Two of these apartments face South: 15 and 23 on the SE end, ground and first floor, respectively; 18 faces N on the second floor. Finally apartment, 12 is located in Block 374, on the first floor, faces N and shows a carpentry-closed balcony. The purpose of this work is - to study the evolution of the indoor temperature in each apartment; to analyze energy consumption and comfort conditions; to study energy potential and energy intervention in order to reduce energy consumption; to analyze bioclimatic alternatives feasibility and the possibility to extrapolate results to all blocks. On the basis of the analysis of natural gas historical consumption records, results showed that regarding heating energy consumption during the period May-June, Apartment 12, facing N, with its only bedroom facing NW and its carpentry-closed, transparent glass balcony, presented a mean temperature of 21.2 C, using a halogen heater for 6 h/day between 9 pm and 2 am (0.16 kWh/day/m{sup 2}). Apartment 15, on the SE end, first floor of the block consumed 22.5 kWh/day (0.43 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.2 C). Apartment 23, located on the second and top floor (on top of Apartment 15) with higher energy loss, consumed 28 kWh/day (0.54 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature 23.7 C). Apartment 18, also on the second floor and facing N, located in the centre and with its only bedroom facing SE, consumed 18.8 kWh/day (0.48 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.3 C). Apartment 23, with higher thermal loss through its envelope, but with heat transfer from the apartment located below, is the one that showed the highest level of consumption/m{sup 2}. Closing the balcony with carpentry produced an important reduction of energy consumption while reaching comfort conditions. The analysis of the experimental results allowed: (a) to determine through analysis of historical consumption of natural gas prior to the year 2009 that the owner lived under conditions of comfort, (b) to evaluate possible interventions in the building that would lead to saving heating energy. Thermal insulation of roof and envelope appears as the most feasible alternative whereas closing balconies constitute a very good design option in winter. (author)

Filippin, C. [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); Larsen, S. Flores [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); INENCO - Instituto de Investigaciones en Energias No Convencionales, U.N.Sa., CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150 - CP 4400, Salta Capital (Argentina); Mercado, V. [LAHV-Laboratorio de Ambienet Humano y Vivienda (INCIHUSA-CCT-CONICET) (Argentina)

2011-01-15

33

Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded the recommended concentrations for freshwater plants after one year. The new soil formation and vegetation recovery depends mainly on the rate of biological production. In tropical climate the vegetation largely recovered already after the first rainy season and supported the new soil formation. In temperate climate this process was much slower, in particular in flat lying areas and on coastal dunes with poor sandy soils. In polar climate only limited vegetation recovery (mainly of Salix species) has been observed after 12 years and vegetation withered due to salt stress still marked the tsunami inundation limit and the new soil formation was very slow and focused on low lying, wet areas buried with thin tsunami deposits cover. The post-tsunami recovery processes may be grouped into climate-related (vegetation recovery, removal of salts from soils) and non climate-related (e.g. beach recovery) or modified by climatic and local factors (for instance, the rate of tsunami deposits reworking and thus new soil formation). The rate of recovery varies from days / weeks as in case of beach recovery to several decades as in case of new soil formation on tsunami deposits. The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. The review results from studies in collaboration with number of researchers from Australia, Japan, Poland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States to whom I express sincere thanks.

Szczucinski, W.

2013-12-01

34

Winter accumulation in the percolation zone of Greenland measured by airborne radar altimeter  

OpenAIRE

We here determine the surface elevation and the winter snow accumulation rate along a profile in the percolation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet from data collected with ESA's Airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) in spring 2004. The altimeter data show that in addition to a backscatter peak at the air-snow interface a dominant second peak occurs. This second peak appears due to the strong scattering properties of the last summer surface layer. A robust re-tracking algo...

Helm, V.; Rack, W.; Cullen, R.; Nienow, P.; Mair, D.; Parry, V.; Wingham, D. J.

2007-01-01

35

Influence of the sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific subarctic frontal zone on the pink salmon's winter survival ability  

Science.gov (United States)

Similar to other high-latitude ocean basins, the subarctic Pacific exhibits strong seasonal and inter-annual variations in the abiotic factors of the environment, which, in turn, strongly influence biological objects. One of the principal factors of this kind is the temperature regime. For our research, we chose pink salmon because more than 90% of its natural mortality occurs precisely during the wintering period. The lifetime of pink salmon is only one year, and the conditions of their populations reflect the thermal regime of the given year. The main wintering area of Asian pink salmon is the part of the subarctic frontal zone located south of the Aleutian Islands (43° 46°N). This region features sufficiently high wintertime concentrations of chlorophyll a and temperature conditions favorable for pink salmon wintering. The interannual temperature variability in the frontal zone is close to zero, and the width of the frontal zone may significantly change depending on the winter severity. In “milder” winters, the area of wintering extends, while, in “severe” winters, it is rather narrow, the forage base for fish decreases, they become more accessible for predators, and their survival rates sharply drop.

Tananaeva, Yu. N.

2008-06-01

36

Picophytoplankton during the ice-free season in five temperate-zone rivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although picophytoplankton (PP) (0.2-2 µm) are ubiquitous in lakes and oceans, their importance in rivers has rarely been studied. We examined PP assemblages during the ice-free period in five rivers of a temperate region varying in trophic state (9-107 µg/L total phosphorus) and water discharge (1-87 m(3)/s). In these rivers, PP abundance reached concentrations as high as those observed in lakes and oceans (?10(4)-10(5) cells/mL). The highest density of PP (4.9 × 10(5) cells/mL) was observed in the most eutrophic river when the water temperature (28°C) and total phosphorus (293 µg/L) were highest. For the most part, PP abundance was dominated by non-phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacteria; phycocyanin-rich cells accounted for ?75% of PP abundance in all the rivers. In multiple regression analyses, water temperature and nitrate concentrations explained about half of the variation in PP abundance across the rivers. Discharge had no effect on PP abundance or biomass, whereas it had a significant negative effect on total algal biomass among the rivers. The PP contribution to total chlorophyll-a averaged 27% (ranging 16-46%) and did not decline with increasing nutrients as found in lakes and oceans. The PP biomass from microscopic enumerations reached a maximum of 9% of total phytoplankton biomass, comparable with that observed in lakes. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of including picophytoplankton when analysing phytoplankton communities in rivers. PMID:23641118

Contant, Jacinthe; Pick, Frances R

2013-05-01

37

Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal the phylogeographic pattern of Cotinus coggygria (Anacardiaceae) in China's warm-temperate zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phylogeography of common and widespread species helps to elucidate the history of local flora and vegetation. In this study, we selected Cotinus coggygria, a species widely distributed in China's warm-temperate zone. One chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region and ecological niche modelling were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern of C. coggygria. The cpDNA data revealed two phylogeographic groups (Southern and Northern) corresponding to the geographic regions. Divergence time analyses revealed that divergence of the two groups occurred at approximately 147,000 years before the present (BP), which coincided with the formation of the downstream area of the Yellow River, indicating that the Yellow River was a weak phylogeographic divide for C. coggygria. The molecular data and ecological niche modelling also indicated that C. coggyria did not experience population expansion after glaciations. This study thus supports the fact that Pleistocene glacial cycles only slightly affected C. coggygria, which survived in situ and occupied multiple localised glacial refugia during glaciations. This finding is contrary to the hypothesis of large-scale range habitat contraction and retreat into a few main refugia. PMID:24494998

Wang, W; Tian, C Y; Li, Y H; Li, Y

2014-11-01

38

[Seasonal variations of calorific values of Pinus koraiensis-broadleaved mixed forest litters and soil macrofauna in China temperate zone].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the calorific values of Pinus koraiensis-broadleaved mixed forest litters and soil microfauna in China temperate zone were determined, with their seasonal variation patterns studied. The results showed that both the calorific values and their seasonal variation patterns were differed with the kinds of tree species litters and soil macrofauna in the mixed forest. The mean gross calorific value (GCV) of P. koraiensis litter was the highest (19.71 kJ x g(-1)), followed by Betula costata (18.22 kJ x g(-1)), Tilia amurensis (18.13 kJ x g(-1)), mixed litter (17.91 kJ x g(-1)), Fraxinus mandshurica (16.94 kJ x g(-1)), and Acer mono (16.25 kJ x g(-1)). With the decomposition of litter, the GCV of P. koraiensis and A. mono litters decreased, while that of F. mandshurica litter had little change. The GCV of T. amurensis and B. costata litters presented an increasing trend in the next year of decomposition. Among the marofauna, scolopendra had the highest GCV (22.07 kJ x g(-1)), followed by earthworm (16.72 kJ x g(-1)) and diplopod (13.28 kJ x g(-1)). Earthworm and diplopod had the identical seasonal variation pattern of GCV, while scolopendra was different from them. There was no significant relationship between the seasonal variation of GCV in litters and soil macrofauna. PMID:17615867

Yin, Xiu-Qin; Xin, Wei-Dong; Qi, Yan-Hong

2007-04-01

39

Litter decomposition and soil respiration in response to increased rainfall variability, winter warming and altered cutting frequency in a temperate grassland  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is likely to alter decomposition rates through direct effects on soil biotic activity and indirect effects on litter quality with possible impacts on the global carbon budget and nutrient cycling. Currently, there is an urgent need to study combined effects of various climatic drivers and of agricultural practise on decomposition. In an in-situ litter bag experiment, we studied effects of rainfall variability (including drought plus heavy rain pulses and regular irrigation) interacting with winter warming and increased winter precipitation and with changes in cutting frequency, on decomposition in a temperate grassland. Litter bags contained mixed and species-specific litter out of all different climate and land-use manipulations and were placed within the plots of litter origin. Moreover, we aimed to disentangle causes for altered decomposition by following two further approaches: To study effects of changed leaf chemicals due to the manipulations we placed litter out of the experiment that has been pre-exposed to the manipulations before on an untreated standard plot outside the experiment. To assess effects of changed soil faunal activity, we investigated decomposition of standard material under differing rainfall variability. We further compare the observed decomposition results with soil respiration data. Decomposition was reduced when litter bags were exposed to drought for six weeks within an 11 months period. Neither additional winter rain nor winter warming had an effect on decomposition, probably because winter warming reduced snow cover and increased variability of surface temperatures. Climate manipulations did not change litter quality. Further, decomposition on the untreated standard plot was not affected by the climate manipulations that the litter previously was exposed to. Thus, reduced decomposition under extreme rainfall variability and drought may be mainly caused by a decrease in soil biotic activity, as indicated by reduced decomposition of standard material during drought. More frequent cutting strongly stimulated decomposition, however, this stimulating effect was absent under extreme rainfall variability including drought. The stimulation of decomposition under more frequent cutting was attributed to changes in litter quality, namely a decrease in C/N ratio. Accordingly, litter from more frequently cut communities decomposed faster on the untreated control plot outside the experiment. Projected increases in drought frequency and increased rainfall variability under climate change may inhibit decomposition and alter nutrient and carbon cycling along with soil quality. Especially decomposition in frequently cut grassland appears vulnerable towards drought.

Kreyling, Juergen; Walter, Julia; Grant, Kerstin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Jentsch, Anke

2013-04-01

40

Effect of low winter temperatures on milk production of dairy cows grazed on farms in a warm temperate climate (Australia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-day milk production figures for dairymen at Armidale (31° S Lat.) and Goulburn (35° S Lat.), Australia, were compared with minimum daily temperatures. Comparisons were made between production levels on days with temperatures above and below 0°C, and between days with varying intensities of cold: differences in production were minor. The infrequent, more prolonged periods of cold weather (“cold” being days on which the minimum temperature was below 0°C) were also associated with only very slight reductions in milk output; and the most pronounced decline in production was not attributable to low temperatures. Although short-term fluctuations in output were not related to low temperature events or low temperatures in combination with rain, thermal stress on plant growth during winter contributed to a seasonal downturn in production and below-average annual milk yields in areas with low winter temperatures.

Dragovich, D.

1980-06-01

41

Effect of summer throughfall exclusion, summer drought, and winter snow cover on methane fluxes in a temperate forest soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil moisture strongly controls the uptake of atmospheric methane by limiting the diffusion of methane into the soil, resulting in a negative correlation between soil moisture and methane uptake rates under most non-drought conditions. However, little is known about the effect of water stress on methane uptake in temperate forests during severe droughts. We simulated extreme summer droughts by exclusion of 168 mm (2001) and 344 mm (2002) throughfall using three translucent roofs in a mixed deciduous forest at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. The treatment significantly increased CH4 uptake during the first weeks of throughfall exclusion in 2001 and during most of the 2002 treatment period. Low summertime CH4 uptake rates were found only briefly in both control and exclusion plots during a natural late summer drought, when water contents below 0.15 g cm-3 may have caused water stress of methanotrophs in the A horizon. Because these soils are well drained, the exclusion treatment had little effect on A horizon water content between wetting events, and the effect of water stress was smaller and more brief than was the overall treatment effect on methane diffusion. Methane consumption rates were highest in the A horizon and showed a parabolic relationship between gravimetric water content and CH4 consumption, with maximum rate at 0.23 g H2O g-1 soil. On average, about 74% of atmospheric CH4 was consumed in the top 4-5 cm of the mineral soil. By contrast, little or no CH4 consumption occurred in the O horizon. Snow cover significantly reduced the uptake rate from December to March. Removal of snow enhanced CH4 uptake by about 700-1000%, resulting in uptake rates similar to those measured during the growing season. Soil temperatures had little effect on CH4 uptake as long as the mineral soil was not frozen, indicating strong substrate limitation of methanotrophs throughout the year. Our results suggest that the extension of snow periods may affect the annual rate of CH4 oxidation and that summer droughts may increase the soil CH4 sink of temperate forest soils. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Borken, W.; Davidson, E.A.; Savage, K.; Sundquist, E.T.; Steudler, P.

2006-01-01

42

Biological soil crusts are the main contributor to winter soil respiration in a temperate desert ecosystem of China  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a key biotic component of desert ecosystems worldwide. However, most studies carried out to date on carbon (fluxes) in these ecosystems, such as soil respiration (RS), have neglected them. Also, winter RS is reported to be a significant component of annual carbon budget in other ecosystems, however, we have less knowledge about winter RS of BSCs in winter and its contribution to carbon cycle in desert regions. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study were to: (i) quantify the effects of different BSCs types (moss crust, algae crust, physical crust) on the winter RS; (ii) explore relationships of RS against soil temperature and water content for different BSCs, and (iii) assess the relative contribution of BSCs to the annual amount of C released by RS at desert ecosystem level. Methods Site Description The study sites are located at the southeast fringe of the Tengger Desert in the Shapotou region of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [37°32'N and 105°02'E, at 1340 m above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.)], western China. The mean daily temperature in January is -6.9°C , while it is 24.3°C in July. The mean annual precipitation is 186 mm, approximately 80% of which falls between May and September. The annual potential evaporation is 2800 mm. The landscape of the Shapotou region is characterized by large and dense reticulate barchans chains of sand dunes that migrate south-eastward at a velocity of 3-6 m per year. The soil is loose, infertile and mobile and can thus be classified as orthic sierozem and Aeolian sandy soil. Additionally, the soil has a consistent gravimetric water content that ranges from 3 to 4%. The groundwater in the study area is too deep (>60 m) to support large areas of the native vegetation cover; therefore, precipitation is usually the only source of freshwater. The predominant native plants are Hedysarum scoparium Fisch. and Agriophyllum squarrosum Moq., Psammochloa cillosa Bor, which scattered distribute with cover about 1% of the entire study area. Prior to revegetation, straw-checkerboards approximately 1×1 m2 in area were constructed using wheat or rice straw to stabilize the dune surface and allow time for the planted xerophytic shrubs to adapt to the new environment. In 1956, the following 2-year-old xerophytic shrub seedlings were planted within the checkerboard at a density of 16 individuals per 100 m2 and grown without irrigation: Artemisia ordosica Krasch, H. scoparium Fisch, Calligonum mongolicum Turc'z, Caragana microphylla Lam., Caragana korshinskii Kom, Salix gordejevii and Atraphaxis bracteata A.Los. The stabilized area was then expanded to parallel areas in 1964 and 1982 using the same method and species. As a result, the initial stages of change that have occurred at these sites were similar. After more than fifties years succession, the predominant plants are semi-shrubs, shrubs, forbs, and grasses at present and BSCs formed. The common BSCs in the region may be dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, or any combination of these organisms. Cyanobacteria species include Microcolous vaginatus Gom., Hydrocoleus violacens Gom., Lyngbya crytoraginatus Schk., Phormidium amblgum Gom., P. autumnale (Ag.) Gom., P. foveolarum (Mont.) Gom. and Phormidium luridum (Kutz) Gom. etc; algal species mainly include Anabaena azotica Ley, Euglena sp., Hantzschia amphioxys var capitata Grum, Oscillatoria obscura Gom., O. pseudogeminate G. Schm. And Scytonema javanicum (Kutz) Bornet Flash etc; lichen species include Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach., Endocarpon pusillum Hedw.; and moss species are dominated by Bryum argenteum Hedw., Didymodon constrictus (Mitt.) Saito., Tortula bidentata Bai Xue Liang and T. desertorum Broth.. Experimental Design and Rs measurements On October 2010, We selected the moss-dominated BSCs at four revegetation sites and natural vegetation sites, in which 3 replicated plots were selected randomly. In each plot, olyvinyl chloride (PVC) collar (lenth 10 cm, internal diameter 10cm ) were inserted 7 cm into the soil. During the

He, M. Z.

2012-04-01

43

Prediction of gas/particle partition quotients of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in north temperate zone air: an empirical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning process is an important factor governing the transport and fate of chemicals in the atmosphere. Based on a large dataset of more than 700 pairs of air samples in gaseous and particulate phases with a wide ambient temperature range of 60°C from -22°C to +38°C obtained from our Chinese POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program, Phase 2 (China-SAMP-II), we investigated G/P partitioning behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) in Chinese air. We derived for the first time empirical equations to predict the values of slopes and intercepts for both subcooled-liquid-vapor-pressure (PL)-based and octanol-air-partition-coefficient (KOA)-based models as functions of temperature, and thus predicted partition quotient (KP) without assuming an equilibrium status and free of artifacts. These equations have been successfully applied to predict the values of KP for PBDEs in air of China and other countries in the north temperate zone (NTZ) and also at an Arctic site in East Greenland, and our results matched the monitoring data well at background, rural, urban, and suburban sites, but not at e-waste sites due to the unpredictable PBDE emissions at these sites. Our equations predicted that the ranges of slopes were 0.02-0.82 for logKP-logKOA plots and -0.82 to -0.02 for logKP-logPL plots at temperatures ranged of 60°C from -22°C to +38°C. Our new KOA-based equation was compared with the Harner-Bidleman equation that was derived at a condition of equilibrium, and the results indicated that our new equation has a better performance than the Harner-Bidleman equation in describing G/P partitioning behavior of PBDEs in air as functions of logKOA. We also found for the first time that the G/P partitioning of PBDE congeners would become saturated in the particulate phase respect to the gas phase if the ambient temperature is low enough. A criterion to classify the equilibrium and nonequilibrium status for PBDEs was also established using logKOA. The study presented in this paper provides a useful tool for environmental scientists in both monitoring and modeling research on G/P partitioning behavior for PBDEs in air. PMID:25042246

Li, Yi-Fan; Jia, Hong-Liang

2014-10-01

44

Relation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sensitive Reflectance Ratios to Carbon FluxMeasurements ofMontanne Grassland and Norway Spruce Forest Ecosystems in the Temperate Zone.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 2012, ?. 2012 (2012), s. 1-13. ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Chlorophyll fluorescence * carbon flux * forest ecosystems * Norway Spruce * temperate zone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2012

A?, Alexander; Malenovský, Z.; Urban, Otmar; Hanuš, Jan; Zitová, Martina; Navrátil, M.; Vráblová, M.; Olejní?ková, Julie; Špunda, V.; Marek, Michal V.

2012-01-01

45

Root and soil carbon distribution at shoulderslope and footslope positions of temperate toposequences cropped to winter wheat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Crop root residues are an important source of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arable systems. However, the spatial distribution of root biomass in arable systems remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of macro-root and shoot biomass of winter wheat at shoulderslope and footslope positions from four cultivated slopes within an arable field in western Denmark. In addition, soils from the shoulderslope and footslope positions of four slopes were characterized for physical and chemical properties. Root biomass dry matter (DM) was marginally higher (P = 0.06) at footslope (1.2 Mg DM ha- 1) than at shoulderslope positions (0.9 Mg DM ha? 1), in particular in the subsoil. Likewise shoot biomass was higher (P = 0.03) at footslope (10.3 Mg DM ha? 1) compared to shoulderslope (7.1 Mg DM ha? 1) positions. Soil bulk density increased with depth at shoulderslope positions, but was more variable with depth at footslope positions. Root C was significantly correlated with SOC in shoulderslope soils (r = 0.98), but not in footslope soils. We conclude that, at shoulderslope positions, SOC originated mainly from root residues whereas at footslope positions, SOC was derived from both root residues and likely soil redistribution processes. Management practices that increase C input at shoulderslope positions potentially enhance soil carbon storage and increase crop productivity, which would probably not be the case for C rich footslope soils. These findings imply that models used to simulate or predict C dynamics and crop productivity should consider topography-controlled variations in root C input and SOC redistribution as well as their effects on soil properties, root growth and crop productivity.

Chirinda, Ngoni; Roncossek, Svenja Doreen

2014-01-01

46

Holocene climate variability in the Winter Rainfall Zone of South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes and grain size of terrigenous fraction, and ?18O and ?13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700–100 yr BP. Wet phases were accompanied by strengthened coastal water upwellings, a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the southern Atlantic, and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS between 9000 and 5500 yr BP parallel with increase of dust deposition over Antarctica and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the southeastern Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and leakage of warm water in southern Atlantic, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies that may result in a decline of rainfall over southwest Africa and a weakened upwelling with implication for phytoplankton productivity and fish stocks. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation that is critical as moisture source for the endemic flora of the Namaqualand.

S. Weldeab

2013-05-01

47

Holocene climate variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes, grain size of terrigenous fraction, and ?18O and ?13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the winter rainfall zone (WRZ of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700–100 cal years BP most likely in response to a northward shift of the austral westerlies. Wet phases and strengthened coastal water upwellings are companied by a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the South Atlantic and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica, as indicated in previous studies. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS between 9000 and 5500 cal years BP parallel with increase of dust deposition over Antarctica and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the eastern South Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and leakage of warm water in the South Atlantic, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation.

S. Weldeab

2013-10-01

48

Holocene climate variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes, grain size of terrigenous fraction, and ?18O and ?13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off Western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700–100 yr BP. Wet phases were accompanied by strengthened coastal water upwellings, a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the Southern Atlantic, and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the Southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS between 9000 and 5500 yr BP parallel with evidence of a poleward shift of the austral mid-latitude westerlies and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the Southeastern Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and changes in the amount of Agulhas water leakage into the Southern BUS. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies that may result in a decline of rainfall over Southwest Africa and a weakened upwelling with implication for phytoplankton productivity and fish stocks. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the Southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation that is critical as moisture source for the endemic flora of the Namaqualand.

S. Weldeab

2012-06-01

49

Effect of chemical composition of 10GN2MFA steel and grain size on mechanical properties of metal of heat affected zone on tempering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made on the effect of variation of chemical composition of heat-resistant 10GN2MFA steel on mechanical properties of metal of heat affected zone at tempering temperature. Possibility of compensating the influence of alloying and impurity elements on tendency to crack formation on repeated heating (CRH) by grain grinding in large-grain section of overheating was investigated. It is shown that application of parametric equations for evaluation of tendency of steels of different chemical compositions to CRH is limited, because these equations don't enable to evaluate the combined effect of all chemical elements, conditioned by interaction of processes of dispersion hardening, impurity segregation and creep under stress relaxation

50

Effects of storm runoff on the thermal regime and water quality of a deep, stratified reservoir in a temperate monsoon zone, in Northwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jinpen Reservoir is a deep, stratified reservoir in Shaanxi province, located in a warm temperate zone of Northwest China. Influenced by a temperate monsoon climate, more than 60% of the annual precipitation is concentrated from late summer to autumn (July-September). In recent years, extreme rainfall events occurred more frequently and strongly affected the thermal structure, mixing layer depth and evolution of stratification of Jinpen Reservoir. The reservoir's inflow volume increased sharply after heavy rainfall during the flooding season. Large volumes of inflow induced mixing of stratified water zones in early autumn and disturbed the stratification significantly. A temporary positive effect of such disturbance was the oxygenation of the water close to the bottom of the reservoir, leading to inhibition of the release of nutrients from sediments, especially phosphate. However, the massive inflow induced by storm runoff with increased oxygen-consuming substances led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate. After the bottom water became anaerobic again, the bottom water quality would deteriorate due to the release of pollutants from sediments. Heavy rainfall events could lead to very high nutrient input into the reservoir due to massive erosion from the surrounding uninhabited steep mountains, and the particulate matter contributed to most nutrient inputs. Reasonably releasing density flow is an effective way to reduce the amounts of particulate associated pollutants entering the reservoir. Significant turbid density flow always followed high rainfall events in Jinpen Reservoir, which not only affected the reservoir water quality but also increased costs of the drinking water treatment plant. Understanding the effects of the storm runoff on the vertical distributions of water quality indicators could help water managers to select the proper position of the intake for the water plant in order to avoid high turbidity outflow. PMID:24485908

Huang, Tinglin; Li, Xuan; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim; Ma, Weixing; Sun, Xin; Xu, Jinlan

2014-07-01

51

Winter stream temperature in the rain-on-snow zone of the Pacific northwest: influences of hillslope runoff and transient snow cover  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stream temperature dynamics during winter are less well studied than summer thermal regimes, but the winter season thermal regime can be critical for fish growth and development in coastal catchments. The winter thermal regimes of Pacific Northwest headwater streams, which provide vital winter habitat for salmonids and their food sources, may be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because they can remain ice-free throughout the year and are often located in rain-on-snow zones. This study examined winter stream temperature patterns and controls in small headwater catchments within the rain-on-snow zone at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Two hypotheses were addressed by this study: (1 winter stream temperatures are primarily controlled by advective fluxes associated with runoff processes and (2 stream temperatures should be depressed during rain-on-snow events, compared to rain-on-bare-ground, due to the cooling effect of rain passing through the snowpack prior to infiltrating the soil or being delivered to the stream as saturation-excess overland flow. A reach-scale energy budget analysis of two winter seasons revealed that the advective energy input associated with hillslope runoff overwhelms the effects of energy exchanges at the stream surface during rain and rain-on-snow events. Historical stream temperature data and modelled snowpack dynamics were used to explore the influence of transient snow cover on stream temperature over 13 winters. When snow was not present, daily stream temperature during winter rain events tended to increase with increasing air temperature. However, when snow was present, stream temperature was capped at about 5 °C, regardless of air temperature. The stream energy budget modelling and historical analysis support both of our hypotheses. A key implication is that climatic warming may generate higher winter stream temperatures in the rain-on-snow zone due to both increased rain temperature and reduced cooling effect of snow cover.

J. A. Leach

2013-10-01

52

Seasonal and Interseasonal Dynamics of Bluetongue Virus Infection of Dairy Cattle and Culicoides sonorensis Midges in Northern California – Implications for Virus Overwintering in Temperate Zones  

Science.gov (United States)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the cause of an economically important arboviral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The occurrence of BTV infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal in temperate regions of the world, thus we determined the dynamics of BTV infection (using BTV-specific real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) among sentinel cattle and vector Culicoides sonorensis (C. sonorensis) midges on a dairy farm in northern California throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal (overwintering) periods of BTV activity from August 2012 until March 2014. The data confirmed widespread infection of both sentinel cattle and vector midges during the August – November period of seasonal BTV transmission, however BTV infection of parous female midges captured in traps set during daylight hours also was detected in February of both 2013 and 2014, during the interseasonal period. The finding of BTV-infected vector midges during mid-winter suggests that BTV may overwinter in northern California by infection of long-lived female C. sonorensis midges that were infected during the prior seasonal period of virus transmission, and reemerged sporadically during the overwintering period; however the data do not definitively preclude other potential mechanisms of BTV overwintering that are also discussed. PMID:25215598

Mayo, Christie E.; Mullens, Bradley A.; Reisen, William K.; Osborne, Cameron J.; Gibbs, E. Paul J.; Gardner, Ian A.; MacLachlan, N. James

2014-01-01

53

Patrones geográficos de distribuci??n de árboles y arbustos en la zona de transición climática mediterráneo-templada de Chile Geographic patterns of distribution of trees and shrubs in the transitional Mediterranean-temperate climatic zone of Chile  

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Full Text Available Uno de los principales objetivos de la biogeografía es determinar si las especies se distribuyen en el espacio en forma aleatoria o si existen grupos de especies con patrones de distribución comunes. En el presente estudio determinamos a través de técnicas cuantitativas si existen corotipos, es decir, grupos de especies con patrones de distribución común entre los árboles y arbustos en la zona de transición climática mediterráneo-templada de Chile, Octava Región de Chile. Adicionalmente, evaluamos la relación entre el clima y la distribución de los diferentes grupos de árboles y arbustos de la Octava Región. El análisis de agrupamiento de especies permitió definir 24 corotipos significativos, de los cuales 18 responden significativamente con alguna variable ambiental analizada. La temperatura media anual, la temperatura media invernal y la temperatura media de verano resultaron ser las variables que mejor explican el patrón de distribución de la mayoría de los corotipos. Las tendencias geográficas de los corotipos y su relación con las variables ambientales fueron evaluadas mediante un análisis de ordenación. Los resultados señalan que los corotipos con distribución en la cordillera de los Andes se correlacionan con la temperatura de invierno en tanto que los corotipos con distribución costera se correlacionan con la mediterraneidad. Se discute respecto de la utilización de una nueva aproximación para el análisis fitogeográfico y de su utilidad en el estudio de la relación entre la vegetación y los factores ambientales que determinan su distribuciónOne main aim of biogeography is to determine if species are randomly distributed or if there exist groups of species with common distributional patterns known as chorotypes. In this study, we determined through quantitative techniques if there exists such chorotypes for trees and shrubs in the transitional Mediterranean-temperate climatic zone of Chile, Eigth Administrative Region of Chile. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between climate and distribution of the different chorotypes. The analyses allowed defining 24 significant chorotypes, 18 of which were significantly associated with some used environmental variable. Mean annual temperature, mean summer temperature and mean winter temperature were the variables that explained the distribution of most of the chorotypes. The geographic tendencies of chorotypes and their relationship with environmental variables were evaluated with canonical correspondence analysis. The results indicated that chorotypes distributed in the Andes Range were correlated with the mean winter temperature, whereas chorotypes with coastal distribution were correlated with mediterreanity. We discusses the use of new approaches for phytogeographic analysis and its utility in the study of the relationship between vegetation and environmental factors that determine its distribution

ERNESTO A. TENEB

2004-03-01

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Evaluation of energy efficient design strategies for different climatic zones: Comparison of thermal performance of buildings in temperate-humid and hot-dry climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the Kyoto protocol signed in December 1997 the majority of governments around the world have committed themselves to reducing the emission of the greenhouse gases. Thus, efficient use of energy and sustainability has become a key issue for the most energy policies. Sustainability and energy saving terms take place in building construction industry too since buildings are one of the most significant energy consumers. It is known that heating energy demand of a building has a great rate in building total energy consumption. In addition to that, the most of the heating energy has been lost from building envelope. TS 825, Heating Energy Conservation Standard for Buildings in Turkey, aims the reducing of heat loss in buildings through the envelope. But within buildings, one of the fastest growing sources of new energy demand is cooling and especially in hot-humid and hot-dry climatic parts of Turkey the cooling season is much longer than the heating season. Moreover in hot-dry climate heat storage capacity of the envelope becomes more important issue than heat insulation for energy efficiency of the building. Since the Turkish standard is considering only heating energy conservation by using degree-day concept, Istanbul and Mardin are considered in the same zone, however those are in temperate-humid and hot-dry climatic zones, respectively. In this study energy efficient design strategies for these climatic zones have been explained and thermal performance of two buildings, which are constructed according to the TS 825 in Mardin and Istanbul cities were evaluated to show the importance of thermal mass in hot-dry climates. (author)

Yilmaz, Z. [Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Taskisla, Taksim (Turkey)

2007-07-01

55

Seasonal succession of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental factors of North Temperate Zone water of the Zhalong Wetland, in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

A data set of phytoplankton community and environmental parameters in a hydrological integrity period, i.e. a poor water term, a medium term and a rich water term of North Temperate Zone climate, was analyzed in order to describe seasonal variation of phytoplankton community and its relationship with environmental variables in the Zhalong Wetland of China. The algal population of the Zhalong Wetland was not abundant, with a mean density of 5.08 × 10(7) cell/L (ranged from 4.54 × 10(7) cell/L in a poor term to 5.56 × 10(7) cell/L a medium term). However, its diversity was essentially limited to Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta being the group with highest densities. There were considerable seasonal variations in phytoplankton composition. In general, the dominance of Bacillariophyceae was found in a medium term, which was higher than the other period (p water period also showed Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyta dominance while the phytoplankton was dominated by Cryptophyta erosa in a poor water term. 10 environmental variables, which were significant (p water temperature (WT) and ammonia (NH3-N) significantly influenced the phytoplankton community (p physic-chemical variables were nitrite (NO2-N), suspend solid, nitrate (NO3-N), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and all the 10 physical-chemical parameters had a higher marginal effect and ?A in the series of constrained CCAs though they were not significant. PMID:24756328

Ma, Yun; Li, Guibai; Li, Jing; Zhou, Hao; Jiang, Bing

2014-05-01

56

Evaluation on energy and thermal performance for residential envelopes in hot summer and cold winter zone of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of rapid economic growth in the last several decades, energy issue is becoming more and more important in today's world because of a possible energy shortage in the future; the usage of residential electricity has increased rapidly in China and building energy efficiency is included as one of the 10 key programs targeting energy efficiency improvement in the 11th Five-Year Plan. In response to the growing concerns about energy conservation in residential buildings and its implications for the environment, systematic evaluation on energy and thermal Performance for residential envelops (EETP) is put forward to assess the energy efficiency of envelop designs and to calculate the energy consumption of cooling and heating systems. Hot summer and cold winter zone of China was selected for EETP analysis because of its rigorous climatic and huge energy consumption. The correlations between EETPs and electricity consumptions in cooling season, heating season, and the whole year were built in Shanghai, Changsha, Shaoguan and Chengdu, which represent A, B, C and D subzone of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, respectively. Illustrations indicate that the algorithm is simple and effective, energy and thermal performance of residential envelopes can be evaluated easily. The maximum allowable values of EETPs were determined when just meeting the compulsory indices of Standard JGJ134-2001, the corresponding allowable EETPs were also gained when achieving differens were also gained when achieving different energy-saving degrees on basis of it. EETP method can suggest possible ways to improve the energy efficiency for envelope designs of new building and retrofits of existing buildings and provide governments some useful information for the establishment of new policy on energy efficiency buildings. It has important meanings to carry out sustainable residential building designs with high thermal comfort and low energy consumption.

57

Temperate grasslands.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ipswich : Salem Press - EBSCO Publishing, 2013 - (Howarth, R.), s. 182-187 ISBN 978-1-4298-3813-9 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : grassland * temperate biome * ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

Alba, Christina

58

Determinação por cromatografia gasosa de açúcares em frutíferas de clima temperado / Gas chromatography determination of sugars in temperate-zone fruit trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As frutíferas de clima temperado apresentam o fenômeno da dormência. Na saída da dormência, há a conversão do amido para açúcares solúveis, como substrato para a retomada de crescimento na primavera. Visando à maior compreensão da fisiologia das plantas em respostas a eventos, como as variações clim [...] áticas, estresses e problemas de adaptação, desenvolveu-se este trabalho, no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado, com o objetivo de descrever uma metodologia para a determinação das concentrações dos açúcares solúveis (frutose, sorbitol, alfa-glicose, beta-glicose e sacarose), em tecidos vegetais de frutíferas, via cromatografia gasosa. O cromatógrafo utilizado para as análises dos açúcares por essa metodologia é o GAS CHROMATOGRAPH e a coluna do tipo Packed Column J. K. de 3,2mm de diâmetro por 2m de comprimento, empacotada com Silicone SE-52 Uniport HP 80/100 mesh. Através da cromatografia gasosa, obtêm-se eficiência e resolução cromatográfica, para análises de açúcares solúveis, sendo, desta forma, vantajoso e executável esse tipo de análise pelo método descrito. Abstract in english The temperate-zone deciduous fruit trees present the phenomenon of dormancy. In that period, there is the conversion of the starch in soluble sugars, as substratum for the resumption of growth in the spring. Seeking to better understanding the physiology of the plants in answers to events as the cli [...] matic variations, stresses and adaptation problems, this study was done in the Laboratory of Crop Physiology of Embrapa Temperate Climate, with the objective of describing a methodology for determination of concentrations of the soluble sugars (fructose, sorbitol, alpha-glucose, beta-glucose and sucrose), in tissues of fruit tree, through gaseous chromatography. The chromatograph used for the analyses of the sugars was the GAS CHROMATOGRAPH with the column of the type Packed Column J. K. of 3,2mm of diameter for 2m of length packed with Silicon IF-52 Uniport HP 80/100 mesh. Through the gaseous chromatography it is obtained efficiency and chromatographic resolution to soluble sugars determination, being this way, advantageous to use this methodology.

Alexandre Couto, Rodrigues; Flávio Gilberto, Herter; Valtair, Veríssimo; Geraldo, Chavarria; João Peterson Pereira, Gardin; Ângela Diniz, Campos.

2005-04-01

59

Determinação por cromatografia gasosa de açúcares em frutíferas de clima temperado Gas chromatography determination of sugars in temperate-zone fruit trees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As frutíferas de clima temperado apresentam o fenômeno da dormência. Na saída da dormência, há a conversão do amido para açúcares solúveis, como substrato para a retomada de crescimento na primavera. Visando à maior compreensão da fisiologia das plantas em respostas a eventos, como as variações climáticas, estresses e problemas de adaptação, desenvolveu-se este trabalho, no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado, com o objetivo de descrever uma metodologia para a determinação das concentrações dos açúcares solúveis (frutose, sorbitol, alfa-glicose, beta-glicose e sacarose, em tecidos vegetais de frutíferas, via cromatografia gasosa. O cromatógrafo utilizado para as análises dos açúcares por essa metodologia é o GAS CHROMATOGRAPH e a coluna do tipo Packed Column J. K. de 3,2mm de diâmetro por 2m de comprimento, empacotada com Silicone SE-52 Uniport HP 80/100 mesh. Através da cromatografia gasosa, obtêm-se eficiência e resolução cromatográfica, para análises de açúcares solúveis, sendo, desta forma, vantajoso e executável esse tipo de análise pelo método descrito.The temperate-zone deciduous fruit trees present the phenomenon of dormancy. In that period, there is the conversion of the starch in soluble sugars, as substratum for the resumption of growth in the spring. Seeking to better understanding the physiology of the plants in answers to events as the climatic variations, stresses and adaptation problems, this study was done in the Laboratory of Crop Physiology of Embrapa Temperate Climate, with the objective of describing a methodology for determination of concentrations of the soluble sugars (fructose, sorbitol, alpha-glucose, beta-glucose and sucrose, in tissues of fruit tree, through gaseous chromatography. The chromatograph used for the analyses of the sugars was the GAS CHROMATOGRAPH with the column of the type Packed Column J. K. of 3,2mm of diameter for 2m of length packed with Silicon IF-52 Uniport HP 80/100 mesh. Through the gaseous chromatography it is obtained efficiency and chromatographic resolution to soluble sugars determination, being this way, advantageous to use this methodology.

Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

2005-04-01

60

Winter stream temperature in the rain-on-snow zone of the Pacific Northwest: influences of hillslope runoff and transient snow cover  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stream temperature dynamics during winter are less well studied than summer thermal regimes, but the winter season thermal regime can be critical for fish growth and development in coastal catchments. The winter thermal regimes of Pacific Northwest headwater streams, which provide vital winter habitat for salmonids and their food sources, may be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because they can remain ice-free throughout the year and are often located in rain-on-snow zones. This study examined winter stream temperature patterns and controls in small headwater catchments within the rain-on-snow zone at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Two hypotheses were addressed by this study: (1 winter stream temperatures are primarily controlled by advective fluxes associated with runoff processes and (2 stream temperatures should be depressed during rain-on-snow events, compared to rain-on-bare-ground events, due to the cooling effect of rain passing through the snowpack prior to infiltrating the soil or being delivered to the stream as saturation-excess overland flow. A reach-scale energy budget analysis of two winter seasons revealed that the advective energy input associated with hillslope runoff overwhelms vertical energy exchanges (net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, bed heat conduction, and stream friction and hyporheic energy fluxes during rain and rain-on-snow events. Historical stream temperature data and modelled snowpack dynamics were used to explore the influence of transient snow cover on stream temperature over 13 winters. When snow was not present, daily stream temperature during winter rain events tended to increase with increasing air temperature. However, when snow was present, stream temperature was capped at about 5 °C, regardless of air temperature. The stream energy budget modelling and historical analysis support both of our hypotheses. A key implication is that climatic warming may generate higher winter stream temperatures in the rain-on-snow zone due to both increased rain temperature and reduced cooling effect of snow cover.

J. A. Leach

2014-02-01

61

The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebaekken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. One northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. On each sampling day, 20 points along the stream were sampled as well as eight drain outlets and two groundwater wells. Total dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially for nitrate concentrations with average values of 9.6mgNl?1, 1.4mgNl?1 and 3.0mgNl?1, respectively. Furthermore, throughout the sampling period DON concentrations increased from 0.1mgNl?1 to 2.8mgNl?1 and from 0.1mgNl?1 to 0.8mgNl?1 in the northern and southern streams, respectively. This corresponded to a contribution of up to 81% to total dissolved nitrogen. Multiplelinear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape charateristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land (12.9%). On the other hand, organic soil frequency was positively correlated to the corresponding dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Croplands also had a significant influence but with weaker correlations. For our case study we conclude that soil types and corresponding biogeochemical properties have a major influence on stream water chemistry. Meanwhile, the contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen to the total nitrogen budget was substantial in this agricultural dominated landscape.

Wohlfart, T; Exbrayat, J F

2012-01-01

62

The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebaekken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. One northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type and land use on stream water quality. Nine snapshot sampling campaigns were undertaken during the growing season of 2009. On each sampling day, 20 points along the stream were sampled as well as eight drain outlets and two groundwater wells. Total dissolved nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling.

Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged stream parts, especially for nitrate concentrations with average values of 9.6 mg N l?1, 1.4 mg N l?1 and 3.0 mg N l?1, respectively. Furthermore, throughout the sampling period DON concentrations increased from 0.1 mg N l?1 to 2.8 mg N l?1 and from 0.1 mg N l?1 to 0.8 mg N l?1in the northern and southern streams, respectively. This corresponded to a contribution of up to 81% to total dissolved nitrogen. Multiple-linear regression analyses performed between chemical data and landscape charateristics showed a significant negative influence of organic soils on instream N concentrations and corresponding losses in spite of their overall minor share of the agricultural land (12.9%. On the other hand, organic soil frequency was positively correlated to the corresponding dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Croplands also had a significant influence but with weaker correlations. For our case study we conclude that soil types and corresponding biogeochemical properties have a major influence on stream water chemistry. Meanwhile, the contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen to the total nitrogen budget was substantial in this agricultural dominated landscape.

T. Wohlfart

2012-06-01

63

Nutrient dynamics in the winter thermohaline frontal zone of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

As the first attempt to estimate the nutrient transport across the winter thermohaline frontal zone on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the nutrient dynamics around the front and the effects of cross-frontal water exchange on nutrient transport were investigated using wintertime field observations. Both water temperature and salinity increased from coastal to oceanic waters, showing the presence of a thermohaline front. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients decreased oceanward, especially across the thermohaline front, while those of dissolved organic nutrients (i.e., dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus) showed patchy distributions. Ammonium was the major constituent of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and DON was the main component of total dissolved nitrogen. Molar ratios of PO43-/total dissolved phosphorus decreased from coastal to oceanic waters, indicating that PO43- was rapidly removed and/or consumed from the water column and that organic matter degradation increased offshore, replenishing PO43-. Molar ratios of NO3-/(NH4+ + DON) were 0.01-0.6, indicating dominance of regenerated nitrogen. Surface water convergence and bottom water divergence were identified in the across-shore velocity field, and the calculated across-shore nutrient fluxes suggest that the presence of the winter thermohaline front promotes the offshore transport of nutrients from coastal waters. The transport path begins with convergence of surface coastal waters toward the front, followed by the sinking in the frontal region and the oceanward movement through the bottom layer of the front offshore side. With an assumption of 500 km as the length of thermohaline front on the northern shelf of the South China Sea, the calculated offshore fluxes of nutrients across the entire front are larger than those from the Zhujiang (Pearl River) and the Changjiang (Yangtze River).

Liu, Su Mei; Guo, Xinyu; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Bi, Yan Feng; Luo, Xin; Li, Jian Bing

2010-11-01

64

Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

Marta Ziemi?ska-Smyk

2004-12-01

65

Microwave and physical properties of sea ice in the winter marginal ice zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface-based active and passive microwave measurements were made in conjunction with ice property measurements for several distinct ice types in the Fram Strait during March and April 1987. Synthesis aperture radar imagery downlinked from an aircraft was used to select study sites. The surface-based radar scattering cross section and emissivity spectra generally support previously inferred qualitative relationships between ice types, exhibiting expected separation between young, first-year and multiyear ice. Gradient ratios, calculated for both active and passive data, appear to allow clear separation of ice types when used jointly. Surface flooding of multiyear floes, resulting from excessive loading and perhaps wave action, causes both active and passive signatures to resemble those of first-year ice. This effect could possibly cause estimates of ice type percentages in the marginal ice zone to be in error when derived from aircraft- or satellite-born sensors.

Tucker, W. B., III; Perovich, D. K.; Gow, A. J.; Grenfell, T. C.; Onstott, R. G.

1991-01-01

66

Temper Foam  

Science.gov (United States)

Fabricated by Expanded Rubber & Plastics Corporation, Temper Foam provides better impact protection for airplane passengers and enhances passenger comfort on long flights because it distributes body weight and pressure evenly over the entire contact area. Called a "memory foam" it matches the contour of the body pressing against it and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. As a shock absorber, a three-inch foam pad has the ability to absorb the impact of a 10-foot fall by an adult. Applications include seat cushioning for transportation vehicles, padding for furniture and a variety of athletic equipment medical applications including wheelchair padding, artificial limb socket lining, finger splint and hand padding for burn patients, special mattresses for the bedridden and dental stools. Production and sales rights are owned by Temper Foam, Inc. Material is manufactured under license by the Dewey and Almy Division of Grace Chemical Corporation. Distributors of the product are Kees Goebel Medical Specialties, Inc. and Alimed, Inc. They sell Temper Foam in bulk to the fabricators who trim it to shapes required by their customers.

1981-01-01

67

Nuclear winter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies predict that even a medium-scale nuclear war in the northern hemisphere may cause cooling in the mid-latitudes of the southern hemisphere. The impact of such cooling on agriculture depends on the magnitude, duration and starting date of the southern nuclear winter. Cooling in the middle of the growing season (summer) can have serious consequences, whereas cooling during the dormant season (winter) may have little effect. Various temperature reduction schemes are considered. A cooling of 5 deg. C, equivalent to temperatures during the last glacial maximum, dramatically reduces primary production. A spring cooling of 3 deg. C and other seasons of 1 deg. C eliminates yields from many warm temperate crops and lowers grass production. Smaller temperature decreases have less effect. Given the limitations and uncertainties of the models, these scenarios should be treated with caution; but our results show that a northern hemisphere war could significantly affect New Zealand agriculture

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The nitrate leached below maize root zone is available for deep-rooted wheat in winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system in the North China Plain, maize roots do not extend beyond 1.2 m in the vertical soil profile, but wheat roots can reach up to 2.0 m. Increases in soil nitrate content at maize harvest and significant reductions after winter wheat harvest were observed in the 1.4-2.0 m depth under field conditions. The recovery of 15N isotope (calcium nitrate) from various (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 m) soil depths showed that deep-rooting winter wheat could use soil nitrate up to the 2.0 m depth. This accounted partially, for the reduced nitrate in the 1.4-2.0 m depth of the soil after harvest of wheat in the rotation system. - Deep-rooted wheat can recycle nitrate leached from maize root zone in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system

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Citril finches during the winter: patterns of distribution, the role of pines and implications for the conservation of the species  

OpenAIRE

[EN]: The Citril finch Serinus citrinella is a Paleartic endemic species that breeds in the subalpine mountain zones of western temperate Europe. The species seems to be suffering a serious decline in its northern range, mainly in the Black Forest and the NE of the Alps. Numerous reasons have been provided for this decline, but all of them have been related to breeding habitats. Given that the species undergoes an altitudinal migration and that during winter it may use very different habit...

Borras, A.; Senar, J. C.; Alba Sa?nchez, Francisca; Lo?pez Sa?ez, Jose? Antonio; Cabrera, J.; Colome?, X.; Cabrera, T.

2010-01-01

70

Summer Dormancy in Perennial Temperate Grasses  

OpenAIRE

• Background and Aims Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait.

Volaire, Florence; Norton, Mark

2006-01-01

71

Potential effects of climate change on the temperate zones of North and South America / Potenciales efectos del cambio climático en zonas templadas de América del Norte y del Sur  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Bajo condiciones actuales, extensas áreas de las zonas templadas del oeste de América del Norte y del sur de América del Sur tienen regímenes climáticos áridos a subhúmedos, que son vulnerables a cambios climáticos inducidos por actividades humanas. Predicciones obtenidas a partir de modelos de circ [...] ulación global bajo una duplicación del CO2 atmosférico sugieren grandes cambios en temperatura media anual, y cambios pequeños o nulos en la precipitación media anual y la proporción de precipitación estival. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar cómo las predicciones de cambio climático obtenidas de modelos de circulación global influirán sobre los patrones climáticos, e inferir a partir de ello la distribución de los ecosistemas de las zonas templadas de América del Norte y del Sur. Cálculos de déficit hídrico anual sugieren que, debido al cambio climático, se duplicará el área afectada por condiciones muy secas. Esta expansión ocurrirá en las cercanías de las zonas áridas actuales. Cálculos mensuales de déficit hídrico sugieren que aproximadamente la mitad de la zona templada de cada continente se ve afectada por al menos un mes de déficit. Bajo un clima con doble CO2, estas áreas se expandirían y cubrirían hasta 77 % de las áreas templadas de América del Norte y hasta 80 % de América del Sur. Los cambios en la distribución de ecosistemas resultantes probablemente serán debidos a la expansión de los desiertos a expensas de los pastizales en América del Norte y del Sur, y la expansión de los pastizales a expensas de los bosques deciduos y boreales en América del Norte. Nuestros análisis asumen que los cambios climáticos futuros estarán abarcados por las predicciones de los tres escenarios de duplicación de CO2 que utilizamos. La situación más probable es que los cambios reales, si es que ocurren, serán distintos a nuestros escenarios. Por lo tanto, nuestros análisis deberán interpretarse como indicaciones de la sensibilidad de partes de las zonas templadas de América del Norte y del Sur a aumentos de temperatura. La principal conclusión de nuestros análisis es que cualquier aumento de temperatura debido a cambios climáticos resultará en una expansión de las porciones más áridas de ambos continentes Abstract in english Under current conditions, large areas of temperate western North America and temperate southern South America have arid to subhumid climates that make them vulnerable to changes as a result of human-induced climate change. Predictions of climate change from global circulation models with a doubling [...] of present atmospheric levels of CO2 suggest large changes in mean annual temperature and small to no changes in mean annual precipitation and the proportion of precipitation received during the summer. Our objective here was to evaluate how predictions of climate change from global circulation models will influence climatic patterns and by inference the distribution of temperate zone ecosystems in North and South America. Calculations of annual water deficits suggest that the area affected by very dry conditions will double as a result of climate change. This expansion will take place in the vicinity of the currently dry areas. Monthly water deficit calculations suggest that approximately half of the temperate zone on each continent is affected by at least one month of deficit. Under a doubled CO2 climate, these areas would expand to cover up to 77 % of the temperate zone of North America and up to 80 % of South America. The resulting changes to the current distribution of ecosystems will likely be an expansion of deserts at the expense of grasslands in North and South America and an expansion of grasslands at the expense of deciduous and boreal forest in North America. Our analyses assumed that future climatic changes will be encompassed by the predictions of our three doubled CO2 scenarios. The most likely situation is that actual changes, if they occur, will be different from our scenarios. Therefore, our analyses should be

W.K., LAUENROTH; H.E., EPSTEIN; J.M., PARUELO; I.C., BURKE; M.R., AGUIAR; O.E., SALA.

2004-09-01

72

Primary production and microbial activity in the euphotic zone of Lake Baikal (Southern Basin) during late winter  

Science.gov (United States)

Three years of regular weekly/biweekly monitoring of seasonal changes in temperature, transparency, chlorophyll a (CHL) and bacteria [erythrosine-stained microscopic counts and cultivable colony forming units (CFUs)] at the vertical profile in the South basin of Lake Baikal (51°54'195?N, 105°04'235?E, depth 800 m) were evaluated. In more detail, the structure and function of phytoplankton and the microbial loop in the euphotic layer at the same site were investigated during the late-winter-early-spring period under the ice. The depth of euphotic zone (up to 1% of surface irradiation) was 35 to 40 m. Primary production was measured three times a week with the 14C method in 2, 10, 20, 30 and 40 m. Maximum production was found in 10 m, with lower values towards the surface (light inhibition) and towards the lower layers. The total production in cells larger than 1 ?m in the column (0-40 m) was 204-240 mg C d -1 m -2, 30-40% of it being in cells 1-3 ?m (mostly picocyanobacteria), which represented roughly 9% of the total chlorophyll a (estimated from pigment analyses). A major part of phytoplankton biomass was formed by diatoms ( Synedra acus Hust., Asterionella formosa Hass. and Stephanodiscus meyerii Genkal & Popovskaya). Total production (including extracellular, dissolved organic matter) was 235-387 mg C day -1 m -2, and the exudates were readily used by bacteria (particles 0.2-1 ?m). This part amounted to 1-5% of cellular production in 2 to 20 m and 11-77% of cellular production in 20-40 m, i.e., in light-limited layers. From 0 to 30 m, chlorophyll a concentration was 0.8 to 1.3 ?g l -1, wherefrom it decreased rapidly to 0.1 ?g l -1 towards the depth of 40 m. Bacteria (DAPI-stained microscopic counts) reached 0.5-1.4×10 6 ml -1; their cell volumes measured via image analysis were small (average 0.05 ?m -3), often not well countable when erythrosine stain was used. Bacterial biomasses were in the range of 6-21 ?g C l -1. Numbers of colony forming units (CFUs) on nutrient fish-agar were c. 3-4 orders lower than DAPI counts. The amounts of heterotrophic protists were low, whereby flagellates reached 6 to 87 ml -1 and ciliates, 0.2-1.2 ml -1 (mostly Oligotrichida). Bacterial production was measured in the same depths as primary production using 3H-thymidine (Thy) and 14C-leucine (Leu) uptake. Consistently, bacterial abundances, biomasses, thymidine and leucine production were higher by 30-50% in layers 2, 10 and 20 m compared with that in the deeper 30 and 40 m, where cellular primary production was negligible. Leucine uptake in the deeper layers was even three times lower than in the upper ones. From the comparison of primary and bacterial production, bacteria roughly use 20-40% of primary production during 24 h in the layers 2 to 20 m.

Straškrábová, V.; Izmest'yeva, L. R.; Maksimova, E. A.; Fietz, S.; Nedoma, J.; Borovec, J.; Kobanova, G. I.; Shchetinina, E. V.; Pislegina, E. V.

2005-04-01

73

Occurrence of large temperature inversion in the thermohaline frontal zone at the Yellow Sea entrance in winter and its relation to advection  

Science.gov (United States)

inversion (higher temperature at a deeper depth) in winter and its relation to advection were investigated by analyzing both conductivity-temperature-depth data in the southern Yellow Sea (YS) and northwestern East China Sea during the winter of 2002-2003 and time series data of temperature, salinity, and currents at a buoy station at the YS entrance. Significant temperature inversions occur predominantly along the thermohaline front at the YS entrance where the Cheju Warm Current Water (CWCW) and the cold coastal waters meet. In February 2003, on the northern frontal zone along 34°N where isotherms and isohalines declined downward to the north, particularly large inversions with temperature differences of larger than 2.0°C were observed to occur more in troughs than in the crests of the wave-like frontal meander where the cold Korean coastal water (KCW) advances farther southward. The inversion persisted until mid-April at the buoy station in the frontal zone, and both temperature and salinity showed simultaneous variations in the same manner. During episodic occurrences of large inversions, temperature and salinity decreased sharply in the upper layer, but increased concurrently in the lower layer. These episodic inversions were found to be closely related to the westward advection of the KCW in the upper layer and the northward advection of the CWCW in the lower layer. It is considered that these advections may play an important role in maintaining baroclinicity in the northern frontal zone, which is responsible for driving the westward transversal flow across the YS entrance.

Lie, Heung-Jae; Cho, Cheol-Ho; Jung, Kyung Tae

2015-01-01

74

Elemental contents determination in two different zones of Mexico City on the 1987-88 and 1994-95 winters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the 1987-1988 and 1994-1995 winters, there were taken samples of aerosols in Mexico City, in two different places, using an integral type of sampler which determines the total amount of suspended particulates; these samples were analyzed by the multi-element analysis technique called PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). One of the sites corresponds to the Alvaro Obregon area and the other to the Azcapotzalco area (a place near to the18 de Marzo Refinery). There were determined 16 elements, heavy metals, whose concentrations show differences for both sites and periods, standing out for this study the behavior of S, V and Pb. (Author)

75

Building energy saving potential in Hot Summer and Cold Winter (HSCW) Zone, China—Influence of building energy efficiency standards and implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hot Summer and Cold Winter (HSCW) region plays an important role in China's building energy conservation task due to its high consumption in recent years for both climate and social reasons. National and local building energy standards according to which the buildings are built and operated can affect the building energy consumption to a great extent. This study investigated the energy saving potential in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone under different level of energy efficiency standards (China local, China national, and UK standard). Chongqing was taken as an example, and the commercial energy simulation tool eQuest was applied to analyze the building end-use energy. With the existing situation as a baseline, the building energy saving for residential section could achieve 31.5% if the Chinese national standard were satisfied, and the value would further increase to 45.0% and 53.4% when the Chongqing local and UK standard were met. For public buildings, the corresponding energy saving potentials were 62.8%, 67.4% and 75.9%. Parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted. The analysis was able to provide suggestions on energy saving implementation priorities for residential and public buildings. Indications to improve building energy standards and their implementation were also discussed. - Highlights: ? Building energy efficiency standards were compared among China, UK and the US. ? Heating energy consumption takes 1/3 of that of the residential building in HSCW Zone, China. ? Building energy saving in Chongqing is 30–70% applying various building standards. ? Public and residential buildings are most sensitive to LPD and COP respectively. ? Building energy standards should be improved and implementation should be enforced

76

Automatic Geographic Object Based Mapping of Streambed and Riparian Zone Extent from LiDAR Data in a Temperate Rural Urban Environment, Australia  

OpenAIRE

This research presents a time-effective approach for mapping streambed and riparian zone extent from high spatial resolution LiDAR derived products, i.e., digital terrain model, terrain slope and plant projective cover. Geographic object based image analysis (GEOBIA) has proven useful for feature extraction from high spatial resolution image data because of the capacity to reduce effects of reflectance variations of pixels making up individual objects and to include contextual and shape infor...

Stuart Phinn; Arroyo, Lara A.; Kasper Johansen; Thomas Blaschke; Dirk Tiede

2011-01-01

77

Wide-range analysis of genetic structure of Betula maximowicziana, a long-lived pioneer tree species and noble hardwood in the cool temperate zone of Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Betula maximowicziana is a long-lived pioneer tree species in Japanese cool temperate forests that plays an important role in maintenance of the forest ecosystem and has high economic value. Here we assess the wide-range genetic structure of 23 natural populations of B. maximowicziana using 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Genetic diversity within populations was relatively low in all populations (mean H(E), 0.361; mean allelic richness, 2.80; mean rare allelic richness, 1.02). The population differentiation was also relatively low (F(ST), 0.062). Genetic distance-based and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed that the populations examined here could be divided into a southern group and a northern group. Analysis of rare allelic richness and Bayesian clustering revealed evidence for both southern and northern refugia during the last glacial period. Furthermore, a comparison of regional genetic diversity revealed significant clines in allelic richness. In spatial genetic structure evaluation, significant isolation by distance (IBD) was detected among the 23 populations, but not within regions. Moreover, significant population bottlenecks were found in all populations under infinite allele model (IAM) assumptions. These unusual, significant bottlenecks might be because of the processes of postglacial colonization and the species' characters and/or life history as a long-lived pioneer tree species. The wide-range, regional genetic structure found in this study provides an important baseline for conservation and forest management, including the identification of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and/or management units (MUs) of B. maximowicziana. PMID:16262849

Tsuda, Y; Ide, Y

2005-11-01

78

Automatic Geographic Object Based Mapping of Streambed and Riparian Zone Extent from LiDAR Data in a Temperate Rural Urban Environment, Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research presents a time-effective approach for mapping streambed and riparian zone extent from high spatial resolution LiDAR derived products, i.e., digital terrain model, terrain slope and plant projective cover. Geographic object based image analysis (GEOBIA has proven useful for feature extraction from high spatial resolution image data because of the capacity to reduce effects of reflectance variations of pixels making up individual objects and to include contextual and shape information. This functionality increases the likelihood of developing transferable and automated mapping approaches. LiDAR data covered parts of the Werribee Catchment in Victoria, Australia, which is characterized by urban, agricultural, and forested land cover types. Field data of streamside vegetation structure and physical form properties were used for both calibration of the mapping routines and validation of the mapping results. To improve the transferability of the rule set, the GEOBIA approach was developed for an area representing different riparian zone environments, i.e., urbanized, agricultural and hilly forested areas. Results show that mapping streambed extent (R2 = 0.93, RMSE = 3.6 m, n = 35 and riparian zone extent (R2 = 0.74, RMSE = 3.9, n = 35 from LiDAR derived products can be automated using GEOBIA to enable derivation of spatial information in an accurate and time-effective manner suited for natural resource management agencies.

Stuart Phinn

2011-05-01

79

Temperature characteristics of winter roost-sites for birds and mammals: tree cavities and anthropogenic alternatives  

Science.gov (United States)

The microclimate of potential roost-sites is likely to be a crucial determinant in the optimal roost-site selection of endotherms, in particular during the winter season of temperate zones. Available roost-sites for birds and mammals in European high trunk orchards are mainly tree cavities, wood stacks and artificial nest boxes. However, little is known about the microclimatic patterns inside cavities and thermal advantages of using these winter roost-sites. Here, we simultaneously investigate the thermal patterns of winter roost-sites in relation to winter ambient temperature and their insulation capacity. While tree cavities and wood stacks strongly buffered the daily cycle of temperature changes, nest boxes showed low buffering capacity. The buffering effect of tree cavities was stronger at extreme ambient temperatures compared to temperatures around zero. Heat sources inside roosts amplified ? T (i.e., the difference between inside and outside temperatures), particularly in the closed roosts of nest boxes and tree cavities, and less in the open wood stacks with stronger circulation of air. Positive ? T due to the installation of a heat source increased in cold ambient temperatures. These results suggest that orchard habitats in winter show a spatiotemporal mosaic of sites providing different thermal benefits varying over time and in relation to ambient temperatures. At cold temperatures tree cavities provide significantly higher thermal benefits than nest boxes or wood stacks. Thus, in winter ecology of hole-using endotherms, the availability of tree cavities may be an important characteristic of winter habitat quality.

Grüebler, Martin U.; Widmer, Silv; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Naef-Daenzer, Beat

2014-07-01

80

Modeling and mitigating winter hay bale damage by elk in a low prevalence bovine tuberculosis endemic zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildlife causes extensive crop damage throughout much of North America and these shared feeds are a key risk factor in the transmission of diseases between wildlife and livestock, including bovine tuberculosis (TB). Predicting wildlife use of agricultural crops can provide insight directed toward targeted disease mitigation at areas of potential indirect interaction. In this study, we quantified use of hay bales by elk (Cervus canadensis) during the winter in southwestern Manitoba, Canada using a database of 952 damage claims paid compensation from 1994 to 2012. We evaluated environmental factors predicted to determine risk of hay bale damage on each quarter section by elk using a Resource Selection Probability Function (RSPF) model. The most important variables (as measured for each quarter section and based on cumulative Akaike weights that scale from 0 to 1) were distance to protected areas (1.00), forest including a buffer around the quarter section (1.00), forage crop including a buffer around the quarter section (1.00), distance from streams (0.99), forage crop (0.92), cereal and oilseed crop cover including a buffer (0.85), and forest cover (0.82). We then developed an RSPF-based predictive map of damage to hay bales by elk that identified key areas with high probability of damage (RSPF?0.6), accounting for 3.5% of the study area. We then multiplied the RSPF values by the inverse of the proximity to known cases of TB positive elk and determined that 0.51% of the study area had an overall high combined probability of hay bale damage and proximity to TB positive elk (i.e. adjusted probability of ?0.6). In the southern half of the study area where 164 hay yard barrier fences have been implemented since 2002, there has been a significant decrease in the number of annual claims. Barrier fencing around Riding Mountain National Park has been successful at reducing elk damage where it has been implemented. In our study area, prevalence of TB in both cattle (0.003%) and elk (0.89%) is very low, precluding conventional epidemiological analyses. In the absence of clear evidence of specific routes of TB transmission, we advocate that on-farm risk assessments and mitigation efforts should continue to address areas where elk cause damage to hay bales in winter using barrier fencing. Mitigation effort should especially focus on areas where TB positive elk have been identified, as these sites provide potential for indirect interaction between cattle and elk. PMID:24486094

Gooding, R M; Brook, R K

2014-05-01

81

Woodland communities in the Chilean cold-temperate zone (Baker and Pascua basins): Floristic composition and morpho-ecological transition Comunidades leñosas en la zona chilena frío-templada (cuencas de los ríos Baker y Pascua): Composición florística y transición morfo-ecológica  

OpenAIRE

This study describes the floristic composition and morpho-ecological transition of woodlands along a climatic gradient in the southern cold temperate zone of Chilean Patagonia. A total of 256 phytosociological relevés were performed across a 150 km NE-SW transect to record vascular plant species. Classification (cluster analysis) and ordination (principal component analysis) techniques were used to segregate and examine the communities. Biodiversity indicators including richness and abundanc...

Vidal, Osvaldo J.; Bannister, Jan R.; VÍCTOR SANDOVAL; YESSICA PÉREZ; CARLOS RAMÍREZ

2011-01-01

82

The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a two-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB of two such sites. We determined greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes and waterborne carbon emissions in a nutrient rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient poor organic soils: a deep drained and a shallow drained site. GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient rich site was an annual source of CO2 (NEE 233 g C m?2yr?1, CH4 neutral, and a small source of nitrous oxide (1.6 kg N2O-N ha?1yr?1. NEE at the shallow drained site was ?89 and ?99 g C m?2yr?1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep drained site was +85 and ?26 g C m?2yr?1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m?2yr?1 were recorded at the shallow drained nutrient poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient rich site totalled 69.8 g C m?2yr?1 with 54% as dissolved organic C (DOC. Waterborne C losses from the nutrient poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m?2yr?1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m?2yr?1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient rich grassland was 663 g C m?2yr?1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient poor deep drained site was less than half of the nutrient rich site (2 year mean 267 g C m?2yr?1. Although NEE at the nutrient poor shallow drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2 year mean NECB 103 g C m?2yr?1. While the impacts of the nutrient and drainage status on NEE, biomass exports and fluvial C losses were confirmed, inter-regional differences in management practice and climate are also significant factors which impact on the overall NECB of these ecosystems. Contrary to expectation, the NECB of nutrient poor drained organic soils under grasslands is not necessarily a large C source and this has implications for Ireland's choice of national GHG inventory reporting methodologies. This study can also aid the development of strategies to deliver reduced emissions tailored to local grassland types.

F. Renou-Wilson

2014-04-01

83

The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas (GHG) flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a 2-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of two such sites. We determined GHG fluxes and waterborne carbon (C) emissions in a nutrient-rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient-poor organic soils: a deep-drained and a shallow-drained site. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient-rich site was an annual source of CO2 (233 g C m-2 yr-1), CH4 neutral, and a small source of N2O (0.16 g N2O-N m-2 yr-1). Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the shallow-drained nutrient-poor site was -89 and -99 g C m-2 yr-1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep-drained nutrient-poor site was 85 and -26 g C m-2 yr-1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m-2 yr-1) were recorded at the shallow-drained nutrient-poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient-rich site totalled 69.8 g C m-2 yr-1 with 54% as dissolved organic C. Waterborne C losses from the nutrient-poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m-2 yr-1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient-rich grassland was 663 g C m-2 yr-1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient-poor deep-drained site was less than half of the nutrient-rich site (2-year mean 267 g C m-2 yr-1). Although NEE at the nutrient-poor shallow-drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2-year mean NECB 103 g C m-2 yr-1). While the impacts of the nutrient and drainage status on NEE, biomass exports and fluvial C losses were confirmed, inter-regional differences in management practice and climate were also significant factors which impacted on the overall NECB of these ecosystems. Contrary to expectation, the NECB of nutrient-poor drained organic soils under grasslands is not necessarily a large C source and this has implications for Ireland's choice of national GHG inventory reporting methodologies. This study can also aid the development of strategies to deliver reduced emissions tailored to local grassland types.

Renou-Wilson, F.; Barry, C.; Müller, C.; Wilson, D.

2014-08-01

84

Off-season uptake of nitrogen in temperate heath vegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this field study we show that temperate coastal heath vegetation has a significant off-season uptake potential for nitrogen, both in the form of ammonium and as glycine, throughout winter. We injected 15N-ammonium and 15N 2x(13C)-glycine into the soil twice during winter and once at spring. The winter temperatures were similar to those of an average winter in the northern temperate region of Europe, with only few days of soil temperatures below zero or above 5 degrees C. The vegetation, consisting of the evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris, the deciduous dwarf shrub Salix arenaria, and the graminoids Carex arenaria and Deschampsia flexuosa, showed high root uptake of both forms of nitrogen, both 1 day after labelling and after a month, in species specific temporal patterns. Plant uptake of 13C was not significant, providing no further evidence of intact uptake of glycine. Translocation of the labelled nitrogen to shoots was generally evident after 1 month and increased as spring approached, with different translocation strategies in the three plant functional types. Furthermore, only the graminoids showed shoot growth during winter. Increasing plant nitrogen concentration from fall to spring at temperate heaths may, hence, be due to nitrogen uptake. Our results suggest that the potential for nitrogen uptake in plants at winter is of the same order of magnitude as at summer. Hence, winter nitrogen uptake in ecosystems in the temperate/boreal region should be considered when making annual nitrogen budgets of heath ecosystems, and the view of plant nutrient uptake as low in this climatic region during winter should be revised. PMID:15868162

Andresen, Louise C; Michelsen, Anders

2005-08-01

85

Where Does Bluetongue Virus Sleep in the Winter?  

OpenAIRE

Bluetongue recently spread to northern Europe for the first time. Outbreaks in temperate regions are often interrupted by cold weather, but may reappear months later. Where, then, might bluetongue virus sleep in the winter?

Wilson, Anthony; Darpel, Karin; Mellor, Philip Scott

2008-01-01

86

Understory bamboo discrimination using a winter image  

OpenAIRE

In this study, a new approach is presented that combines forest phenology and Landsat vegetation indices to estimate evergreen understory bamboo coverage in a mixed temperate forest. It was found that vegetation indices, especially the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from leaf-off (winter) images were significantly correlated with percent understory bamboo cover for both deciduous and mixed coniferous/deciduous forests. Winter NDVI was used to map bamboo coverage using a...

Wang, T.; Skidmore, A. K.; Toxopeus, A. G.; Liu, X.

2009-01-01

87

Protective coating of austenitic steel using robotized GMAW temper-bead technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises experimental results obtained in a study of GMAW temper-bead on low alloyed steel with austenitic consumables. Temper-bead on low alloyed steel with austenitic consumables is mainly used for repairing operations of heavy components such as vessel reactor of nuclear power plants. Experimental work aims at showing the performance of GMAW compared to GTAW and the consequences of GMAW temper-bead on 2OMND5 heat affected zones. (authors)

88

Low alloy tempering steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention deals with the use of a low-alloy steel in tempered state to produce articles with good tempering properties having a minimum tensile strength of 700 N/mm2 and an impact strength (DVM sample) of at least 55 joule. A steel with 0.35 to 0.6% C, 0.1 to 0.5% Si, 0.3 to 1.0% Mn, 0.1 to 0.6% Cr, 0.01 to 0.1% Nb, rest iron is suggested for the purpose which after austeniting by fast cooling and subsequent annealing is quenched and tempered. The invention is based on the fact that an addition of niobium combined with the choice of the suitable austeniting temperature, which on the one hand allows the solution of a sufficient amount of niobium but should however prevent the occurence of coarse grain, leads to strength and toughness properties which have only been achieved from higher-alloys tempering steels. According to a preferential design of the invention, a further steel is proposed which besides the above mentioned additions contains 0.08 to 0.12% V. The strength values of this steel are compared in figures with those of the higher-alloy and thus more expensive steel 30CrNiMo8. (GSC)

89

Winter-to-summer evolution of pCO2 in surface water and air-sea CO2 flux in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water and vertical profiles of the carbonate system parameters were measured during austral summer in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (64-67° S, 32-58° E) in January 2006 to understand the CO2 dynamics of seawater in the seasonal ice zone. Surface-water pCO2 ranged from 275 to 400 ?atm, and longitudinal variations reflected the dominant influence of water temperature and dilution by sea ice meltwater between 32 and 40° E and biological productivity between 40 and 58° E. Using carbonate system data from the temperature minimum layer (-1.9 °C air-sea CO2 flux, which consists of the exchange of CO2 between sea ice and atmosphere, changed from -1.1 to +0.9 mmol C m-2 day-1 between winter and summer. These results suggest that, for the atmosphere, the seasonal ice zone acts as a CO2 sink in winter and a temporary CO2 source in summer immediately after the retreat of sea ice. Subsequent biological productivity likely decreases surface-water pCO2 and the air-sea CO2 flux becomes negative, such that in summer the study area is again a CO2 sink with respect to the atmosphere.

Nomura, D.; Yoshikawa-Inoue, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nakata, K.; Hashida, G.

2014-10-01

90

Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze  

OpenAIRE

Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, ...

Preston, Jill C.; Sandve, Simen R.

2013-01-01

91

Off-season uptake of nitrogen in temperate heath vegetation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Off-season ecosystem processes is becoming an area of increasing interest, being important when considering annual nitrogen and carbon budgets. The general assumption that physiological activity in soil microorganisms as well as vegetation is low during winter may not be justified. In this field study we show that northern temperate coastal heath vegetation has a significant uptake potential for nitrogen, both in the form of ammonium and as glycine, throughout the non-growing season. We used 15N ammonium and 2*(13C)15N glycine as nutrient tracer. This was injected into the soil two times during winter and once at spring. The winter temperatures were similar to those of average winter in the northern temperate region of Europe, with only few days of soil temperatures below zero and a winter mean of 2.4 °C. The vegetation, consisting of the evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris (L.), the deciduous dwarf shrub Salix arenaria (L.) and the graminoids Carex arenaria (L.) and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.), showed root uptake of both forms of nitrogen, both one day after labelling and after a month. Translocation of the labelled nitrogen to shoots was generally evident after one month and increased as spring approached, with different translocation strategies in the three plant functional types. Furthermore, shoot total nitrogen concentration increased in all plant types, but only the graminoids and, eventually, S. arenaria showed shoot growth during winter. Our study suggests that plant nitrogen uptake can cause increasing nitrogen concentration in shoot tissue from fall to spring. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies of plant nitrogen uptake during nongrowing season at a temperate heath. Our results show that the nitrogen uptake is in the same order of magnitude as summer uptake in other types of ecosystems in the temperate/boreal region. These results suggest that plant nitrogen uptake during winter should be included in the annual nitrogen budgets of heath ecosystems, and that the view of plant nutrient uptake as low in this climatic region during winter should be revised. Furthermore, these results should be taken into account when ecosystem responses to climatic changes such as warming are evaluated.

Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Michelsen, Anders

2004-01-01

92

Study of the occurence of reversible temper embrittlement in the coarse-grained overheated structure of the heat-affected zone of steel 22 NiMoCr 37  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On four melts of steel 22 NiMoC 37 with about 0.22% C,0.3% Si, 0.9% Mn, 0.5% Cr, 0.78% Mo and 1% Ni, but different contents of phosphorus, sulphur, arsenic, copper, antimony and tin, the toughness behaviour in fine-grained quenched and tempered condition and also in coarse-grained overheated condition has been investigated in the notched-bar impact bend test as a function of the cooling rate after tempering or stress relieving. In fine-grained condition, the toughness behaviour changed only slightly. In the coarse-grained condition, the transition temperature increased considerably with increasing contents of trace elements and decreasing cooling rate. With 0.015% P, 0.012% As and 0.006% Sn, the increase of the transition temperature in the coarse-grained condition and at an average cooling rate of 30 K/h was with ?Tsub(trans) = 25 K still relatively low. With higher contents of phosphorus and tin, however, an increase of the transition temperature up to ?Tsub(trans) = 145 K was observed. Copper alone did not lead in the performed test series to any impairment of the notched-bar impact energy. In coarse-grained condition, temper embrittlement was proved also metallographically by etching with xylene picric acid solution. Segregation lines proved to be especially susceptible. In temper embrittled condition, the notched-bar impact bend test specimens showed an intercrystalline fracture appearance in the lower shelf and the transition range of the notched-bar impact enition range of the notched-bar impact energy-temperature curves. The examination of such fracture surfaces with the Auger probe revealed in an about 10-4 mm large grain boundary region the expected concentrations of the elements phosphorus, tin and nickel, but also an enrichment of copper. Especially the elements phosphorus and tin contributed to the reversible temper embrittlement of the coarse-grained overheated structure. (orig.)

93

Winter Weather  

Science.gov (United States)

... Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Winter ...

94

[Temperate Legionella bacteriophage: discovery and characteristics].  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time, temperate Legionella bacteriophage was isolated from organs of guinea pig infected with Philadelphia 1 strain of Legionella pneumophila. Negative colonies of bactriophage from 1.5 to 2.5 mm in diameter were detected. Central part of them was transparent and surrounded by peripheral zone of partial lysis. Electron microscopy showed that corpuscles of the phage consist from multifaceted elongated head of stretched hexagonal form and short tail. The bacteriophage lyzed bacteria, which cause Legionnaires' disease, and also had certain lytic activity against causative agent of tularemia. PMID:18819413

Grigor'ev, A A; Bondarev, V P; Borisevich, I V; Darmov, I V; Mironin, A V; Zolotarev, A G; Pogorel'ski?, I P; Ianov, D S

2008-01-01

95

Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and nifH gene diversity within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmolN L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C and the surface nitrate concentration was low (? 0.30 ?M), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 ?M). During periods with high nitrogen fixation, the nifH sequences of UCYN-A were recovered, suggesting that these groups played a key role in nitrogen fixation. The nifH genes were also recovered in spring and winter when nitrogen fixation was undetectable. These genes consisted of many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria), which hitherto have rarely been reported to be abundant in surface diazotroph communities in marine environments.

Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

2015-01-01

96

Medical declarations on temperance.  

Science.gov (United States)

As early as 1736, the Royal College of Physicians submitted to Parliament a representation concerning the excessive consumption of spirituous liquors. No further authoritative statement was made for nearly a century, by which time the first Temperance and Total Abstinence societies had been formed. Many medical men were happy to support the call for moderation and a number of societies issued declarations signed by local practitioners; however, fear of losing patients meant that few doctors supported total abstinence. In addition, alcohol was widely used as a therapeutic agent. In spite of this, declarations were issued in 1839 and in 1847 which were essentially "teetotal" in tone. Most of the declarations were reported only in the temperance journals. That of 1871 was entirely different; it was circulated to every doctor on the medical register and publicised in full in all the national newspapers. It was signed by the Presidents of the Royal Colleges and by 233 others; it condemns the "inconsiderate prescription" of alcohol and questions its value as a food or as a medicine. The therapeutic arguments and the impact of the volte face of the medical establishment in supporting the declaration are examined, as is the reaction of the lay press. PMID:11620338

Crosfill, M L

1998-06-01

97

Alcohol, Temperance & Prohibition  

Science.gov (United States)

That legendary man of letters, Samuel Johnson, once opined that â??Abstinence is as easy to me as temperance would be difficultâ?. Over the centuries, many have shared at least part of Johnsonâ??s sentiment as regards the temptations offered by spirits, and just as many have concerned themselves with the cause of cautioning others about alcohol and its potentially pernicious effects. The good people at Brown University have created this digital collection which includes a host of primary documents from the past several centuries, including broadsides, sheet music, and government publications. These items will be of great interest to anyone interested in the history of alcoholism, and how various forms of media were used to disseminate ideas and information about this phenomenon and the prohibition movement. Visitors can browse the collection by document creator, publisher, and general title. Another item of note here is the online essay â??Temperance and Prohibition Era Propaganda: A Study in Rhetoricâ? by Leah Rae Berk.

98

Carbon sinks in temperate forests  

OpenAIRE

In addition to being scientifically exciting, commercially important, and environmentally essential, temperate forests have also become a key diplomatic item in international climate negotiations as potential sinks for carbon. This review presents the methods used to estimate carbon sequestration, identifies the constraints and opportunities for carbon sequestration in temperate forests, addresses the issues raised by the monitoring of carbon sequestration, and analyzes uncertainties pertaini...

Martin, P. H.; Nabuurs, G. J.; Aubinet, M.; Karjalainen, T.; Vine, E. L.; Kinsman, J.; Heath, L. S.

2001-01-01

99

Late Quaternary environmental change along the temperate-tropical interface in southern Africa. (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

As a relatively low-relief landscape stretching from the equator to the mid-latitudes, the African sector of the Southern Hemisphere provides an excellent opportunity to study long-term interactions between tropical, subtropical and temperate climate systems. This potential, however, has remained largely unrealised as funding has generally been focussed on the large lakes of Eastern Africa and the analysis of marine cores from the continental margin. The result is a spatially and temporally disjunct regional dataset, and the dominance of broad conceptual models to contextualise the limited available data and explain palaeoenvironmental dynamics. The dominant hypotheses to explain long-term climate change in southern Africa are: 1) changes in temperate systems result from expansions and contractions of Antarctic sea-ice that vary with trends in polar/global temperatures; 2) tropical change is primarily a function of shifts in the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) as a result of orbitally-induced changes in direct insolation forcing, and/or as a response to Northern Hemisphere cooling. In both cases, some evidence exists to support these hypotheses, but the proxies and interpretations are not unambiguous, and in some cases the interpretations of the data have been primarily developed to conform to the dominant conceptual paradigm. This paper will discuss the interplay between temperate and tropical systems in southern Africa, and the implications for hemispheric and global climate dynamics. New data, particularly high-resolution records from fossilised rock hyrax middens (Chase et al., 2012, Quaternary Science Reviews; www.hyrax.univ-montp2.fr), is providing a robust framework into which lower resolution or more poorly understood proxies can better understood. Findings from a subcontinental-scale initiative funded by the European Research Council so far indicate that shifts of the Subtropical Front and the westerly storm tracks did bring increased moisture to SW Africa during phases of the last glacial period, and that the so-called winter rainfall zone (sensu Chase and Meadows, 2007, Earth-Science Reviews) extended at least as far north as central Namibia. It cannot, however, be said that all cold periods resulted in increased westerly influence in the region, as changes in the position and intensity of the South Atlantic Anticyclone have at times modified their impact. New evidence also clearly indicates that shifts in the mean position of the ITCZ, either as a result of direct insolation forcing or Northern Hemisphere cooling, did not determine patterns of long-term climate change in southern Africa, and that both the northern and southern tropics experienced synchronous patterns of climate change since the Last Glacial Maximum (Chase et al., 2009, Geology; Truc et al., 2013, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology).

Chase, B. M.

2013-12-01

100

The interaction between freezing tolerance and phenology in temperate deciduous trees  

OpenAIRE

Temperate climates are defined by distinct temperature seasonality with large and often unpredictable weather during any of the four seasons. To thrive in such climates, trees have to withstand a cold winter and the stochastic occurrence of freeze events during any time of the year. The physiological mechanisms trees adopt to escape, avoid, and tolerate freezing temperatures include a cold acclimation in autumn, a dormancy period during winter (leafless in deciduous trees), and the maintenanc...

Vitasse, Yann; Lenz, Armando; Ko?rner, Christian

2014-01-01

101

Winter Weather  

Science.gov (United States)

... Winter Weather Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When temperatures drop significantly below normal, staying warm and safe can be a challenge. Take Steps Taking preventive action is your best ...

102

Surviving Winter  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students learn about the varied physical and behavioral adaptations that animals rely on to help them survive changing environmental conditions, such as the arrival of winter.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2010-12-13

103

Photosynthesis of temperate Eucalyptus globulus trees outside their native range has limited adjustment to elevated CO2 and climate warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eucalyptus species are grown widely outside of their native ranges in plantations on all vegetated continents of the world. We predicted that such a plantation species would show high potential for acclimation of photosynthetic traits across a wide range of growth conditions, including elevated [CO2] and climate warming. To test this prediction, we planted temperate Eucalyptus globulus Labill. seedlings in climate-controlled chambers in the field located >700 km closer to the equator than the nearest natural occurrence of this species. Trees were grown in a complete factorial combination of elevated CO2 concentration (eC; ambient [CO2] +240 ppm) and air warming treatments (eT; ambient +3 °C) for 15 months until they reached ca. 10 m height. There was little acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to eC and hence the CO2-induced photosynthetic enhancement was large (ca. 50%) in this treatment during summer. The warming treatment significantly increased rates of both carboxylation capacity (V(cmax)) and electron transport (Jmax) (measured at a common temperature of 25 °C) during winter, but decreased them significantly by 20-30% in summer. The photosynthetic CO2 compensation point in the absence of dark respiration (?*) was relatively less sensitive to temperature in this temperate eucalypt species than for warm-season tobacco. The temperature optima for photosynthesis and Jmax significantly changed by about 6 °C between winter and summer, but without further adjustment from early to late summer. These results suggest that there is an upper limit for the photosynthetic capacity of E. globulus ssp. globulus outside its native range to acclimate to growth temperatures above 25 °C. Limitations to temperature acclimation of photosynthesis in summer may be one factor that defines climate zones where E. globulus plantation productivity can be sustained under anticipated global environmental change. PMID:23824839

Crous, Kristine Y; Quentin, Audrey G; Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E; Williams, David G; Barton, Craig V M; Ellsworth, David S

2013-12-01

104

Transfer parameter values in temperate forest ecosystems: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compared to agricultural lands, forests are complex ecosystems as they can involve diverse plant species associations, several vegetative strata (overstorey, shrubs, herbaceous and other annual plant layer) and multi-layered soil profiles (forest floor, hemi-organic and mineral layers). A high degree of variability is thus generally observed in radionuclide transfers and redistribution patterns in contaminated forests. In the long term, the soil compartment represents the major reservoir of radionuclides which can give rise to long-term plant and hence food contamination. For practical reasons, the contamination of various specific forest products has commonly been quantified using the aggregated transfer factor (Tag in m2 kg-1) which integrates various environmental parameters including soil and plant type, root distribution as well as nature and vertical distribution of the deposits. Long lasting availability of some radionuclides was shown to be the source of much higher transfer in forest ecosystems than in agricultural lands. This study aimed at reviewing the most relevant quantitative information on radionuclide transfers to forest biota including trees, understorey vegetation, mushrooms, berries and game animals. For both radiocaesium and radiostrontium in trees, the order of magnitude of mean Tag values was 10-3 m2 kg-1 (dry weight). Tree foliage was usually 2-12 times more contaminatage was usually 2-12 times more contaminated than trunk wood. Maximum contamination of tree components with radiocaesium was associated with (semi-)hydromorphic areas with thick humus layers. The transfer of radionuclides to mushrooms and berries is high, in comparison with foodstuffs grown in agricultural systems. Concerning caesium uptake by mushrooms, the transfer is characterized by a very large variability of Tag, from 10-3 to 101 m2 kg-1 (dry weight). For berries, typical values are around 0.01-0.1 m2 kg-1 (dry weight). Transfer of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the rate of activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Forests in temperate and boreal regions differ with respect to soil type and vegetation, and a faster decline of muscle activity concentrations in deer occurs in the temperate zone. However, in wild boar the caesium activity concentration shows no decline because of its special feeding habits. In the late phase, i.e. at least a few months since the external radionuclide contamination on feed plants has been removed, a Tag value of 0.01 m2 kg-1 (fresh weight) is common for 137Cs in the muscles of adult moose and terrestrial birds living in boreal forests, and 0.03 m2 kg-1 (fresh weight) for arctic hare. Radiocaesium concentrations in reindeer muscle in winter may exceed the summer content by a factor of more than two, the mean Tag values for winter ranging from 0.02 to 0.8 m2 kg-1 (fresh weight), and in summer from 0.04 to 0.4 m2 kg-1. The highest values are found in the year of initial contamination, followed by a gradual reduction. In waterfowl a relatively fast decline in uptake of 137Cs has been found, with Tag values changing from 0.01 to 0.002 m2 kg-1 (fresh weight) in the three years after the contaminating event, the rate being determined by the dynamics of 137Cs in aquatic ecosystems.

105

Tempered stable and tempered infinitely divisible GARCH models  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we introduce a new GARCH model with an infinitely divisible distributed innovation, referred to as the rapidly decreasing tempered stable (RDTS) GARCH model. This model allows the description of some stylized empirical facts observed for stock and index returns, such as volatility clustering, the non-zero skewness and excess kurtosis for the residual distribution. Furthermore, we review the classical tempered stable (CTS) GARCH model, which has similar statistical properties. B...

Kim, Young Shin; Rachev, Svetlozar T.; Bianchi, Michele Leonardo; Fabozzi, Frank J.

2011-01-01

106

Effect of tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties in a multiphase ZrCuAlNiO alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrCuAlNiO alloy after tempering were investigated. The morphology of the martensite changes, and both the interfaces of martensite variants and substructural boundaries fade after the tempering treatment. The Zr2Al phase precipitates in Zr2(Cu, Al, Ni) grains at temperatures higher than 747 K, and its size increases with the tempering temperature, while Zr2Ni phase precipitates in martensite zone at temperatures higher than 1053 K. The mechanical property was improved by the presence of the precipitates after tempering. The correlation between microstructure and property in this alloy was discussed. (author)

107

Winter Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

A U.K. psychologist has developed a complex mathematical formula using seven variables to predict winter's emotional low point. The good news is the worst day of the year was last week; nonetheless, seasonal depression remains a problem for many. The first link (1) is to an article about the equation worked out by Dr. Cliff Arnall, who specializes in seasonal disorders at the University of Cardiff, Wales. The second link is to a WebMD page (2) about winter depression, often referred to as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). The next link (3) is to a recent news story about the results of a five-year study that found, rather than antidepressant drug therapy or air ionizers, light box therapy is the best remedy for the seasonal condition. The fourth link is to a set of Frequently Asked Questions (4) about SAD offered by Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. The fifth link, to the Winter Depression Research Group at the University of Tromso in Norway(5), explains why Norway is a natural SAD research laboratory. The next link is to a international portal site (6) maintained by medical professionals and researchers in the field of light therapy and biological rhythms. The final webpage(7), from Psychology Today, compares the symptoms of winter depression with summer depression.

108

Time-temperature equivalence in Martensite tempering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationship between time and temperature is of great consequence in many materials-related processes including the tempering of martensite. In 1945, Hollomon and Jaffe quantified the 'degree of tempering' as a function of both tempering time, t, and tempering temperature, T, using the expression, T(log t + c). Here, c is thought to be a material constant and appears to decrease linearly with increasing carbon content. The Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameter is frequently cited in the literature. This work reviews the original derivation of the tempering parameter concept, and presents the use of the characteristics diffusion distance as an alternative time-temperature relationship during martensite tempering. During the tempering of martensite, interstitial carbon atoms diffuse to form carbides. In addition, austenite decomposes, dislocations and grain boundaries rearrange, associated with iron self diffusion. Since these are all diffusional processes, it is reasonable to expect the degree of tempering to relate to the extent of diffusion.

Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas, Grant A. [CSM; Speer, John G. [CSM; Matlock, David K. [CSM; Krauss, George [CSM

2008-06-16

109

Phenology of temperate trees in tropical climates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several North American broad-leaved tree species range from the northern United States at approximately 47 degrees N to moist tropical montane forests in Mexico and Central America at 15-20 degrees N. Along this gradient the average minimum temperatures of the coldest month (T (Jan)), which characterize annual variation in temperature, increase from -10 to 12 degrees C and tree phenology changes from deciduous to leaf-exchanging or evergreen in the southern range with a year-long growing season. Between 30 and 45 degrees N, the time of bud break is highly correlated with T (Jan) and bud break can be reliably predicted for the week in which mean minimum temperature rises to 7 degrees C. Temperature-dependent deciduous phenology-and hence the validity of temperature-driven phenology models-terminates in southern North America near 30 degrees N, where T (Jan)>7 degrees C enables growth of tropical trees and cultivation of frost-sensitive citrus fruits. In tropical climates most temperate broad-leaved species exchange old for new leaves within a few weeks in January-February, i.e., their phenology becomes similar to that of tropical leaf-exchanging species. Leaf buds of the southern ecotypes of these temperate species are therefore not winter-dormant and have no chilling requirement. As in many tropical trees, bud break of Celtis, Quercus and Fagus growing in warm climates is induced in early spring by increasing daylength. In tropical climates vegetative phenology is determined mainly by leaf longevity, seasonal variation in water stress and day length. As water stress during the dry season varies widely with soil water storage, climate-driven models cannot predict tree phenology in the tropics and tropical tree phenology does not constitute a useful indicator of global warming. PMID:15812667

Borchert, Rolf; Robertson, Kevin; Schwartz, Mark D; Williams-Linera, Guadalupe

2005-09-01

110

Winter Storm  

Science.gov (United States)

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. Does increased humidity usually increase of decrease your chances for rain? 4. What happens when there is ...

Sarah

2009-09-28

111

Transformation and tempering behavior of 12Cr-1Mo-0.3V martensitic stainless steel weldments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autogeneous, bead-on-plate gas tungsten-arc (GTA) and laser welds in a 12Cr-1Mo-0.3V (HT9) martensitic stainless steel were evaluated using both optical metallography and microhardness techniques. The as-welded fusion zone microstructures consisted of a mixture of untempered martensite and metastable delta ferrite and exhibited a hardness in the range of Rsub(c) 48-55. Four distinct microstructural regions were identified in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the GTA welds and could be related to specific phase regions on the equilibrium phase diagram. The tempering behavior of the GTA and laser welds was similar. The tempering response was relatively sluggish at temperatures below 6000C (11100F). Tempering for 1 hour at 8000C (14700F) reduced the hardness of both the fusion zone and HAZ to the level of the quenched and tempered base metal. (orig.)

112

Responses of plankton and fish from temperate zones to UVR and temperature in a context of global change / Respuestas del plancton y peces de zonas templadas a la RUV y la temperatura en un contexto de cambio global  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En las últimas décadas, tanto la temperatura como la radiación UVB (280-315 nm) en la superficie del planeta han aumentado a velocidades crecientes como resultado de las actividades humanas. Muchos estudios han evaluado ya los efectos de la temperatura en ecosistemas acuáticos, pero ahora el campo d [...] e estudio se amplía a medida que cobra importancia la combinación de dichos factores. En el presente estudio, intentamos rever una parte de lo que sabemos acerca de los efectos de la RUV y la temperatura en el plancton marino y dulceacuícola y peces de latitudes medias (definidas como aquellas comprendidas entre 30 y 60º), especialmente en la región Patagónica, debido a las características particulares de estas regiones. La RUV afecta (en general, negativamente) casi todos los procesos, desde la fijación de carbono hasta el comportamiento y ciertamente todos los niveles tróficos dentro del plancton, desde virus hasta larvas de peces. El mayor efecto negativo de la RUV es probablemente la acción mutagénica de la UVB, la cual afecta un número de procesos tales como fotosíntesis, crecimiento y división celular, entre muchos otros. En los metazoos, la RUV puede ser un factor de estrés que afecta la supervivencia, o bien puede mostrar efectos subletales tales como en el comportamiento y alimentación. Es difícil extraer un patrón general en cuanto a las respuestas, aun dentro de un grupo de organismos, ya que éstas son generalmente especie-específicas y están fuertemente influenciadas por condiciones locales (e.g., penetración de la RUV, relación PAR/RUV y aclimatación). A pesar de que en muchos casos se han determinado efectos significativos, muchos organismos también disponen de mecanismos para evitar o minimizar el daño producido por la RUV. Sin embargo, este puede no ser el caso si consideramos los cambios en la temperatura. En peces por ejemplo, la temperatura es probablemente el factor más importante que determina la distribución del hábitat, y por lo tanto la biogeografía debe ser considerada para considerar las posibles consecuencias de los cambios de temperatura y de la RUV. Aun en los diferentes escenarios predichos por los modelos climáticos (incluyendo la recuperación de la capa de ozono y el aumento de la temperatura durante las próximas décadas) serán necesarias más investigaciones combinando RUV y temperatura para entender las respuestas de los ecosistemas acuáticos en el contexto del cambio global. Abstract in english In the last decades, both temperature and UVB (280-315 nm) radiation on the surface of the Earth increased at growing rates as a result of human activities. Many studies had evaluated the effects of temperature on aquatic ecosystems, but now the field broadens as the combination and variations of te [...] mperature and radiation gains especial importance. In this work we attempt to revisit some of our knowledge about the effects of UVR and temperature on marine and freshwater plankton and fish from temperate regions (defined here as latitudes between 30-60º), especially from the Patagonia area, due to the special characteristics found in these sites. UVR affects (often negatively) almost all processes, from carbon fixation to behavior; and certainly all trophic levels in plankton, from virus to fish larvae. The most prominent UVR danger is probably the mutagenic action of UVB, which will affect a number of processes such as photosynthesis, growth and cell division, among many others. In metazoans, UVR may cause stress upon survival or show sublethal effects such as those in behavior and feeding. It is difficult to extract a general pattern, even in a group of organisms, as responses to UVR appear to be species-specific and strongly influenced by local conditions (e.g., UVR penetration, PAR/UVR ratios, and acclimation). While in many cases significant effects have been determined, a number of mechanisms are available to avoid and / or minimize the damage produced by UVR. However, this may not hold true for global temperature changes. In

Rodrigo J, Gonçalves; María Sol, Souza; Juana, Aigo; Beatriz, Modenutti; Esteban, Balseiro; Virginia E, Villafañe; Víctor, Cussac; E Walter, Helbling.

2010-08-01

113

Welding metallurgy of SA508 Cl II heat affected zones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A weld thermal simulation technique has been used to investigate the metallurgical response of SA508 class II material during welding. Dynamic Ac1 and Ac3 data, grain growth kinetics and continuous cooling transformation diagrams have been measured. The heat affected zone structure, grain size and precipitate distribution are described in terms of the weld thermal cycle experienced and compared with a weld heat affected zone. The as-welded hardness and tempering response of a range of possible heat affected zone structures has been established. The tempering effects of various weld thermal cycles are calculated from isothermal tempering data. The likely tempering effects during welding are estimated and compared with the tempering of actual welds during welding and in subsequent conventional post weld heat treatment. 16 figures, 6 tables

114

Chilling and heat requirements for flowering in temperate fruit trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change has affected the rates of chilling and heat accumulation, which are vital for flowering and production, in temperate fruit trees, but few studies have been conducted in the cold-winter climates of East Asia. To evaluate tree responses to variation in chill and heat accumulation rates, partial least squares regression was used to correlate first flowering dates of chestnut ( Castanea mollissima Blume) and jujube ( Zizyphus jujube Mill.) in Beijing, China, with daily chill and heat accumulation between 1963 and 2008. The Dynamic Model and the Growing Degree Hour Model were used to convert daily records of minimum and maximum temperature into horticulturally meaningful metrics. Regression analyses identified the chilling and forcing periods for chestnut and jujube. The forcing periods started when half the chilling requirements were fulfilled. Over the past 50 years, heat accumulation during tree dormancy increased significantly, while chill accumulation remained relatively stable for both species. Heat accumulation was the main driver of bloom timing, with effects of variation in chill accumulation negligible in Beijing's cold-winter climate. It does not seem likely that reductions in chill will have a major effect on the studied species in Beijing in the near future. Such problems are much more likely for trees grown in locations that are substantially warmer than their native habitats, such as temperate species in the subtropics and tropics.

Guo, Liang; Dai, Junhu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Yu, Haiying; Xu, Jianchu; Luedeling, Eike

2014-08-01

115

Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

Lindsay, Anne

1997-01-01

116

On Fractional Tempered Stable Motion  

OpenAIRE

Fractional tempered stable motion (fTSm)} is defined and studied. FTSm has the same covariance structure as fractional Brownian motion, while having tails heavier than Gaussian but lighter than stable. Moreover, in short time it is close to fractional stable L\\'evy motion, while it is approximately fractional Brownian motion in long time. A series representation of fTSm is derived and used for simulation and to study some of its sample path properties.

Houdre?, C.; Kawai, R.

2005-01-01

117

A season- and gap-detection mechanism regulates seed germination of two temperate forest pioneers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The survival of seedlings in temperate climate habitats depends on both temporal and spatial factors. The interaction between an internal seed dormancy mechanism and the ruling environmental conditions allows accurate cueing of germination. We analysed how environmental signals interact in seeds of temperate forest pioneer species, increasing the seed's chances of germinating in the right place at the right time. Digitalis purpurea and Scrophularia nodosa are two small-seeded herbaceous species that typically grow in vegetation gaps in European temperate forests. Seeds of both species are partially dormant at the time of dispersal in summer. This primary dormancy is released in autumn and early winter, resulting in a minimal level of physiological dormancy by late winter and early spring. We observed that physiological dormancy was induced again in seeds exhumed in late spring and in summer. Experiments in laboratory conditions revealed that primary dormancy in seeds of S nodosa was broken by cold stratification, whereas primary dormancy in D. purpurea seeds was broken by both a cold and a warm stratification. The two species differed in their response to the tested gap-detection signals, as light was the most important factor stimulating germination of D. purpurea, and seeds of S. nodosa germinated best when subjected to daily fluctuating temperatures. This study clearly indicates that the ability to germinate in response to gap-detection signals changes seasonally in temperate forest pioneers. Additionally, seeds of both species responded differently to these environmental signals, probably reflecting differences in the regeneration niche. PMID:22188020

Vranckx, G; Vandelook, F

2012-05-01

118

A dairy system based on forages and grazing in temperate Mexico  

OpenAIRE

Mexican dairy farmers will face in the near future the challenge of increased competition and the strategy to survive this at farm level will have to be based on competitive free trade world prices. This thesis describes the design of a dairy system based on forages and grazing to reduce production costs in temperate Mexico. This dairy system is based on a sequential cropping system of permanent pastures of alfalfa and orchard grass, winter annual pastures of oats and annual ryegrass and sila...

Amendola, R. D.

2002-01-01

119

Influence of climate change on the flowering of temperate fruit trees  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that winter chilling is necessary for the flowering of temperate trees. The chilling requirement is a criterion for choosing a species or variety at a given location. Also chemistry products can be used for reducing the chilling-hours needs but make our production more expensive. This study first analysed the observed values of chilling hours for some representative agricultural locations in Spain for the last three decades and their projected changes under climate change sce...

Pe?rez Lo?pez, David; Ruiz Ramos, Margarita; Sa?nchez Sa?nchez, E.; Centeno Mun?oz, Ana; Prieto Egido, I.; Lo?pez La Franca, N.

2012-01-01

120

Laser beam welding tempered 300M ultrahigh mechanical strength steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AISI 300M ultrahigh strength steel has been used in a number of high demanding applications, such as the VLS Brazilian rocket project. This work intends to propose laser beam welding, with subsequent tempering, as a possible route for the fabrication of engineering pieces of this steel. A 2 kW fiber laser was used to produce welded coupons for metallographic, hardness and tensile strength tests. It has been shown that convenient laser parameters for a 3 mm thick plate are 50 mm/s welding speed and 1200 W laser power. However, both welded materials and heat-affected zones presented high hardness and negligible plastic deformation. In order to produce useful engineering parts, it was suggested a tempering treatment for 2 hours at temperatures of 200 or 400ºC. Tensile mechanical testing has shown that welded and tempered coupons presented both yield and maximum strengths comparable to the unwelded material. On the other hand, a maximum elongation of about 4% was obtained, in comparison with 12% from the bulk sample.

Sheila Medeiros de Carvalho

2012-03-01

121

Laser beam welding tempered 300M ultrahigh mechanical strength steel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AISI 300M ultrahigh strength steel has been used in a number of high demanding applications, such as the VLS Brazilian rocket project. This work intends to propose laser beam welding, with subsequent tempering, as a possible route for the fabrication of engineering pieces of this steel. A 2 kW fiber [...] laser was used to produce welded coupons for metallographic, hardness and tensile strength tests. It has been shown that convenient laser parameters for a 3 mm thick plate are 50 mm/s welding speed and 1200 W laser power. However, both welded materials and heat-affected zones presented high hardness and negligible plastic deformation. In order to produce useful engineering parts, it was suggested a tempering treatment for 2 hours at temperatures of 200 or 400ºC. Tensile mechanical testing has shown that welded and tempered coupons presented both yield and maximum strengths comparable to the unwelded material. On the other hand, a maximum elongation of about 4% was obtained, in comparison with 12% from the bulk sample.

Sheila Medeiros de, Carvalho; Milton Sérgio Fernandes de, Lima.

2012-03-01

122

Mechanism of Secondary Hardening in Rapid Tempering of Dual-Phase Steel  

Science.gov (United States)

Dual-phase steel with ferrite-martensite-bainite microstructure exhibited secondary hardening in the subcritical heat affected zone during fiber laser welding. Rapid isothermal tempering conducted in a Gleeble simulator also indicated occurrence of secondary hardening at 773 K (500 °C), as confirmed by plotting the tempered hardness against the Holloman-Jaffe parameter. Isothermally tempered specimens were characterized by analytic transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. The cementite (Fe3C) and TiC located in the bainite phase of DP steel decomposed upon rapid tempering to form needle-shaped Mo2C (aspect ratio ranging from 10 to 25) and plate-shaped M4C3 carbides giving rise to secondary hardening. Precipitation of these thermodynamically stable and coherent carbides promoted the hardening phenomenon. However, complex carbides were only seen in the tempered bainite and were not detected in the tempered martensite. The martensite phase decomposed into ferrite and spherical Fe3C, and interlath-retained austenite decomposed into ferrite and elongated carbide.

Saha, Dulal Chandra; Nayak, Sashank S.; Biro, Elliot; Gerlich, Adrian P.; Zhou, Y.

2014-12-01

123

PERMEABILITY, WETNESS AND CREEP OF TEMPERATE ICE  

OpenAIRE

Ice is said to be temperate when it is in local equilibrium with water veins and water inclusions (1,2). Temperate ice remains a poorly understood material offering a large field for investigation. Pressure solution of air in percolating water explains why, in temperate glaciers, ice becomes progressively bubble-free between 100 and 200 m in depth (3). Emptying of large air bubbles (formed by coalescence of several hundred of small ones) through capillary veins is not excluded, however. Perme...

Lliboutry, L.

1987-01-01

124

Semi-purity of tempered Deligne cohomology  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we define the formal and tempered Deligne cohomology groups, that are obtained by applying the Deligne complex functor to the complexes of formal differential forms and tempered currents respectively. We then prove the existence of a duality between them, a vanishing theorem for the former and a semipurity property for the latter. The motivation of these results comes from the study of covariant arithmetic Chow groups. The semipurity property of tempered Deligne cohomology impli...

Burgos Gil, Jose? I.

2008-01-01

125

Performance of a temperate-zone channel catfish biofloc technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been grown successfully in an outdoor biofloc technology production system. Outdoor biofloc production systems in the tropics are operated year-round, whereas the channel catfish studies were conducted only during the growing season and biofloc production t...

126

Preventive maintenance technique by temper bead welding for reactor vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant has some dissimilar weld joint between main components which are made of Low Alloy Steel and piping which is made of Stainless Steel. Previous plants' dissimilar weld joints are made of Alloy 600 which is low resistance to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). It is reported that PWSCC is occurred in some plants. The preventive maintenance technique against PWSCC is needed immediately. One solution is the improvement of the material, for example, the inner surface of Alloy 600 is replaced by welding Alloy 690 which is high resistance to PWSCC. Generally, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of low alloy steel after welding is required Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT), but it is so hard that this operation has to be accomplished in site. So it is necessary to attempt the improvement of HAZ by temper bead welding which isn't needed PWHT. Temper bead welding is that HAZ of 1st weld layer is appropriately covered with heat of after 2nd weld layer, then the mechanical performance of HAZ is improved as well as PWHT. Conventional temper bead welding is required pre-heat and post-heat treatment. However it is impossible to set up the heater due to environment around the dissimilar weld joint in some plants, the development of ambient temperature temper bead welding technique which isn't needed pre-heat and post-heat treatment is expected. It is confirmed that the mechanical performance and the material texture are improved by setting the apial texture are improved by setting the appropriate welding condition with many welding test pieces. Then, the preventive maintenances called INLAY method are completed in some actual plants. (author)

127

Euler Scheme and Tempered Distributuions  

OpenAIRE

Given a smooth R^d-valued diffusion, we study how fast the Euler scheme with time step 1/n converges in law. To be precise, we look for which class of test functions f the approximate expectation E[f(X^{n,x}_1)] converges with speed 1/n to E[f(X^x_1)]. If X is uniformly elliptic, we show that this class contains all tempered distributions, and all measurable functions with exponential growth. We give applications to option pricing and hedging, proving numerical convergence r...

Guyon, Julien

2007-01-01

128

Vibration failures in tempered steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative measurements of crack propagation in air on three types of tempered steel, ferrite, austenite and an aluminium alloy are described. A clear connection between the crack propagation and the stress ratio cannot be ascertained. Crack arrest occurs when the threshold value of the stress intensity ? K0, determined in tests using a constant range of the crack opening displacement, is reached. The number of striations counted on the cracked surface by microfractographical means was always less than the sum of the stress cycles applied. An accurate conclusion from the striation structure on the history of the fracture is only possible in certain materials under favourable conditions. (orig.)

129

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Clad and Post-cladding Tempered AISI H13 Tool Steel  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports a detailed investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties (wear resistance and tensile strength) of hardened and tempered AISI H13 tool steel substrate following laser cladding with AISI H13 tool steel powder in as-clad and after post-cladding conventional bulk isothermal tempering [at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 hours] heat treatment. Laser cladding was carried out on AISI H13 tool steel substrate using a 6 kW continuous wave diode laser coupled with fiber delivering an energy density of 133 J/mm2 and equipped with a co-axial powder feeding nozzle capable of feeding powder at the rate of 13.3 × 10-3 g/mm2. Laser clad zone comprises martensite, retained austenite, and carbides, and measures an average hardness of 600 to 650 VHN. Subsequent isothermal tempering converted the microstructure into one with tempered martensite and uniform dispersion of carbides with a hardness of 550 to 650 VHN. Interestingly, laser cladding introduced residual compressive stress of 670 ± 15 MPa, which reduces to 580 ± 20 MPa following isothermal tempering. Micro-tensile testing with specimens machined from the clad zone across or transverse to cladding direction showed high strength but failure in brittle mode. On the other hand, similar testing with samples sectioned from the clad zone parallel or longitudinal to the direction of laser cladding prior to and after post-cladding tempering recorded lower strength but ductile failure with 4.7 and 8 pct elongation, respectively. Wear resistance of the laser surface clad and post-cladding tempered samples (evaluated by fretting wear testing) registered superior performance as compared to that of conventional hardened and tempered AISI H13 tool steel.

Telasang, Gururaj; Dutta Majumdar, Jyotsna; Wasekar, Nitin; Padmanabham, G.; Manna, Indranil

2015-02-01

130

Temper Fragileness Study for RUL 2 Steel  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an experimental study about the tenacity variation depending on the tempering temperature of the steel RUL2 grade, within q wide range of temperatures. By this analysis it is possible to study the cooling of the above mentioned heat treatment on the temper fragileness.

Rodica R?dulea; Cinc? Ionel Lupinca

2007-01-01

131

Parallel Tempering for the Traveling Salesman Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

We explore the potential of parallel tempering as a combinatorial optimization method, applying it to the traveling salesman problem. We compare simulation results of parallel tempering with a benchmark implementation of simulated annealing, and study how different choices of parameters affect the relative performance of the two methods. We find that a straightforward implementation of parallel tempering can outperform simulated annealing in several crucial respects. When parameters are chosen appropriately, both methods yield close approximation to the actual minimum distance for an instance with 200 nodes. However, parallel tempering yields more consistently accurate results when a series of independent simulations are performed. Our results suggest that parallel tempering might offer a simple but powerful alternative to simulated annealing for combinatorial optimization problems.

Wang, Chiaming; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Percus, Allon; Caflisch, Russel

132

Parallel tempering for the traveling salesman problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We explore the potential of parallel tempering as a combinatorial optimization method, applying it to the traveling salesman problem. We compare simulation results of parallel tempering with a benchmark implementation of simulated annealing, and study how different choices of parameters affect the relative performance of the two methods. We find that a straightforward implementation of parallel tempering can outperform simulated annealing in several crucial respects. When parameters are chosen appropriately, both methods yield close approximation to the actual minimum distance for an instance with 200 nodes. However, parallel tempering yields more consistently accurate results when a series of independent simulations are performed. Our results suggest that parallel tempering might offer a simple but powerful alternative to simulated annealing for combinatorial optimization problems.

Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Richard [UCLA MATH DEPT; Hyman, Jeffrey [UCLA MATH DEPT; Caflisch, Russel [UCLA MATH DEPT

2008-01-01

133

Temper brittleness of structural alloyed steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General mechanism and model representations of the temper brittleness process, as well as the methods to resist this phenomenon in low-alloyed steels are reviewed. The conclusion has been made that there is no satisfactory theory nowadays explaining the mechanism of temper brittleness. In accordance with the models developed carbide forming elements influence on temper brittleness by the fact that the concentration of impurities (phosphorus) on the grain boundaries decrease during their introduction. However, molybdenum additions, leading to reduced susceptibility to temper brittleness, don't change phosphorus concentration on the grain boundaries. Obviously, when considering the mechanism of temper brittleness, types and strength of chemical bonds on the grain boundaries should be taken into account

134

Chloride accumulation in the soil and groundwater under a downslope oak hedge reveals the impressive evapotranspiration of wooded linear structures below a temperate climate  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is an essential element in plants, Cl- is excluded to a large extent by roots during absorption of water and nutrients, and its concentration rises as a function of evapotranspiration. Compared to herbaceous vegetation, high transpiration rates are measured for hedgerow trees. This article deals with the influence of a tree hedge on the soil and groundwater Cl- concentrations and with the possibility to use Cl- as an indicator of transpiration and water movements in the hedge vicinity. Cl- concentrations were measured over one year at different depths in the unsaturated zone and in the groundwater along a transect intersecting a bottomland oak hedge in the North-West of France, under an oceanic wet temperate climate. We observed a strong spatial variation of Cl- concentrations, with very high values up to 2 g L-1 in the unsaturated zone and 1.2 g L-1 in the upper part of the groundwater. These concentrations contrasted with the low values measured in the unsaturated zone far from the hedge (10 mg L-1) and in the deepest part of the groundwater (60-70 mg L-1). Cl- accumulation in the unsaturated zone at the end of the growing season allowed us to identify the active root zone extension of trees. The root zone begins at the surface under the hedge and widens out at depth at an increasing distance from the hedge, extending laterally on at least 10 m on both sides of the hedge. While the root zone is deeper at the upslope side of the hedge, it is nearer the ground surface downslope, where the development of roots is limited by the water-table close to the surface. Cl- concentrations varied along the year. In winter, upslope of the hedge, downwards leaching partly renewed the soil solution, while under the hedge or farther downslope the lack of any significant water movement resulted in Cl- accumulation. For a bottomland hedge, the proximity of the water-table probably increases the water availability of water for tree transpiration. The measurement of Cl- concentrations in the unsaturated zone under hedges at the end of the growing season would allow us to detect whether topographic, pedological or climatic conditions are likely to limit water renewal or favour transpiration and to produce a strong salinisation of the soil, as observed in the present study. The 2 main conclusions are 1) the contrasted evapotranspiration between fields and surrounded tree hedges has been underestimated in eco-hydrological catchment studies; 2) Cl accumulation in soil and groundwater could then be an easy accessible indicator of the lateral influence of a tree hedge on water dynamic at the catchment scale.

Grimaldi, C.; Thomas, Z.; Merot, Ph.

2009-04-01

135

Winter Weather Emergencies  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

136

EFFECTIVENESS OF WINTER WHEAT VARIETIES OF WORLD SELECTION IN SOUTH URAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Varieties of winter wheat of world selection were studied in the conditions of South Ural. The conducted researches showed that in conditions of a steppe zone of South Ural possibly receiving more than 5,0 t of grain of winter wheat. For a steppe zone of South Ural four effective grades of winter wheat are defined: Kolos 47, Nika, KNIISH 756, Mironovskaya 64.

A. Glinushkin

2013-04-01

137

Environmental predictors of seasonal influenza epidemics across temperate and tropical climates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human influenza infections exhibit a strong seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low specific humidity conditions facilitate the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus in temperate regions, resulting in annual winter epidemics. However, this relationship is unlikely to account for the epidemiology of influenza in tropical and subtropical regions where epidemics often occur during the rainy season or transmit year-round without a well-defined season. We assessed the role of specific humidity and other local climatic variables on influenza virus seasonality by modeling epidemiological and climatic information from 78 study sites sampled globally. We substantiated that there are two types of environmental conditions associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: "cold-dry" and "humid-rainy". For sites where monthly average specific humidity or temperature decreases below thresholds of approximately 11-12 g/kg and 18-21°C during the year, influenza activity peaks during the cold-dry season (i.e., winter) when specific humidity and temperature are at minimal levels. For sites where specific humidity and temperature do not decrease below these thresholds, seasonal influenza activity is more likely to peak in months when average precipitation totals are maximal and greater than 150 mm per month. These findings provide a simple climate-based model rooted in empirical data that accounts for the diversity of seasonal influenza patterns observed across temperate, subtropical and tropical climates. PMID:23505366

Tamerius, James D; Shaman, Jeffrey; Alonso, Wladimir J; Alonso, Wladmir J; Bloom-Feshbach, Kimberly; Uejio, Christopher K; Comrie, Andrew; Viboud, Cécile

2013-03-01

138

The interaction between freezing tolerance and phenology in temperate deciduous trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperate climates are defined by distinct temperature seasonality with large and often unpredictable weather during any of the four seasons. To thrive in such climates, trees have to withstand a cold winter and the stochastic occurrence of freeze events during any time of the year. The physiological mechanisms trees adopt to escape, avoid, and tolerate freezing temperatures include a cold acclimation in autumn, a dormancy period during winter (leafless in deciduous trees), and the maintenance of a certain freezing tolerance during dehardening in early spring. The change from one phase to the next is mediated by complex interactions between temperature and photoperiod. This review aims at providing an overview of the interplay between phenology of leaves and species-specific freezing resistance. First, we address the long-term evolutionary responses that enabled temperate trees to tolerate certain low temperature extremes. We provide evidence that short term acclimation of freezing resistance plays a crucial role both in dormant and active buds, including re-acclimation to cold conditions following warm spells. This ability declines to almost zero during leaf emergence. Second, we show that the risk that native temperate trees encounter freeze injuries is low and is confined to spring and underline that this risk might be altered by climate warming depending on species-specific phenological responses to environmental cues. PMID:25346748

Vitasse, Yann; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian

2014-01-01

139

Appropriate welding conditions of temper bead weld repair for SQV2A pressure vessel steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Temper bead welding technique is one of the most important repair welding methods for large structures for which it is difficult to perform the specified post weld heat treatment. In this study, appropriate temper bead welding conditions to improve the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) are studied using pressure vessel steel SQV2A corresponding to ASTM A533 Type B Class 1. Thermal/mechanical simulator is employed to give specimens welding thermal cycles from single to quadruple cycle. Charpy absorbed energy and hardness of simulated CGHAZ by first cycle were degraded as compared with base metal. Improvability of these degradations by subsequent cycles is discussed and appropriate temper bead thermal cycles are clarified. When the peak temperature lower than Ac1 and near Ac1 in the second thermal cycle is applied to CGAHZ by first thermal cycle, the characteristics of CGHAZ improve enough. When the other peak temperatures (that is, higher than Ac1) in the second thermal cycle are applied to the CGHAZ, third or more thermal cycle temper bead process should be applied to improve the properties. Appropriate weld condition ranges are selected based on the above results. The validity of the selected ranges is verified by the temper bead welding test. (orig.)

140

Appropriate welding conditions of temper bead weld repair for SQV2A pressure vessel steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Temper bead welding technique is one of the most important repair welding methods for large structures for which it is difficult to perform the specified post weld heat treatment. In this study, appropriate temper bead welding conditions to improve the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) are studied using pressure vessel steel SQV2A corresponding to ASTM A533 Type B Class 1. Thermal/mechanical simulator is employed to give specimens welding thermal cycles from single to quadruple cycle. Charpy absorbed energy and hardness of simulated CGHAZ by first cycle were degraded as compared with base metal. Improvability of these degradations by subsequent cycles is discussed and appropriate temper bead thermal cycles are clarified. When the peak temperature lower than Ac1 and near Ac1 in the second thermal cycle is applied to CGAHZ by first thermal cycle, the characteristics of CGHAZ improve enough. When the other peak temperatures (that is, higher than Ac1) in the second thermal cycle are applied to the CGHAZ, third or more thermal cycle temper bead process should be applied to improve the properties. Appropriate weld condition ranges are selected based on the above results. The validity of the selected ranges is verified by the temper bead welding test. (orig.)

Mizuno, R.; Matsuda, F. [NDE Center, Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp. (Japan); Brziak, P. [Welding Research Inst. - Industrial Inst. of Slovak Republic (Slovakia); Lomozik, M. [Inst. of Welding (Poland)

2004-07-01

141

Woodland communities in the Chilean cold-temperate zone (Baker and Pascua basins): Floristic composition and morpho-ecological transition / Comunidades leñosas en la zona chilena frío-templada (cuencas de los ríos Baker y Pascua): Composición florística y transición morfo-ecológica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este estudio describe la composición florística y la transición morfo-ecológica de las comunidades leñosas ocurriendo a través de un gradiente climático en la zona templada fría de la Patagonia chilena. Se establecieron un total de 256 relevamientos fitosociológicos a través de un transecto NE-SO de [...] 150 km para registrar las especies de plantas vasculares. Técnicas de clasificación (análisis de conglomerados) y ordenación (análisis de componentes principales) fueron usadas para segregar y examinar comunidades. Se computaron indicadores de biodiversidad incluyendo riqueza y abundancia de especies nativas y exóticas, valores de importancia, formas de vida de Raunkiaer, índices de diversidad y especies indicadoras para describir atributos comunitarios. La diversidad Beta fue analizada usando el coeficiente de Jaccard. Se discuten también las perturbaciones antropogénicas que actualmente afectan a la vegetación. En total se segregaron 11 comunidades pertenecientes a tres grupos ecológicos: a) comunidades leñosas meso-higromórficas pertenecientes a la cuenca del Baker, conformada principalmente de bosques caducifolios conteniendo valores relativos intermedios de riqueza y diversidad, pero las mayores riquezas de exóticas; b) comunidades leñosas higromórficas pertenecientes al segmento sur de la cuenca del río Baker y a través de toda la cuenca del río Pascua, compuesta de bosques siempreverdes conteniendo los mayores valores de riqueza y diversidad y muy baja riqueza de exóticas, y c) comunidades leñosas achaparradas alto-andinas, distribuidas en lugares de alta elevación en ambas cuencas, compuestas de krummholz conteniendo la menor riqueza y diversidad, sin presencia de especies introducidas. El reemplazo de comunidades caduficolias por siempreverdes en sentido norte-sur sucede alrededor de la latitud 48°S. Perturbaciones antrópicas como la tala de madera por propietarios rurales, sobrepastoreo por ganado doméstico y ampliaciones en los caminos, están provocando invasiones biológicas en los bosques de la cuenca del río Baker, mientras que los bosques de la cuenca del río Pascua, donde no ocurre poblamiento humano, permanecen prístinos Abstract in english This study describes the floristic composition and morpho-ecological transition of woodlands along a climatic gradient in the southern cold temperate zone of Chilean Patagonia. A total of 256 phytosociological relevés were performed across a 150 km NE-SW transect to record vascular plant species. Cl [...] assification (cluster analysis) and ordination (principal component analysis) techniques were used to segregate and examine the communities. Biodiversity indicators including richness and abundances of species natives and exotics, importance values, Raunkiaer plant life-forms, diversity indices and indicator species were calculated to describe community attributes. Beta diversity was analysed using the Jaccard index. Additionally, the current anthropogenic disturbances affecting this vegetation are discussed. In total, 11 woodland communities belonging to 3 morpho-ecological groups were segregated: a) meso-hygromorphic woodlands belonging to the Baker basin, mostly composed of deciduous forests containing relatively moderate values of richness and diversity but high richness of exotics, b) hygromorphic woodlands belonging to the southern segment of the Baker basin and along the Pascua basin, composed of evergreen forest containing the relatively highest values of richness and diversity and very low richness of exotics and c) high-Andean dwarf woodlands distributed at high elevations in both basins, composed of deciduous krummholz containing the lowest richness and diversity and no exotics. The replacement of deciduous by evergreen communities at low elevations occurs around the latitude 48°S. Anthropogenic disturbances like logging by rural landowners, overgrazing by livestock and road construction are promoting biological invasions in the Baker basin fo

OSVALDO J, VIDAL; JAN R, BANNISTER; VÍCTOR, SANDOVAL; YESSICA, PÉREZ; CARLOS, RAMÍREZ.

142

Woodland communities in the Chilean cold-temperate zone (Baker and Pascua basins: Floristic composition and morpho-ecological transition Comunidades leñosas en la zona chilena frío-templada (cuencas de los ríos Baker y Pascua: Composición florística y transición morfo-ecológica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the floristic composition and morpho-ecological transition of woodlands along a climatic gradient in the southern cold temperate zone of Chilean Patagonia. A total of 256 phytosociological relevés were performed across a 150 km NE-SW transect to record vascular plant species. Classification (cluster analysis and ordination (principal component analysis techniques were used to segregate and examine the communities. Biodiversity indicators including richness and abundances of species natives and exotics, importance values, Raunkiaer plant life-forms, diversity indices and indicator species were calculated to describe community attributes. Beta diversity was analysed using the Jaccard index. Additionally, the current anthropogenic disturbances affecting this vegetation are discussed. In total, 11 woodland communities belonging to 3 morpho-ecological groups were segregated: a meso-hygromorphic woodlands belonging to the Baker basin, mostly composed of deciduous forests containing relatively moderate values of richness and diversity but high richness of exotics, b hygromorphic woodlands belonging to the southern segment of the Baker basin and along the Pascua basin, composed of evergreen forest containing the relatively highest values of richness and diversity and very low richness of exotics and c high-Andean dwarf woodlands distributed at high elevations in both basins, composed of deciduous krummholz containing the lowest richness and diversity and no exotics. The replacement of deciduous by evergreen communities at low elevations occurs around the latitude 48°S. Anthropogenic disturbances like logging by rural landowners, overgrazing by livestock and road construction are promoting biological invasions in the Baker basin forests, while the forests in the Pascua basin remain pristine since no human population occurs thereEste estudio describe la composición florística y la transición morfo-ecológica de las comunidades leñosas ocurriendo a través de un gradiente climático en la zona templada fría de la Patagonia chilena. Se establecieron un total de 256 relevamientos fitosociológicos a través de un transecto NE-SO de 150 km para registrar las especies de plantas vasculares. Técnicas de clasificación (análisis de conglomerados y ordenación (análisis de componentes principales fueron usadas para segregar y examinar comunidades. Se computaron indicadores de biodiversidad incluyendo riqueza y abundancia de especies nativas y exóticas, valores de importancia, formas de vida de Raunkiaer, índices de diversidad y especies indicadoras para describir atributos comunitarios. La diversidad Beta fue analizada usando el coeficiente de Jaccard. Se discuten también las perturbaciones antropogénicas que actualmente afectan a la vegetación. En total se segregaron 11 comunidades pertenecientes a tres grupos ecológicos: a comunidades leñosas meso-higromórficas pertenecientes a la cuenca del Baker, conformada principalmente de bosques caducifolios conteniendo valores relativos intermedios de riqueza y diversidad, pero las mayores riquezas de exóticas; b comunidades leñosas higromórficas pertenecientes al segmento sur de la cuenca del río Baker y a través de toda la cuenca del río Pascua, compuesta de bosques siempreverdes conteniendo los mayores valores de riqueza y diversidad y muy baja riqueza de exóticas, y c comunidades leñosas achaparradas alto-andinas, distribuidas en lugares de alta elevación en ambas cuencas, compuestas de krummholz conteniendo la menor riqueza y diversidad, sin presencia de especies introducidas. El reemplazo de comunidades caduficolias por siempreverdes en sentido norte-sur sucede alrededor de la latitud 48°S. Perturbaciones antrópicas como la tala de madera por propietarios rurales, sobrepastoreo por ganado doméstico y ampliaciones en los caminos, están provocando invasiones biológicas en los bosques de la cuenca del río Baker, mientras que los bosques de la cuenca del río Pascua, donde no ocurre poblamiento humano, permanecen prístin

OSVALDO J VIDAL

2011-01-01

143

Drilling in tempered glass – modelling and experiments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper reports experimentally and numerically obtained results for the process of drilling in tempered glass. The experimental results are drilling depths on the edge in 19mm tempered glass with a known residual stress state measured by a scattered light polariscope. The experiments have been modelled using a state-of-the-art model and compared with satisfying result to the performed experiments. The numerical model has been used for a parametric study, investigating the redistribution of residual stresses during the process of drilling. This is done for investigating the possibility of applying forces in such holes and thereby being able to mechanically assemble tempered glass without the need of drilling holes before the tempering process. The paper is the result of currently ongoing research and the results should be treated as so.

Nielsen, Jens Henrik

144

Summable families in tempered distribution spaces  

OpenAIRE

In this note we define summable families in tempered distribution spaces and we state some their properties and characterizations. Summable families are the analogous of summable sequences in separable Hilbert spaces, but in tempered distribution spaces, having elements (functional) realizable as generalized vectors indexed by real Euclidean spaces (not pointwise defined ordered families of scalars indexed by real Euclidean spaces in the sense of distributions). Any family w...

Carfi?, David

2011-01-01

145

Confounded winter and spring phenoclimatology on large herbivore ranges  

Science.gov (United States)

Annual variation in winter severity and growing season vegetation dynamics appear to influence the demography of temperate herbivores but parsing winter from spring effects requires independent metrics of environmental conditions specific to each season. We tested for independence in annual variation amongst four common metrics used to describe winter severity and early growing season vegetation dynamics across the entire spatial distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Wyoming from 1989 to 2006. Winter conditions and early growing season dynamics were correlated in a specific way. Winters with snow cover that ended early tended to be followed by early, but slow, rises in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while long winters with extended periods of snow cover were often followed by late and rapid rises in NDVI. Across the 35 elk ranges, 0.4–86.8 % of the variation in the rate of increase in NDVI’s in spring was explained by the date snow cover disappeared from SNOTEL stations. Because phenoclimatological metrics are correlated across seasons and shifting due to climate change, identifying environmental constraints on herbivore fitness, particularly migratory species, is more difficult than previously recognized.

Christianson, David; Klaver, Robert W.; Middleton, Arthur; Kauffman, Matthew

2013-01-01

146

Variation in Carbon Storage and Its Distribution by Stand Age and Forest Type in Boreal and Temperate Forests in Northeastern China  

OpenAIRE

The northeastern forest region of China is an important component of total temperate and boreal forests in the northern hemisphere. But how carbon (C) pool size and distribution varies among tree, understory, forest floor and soil components, and across stand ages remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we selected three major temperate and two major boreal forest types in northeastern (NE) China. Within both forest zones, we focused on four stand age classes (young, mid-aged, mature ...

Wei, Yawei; Li, Maihe; Chen, Hua; Lewis, Bernard J.; Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Fang, Xiangmin; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Limin

2013-01-01

147

The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates  

OpenAIRE

Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, including important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons so that flowering and seed production coincide with favorable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can...

Fjellheim, Siri; Boden, Scott; Trevaskis, Ben

2014-01-01

148

Postglacial evolution and spatial differentiation of seasonal temperate rainforest in western Canada  

OpenAIRE

Surface samples from Vancouver Island, Canada, were used to assess the relationship between discrete seasonal temperate rainforest (STR) plant communities and their corresponding pollen signatures. Pollen from ten sediment cores was further used to evaluate the postglacial development of these communities. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the surface data revealed the distinctiveness of the modern pollen rain, with samples from the Coastal Douglas Fir (CDF) zone, the dry Coastal Western...

Brown, K. J.; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fitton, R. J.; Hebda, R. J.

2008-01-01

149

Plasmodium vivax populations revisited: mitochondrial genomes of temperate strains in Asia suggest ancient population expansion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite outside of Africa, and its range extends well into the temperate zones. Previous studies provided evidence for vivax population differentiation, but temperate vivax parasites were not well represented in these analyses. Here we address this deficit by using complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences to elucidate the broad genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax from temperate regions in East and Southeast Asia. Results From the complete mtDNA sequences of 99 clinical samples collected in China, Myanmar and Korea, a total of 30 different haplotypes were identified from 26 polymorphic sites. Significant differentiation between different East and Southeast Asian parasite populations was observed except for the comparison between populations from Korea and southern China. Haplotype patterns and structure diversity analysis showed coexistence of two different groups in East Asia, which were genetically related to the Southeast Asian population and Myanmar population, respectively. The demographic history of P. vivax, examined using neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses, revealed population expansion events across the entire P. vivax range and the Myanmar population. Bayesian skyline analysis further supported the occurrence of ancient P. vivax population expansion. Conclusions This study provided further resolution of the population structure and evolution of P. vivax, especially in temperate/warm-temperate endemic areas of Asia. The results revealed divergence of the P. vivax populations in temperate regions of China and Korea from other populations. Multiple analyses confirmed ancient population expansion of this parasite. The extensive genetic diversity of the P. vivax populations is consistent with phenotypic plasticity of the parasites, which has implications for malaria control.

Miao Miao

2012-02-01

150

Nuclear winter down under  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation that nuclear explosions produce and the subsequent fall-out play a relatively small part in the causes and consequences of a nuclear winter. More important are the injection of smoke and dust into the upper atmosphere and the subsequent effects on climate and agricultural productivity. The implications of nuclear winter for the Southern Hemisphere and Australia in particular, are examined

151

Winter Olympic Sports  

Science.gov (United States)

Exploring Winter Olympic Sports Let's take a look at some of the different winter olympic sports Alpine Skiing Biathalon Bobsleigh Cross country Curling Figure Skating Freestyle skiing Ice Hockey Luge Nordic Combined Short track speed skating Skeleton Ski Jumping Snowboard Speed Skating ...

Mrs. Keller

2010-01-23

152

Winter and Specialty Wheat  

Science.gov (United States)

The two main commercial types of wheat are durum (Triticum durum L., 2n=4x= 28) and common (T. aestivum L, 2n=6x=42.) wheat, the latter being the more widely grown. Wheat has three growth habits, namely winter (wheats grown over the winter months that require vernalization and can withstand prolong...

153

Winter, Your Car, and You  

Science.gov (United States)

... Toggle navigation Public News and Resources – Winter Your Car and You Winter, Your Car and You Start with a checkup that includes: ... a car shut. News and Resources – Winter Your Car and You Get the Facts This page is ...

154

Winter predation by insectivorous birds and consequences for arthropods and plants in summer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Top-down effects of predators can have important consequences for ecosystems. Insectivorous birds frequently have strong predation effects on herbivores and other arthropods, as well as indirect effects on herbivores' host plants. Diet studies have shown that birds in temperate ecosystems consume arthropods in winter as well as in summer, but experimental studies of bird predation effects have not attempted to quantitatively separate winter predation impacts from those in summer. To understand if winter foraging by insectivorous birds has consequences for arthropods or plants, we performed a meta-analysis of published bird exclusion studies in temperate forest and shrubland habitats. We categorized 85 studies from 41 publications by whether birds were excluded year-round or only in summer, and analyzed arthropod and plant response variables. We also performed a manipulative field experiment in which we used a factorial design to exclude birds from Quercus velutina Lam. saplings in winter and summer, and censused arthropods and herbivore damage in the following growing season. In the meta-analysis, birds had stronger negative effects on herbivores in studies that included winter exclusion, and this effect was not due to study duration. However, this greater predation effect did not translate to a greater impact on plant damage or growth. In the field experiment, winter exclusion did not influence herbivore abundance or their impacts on plants. We have shown that winter feeding by temperate insectivorous birds can have important consequences for insect herbivore populations, but the strength of these effects may vary considerably among ecosystems. A full understanding of the ecological roles of insectivorous birds will require explicit consideration of their foraging in the non-growing season, and we make recommendations for how future studies can address this. PMID:22644051

Barber, Nicholas A; Wouk, Jennifer

2012-12-01

155

Well-Tempered Metadynamics Converges Asymptotically  

Science.gov (United States)

Metadynamics is a versatile and capable enhanced sampling method for the computational study of soft matter materials and biomolecular systems. However, over a decade of application and several attempts to give this adaptive umbrella sampling method a firm theoretical grounding prove that a rigorous convergence analysis is elusive. This Letter describes such an analysis, demonstrating that well-tempered metadynamics converges to the final state it was designed to reach and, therefore, that the simple formulas currently used to interpret the final converged state of tempered metadynamics are correct and exact. The results do not rely on any assumption that the collective variable dynamics are effectively Brownian or any idealizations of the hill deposition function; instead, they suggest new, more permissive criteria for the method to be well behaved. The results apply to tempered metadynamics with or without adaptive Gaussians or boundary corrections and whether the bias is stored approximately on a grid or exactly.

Dama, James F.; Parrinello, Michele; Voth, Gregory A.

2014-06-01

156

A Transnational Temperance Discourse? William Wells Brown, Creole Civilization, and Temperate Manners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In the nineteenth century, temperance movements provided the occasion for a transnational discourse. These conversations possessed an intensity throughout Britain and the United States. In America temperance often became associated with strongly nationalistic Euro-American forms of identity and internal purity. Nonetheless, African American reformers and abolitionists bound themselves to temperance ideals in forming civil societies that would heal persons and provide communal modes of democratic freedom in the aftermath and recovery from chattel slavery. This paper explores the possibilities of temperance as a transnational discourse by considering its meaning in the life and work of the African American author and activist, William Wells Brown. Brown expressed a “creole civilization” that employed the stylistics of the trickster as a unique mode of restraint that revealed a peculiar power of passivity that was able to claim efficacy over one’s life and community. This meaning of temperance diverges from and dovetails with certain European meanings of civilization that were being forged in the nineteenth century. Brown was in conversation with temperance reformers in America, Britain, and Europe. He imagined the possible meaning of temperance in African, Egyptian, Christian, and Islamic civilizations. He speculated upon the possibility of temperance as a defining characteristic of a transnational civilization and culture that would provide spaces for the expression of democratic freedom. Brown reimagined temperance as a form of corporeal restraint that offered a direct and sacred relation to the land, space, people that appeared in between an ethnic nationalist ethos and the European imperialistic civilization.

Carole Lynn Stewart

2011-03-01

157

Arithmetic Brownian motion subordinated by tempered stable and inverse tempered stable processes  

CERN Document Server

In the last decade the subordinated processes have become popular and found many practical applications. Therefore in this paper we examine two processes related to time-changed (subordinated) classical Brownian motion with drift (called arithmetic Brownian motion). The first one, so called normal tempered stable, is related to the tempered stable subordinator, while the second one - to the inverse tempered stable process. We compare the main properties (such as probability density functions, Laplace transforms, ensemble averaged mean squared displacements) of such two subordinated processes and propose the parameters' estimation procedures. Moreover we calibrate the analyzed systems to real data related to indoor air quality.

Wy?oma?ska, Agnieszka

2012-01-01

158

Plant nutrient mobilization in temperate heathland responds to elevated CO2, temperature and drought  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Temperate terrestrial ecosystems are currently exposed to increased atmospheric CO2 and progressive climatic changes with increased temperature and periodical drought. We here present results from a field experiment, where the effects of these three main climate change related factors are investigated solely and in all combinations at a temperate heathland. Significant responses were found in the top soils below the two dominant species (Calluna vulgaris and Deschampsia flexuosa). During winter incubation, microbial immobilization of N and ammonification rate decreased in response to warming in Deschampsia soil, and microbial immobilization of N and P decreased in warmed Calluna soil. Warming tended to increase microbial N and P in Calluna but not in Deschampsia soil in fall, and more microbial C was accumulated under drought in Calluna soil. The effects of warming were often counteracted or erased when combined with CO2 and drought. Below Deschampsia, the net nitrification rate decreased in response to drought and, while phosphorus availability and microbial P immobilization decreased, but nitrification increased in response to elevated CO2. Furthermore, leaf litter decomposition of both species decreased in response to drought. These complex changes in availability and release of nutrients from soil organic matter turnover and mineralization in response to elevated CO2 and climate change may influence the future plant carbon sequestration and species composition at temperate heathlands.

Andresen, Louise C.; Michelsen, Anders

2010-01-01

159

Humidity and respiratory virus transmission in tropical and temperate settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are similarly structured viruses with similar environmental survival, but different routes of transmission. While RSV is transmitted predominantly by direct and indirect contact, influenza is also transmitted by aerosol. The cold, dry conditions of temperate winters appear to encourage the transmission of both viruses, by increasing influenza virus survival in aerosols, and increasing influenza and RSV survival on surfaces. In contrast, the hot, wet conditions of tropical rainy seasons appear to discourage aerosol transmission of influenza, by reducing the amount of influenza virus that is aerosolized, and probably also by reducing influenza survival in aerosol. The wet conditions of tropical rainy seasons may, however, encourage contact transmission of both viruses, by increasing the amount of virus that is deposited on surfaces, and by increasing virus survival in droplets on surfaces. This evidence suggests that the increased incidence of influenza and RSV in tropical rainy seasons may be due to increased contact transmission. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation that tropical rainy seasons appear to encourage the transmission of RSV more than influenza. More research is required to examine the environmental survival of respiratory viruses in the high humidity and temperature of the tropics. PMID:25307020

Paynter, S

2015-04-01

160

Simulation of quenching and tempering of steels  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient simulation method, which includes microstructure, temperature and stress analysis applicable to both quenching and tempering processes, is developed and implemented using the commercial FEM package ABAQUS. This simulation encompasses phase transformations and their effects on the temperature distribution and stress/strain evolution, including the dependency of material properties on temperature and microstructure, transformation strains, latent heats and transformation plasticity. Three different multi-phase constitutive models, namely the average property model, the Voigt model and the Reuss model, have been implemented. The average property model is based on the linear mixture of material properties of different phase, while the Voigt model assumes the same strain field in all phases and the Reuss model assumes the iso-stress field. The simulation model has been applied to quenching and tempering of modified 4320 steel. Experiments of tempering and quenching on carburized circular plates of the same steel have been performed. The calculated distortion and residual stress profiles are in good agreement with corresponding measurements made in experiments and thus verifies the correctness of the model. The simulation model developed in this study is a useful design tool for quenching and tempering as well as machining of steels.

Jin, Long

161

Discovery Bay, Winter  

OpenAIRE

175 x 115 mm. View looking towards the iced-in 'Discovery', with tents pitched in the foreground. The 'Discovery' remained in her winter quarters at the mouth of Lady Franklin Sound from August 1875 to August 1876.

2004-01-01

162

Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Indoor Safety Winter PSAs and Podcasts Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

163

Nutrition for winter sports.  

Science.gov (United States)

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered. PMID:22150424

Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

2011-01-01

164

The role of seasonal flowering responses in adaptation of grasses to temperate climates  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, including important cereal crops and pasture grasses, are widespread in temperate zones. Seasonal regulation of developmental transitions coordinates the life cycles of Pooideae with the passing seasons so that flowering and seed production coincide with favorable conditions in spring. This review examines the molecular pathways that control the seasonal flowering responses of Pooideae and how variation in the activity of genes controlling these pathways can adapt cereals or grasses to different climates and geographical regions. The possible evolutionary origins of the seasonal flowering responses of the Pooideae are discussed and key questions for future research highlighted. These include the need to develop a better understanding of the molecular basis for seasonal flowering in perennial Pooideae and in temperate grasses outside the core Pooideae group. PMID:25221560

Fjellheim, Siri; Boden, Scott; Trevaskis, Ben

2014-01-01

165

Effects of temper condition and corrosion on the fatigue performance of a laser-welded Al-Cu-Mg-Ag (2139) alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of temper condition and corrosion on the fatigue behavior of a laser beam welded Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy (2139) have been investigated. Natural aging (T3 temper) and artificial aging (T8 temper) have been applied prior to welding. Corrosion testing has been performed by exposing the welded specimens to a salt spray medium for 720 h. Aging influences the corrosion behavior of laser welds. In the T3 temper, corrosion attack is in the form of pitting in the weld area, while in the T8 temper corrosion is in the form of pitting and intergranular corrosion in the base metal. In the latter case corrosion is attributed to the presence of grain boundary precipitates. Corrosion degrades the fatigue behavior of 2139 welds. The degradation is equal for both the T3 and T8 tempers and for the corrosion exposure selected in this study corresponds to a 52% reduction in fatigue limit. In both cases fatigue crack initiation is associated with corrosion pits, which act as stress raisers. In the T3 temper, the fatigue crack initiation site is at the weld metal/heat affected zone interface, while for the T8 temper the initiation site is at the base metal. Fatigue crack initiation in uncorroded 2139 welds occurs at the weld toe at the root side, the weld reinforcement playing a principal role as stress concentration site. The fatigue crack propagates through the partially melted zone and the weld metal in all cases. The findings in this paper present useful information for the selection of appropriate heat treatment conditions, to facilitate control of the corrosion behavior in aluminium welds, which is of great significance for their fatigue performance.

166

Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

Zbigniew Pruszak

2005-09-01

167

[Suitability evaluation of great bustard (Otis tarda)'s wintering habitat in Baiyangdian basin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the related researches of great bustard's wintering habitat selection as well as the advices of related experts and the distribution records of great bustard in Baiyangdian basin, 3 first class indices and 13 second indices were chosen to characterize the key factors affecting the wintering habitat selection of great bustard, and a habitat quality evaluation model was built to assess the quality of wintering habitat selection of great bustard in Baiyangdian basin. In 2005, the suitable wintering habitats of great bustard in the basin had an area of 11907.25 km2, accounting for 34.1% of the total. Of the suitable wintering habitats, the most suitable habitats had an area of 4596.25 km2, only 13.2% of the total and comparatively concentrated in two zones, i.e., Baiyangdian Wetland Natural Reserve and its peripheral area (zone I) in the east of Baiyangdian basin, and Xingtang and Quyang counties (zone II) in the southwest of Baiyangdian basin. The total area of the most suitable habitats in zone I and zone II was 2803.55 km2, accounting for 61.0% of the most suitable habitats in the basin. To protect the wintering habitat of great bustard in the basin, proper measures should be taken according to the environmental features of the two zones. PMID:22007472

Zhao, Zhi-xuan; Yan, Deng-hua; Weng, Bai-sha; Zhang, Biao

2011-07-01

168

A guided tour of new tempered distributions  

Science.gov (United States)

Laurent Schwartz, the principle architect of distribution theory, presented the impossibility of extending a form of multiplication to distribution theory. There have been many varieties of partial solutions to this problem. Some of the solutions contain heuristic computations done by physicists in quantum field theory. A recent strategy developed by J. Colombeau culminates with multiplication and integration theory for distributions. This paper develops this theory in the spirit of a sequence approach, much like fundamental sequences are to distributions. However, in the new tempered distribution theory the sequences can be noncountable. T. Todorov developed these techniques for new distributions. However, since so many applications require Fourier analysis, the new tempered distributions provide a natural setting for physics and signal analysis. The paper illustrates the product of two Dirac delta functionals, ?( x) ?( x). Other nonregular distributional products can also be computed in the same manner. The paper culminates with a new application of annihilation and creation operators in quantum field theory.

Schmeelk, John

1990-10-01

169

The nuclear winter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

170

Myxomycetes associated with pipevine, a temperate liana  

OpenAIRE

Pinevine (Aristolochia macrophylla Lam.), a climbing woody vine native to temperate forests of eastern North America, is morphologically similar to many of the lianas characteristic of moist tropical forests. In August 2010, samples of dead pinevine collected from a study site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park were used to prepare a series of 50 moist chamber cultures. Thirty-seven of the 50 cultures (74%) yielded evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies) of myxomycetes. Fourtee...

Il, Coelho; Sl, Stephenson

2012-01-01

171

Leaf out phenology in temperate forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Monitoring phenology, the study of the timing of natural events, is an ancient practice that has experienced renewed relevance for scientific research interest in the wake of awareness of anthropogenic climate change. Spring onset has been occurring significantly earlier in temperate regions worldwide. Leaf out phenology has become particularly well studied is of particular interest because the emergence of leaves in the spring is extremely sensitive to temperature, and the leaf out timing of leaf out in temperate ecosystems marks the onset of the growing season and controls many essential ecosystem processes. This article reviews the current literature concerning the different methods used to study leaf out phenology, the controls on leaf out in temperate woody plants, and the effects of climate change on leaf out phenology. In addition to the traditional method of on-the-ground leaf out monitoring, new methods using remote sensing and dedicated cameras have been developed which allow scientists to track spring onset at a much larger scale than hadpreviously been possible. Further work is needed on how leaf phenology will respond to future climate change, and the implications of this for animals and other species interactions among trophic levels.

Caroline A. Polgar

2013-01-01

172

The Fabled Maine Winter  

Science.gov (United States)

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

173

Drivers of long-term variability in CO2 net ecosystem exchange in a temperate peatland  

Science.gov (United States)

Land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variability, which subsequently affects the carbon (C) sink strength of catchments across multiple temporal scales. Long-term studies are needed to fully capture the natural variability and therefore identify the key hydrometeorological drivers in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Since 2002, NEE has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance at Auchencorth Moss, a temperate lowland peatland in central Scotland. Hence this is one of the longest peatland NEE studies to date. For 11 years, the site was a consistent, yet variable, atmospheric CO2 sink ranging from -5.2 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -64.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing season. Mean winter air temperature explained 87% of the inter-annual variability in the sink strength of the following summer, indicating an effect of winter climate on local phenology. Ecosystem respiration (Reco) was enhanced by drought, which also depressed gross primary productivity (GPP). The CO2 uptake rate during the growing season was comparable to three other sites with long-term NEE records; however, the emission rate during the dormant season was significantly higher. To summarise, the NEE of the peatland studied is modulated by two dominant factors: - phenology of the plant community, which is driven by winter air temperature and impacts photosynthetic potential and net CO2 uptake during the growing season (colder winters are linked to lower summer NEE), - water table level, which enhanced soil respiration and decreased GPP during dry spells. Although summer dry spells were sporadic during the study period, the positive effects of the current climatic trend towards milder winters on the site's CO2 sink strength could be offset by changes in precipitation patterns especially during the growing season.

Helfter, C.; Campbell, C.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Drewer, J.; Coyle, M.; Anderson, M.; Skiba, U.; Nemitz, E.; Billett, M. F.; Sutton, M. A.

2015-03-01

174

The macroalgal carbonate factory at a cool-to-warm temperate marine transition, Southern Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

The shallow neritic seafloor to depths of ~ 30 m along the coast of southwestern Victoria Australia, is the site of rocky reefs on volcanic and aeolianite bathymetric highs. The region, located near the warm- to cool-temperate environmental transition, is a site of prolific macroalgae (kelp) growth. Kelps are most prolific and diverse in high-energy, open-ocean environments whereas broad-leafed seagrasses, at their cold-water eastern limit, are restricted to local protected embayments. The seagrasses are reduced to one species of Amphibolis whereas the kelps are diverse and include the large intertidal bull kelp (Durvillaea), not present in warmer waters. The macroalgal forest extends from the intertidal to ~ 30 mwd (metres water depth) as a series of distinct biomes; 1) the Peritidal, 2) the Phaeophyte Forest (0-17 mwd), 3) the Rhodophyte Thicket (17-15 mwd), and 4) the Invertebrate Coppice (> 25 mwd). The Phaeophyte Forest is partitioned into a Durvillaea zone (0-2 mwd), a Phyllospora zone (2-10 mwd) and an Ecklonia zone (10-17mwd). The two major habitats within each biome comprise 1) an upward facing illuminated surface that supports a macroalgal canopy over an understorey of coralline algae and herbivorous gastropods, and 2) a separate, cryptic, shaded habitat dominated by a diverse community of filter-feeding invertebrates. These communities produce two different sediments; 1) geniculate and encrusting corallines and diverse gastropods from the upper surface, and 2) bryozoans, molluscs, barnacles, chitons, serpulids, and benthic foraminifers from the shaded, cryptic habitats. These particles are blended together with the latter becoming proportionally more abundant with increasing depth. Results of this study, when integrated with recent investigations in warm-temperate (South Australia) and cool-temperate (New Zealand) environments now define carbonate sedimentology of the macroalgal reef depositional system in this part of the northern Southern Ocean.

James, Noel P.; Reid, Catherine M.; Bone, Yvonne; Levings, Andrew; Malcolm, Isabelle

2013-06-01

175

Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002  

OpenAIRE

Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenzalike illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak.

Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Rubin, Michael A.; Samore, Matthew H.; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; Mcguire, Heather L.; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Dunn, James J.; Willick, Stuart E.; Vosters, Randal L.; Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Carroll, Karen C.; Gwaltney, Jack M.; Hayden, Frederick G.; Elstad, Mark R.

2006-01-01

176

Influenza, Winter Olympiad, 2002.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective surveillance for influenza was performed during the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics. Oseltamivir was administered to patients with influenza like illness and confirmed influenza, while their close contacts were given oseltamivir prophylactically. Influenza A/B was diagnosed in 36 of 188 patients, including 13 athletes. Prompt management limited the spread of this outbreak. PMID:16494733

Gundlapalli, Adi V; Rubin, Michael A; Samore, Matthew H; Lopansri, Bert; Lahey, Timothy; McGuire, Heather L; Winthrop, Kevin L; Dunn, James J; Willick, Stuart E; Vosters, Randal L; Waeckerle, Joseph E; Carroll, Karen C; Gwaltney, Jack M; Hayden, Frederick G; Elstad, Mark R; Sande, Merle A

2006-01-01

177

PLCO News, Winter 2001  

Science.gov (United States)

PLCO News, Winter 2001 Cancer Information Service If you have a question about cancer, call and speak with a trained specialist at NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS). The CIS operates a nationwide toll-free telephone hotline Monday-Friday, 9:00 a.m.

178

Some Properties of Saturn'ian Equatorialand Temperate Belts at the 2009 Equinox  

Science.gov (United States)

The special processing was made for more than 600 zonal spectra obtained by scanning of Saturn’s disk during the equinox-2009. A comparative study of the optical characteristics of the southern and northern temperate latitudes and equatorial belt have shown some hemispheric differences in the methane absorption behavior. In the equatorial zone we have usually observed decrease in the intensity of the methane absorption compared to temperate latitudes. But the correct estimation of this difference may be done only at the equinox when the ting influence is minimal. In 2009 the methane absorption on equator leas 21-24 per cent less than on temperate latitudes and it may considered as true value of that difference. The CH4 absorption bands variations at middle latitudes show some of the specific features. In particular, the absorption band of 725 nm in the southern hemisphere is not different from that in the northern hemisphere. However, other bands, centered at 619, 678, 702 and 787 nm, ate some less in the S- hemisphere than in the N-hemisphere. This difference grows with the bands weakening. During the preceding equinox in 1995 similar asymmetry was expressed more strongly and also with the absorption depression at southern hemisphere. These differences are considered as related to the vertical inhomogeneity of the cloud layer, increased the upper boundary of the clouds in the equatorial belt, and seasonal changes in the radiation regime hemispheres of Saturn. The results of this work will be published in «Solar System Research».

Tejfel, Victor G.; Karimov, Alibek M.; Kharitonova, Galina A.

2014-11-01

179

Development of temper bead welding by under water laser welding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toshiba has developed temper bead welding by under water laser welding as SCC counter measure for aged components in PWR and BWR nuclear power plants. Temper bead welding by under water laser welding technique recovers toughness of low alloy steel reactor vessel by employing proper the number of cladding layers and their welding conditions. In this report, some evaluation results of material characteristics of temper bead welded low alloy steel are presented. (author)

180

Relating Leaf Nitrogen, Leaf Photosynthesis and Canopy CO2 Exchange in a Temperate Winter Barley Field  

Science.gov (United States)

Net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the soil-vegetation interface (NEE) is controlled by a wide range of biochemical and biophysical processes where leaf photosynthesis is often the most important. In mechanistically and physically based photosynthesis models (e.g. Farquhar et al. 1980) leaf nutrient status is a limiting factor for the photosynthetic capacity since it is implicitly incorporated through the parameters of maximum rate of carboxylation of CO2 (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). These are closely related to leaf nitrogen concentration (Na) and leaf chlorophyll content (Cab) and often show a characteristic seasonal dynamic. When simulating CO2 exchange, model outputs are sensitive to leaf photosynthetic capacity, which is labour consuming to verify through field measurements. A less time consuming method is to measure leaf "greenness" (SPAD), which is closely related to chlorophyll content and thus photosynthetic capacity. In the present study field measurements of leaf photosynthesis (LI-6400, LICOR Inc.), leaf reflectance (SPAD-502, Minolta), and LAI (LAI-2000, LICOR Inc.) were conducted on agricultural fields in Western Denmark during one growing season. The leaf photosynthesis measurements provided the basis for estimating photosynthetic capacity. SPAD measurements and LAI was measured with a higher spatial and temporal resolution. SPAD readings were calibrated against Cab and Na analyzed on leaf material in the laboratory and later correlated to photosynthetic capacity. These data were used to parameterize a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal model that was run for the growing season 2012 to estimate NEE. As a part of the hydrological observatory HOBE (hobe.dk), fluxes of greenhouse gasses are continuously measured by eddy covariance systems at three field sites in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark, providing the basis for estimating the exchange of energy, water vapour, and CO2 on canopy scale. One of the sites is situated at the field under investigation in the present study. Here we compare modeled NEE with the measured CO2 fluxes. The presented approach is shown to provide an efficient field sampling method for model parameterization with high temporal and spatial resolution and a physiological basis for scaling fluxes from leaf level to canopy scale. We further evaluate the potential for applying the model approach in connection with upscaling by means of satellite data.

Jensen, R.; Boegh, E.; Herbst, M.; Friborg, T.

2012-12-01

181

Influenza-associated mortality in temperate and subtropical chinese cities, 2003-2008 / Mortalité associée à la grippe dans les villes des zones tempérées et subtropicales de Chine, 2003-2008 / La mortalidad asociada a la gripe en ciudades chinas con clima templado y subtropical, 2003-2008  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Calcular la mortalidad asociada a la gripe en la China urbana. MÉTODOS: Se calculó el exceso de mortalidad asociado a la gripe durante el periodo comprendido entre 2003 y 2008 en tres ciudades del norte de China con clima templado y en cinco ciudades del sur del país con clima subtropical. [...] Los cálculos se obtuvieron de modelos basados en regresiones binomiales negativas, estadísticas vitales y de los resultados de la vigilancia semanal del virus de la gripe. RESULTADOS: El exceso de mortalidad anual asociado a la gripe, por todas las causas, fue de 18,0 (rango: 10,9-32,7) muertes por cada 100000 habitantes en las ciudades del norte y de 11,3 (rango: 7,3-17,8) muertes por cada 100000 habitantes en las ciudades del sur. La mayor parte de este exceso de mortalidad - 12,4 (rango: 7,4-22,2) y 8,8 (rango: 5,5-13,6) muertes por cada 100000 habitantes en las ciudades del norte y del sur, respectivamente - se atribuyeron a una enfermedad respiratoria y/o circulatoria. La mayoría de las muertes (el 86%) ocurrió en personas con una edad >65 años. El exceso de mortalidad asociado a la gripe fue superior en épocas con un virus B dominante que en épocas en las que predominaron los virus A(H3N2) o A(H1N1). Más de la mitad de la mortalidad total asociada a la gripe se asoció al virus B de la gripe. CONCLUSIÓN: Entre 2003 y 2008, la gripe estacional, particularmente la causada por el virus B de la gripe, estuvo asociada a la mortalidad sustancial en tres ciudades de China con clima templado y en cinco ciudades del sur del país con clima subtropical. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate influenza-associated mortality in urban China. METHODS: Influenza-associated excess mortality for the period 2003-2008 was estimated in three cities in temperate northern China and five cities in the subtropical south of the country. The estimates were derived from models base [...] d on negative binomial regressions, vital statistics and the results of weekly influenza virus surveillance. FINDINGS: Annual influenza-associated excess mortality, for all causes, was 18.0 (range: 10.9-32.7) deaths per 100000 population in the northern cities and 11.3 (range: 7.3-17.8) deaths per 100000 in the southern cities. Excess mortality for respiratory and circulatory disease was 12.4 (range: 7.4-22.2) and 8.8 (range: 5.5-13.6) deaths per 100000 people in the northern and southern cities, respectively. Most (86%) deaths occurred among people aged >65 years. Influenza-associated excess mortality was higher in B-virus-dominant seasons than in seasons when A(H3N2) or A(H1N1) predominated, and more than half of all influenza-associated mortality was associated with influenza B virus. CONCLUSION: Between 2003 and 2008, seasonal influenza, particularly that caused by the influenza B virus, was associated with substantial mortality in three cities in the temperate north of China and five cities in the subtropical south of the country.

Luzhao, Feng; David K, Shay; Yong, Jiang; Hong, Zhou; Xin, Chen; Yingdong, Zheng; Lili, Jiang; Qingjun, Zhang; Hong, Lin; Shaojie, Wang; Yanyan, Ying; Yanjun, Xu; Nanda, Wang; Zijian, Feng; Cecile, Viboud; Weizhong, Yang; Hongjie, Yu.

2012-04-01

182

Variation in Carbon Storage and Its Distribution by Stand Age and Forest Type in Boreal and Temperate Forests in Northeastern China  

Science.gov (United States)

The northeastern forest region of China is an important component of total temperate and boreal forests in the northern hemisphere. But how carbon (C) pool size and distribution varies among tree, understory, forest floor and soil components, and across stand ages remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we selected three major temperate and two major boreal forest types in northeastern (NE) China. Within both forest zones, we focused on four stand age classes (young, mid-aged, mature and over-mature). Results showed that total C storage was greater in temperate than in boreal forests, and greater in older than in younger stands. Tree biomass C was the main C component, and its contribution to the total forest C storage increased with increasing stand age. It ranged from 27.7% in young to 62.8% in over-mature stands in boreal forests and from 26.5% in young to 72.8% in over-mature stands in temperate forests. Results from both forest zones thus confirm the large biomass C storage capacity of old-growth forests. Tree biomass C was influenced by forest zone, stand age, and forest type. Soil C contribution to total forest C storage ranged from 62.5% in young to 30.1% in over-mature stands in boreal and from 70.1% in young to 26.0% in over-mature in temperate forests. Thus soil C storage is a major C pool in forests of NE China. On the other hand, understory and forest floor C jointly contained less than 13% and <5%, in boreal and temperate forests respectively, and thus play a minor role in total forest C storage in NE China. PMID:23977252

Wei, Yawei; Li, Maihe; Chen, Hua; Lewis, Bernard J.; Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Fang, Xiangmin; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Limin

2013-01-01

183

Methane Metabolism in a Temperate Swamp  

OpenAIRE

Comparisons between in situ CH4 concentration and potential factors controlling its net production were made in a temperate swamp. Seasonal measurements of water table level and depth profiles of pH, dissolved CH4, CO2, O2, SO42-, NO3-, formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate were made at two adjacent sites 1.5 to 2 m apart. Dissolved CH4 was inversely correlated to O2 and, in general, to NO3- and SO42-, potential inhibitors of methanogenesis. At low water table levels (August 1992), maxim...

Amaral, J. A.; Knowles, R.

1994-01-01

184

Myxomycetes associated with pipevine, a temperate liana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pinevine (Aristolochia macrophylla Lam., a climbing woody vine native to temperate forests of eastern North America, is morphologically similar to many of the lianas characteristic of moist tropical forests. In August 2010, samples of dead pinevine collected from a study site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park were used to prepare a series of 50 moist chamber cultures. Thirty-seven of the 50 cultures (74% yielded evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies of myxomycetes. Fourteen species representing seven genera were recorded, with members of the Trichiales (41% of all records and Physarales (49% of all records the most abundant.

Coelho IL

2012-04-01

185

Editorial - The winter Atomiades  

CERN Multimedia

As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

Staff Association

2011-01-01

186

Winter School Les Houches  

CERN Document Server

The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

1986-01-01

187

Adhesion and wear properties of boro-tempered ductile iron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? In this study, the wear and adhesion properties of BDI were investigated. ? Boro-tempering process under several heat treatment conditions was examined. ? Optical microscope, SEM and XRD analysis were carried out to investigate the microstructure. ? It was observed that boro-tempering process improves micro-hardness and wear properties of ductile irons. -- Abstract: In this study, adhesion and wear properties of boro-tempered ductile iron (BDI) were investigated. Boro-tempering was carried out on two stage processes i.e. boronizing and tempering. At the first stage, ductile iron samples were boronized by using pack process at 900 oC for 1, 3, and 5 h and then, secondly tempered at 250, 300, 350, and 400 oC for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of boro-tempered samples showed that FeB and Fe2B phases were found on the surface of the samples. The Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C adhesion test was used to assess the adhesion of boride layer. Test result showed that adhesion decreased with increasing boriding time and increased with increasing tempering temperature. Dry sliding wear tests of these samples were performed against Al2O3 ball at a constant sliding speed and loads of 5 and 10 N. Wear tests indicated that boro-tempering heat treatment increased wear resistance of ductile iron. In addition, it was found that while wear rate of boro-tempered samples decreased with increasing boriding time, there is no significant affect of tempering temperature on wear rate.

188

Winter maintenance and cycleways  

OpenAIRE

Increasing cycling as a means of personal travel couldgenerate environmental benefits if associated with acorresponding decrease in car-based transport. In seeking topromote cycling in wintertime, it is desirable to understandhow important the road surface condition is compared to otherfactors in people's decision to cycle or not. In this thesis,the possibility of increasing the number of cyclists byimproving the winter maintenance servicelevel on cycleways isexamined. The attitudes towards c...

Bergstro?m, Anna

2002-01-01

189

Geometry of Winter Model  

CERN Document Server

By constructing the Riemann surface controlling the resonance structure of Winter model, we determine the limitations of perturbation theory. We then derive explicit non-perturbative results for various observables in the weak-coupling regime, in which the model has an infinite tower of long-lived resonant states. The problem of constructing proper initial wavefunctions coupled to single excitations of the model is also treated within perturbative and non-perturbative methods.

Aglietti, U G

2015-01-01

190

Winter in Bavaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "A Winter In Bavaria" was written on location in Regensburg, Germany, and is the first-hand account of a cataclysm, already predicted by Nostradamus, which changed the direction of Bavarian culture forever. Anything vaguely resembling an allusion to any real person or institution is entirely coincidental, has no foundation in fact and is clearly the product of a mind estranged - except that Bavarian beer is, by and large, still to be highly recommended.

Anthony Stephens

2004-08-01

191

Ecology of temperate salt-marsh fucoids. II. In situ growth of transplanted Ascophyllum nodosum ecads  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growth, in terms of length, weight, and number of branches and/or dichotomies, in transplanted specimens of Ascophyllum nodosum ecad scorpioides in a temperate salt marsh is described. The ecad scorpioides, when transplanted from its characteristic habitat on the mid-intertidal, Spartina alterniflora-dominated, marsh flats to a location near mean low-water developed characteristics normally associated with A. nodosum ecad mackaii. The growth of these plants was more rapid than those in the mid-intertidal region and was not affected by the shading of algal fronds by S. alterniflora. Unusually high temperatures and light intensities during the winter and spring months were major factors affecting growth in plants that were subjected to relatively long periods of tidal exposure. The presence of S. alterniflora during the summer months may act in a protective capacity for mid-intertidal ecad populations.

Brinkhuis, B.H.; Jones, R.F.

1976-03-15

192

Seasonal in situ observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the temperate oceans of the Southern Hemisphere  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal have been measured with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH cartridges and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, optimised for dicarbonyl detection, in clean marine air over the temperate Southern Hemisphere (SH oceans. Measurements of a range of dicarbonyl precursors (volatile organic compounds, VOCs were made in parallel. These are the first in situ measurements of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the remote temperate oceans. Six 24 h samples were collected in late summer (February–March over the Chatham Rise in the South West Pacific Ocean during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP voyage in 2012, while 34 24 h samples were collected at Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in late winter (August–September 2011. Average glyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 7 ppt at Cape Grim, and 24 ppt over Chatham Rise. Average methylglyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 28 ppt at Cape Grim and 12 ppt over Chatham Rise. The mixing ratios of glyoxal at Cape Grim are the lowest observed over the remote oceans, while mixing ratios over Chatham Rise are in good agreement with other temperate and tropical observations, including concurrent MAX-DOAS observations. Methylglyoxal mixing ratios at both sites are comparable to the only other marine methylglyoxal observations available over the tropical Northern Hemisphere (NH ocean. Ratios of glyoxal : methylglyoxal > 1 over Chatham Rise but 14 molecules cm?2 at both sites. This discrepancy may be due to the incorrect assumption that all glyoxal observed by satellite is within the boundary layer, or may be due to challenges retrieving low VCDs of glyoxal over the oceans due to interferences by liquid water absorption, or use of an inappropriate normalisation reference value in the retrieval algorithm. This study provides much needed data to verify the presence of these short lived gases over the remote ocean and provide further evidence of an as yet unidentified source of both glyoxal and also methylglyoxal over the remote oceans.

S. J. Lawson

2014-08-01

193

Effect of cohesive energy on thermal expansion behavior of T6 tempered 7A09 aluminum alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Transformation related to ?’ and ? can cause cohesive energy and volume changes. ? These changes can influence the variation trend of CTE for 7A09 alloy. ? Cohesive energy change becomes a main factor influencing CTE from Ostwald ripening stage. - Abstract: The dynamic effect of cohesive energy on the CTE of T6 (the highest strength temper) tempered 7A09 aluminum alloy was studied in this paper. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was combined with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to analyze the phase transitions of T6 tempered 7A09 aluminum alloy taking place in a heating process. The corresponding CTE curve was recorded by a thermal dilatometer. The ion-bonding model was utilized to estimate the variation of cohesive energy caused by the phase transitions. Results indicate that GPII zones and ?? phase are main precipitates in T6 tempered 7A09 alloy. During the heating process, the cohesive energy of alloy system increases with the transition from ?? to ? phase and the precipitation of ? phase. The dissolution of ? phase leads to a decrease of cohesive energy. Although volume changes of alloy system have effects on the CTE, the effect of the cohesive energy change is more obvious than that of volume change after the precipitation of ? phase begins in the Ostwald ripening stage. Effects of cohesive energy and volume changes can be expressed in the nonlinearity of CTE curve.

194

Climatic records over the past 30 ka from temperate Australia - a synthesis from the Oz-INTIMATE workgroup  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperate Australia sits between the heat engine of the tropics and the cold Southern Ocean, encompassing a range of rainfall regimes and falling under the influence of different climatic drivers. Despite this heterogeneity, broad-scale trends in climatic and environmental change are evident over the past 30 ka. During the early glacial period (˜30-22 ka) and the Last Glacial Maximum (˜22-18 ka), climate was relatively cool across the entire temperate zone and there was an expansion of grasslands and increased fluvial activity in regionally important Murray-Darling Basin. The temperate region at this time appears to be dominated by expanded sea ice in the Southern Ocean forcing a northerly shift in the position of the oceanic fronts and a concomitant influx of cold water along the southeast (including Tasmania) and southwest Australian coasts. The deglacial period (˜18-12 ka) was characterised by glacial recession and eventual disappearance resulting from an increase in temperature deduced from terrestrial records, while there is some evidence for climatic reversals (e.g. the Antarctic Cold Reversal) in high resolution marine sediment cores through this period. The high spatial density of Holocene terrestrial records reveals an overall expansion of sclerophyll woodland and rainforest taxa across the temperate region after ˜12 ka, presumably in response to increasing temperature, while hydrological records reveal spatially heterogeneous hydro-climatic trends. Patterns after ˜6 ka suggest higher frequency climatic variability that possibly reflects the onset of large scale climate variability caused by the El Niño/Southern Oscillation.

Petherick, L.; Bostock, H.; Cohen, T. J.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Tibby, J.; Fletcher, M.-S.; Moss, P.; Reeves, J.; Mooney, S.; Barrows, T.; Kemp, J.; Jansen, J.; Nanson, G.; Dosseto, A.

2013-08-01

195

Extreme iron isotope fractionation between colloids and particles of boreal and temperate organic-rich waters  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant and systematic variations of iron isotopic composition in surface water sample fractions obtained by frontal cascade filtration and ultrafiltration have been recorded in (1) subarctic organic-rich boreal river and stream, mire, lake and soil solutions in northern taiga zone (Karelia, NW Russia) and (2) temperate river and lake waters of the southern boreal zone (Central Russia). Water samples were filtered in the field employing progressively decreasing pore size from 100 ?m to 1 kDa followed by iron isotope analysis. In all river samples, there was a gradual increase of ?57Fe relative to IRMM-14 with decreasing pore size, from +0.4 ± 0.1‰ at 100 ?m up to +4.2 ± 0.1‰ at 10 kDa fraction in the subarctic zone and from -0.024 ± 0.2‰ at 100 ?m up to +1.2 ± 0.2‰ at 10 kDa in the temperate zone. In the series of filtrates/ultrafiltrates of subarctic and temperate streams and rivers, the ?57Fe value decreases with increasing molar Fe/Corg ratio. Therefore, small-size, Fe-poor, C-rich colloids (1-10 kDa) and Low Molecular Weight (LMW) fractions of oxygenated water exhibit strong enrichment in heavy isotope whereas High Molecular Weight Fe-rich colloids (100 kDa-0.22 ?m) and particles (1-100 ?m) are isotopically lighter and closer to the continental crust Fe isotope composition. The relative enrichment of 1-10 kDa ultrafiltrates in heavy isotopes suggests that low molecular weight ligands bind Fe more strongly (Fe-O-C bonds) than Fe(III)oxy(hydr)oxides (Fe-O-Fe bonds), in accord with quantum mechanics principles. Highly positive ?57Fe of the LMW fraction of labile and potentially bioavailable Fe in small subarctic rivers may turn out to be a very important source of isotopically heavy Fe in the Arctic Ocean. The mechanisms involved in the production of this isotopically heavy Fe may lead this tracer to become a new indicator of environmental changes occurring in the boreal zone.

Ilina, Svetlana M.; Poitrasson, Franck; Lapitskiy, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Viers, Jérôme; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

2013-01-01

196

Solar energy reflector for steel tempering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar energy is a vital source of energy. It attracted the attention of many nations. In fact two aspects promote the use of solar energy specially for the low temperature heat treatment of metal: 1- Environmental protection. 2- Economical issue. The search for the implementation of solar energy as a source remains a key issue in widening the scope of solar energy application and use in industry. This paper is an attempt to explore the feasibility and efficiency of using solar reflector in the tempering treatment of steel. A solar reflector in constructed, basically by a rolled steel plate with glass mirror strips glued to the rolled steel plate. A heating chamber is constructed at the focal site of the parabola in which small steel specimens were placed and then under the effect of solar sun shine the temperature of the specimens raise and for a period of time they were subjected to tempering. The temperature in the chamber was monitored and it was found that it reaches 110 degree centigrade in the months July and August just past middy 12:35.(Author)

197

Lycos Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

In the tradition of Yahooligans (reviewed in the March 22, 1996 Scout Report) and other so-called "green spaces," Lycos has created a new online safe haven for young users which is fairly self-contained, with the exception of the advertisements. (In response to criticisms regarding aggressive marketing to children at similar sites, Lycos claims that the ads are clearly marked and will not collect any personal information.) The site is composed of four sections: the Fun and Games Zone, the Homework Zone, the New and Cool Zone, and an area for parents and teachers. The first two sections are fairly deep, with numerous resources and activities aimed at various age levels. Some links in the Homework Zone lead users outside the site, but they are first presented with a gateway page informing them that they are leaving and offering advice on not divulging personal information.

198

Influence of climate change on the flowering of temperate fruit trees  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that winter chilling is necessary for the flowering of temperate trees. The chilling requirement is a criterion for choosing a species or variety at a given location. Also chemistry products can be used for reducing the chilling-hours needs but make our production more expensive. This study first analysed the observed values of chilling hours for some representative agricultural locations in Spain for the last three decades and their projected changes under climate change scenarios. Usually the chilling is measured and calculated as chilling-hours, and different methods have been used to calculate them (e.g. Richarson et al., 1974 among others) according to the species considered. For our objective North Carolina method (Shaltout and Unrath, 1983) was applied for apples, Utah method (Richardson et al. 1974) for peach and grapevine and the approach used by De Melo-Abreu et al. (2004) for olive trees. The influence of climate change in temperate trees was studied by calculating projections of chilling-hours with climate data from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) at high resolution (25 km) from the European Project ENSEMBLES (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). These projections will allow for analysing the modelled variations of chill-hours between 2nd half of 20C and 1st half of 21C at the study locations.

Perez-Lopez, D.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Sánchez-Sánchez, E.; Centeno, A.; Prieto-Egido, I.; Lopez-de-la-Franca, N.

2012-04-01

199

Energy and mass balance at the snow surface on a warm temperate mountain  

Science.gov (United States)

Snowmelt is an important water source in warm temperate mountains, where natural fresh water sources are often scarce, and vapor losses from the snow-surface can greatly limit water availability. Therefore, understanding of key processes of snow dynamics in such environment is highly important. To achieve this end, we estimated the energy and mass balance of the snowpack on Mt. Hermon, Israel (35o50'E, 33o25'N), using a snow model. The forcing variables for the simulations were collected in two meteorological stations located along altitudinal gradient at 1,640 and 1,960m. We simulated the snowpack energy and mass balance during the winter of 2010/11 in a Deep Snowpack (DSP; maximum depth of 7m), and in a karstic depression known as the 'Bulan', where both windswept locations and lee-side (DSP) locations were simulated. The calibration of the model for the DSP was done using snow water equivalent (SWE) data, collected by snow-surveys. The simulation of the Bulan was calibrated against melting cycles that were measured with time-lapse cameras. Using a step function to describe wind speed over the DSP we showed that the turbulent fluxes were influenced by changes in snowpack height. The turbulent fluxes were the dominant ones at the snow surface on this warm temperate mountain site. During winter time, vapor losses varied between 46 to 82 % of the total ablation. Consequently, latent heat flux consumed much of the available energy at the snow-surface, greatly limiting melting rate to 1 mm day-1. During spring time, vapor flux was positive, enhancing condensation and resulting in an average melting flux of 86 mm day-1. The simulation of the 'Bulan' showed that the variation in the vapor flux with time created a variation in space of the available water at the bottom of the snowpack.

Sade, Rotem; Rimmer, Alon; (Iggy) Litaor, Michael; Furman, Alex

2014-05-01

200

Tempering air heating on pulverizing high moisture fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a pulverized fuel-fired furnace (10), the temperature of the mixture of pulverized fuel and primary air leaving the mill (36) is measured and compared to a preselected minimum acceptable temperature. Whenever the measured mixture temperature drops below a preselected minimum, the flow damper (78) disposed in the tempering air duct (44) is closed to minimize the flow of tempering air therethrough and a heating fluid (62) is passed in heat exchange relationship with any ambient temperature air leaking past the flow damper in the tempering air duct thereby preheating the tempering airflow. Preferably, hot water (62) is circulated from the waterwall inlet header (22) of the water-cooled water walls (12) of the furnace (10) through a heat exchanger (60) disposed in the tempering air duct (44) and then returned back to the water-cooling circuit (24) of the water-cooled furnace walls at a location upstream of the circulating pump (26).

Pajonas, T.L.; Barcikowski, G.F.; Ennaco, A.J.

1984-04-17

201

Effects of tempering on internal friction of carbon steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Time tempering dependent microstructure of two steels is studied by internal friction. ? Internal friction indicates the interactions of dislocations with carbon and carbides. ? Internal friction detects the first stage of tempering. ? Precipitation hardening is detected by the decrease in the background. - Abstract: Two steels containing 0.626 and 0.71 wt.% carbon have been studied to determine the effects of tempering on the microstructure and the internal friction. The steels were annealed at 1093 K, quenched into water and tempered for 60 min at 423 K, 573 K and 723 K. The increase of the tempering time diminishes the martensite tetragonality due to the redistribution of carbon atoms from octahedrical interstitial sites to dislocations. Internal friction spectrum is decomposed into five peaks and an exponential background, which are attributed to the carbide precipitation and the dislocation relaxation process. Simultaneous presence of peaks P1 and P2 indicates the interaction of dislocations with the segregated carbon and carbide precipitate.

202

Winter Periphyton Blooms: Providing a New Perspective on the Balance of Seasonal Processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary production and biomass accumulation are often assumed to be at their minimum in the winter due to the abiotic constraints of low temperatures and irradiances. However, winter blooms of periphyton have been observed and documented in many temperate lotic systems. Quantitative assessments (e.g. accrual rates, specific growth rates, community metabolism) of these blooms recently have been undertaken within the Truckee River, Nevada. Photosynthesis always exceeded respiration in epilithic communities, indicating a continual net gain in energy (both spatially and temporally) throughout the winter bloom and net autotrophy at the ecosystem-scale was also demonstrated. Seasonal evaluations of system productivity indicated that approximately 37% of the yearly net gain of primary production energy occurred during the winter months (November to January) and emphasized the significance of the winter bloom in regard to potential impacts on biogeochemical cycles and life history strategies in this lotic system. Through an appreciation of these winter processes new perspectives are gained regarding the changes to ecosystems that are likely to be occurring in response to changes in local climates.

Fritsen, C. H.; Davis, C.

2013-05-01

203

Resource use and consumption of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under different environmental conditions during winter.  

OpenAIRE

In temperate climate with pronounced seasonality, ice and snow cover reduces light conditions during winter which in turn reduce search efficiency for visual feeding consumers like fish. Furthermore, a suggested major effect of future climate change is an increased input of allochtonous DOC to aquatic systems which causes an increased brownification and hence reduced overall light conditions. In this study, I sampled YOY three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) of different sizes ov...

Bystedt, David

2013-01-01

204

Winter Frost and Fog  

Science.gov (United States)

This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

2005-01-01

205

Parallel tempering Monte Carlo in LAMMPS.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present here the details of the implementation of the parallel tempering Monte Carlo technique into a LAMMPS, a heavily used massively parallel molecular dynamics code at Sandia. This technique allows for many replicas of a system to be run at different simulation temperatures. At various points in the simulation, configurations can be swapped between different temperature environments and then continued. This allows for large regions of energy space to be sampled very quickly, and allows for minimum energy configurations to emerge in very complex systems, such as large biomolecular systems. By including this algorithm into an existing code, we immediately gain all of the previous work that had been put into LAMMPS, and allow this technique to quickly be available to the entire Sandia and international LAMMPS community. Finally, we present an example of this code applied to folding a small protein.

Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Plimpton, Steven James; Sears, Mark P.

2003-11-01

206

Numerical investigation of a novel connection in tempered glass using holes drilled after tempering  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper is a continuation of a previous paper [Nielsen, 2012] where the influ-ence on the temper stresses by drilling into tempered glass was investigated. In [Nielsen, 2012] it was shown that partly drilled holes in tempered glass would lead to higher compressive resid-ual hoop stresses at the hole increasing the apparent strength. Utilizing this for joints, raises new questions like the concentration of stresses arising at the hole for external loading of the pin and the glass. The present paper numerically investigates the shear load transfer for a specific configuration of the pin, the hole and the adhesive. In the paper a short discussion of the change in residual stresses due to the drilling and a FE-model for the loading of the pin in the hole is developed. From this model, the stress state occurring in such joints is investigated assuming both elastic and ideal plastic behaviour of the adhesive. Based on the numerical results, a proposal for an op-timal configuration using multiple pins is given.

Nielsen, Jens Henrik

2013-01-01

207

Forecasting cyanobacteria dominance in Canadian temperate lakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictive models based on broad scale, spatial surveys typically identify nutrients and climate as the most important predictors of cyanobacteria abundance; however these models generally have low predictive power because at smaller geographic scales numerous other factors may be equally or more important. At the lake level, for example, the ability to forecast cyanobacteria dominance is of tremendous value to lake managers as they can use such models to communicate exposure risks associated with recreational and drinking water use, and possible exposure to algal toxins, in advance of bloom occurrence. We used detailed algal, limnological and meteorological data from two temperate lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada to determine the factors that are closely linked to cyanobacteria dominance, and to develop easy to use models to forecast cyanobacteria biovolume. For Brandy Lake (BL), the strongest and most parsimonious model for forecasting % cyanobacteria biovolume (% CB) included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP, and % cyanobacteria biovolume two weeks prior. For Three Mile Lake (TML), the best model for forecasting % CB included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP concentration, and 7-d mean wind speed. The models for forecasting % CB in BL and TML are fundamentally different in their lag periods (BL = lag 1 model and TML = lag 2 model) and in some predictor variables despite the close proximity of the study lakes. We speculate that three main factors (nutrient concentrations, water transparency and lake morphometry) may have contributed to differences in the models developed, and may account for variation observed in models derived from large spatial surveys. Our results illustrate that while forecast models can be developed to determine when cyanobacteria will dominate within two temperate lakes, the models require detailed, lake-specific calibration to be effective as risk-management tools. PMID:25585147

Persaud, Anurani D; Paterson, Andrew M; Dillon, Peter J; Winter, Jennifer G; Palmer, Michelle; Somers, Keith M

2015-03-15

208

A Parallel Tempering algorithm for probabilistic sampling and multimodal optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-linear inverse problems in the geosciences often involve probabilistic sampling of multimodal density functions or global optimization and sometimes both. Efficient algorithmic tools for carrying out sampling or optimization in challenging cases are of major interest. Here results are presented of some numerical experiments with a technique, known as Parallel Tempering, which originated in the field of computational statistics but is finding increasing numbers of applications in fields ranging from Chemical Physics to Astronomy. To date, experience in use of Parallel Tempering within earth sciences problems is very limited. In this paper, we describe Parallel Tempering and compare it to related methods of Simulated Annealing and Simulated Tempering for optimization and sampling, respectively. A key feature of Parallel Tempering is that it satisfies the detailed balance condition required for convergence of Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) algorithms while improving the efficiency of probabilistic sampling. Numerical results are presented on use of Parallel Tempering for trans-dimensional inversion of synthetic seismic receiver functions and also the simultaneous fitting of multiple receiver functions using global optimization. These suggest that its use can significantly accelerate sampling algorithms and improve exploration of parameter space in optimization. Parallel Tempering is a meta-algorithm which may be used together with many existing McMC sampling and direct search optimization techniques. It's generality and demonstrated performance suggests that there is significant potential for applications to both sampling and optimization problems in the geosciences.

Sambridge, Malcolm

2014-01-01

209

Uptake and resource allocation of ammonium and nitrate in temperate seagrasses Posidonia and Amphibolis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecologically relevant estimates of seasonal variability in nitrogen uptake and allocation in two species of temperate seagrasses were obtained using in situ isotope-labelling approach. Significantly higher uptake rates of ammonium by leaves, roots and epiphytes of Amphibolis than Posidonia were observed. Overall, root uptake rates were lower than other components. Effect of season was not significant for leaves, roots or epiphytes of the two species. However, plankton uptake varied seasonally with higher rates in winter (0.98 mg N g-1 DW h-1). In contrast, nitrate uptake rates for various components were significantly affected by seasons. Uptake rates by plankton were highest ranging from 0.003 mg N g-1 DW h-1 (summer, Amphibolis) to 0.69 mg N g-1 DW h-1 (winter, Posidonia). Uptake of nitrate by roots was negligible. Biotic uptake rates for nitrate were an order of magnitude slower than ammonium, demonstrating an affinity for ammonium over nitrate as a preferred inorganic nitrogen source. Adelaide coastal waters have lost over 5000 ha of seagrasses, much of this attributed to nutrient inputs from wastewater, industrial and stormwater. Managing these inputs into future requires better understanding of the fate of nutrients, particularly biological uptake. This study attempts to quantify uptake rates of nitrogen by seagrasses.

210

Ductile-Brittle Transition Behavior in Tempered Martensitic SA508 Gr. 4N Ni-Mo-Cr Low Alloy Steels for Reactor Pressure Vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) operate under severe conditions of elevated temperature, high pressure, and irradiation. Therefore, a combination of sufficient strength, toughness, good weldability, and high irradiation resistance are required for RPV materials. SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel, which has higher Ni and Cr contents than those of commercial RPV steel, Gr.3 steel, is considered as a candidate material due to its excellent mechanical properties from tempered martensitic microstructure. The ferritic steels such as Gr.3 and Gr.4N low alloy steels reveal a ductile-brittle transition and large scatters in the fracture toughness within a small temperature range. Recently, there are some observations of the steeper transition behavior in the tempered martensitic steels, such as Eurofer97 than the transition behavior of commercial RPV steels. It was also reported that the fracture toughness increased discontinuously when the phase fraction of the tempered martensite was over a critical fraction in the heat affected zones of SA508 Gr.3. Therefore, it may be necessary to evaluate the changes of transition behavior with a microstructure for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel. In this study, the fracture toughness for SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels was evaluated from a view point of the temperature dependency with phase fraction of tempered martensite controlled by cooling rate. Additionally, a possible modification of the fracture toughness master curve on of the fracture toughness master curve was proposed and discussed

211

Ductile-Brittle Transition Behavior in Tempered Martensitic SA508 Gr. 4N Ni-Mo-Cr Low Alloy Steels for Reactor Pressure Vessels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) operate under severe conditions of elevated temperature, high pressure, and irradiation. Therefore, a combination of sufficient strength, toughness, good weldability, and high irradiation resistance are required for RPV materials. SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel, which has higher Ni and Cr contents than those of commercial RPV steel, Gr.3 steel, is considered as a candidate material due to its excellent mechanical properties from tempered martensitic microstructure. The ferritic steels such as Gr.3 and Gr.4N low alloy steels reveal a ductile-brittle transition and large scatters in the fracture toughness within a small temperature range. Recently, there are some observations of the steeper transition behavior in the tempered martensitic steels, such as Eurofer97 than the transition behavior of commercial RPV steels. It was also reported that the fracture toughness increased discontinuously when the phase fraction of the tempered martensite was over a critical fraction in the heat affected zones of SA508 Gr.3. Therefore, it may be necessary to evaluate the changes of transition behavior with a microstructure for the tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel. In this study, the fracture toughness for SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steels was evaluated from a view point of the temperature dependency with phase fraction of tempered martensite controlled by cooling rate. Additionally, a possible modification of the fracture toughness master curve was proposed and discussed

Lee, Ki Hyoung; Wee, Dang Moon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

212

Estimación de la disponibilidad de frío invernal para cerezos de la zona norte de la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina Winter chill availability estimation for sweet cherries in northern Mendoza province, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante el reposo invernal los frutales de clima templado deben estar expuestos a bajas temperaturas para satisfacer sus necesidades de frío. La disponibilidad de frío varía entre regiones y entre años, y puede ser insuficiente para los cerezos. Por lo tanto cuando se desea incorporar el cultivo del cerezo a nuevas regiones se debe conocer previamente la disponibilidad de frío invernal. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: desarrollar un pronóstico para estimar la disponibilidad de frío invernal y calcular la probabilidad de satisfacer una determinada demanda de frío del año en curso. Los modelos mostraron que el porcentaje de variabilidad explicado de las unidades de frío Utah modificado en las fechas de referencias (UFUM FR varía entre 50 y 87% para Junín y entre 50 y 86% para San Martín. La probabilidad que posee Junín de alcanzar el valor medio de 884 unidades de frío Utah Modificado (UFUM es 28%, mientras el valor medio de San Martín es 816 UFUM y su probabilidad es 16%. El pronóstico de frío invernal permitirá al productor evaluar los riesgos que posee su plantación de experimentar daños por falta de frío invernal y eventualmente ejecutar medidas correctivas.During the winter rest, fruit trees of temperate zones should be exposed to low temperatures in order to satisfy their chilling requirements. Chill availability varies through regions and years, and this may be insufficient for cherry trees. Therefore, when farmers want to incorporate new areas, they should be acquainted with winter chilling availability beforehand. The objectives of this study were: to develop a prognosis to estimate the amount of winter chilling and to calculate the probability of satisfying the amount of chilling requirement of any given year. Models showed that the proportion explained by modified Utah chill units at reference date (MUCU RD varied between 50 to 87% for Junín and 50 to 86% for San Martín. For Junín, the probability to reach an average value of 884 chill units Utah modified (MUCU is 28%, whereas the average value for San Martín is 816 MUCU and its probability correspond to 16%. The winter chill prognosis will allow the producer evaluates the risks which has its plantation suffer damage due to lack of winter chill and eventually implement corrective measures.

G. Naranjo

2010-06-01

213

Estimación de la disponibilidad de frío invernal para cerezos de la zona norte de la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina / Winter chill availability estimation for sweet cherries in northern Mendoza province, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Durante el reposo invernal los frutales de clima templado deben estar expuestos a bajas temperaturas para satisfacer sus necesidades de frío. La disponibilidad de frío varía entre regiones y entre años, y puede ser insuficiente para los cerezos. Por lo tanto cuando se desea incorporar el cultivo del [...] cerezo a nuevas regiones se debe conocer previamente la disponibilidad de frío invernal. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: desarrollar un pronóstico para estimar la disponibilidad de frío invernal y calcular la probabilidad de satisfacer una determinada demanda de frío del año en curso. Los modelos mostraron que el porcentaje de variabilidad explicado de las unidades de frío Utah modificado en las fechas de referencias (UFUM FR) varía entre 50 y 87% para Junín y entre 50 y 86% para San Martín. La probabilidad que posee Junín de alcanzar el valor medio de 884 unidades de frío Utah Modificado (UFUM) es 28%, mientras el valor medio de San Martín es 816 UFUM y su probabilidad es 16%. El pronóstico de frío invernal permitirá al productor evaluar los riesgos que posee su plantación de experimentar daños por falta de frío invernal y eventualmente ejecutar medidas correctivas. Abstract in english During the winter rest, fruit trees of temperate zones should be exposed to low temperatures in order to satisfy their chilling requirements. Chill availability varies through regions and years, and this may be insufficient for cherry trees. Therefore, when farmers want to incorporate new areas, the [...] y should be acquainted with winter chilling availability beforehand. The objectives of this study were: to develop a prognosis to estimate the amount of winter chilling and to calculate the probability of satisfying the amount of chilling requirement of any given year. Models showed that the proportion explained by modified Utah chill units at reference date (MUCU RD) varied between 50 to 87% for Junín and 50 to 86% for San Martín. For Junín, the probability to reach an average value of 884 chill units Utah modified (MUCU) is 28%, whereas the average value for San Martín is 816 MUCU and its probability correspond to 16%. The winter chill prognosis will allow the producer evaluates the risks which has its plantation suffer damage due to lack of winter chill and eventually implement corrective measures.

G., Naranjo; E., Tersoglio.

2010-06-01

214

Examination of carbon partitioning into austenite during tempering of bainite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The redistribution of carbon after tempering of a novel nanocrystalline bainitic steel consisting of a mixture of supersaturated ferrite and retained austenite, has been analyzed by atom probe tomography. Direct supporting evidence of additional austenite carbon enrichment beyond that initially achieved during the bainite heat treatment was not obtained during subsequent tempering of this high carbon, high silicon steel. Evidence of competing reactions during tempering, such as the formation of carbon clusters in bainitic ferrite that signify the onset of the transitional carbides precipitation, was observed.

Clarke, Amy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caballero, Francisca G [CENIM-CSIC, MADRIS, SPAIN; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Garcia - Mateo, C [CENIM-CSIC, MADRID, SPAIN

2010-01-01

215

Non destructive evaluation of temper embrittlement of martensitic stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Martensitic stainless steel SS403, a sub set of SS410, is widely used as fuel-channel end-fitting material in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). This material is selected because of its high corrosion resistance (the design utilizes several critical seal faces), good mechanical properties (optimum combination of strength, toughness and hardness for leak- tight roll joint), matching thermal coefficient of expansion with zirconium alloys (to minimize thermal stresses at rolled joint) and resistance to irradiation induced damages .The steel is produced by the electric arc furnace process and is subjected to vacuum degassing and electro-slag refining (ESR). The material is used in quenched and tempered condition. The end product should have at least 27 J minimum (Longitudinal) Charpy V-Notch (CVN) impact value at 21 deg C and 20J minimum (Transverse) CVN impact value at 65 deg C. In Martensitic Stainless Steel, a wide range of mechanical properties can be obtained by varying the tempering temperature and time . As tempering temperature is increased or time at particular temperature is prolonged, tensile strength, yield strength and hardness decrease; and impact strength, elongation, and reduction in area increase. The most uniform hardness is attained by close control of temperature, especially when tempering at lower temperatures. The tempering temperature depends primarily on the properties desired. Like most alloy steels, the hardenable stainless steels also develthe hardenable stainless steels also develop lower impact strength when tempered in the range from about 250 deg C to 550 deg C. Tempering at lower side of the range results in tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) whereas aging at temperature near 450-550 deg C results in temper embrittlement (TE). Temper embrittlement is caused by segregation of impurity elements mainly S, P. Si, Sn, As, Sb, and P at prior austenite grain boundaries. Under loading it causes de-cohesion along the grain boundaries leading to intergranular failure. Whereas TME is not related to the segregation phenomena and failure is transgranular with respect to prior austenite grain boundary. Magnitude of embrittlement is significantly greater in material which contain higher amount of retained austenite. Explanations of TME are linked to the coarsening of inter-lath cementite formed from decomposition of retained austenite during tempering. The embrittlement manifests as degradation in CVN impact properties namely viz, reduction in upper shelf energy (USE) or increase in ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). As a result, tempering of this steel is generally confined to the range of 590 deg C to 750 deg C. (author)

216

Determination of quenching and tempering conditions using hardenability prediction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental prediction of Jominy hardenability using Just`s equations often result in significant errors when compared to experimental data. In this paper, the development of an alternative Jominy predictor which provides excellent agreement with experimental data will be described. This new relationship can be written as: J(x) = Jo + F(x), where Jo is exclusively a function of the concentration of the alloying elements. This equation has been experimentally validated and a relationship with the tempering temperature was found: Tempering = F(Jo) The development of these equations and their successful application to the selection of quenching and tempering conditions in the heat treat shop will be discussed.

Oviedo, J. [CRAFMSA, San Luis (Argentina)

1996-12-31

217

Winter fuels report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

218

A comparison of air particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some tropical and temperate urban environments  

Science.gov (United States)

A 12 month study of urban concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP) and 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was carried out in Seoul (South Korea), Hong Kong, Bangkok (Thailand), Jakarta (Indonesia) and Melbourne (Australia). Concentrations of particulate matter in the atmosphere varied widely between the cities over the course of the study, ranging from a low of 24.1 ?g m -3 in Melbourne during the winter to a high of 376.2 ?g m -3 in Jakarta during the dry season. Seasonal variations in both TSP and PAH were observed in the tropical cities in the study with higher concentrations during the dry season and lower concentrations during the wet season. TSP and PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these cities, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks for these cities. In the temperate cities of Melbourne and Seoul, PAH concentrations were higher during the cold winter season and lower during the warm summer. However, TSP was quite variable over the years in these latter cities and no clear seasonal trend was observed. A number of factors have been investigated which could be contributing to seasonal variations in pollutant levels. In the temperate climates, increased emissions due to the use of fossil fuels for heating in the winter is evident. However, an interrogation of the database with respect to the other factors such as (1) increased photolytic degradation during the summer, (2) transport of pollutants from other sources, (3) removal of PAH via wet deposition and in-cloud scavenging mechanisms and (4) volatilisation of lower molecular weight species during periods of high temperature indicates the importance of multiple processes. Even though there are clearly much lower levels of both particulates and PAH in the wet season of the tropical climates, no statistically significant correlations have been observed between rainfall levels and pollutant concentrations.

Panther, B. C.; Hooper, M. A.; Tapper, N. J.

219

A Third Way for Entomophthoralean Fungi to Survive the Winter: Slow Disease Transmission between Individuals of the Hibernating Host  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In temperate regions, insect pathogenic fungi face the challenge of surviving through the winter. Winter is a time when hosts are immobile, low in number or are present in a stage which is not susceptible to infection. Fungi from Entomophthoromycota have so far been known to survive the winter in two ways: either as (1 thick-walled resting spores released into environment from dead hosts, or as (2 structures inside the dead host (e.g., hyphal bodies. Here we report, from the Danish environment, a third way to survive the winter, namely a slow progression and transmission of Entomophthora schizophorae in adult dipteran Pollenia hosts that hibernate in clusters in unheated attics, sheltered areas outdoors (under bark etc.. Fungus-killed sporulating flies were observed outside very early and very late in the season. By sampling adults at the time of their emergence from hibernation in late winter/early spring we documented that the fungus was naturally prevalent and killed flies after a period of incubation. Experimentally we documented that even at the low temperature of 5 °C, the fungus was able to maintain itself in Pollenia cohorts for up to 90 days. From these observations the full winter cycle of this fungus is elucidated. The three types of winter survival are discussed in relation to fungus epidemic development.

Annette Bruun Jensen

2013-07-01

220

Tempered random attractors for parabolic equations in weighted spaces  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the asymptotic behavior of solutions of parabolic equations on unbounded domains which contain stochastic terms as well as non-autonomous deterministic terms. We define a continuous random dynamical system for the equations in weighted Sobolev spaces that allow functions to have certain polynomial growth rate at infinity and hence include all bounded solutions. We prove pullback asymptotic compactness of solutions as well as the existence and uniqueness of tempered random attractors in the weighted spaces. The structures of the tempered attractors are fully characterized by tempered complete solutions. In the case where the non-autonomous deterministic terms are periodic in time, we show that the tempered random attractors are also periodic in time. To overcome the difficulty of non-compactness of Sobolev embeddings on unbounded domains, the idea of uniform pathwise estimates on the tails of solutions is employed to show asymptotic compactness.

Bates, Peter W.; Lu, Kening; Wang, Bixiang

2013-08-01

221

Heat treatment of structural steels for temper brittleness decrease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of heat treatment on embrittlement mechanism of steels 20, 12KhN3A, 14Kh2N3MA, 45 and 40Kh in temper brittleness has been studied. The steel tendency to temper brittleness is determined according to the shift of cold brittleness threshold during tests for impact bend in the temperature range from +100 to -190 deg C using quantitative stereofractography. It is established that the greatest shift of cold brittleness threshold (?T50) of steels 40Kh, 12KhN3A and 14Kh2N3MA takes place after quenching from 840-1100 deg C and tempering at 550 deg C (?T50=68, 48 and 44 deg C respectively), and for carbon steels 20 and 45 - after tempering at 525 deg C (?T50=28 deg C)

222

Enhanced Sampling in the Well-Tempered Ensemble  

CERN Document Server

We introduce the well-tempered ensemble (WTE) which is the biased ensemble sampled by well-tempered metadynamics when the energy is used as collective variable. WTE can be designed so as to have approximately the same average energy as the canonical ensemble but much larger fluctuations. These two properties lead to an extremely fast exploration of phase space. An even greater efficiency is obtained when WTE is combined with parallel tempering. Unbiased Boltzmann averages are computed on the fly by a recently developed reweighting method [M. Bonomi et al. J. Comput. Chem. 30, 1615 (2009)]. We apply WTE and its parallel tempering variant to the 2d Ising model and to a Go-model of HIV protease, demonstrating in these two representative cases that convergence is accelerated by orders of magnitude.

Bonomi, M

2009-01-01

223

Zooplankton data report: Winter MIZEX, 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) was an interdisciplinary, international Arctic research program designed to study the atmospheric, oceanic, and ice interactions in the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea. This report focuses on zooplankton data collected during the winter MIZEX program of 1987. The primary objectives of our group during MIZEX 87 were to study the distribution of zooplankton species in relation to the ice-edge, the Polar Front, and the mesoscale eddy field, and to study zooplanktonic physiology just prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. The data in this report are quantitative analyses of zooplankton samples collected while aboard the research vessel HAKON MOSBY during MIZEX 87. This is the third in a series of data reports on zooplankton collected in the Fram Strait region during the MIZEX project. A complete catalog of the reports generated from the MIZEX program is archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado, USA. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

Smith, S.L.; Lane, P.V.Z.; Schwartling, E.M.; Beck, B.

1988-12-01

224

Contribution to the modelling of chocolate tempering process.  

OpenAIRE

The tempering of chocolate, i.e. the process of crystallization of the desired morph; is a key step in its manufacturing by professional chocolatiers. In this work, a model of a tempering process based on seeding with solid chocolate grains is developed to enhance understanding and control of the system. The model aims to predict temperature field during melting and crystallization of the product. Therefore a mechanical stirrer is designed to simulate the manual mixing. Resulting flow field i...

Debaste, Fre?de?ric; Kegelaers, Yves; Ben Amor, Hatem; Halloin, Ve?ronique

2007-01-01

225

Tempering and Annealing in a Verdier-Stockmayer Polymer  

OpenAIRE

Two Monte Carlo methods, simulated annealing and parallel tempering, were applied to a Verdier-Stockmayer polymer. The efficiency of the two algorithms in exploring the lowest energy state possible for the model polymers was measured by the number of energy-degenerate configurations (configurations that have the same energy but are structurally different). Parallel tempering consistently explored more energy-degenerate configurations as compared with simulated annealing.

Obias, E. R.; Banzon, R. S.

2004-01-01

226

On the local Langlands correspondence for non-tempered representations  

OpenAIRE

Let G be a reductive p-adic group. We study how a local Langlands correspondence for irreducible tempered G-representations can be extended to a local Langlands correspondence for all irreducible smooth representations of G. We prove that, under a natural condition involving compatibility with unramified twists, this is possible in a canonical way. To this end we introduce analytic R-groups associated to non-tempered essentially square-integrable representations of Levi su...

Aubert, A.; Baum, P.; Plymen, R.; Solleveld, M.

2014-01-01

227

Computer simulation of quenched and tempered steel properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The algorithm of estimation of mechanical properties based on steel hardness has been established.Design/methodology/approach: Numerical modelling of hardness distribution in as-quenched steel specimen was performed by involving the results of simple experimental test, i.e., Jominy-test. Hardness of quenched and tempered steel has been expressed as function of maximal hardness of actual steel and hardness of actual steel with 50% of martensite in microstructure, according to the time and temperature of tempering. After that distribution of other relevant mechanical properties was predicted based on predicted as-quenched and tempered hardness of steel. Experimental investigation has been performed on low alloy steel. The established procedure for estimation of quenched and tempered properties of steel has been applied in computer simulation of mechanical properties of quenched and tempered steel workpiece of complex form.Findings: Algorithm of estimation of hardness of quenched and tempered steel was improved. It can be concluded that working stress of quenched and tempered shaft can be successfully predicted by proposed method. The proposed computer simulation method could be applied in failure prevention.Research limitations/implications: The research was focused only on carbon and low alloyed heat treatable steels.Practical implications: The established algorithms can be used for prediction of mechanical properties in heat treating practice. Estimation of as-quenched hardness distribution is based on time, relevant for structure transformation, i.e., time of cooling from 800 to 500°C (t8/5. The hardness in the quenched and tempered state is estimated from the as-quenched hardness. The prediction of yield strength and toughness of steel is based on steel hardness.Originality/value: Hardness distribution is predicted by involving the results of simple experimental test, i.e., Jominy-test in numerical modelling of steel quenching.

B. Smoljan

2011-06-01

228

Induction of temperate cyanophage AS-1 by heavy metal – copper  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background It has been reported that some marine cyanophage are temperate and can be induced from a lysogenic phase to a lytic phase by different agents such as heavy metals. However, to date no significant reports have focused on the temperate nature of freshwater cyanophage/cyanobacteria. Previous experiments with cyanophage AS-1 and cyanobacteria Anacystis nidulans have provided some evidence that AS-1 may have a lysogenic life cycle in addition to the characterized lytic cycle. R...

Chu Tin-Chun; Hsu Shi-Fang; Platner Patricia J; Lui Doris; Lee Lee H; Gaynor John J; Vega Quinn C; Lustigman Bonnie K

2006-01-01

229

Effect of climate change on temperate forest ecosystems  

OpenAIRE

In temperate climates groundwater can have a strong effect on vegetation, because it can influence the spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture and therefore water and oxygen stress of vegetation. Current IPCC climate projections based on CO2 emission scenarios show a global temperature rise and change in precipitation regime, which will affect hydrological and vegetation systems. This thesis provides a quantitative framework for studying eco-hydrology in groundwater influenced temperate...

Brolsma, R. J.

2010-01-01

230

INDUCTION OF TEMPERATE CYANOPHAGES USING HEAVY METAL - COPPER  

OpenAIRE

Presence of prophages in cells of three isolates of Anabaena sp. (Anabaena sp.1, sp.2 and sp.3), Anabaena cylindrica, Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria sp. was investigated. Copper sulfate at concentration of 3.1x10-4 M was successfully used for induction of temperate cyanophages. Among the cyanobacterial isolates tested Anabaena cylindrica was found to contain a prophage. A temperate phage was induced from Anabaena cylindrica by copper sulfate treatment and designated Ac-1. The induced phage ...

Marei, E. M.; Elbaz, R. M.; Hammad, A. M. M.

2013-01-01

231

Significance of Rate of Work Hardening in Tempered Martensite Embrittlement  

OpenAIRE

The main explanations for tempered martensite embrittlement are based on the effects of impurities and cementite precipitation on the prior austenite grain boundaries. There are some studies where the rate of work hardening is proposed as a potential reason for the brittleness. One steel was studied by means of a specially developed precision torsional testing device. The test steel had a high Si and Ni content so ? carbide and Fe3C appear in quite different tempering temperature ranges. The...

Pietikainen, J.

1995-01-01

232

Invariance principle for tempered fractional time series models  

OpenAIRE

Autoregressive tempered fractionally integrated moving average (ARTFIMA) time series is a useful model for velocity data in turbulence flows. In this paper, we obtain an invariance principle for the partial sum of an ARTFIMA process. The limiting process is called tempered Hermite process of order one, $THP^{1}$, which is well-defined for any $H>\\frac{1}{2}$. When $\\frac{1}{2}

Sabzikar, Farzad

2014-01-01

233

Coastal zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protectiion include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

234

Spectrophotometry of the Jupiter at 0.6-1.1 ?m. Brightness distribution and optical parameters of the atmosphere in the tropical and temperate belts of the Jupiter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data on the brightness distribution in methane absorption bands 7250, 7900, 8610, 8860, 9870 A and in the continuum spectrum along the tropical and temperate belts of Jupiter are presented. The photoelectric scanning of the chosen regions on Jupiter's disk is carried out. The estimates of main optical parameters have been obtained for each investigated zone in terms of a two-layer atmospheric model (homogeneous infinite cloud layer and outer purely gaseous layer). On the basis of the obtained results the conclusion is made that the observed brightness distributions along the temperate belts of Jupiter and equatorial region are in good agreement with the model. The optical parameters of Jupiter cloud formation within the limits of the homogeneous model change considerably at transfers from one zone to another. The optical depth values of the supercloud atmosphere suffer relative changes within 30-50% limit, which points to the vibration of the cloud aerosol upper boundary

235

"Winter is coming"  

CERN Document Server

Those that do not sow care little about such mundane things as equinoxes or planting seasons, or even crop rotation for that matter. Wherever and whenever the reavers reave, the mood is always foul and the nights are never warm or pleasant. For the rest of the good folks of Westeros, however, a decent grasp of the long-term weather forecast is a necessity. Many a maester have tried to play the Game of Weather Patterns and foretell when to plant those last turnip seeds, hoping for a few more years of balmy respite. Tried and failed. For other than the somewhat vague (if not outright meaningless) omens of "Winter is Coming", their meteorological efforts have been worse than useless. To right that appalling wrong, here we attempt to explain the apparently erratic seasonal changes in the world of G.R.R.M. A natural explanation for such phenomena is the unique behavior of a circumbinary planet. Thus, by speculating that the planet under scrutiny is orbiting a pair of stars, we utilize the power of numerical three-...

Kostov, Veselin; Hartman, Nikolaus; Guzewich, Scott; Rogers, Justin

2013-01-01

236

Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)  

CERN Multimedia

We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on ?+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

2015-01-01

237

The possible response of life zones in China under global climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

The response of natural vegetation to climate change is of global concern. In this research, an aggregated Holdridge Life Zone System was used to study the possible response of life zones in China under doubled atmospheric CO 2 concentration with the input climatic parameters at 0.5×0.5° resolution of longitude and latitude from NCAR regional climate model 2 (RegCM2) coupled with the CSIRO global climate model. The results indicate that the latitudinal distribution of life zones would become irregular because of the complicated climate change. In particular, new life zones, such as subtropical desert (SD), tropical desert (TDE) and tropical thorn woodland (TTW), would appear. Subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest (SEBF), tropical rainforest and monsoon forest (TRF), SD, TDE and TTW zones would appear in the northeastern China. Cool-temperate mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (CMC) and warm-temperate deciduous broadleaved forest (WDBF) zones would appear at latitudes 25-35°N. The temperate desert (TD) in the western China would become Tibetan high-cold plateau (THP), SEBF, WDBF and temperate steppe (TS), and a large part of THP would be replaced by TRF, TDE, SEBF, TS and TTW. The relative area (distribution area/total terrestrial area) of CMC, TRF, TDE and TTW zone would increase about 3%, 21%, 3% and 6%, respectively. However, the relative area of SEBF, TS, TD and THP would decrease about 5%, 3%, 19% and 4%, respectively. In all, the relative area of forests (CCF, CMC, WDBF, SEBF, TRF) would increase about 15%, but the relative area of desert (TD, SD, TDE, and TTW) and THP would decrease about 9% and 4%, respectively. Therefore, responses of different life zones in China to climate change would be dramatic, and nationwide corridors should be considered for the conservation of migrating species under climate change.

Chen, Xiongwen; Zhang, Xin-Shi; Li, Bai-Lian

2003-09-01

238

New methods for improving winter road maintenence  

OpenAIRE

Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network during winters. Common winter road maintenance activities include plowing and the use of de-icing agents (e.g. NaCl) to avoid freezing. Effective winter road maintenance strives towards keeping the roads free from snow and ice while reducing negative side effects of winter road maintenance, such as ground water contamination from road salt. Since the weather is decisive for ...

Riehm, Mats

2010-01-01

239

A note on the water budget of temperate glaciers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this note, the total dissipative melting in temperate glaciers is studied. The analysis is based on the notion that the dissipation is determined by the loss of potential energy due to the downward motion of mass (ice, snow, meltwater and rain. A mathematical formulation of the dissipation is developed and applied to a simple glacier geometry. In the next step, meltwater production resulting from enhanced ice motion during a glacier surge is calculated. The amount of melt energy available follows directly from the lowering of the centre of gravity of the glacier. To illustrate the concept, schematic calculations are presented for a number of glaciers with different geometric characteristics. Typical dissipative melt rates, expressed as water-layer depth averaged over the glacier, range from a few centimetres per year for smaller glaciers to half a metre per year for Franz Josef Glacier, one of the most active glaciers in the world (in terms of mass turnover. The total generation of meltwater during a surge is typically half a metre. For Variegated Glacier a value of 70 cm is found, for Kongsvegen 20 cm. These values refer to water layer depth averaged over the entire glacier. The melt extit{rate} depends on the duration of the surge. It is generally an order of magnitude greater than water production by `normal' dissipation. On the other hand, the additional basal melt rate during a surge is comparable in magnitude with the water input from meltwater and precipitation. This suggests that enhanced melting during a surge does not grossly change the total water budget of a glacier. Basal water generated by enhanced sliding is an important ingredient in many theories of glacier surges. It provides a positive feedback mechanism that actually makes the surge happen. The results found here suggest that this can only work if water generated by enhanced sliding accumulates in a part of the glacier base where surface meltwater and rain have no or very limited access. This finding seems compatible with the fact that, on many glaciers, surges are initiated in the lower accumulation zone.

J. Oerlemans

2013-09-01

240

A note on the water budget of temperate glaciers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this note the total dissipative melting in temperate glaciers is studied. The analysis is based on the notion that the dissipation is determined by the loss of potential energy, due to the downward motion of mass (ice, snow, meltwater and rain. A mathematical formulation of the dissipation is developed and applied to a simple glacier geometry. In a next step, meltwater production resulting from enhanced ice motion during a glacier surge is calculated. The amount of melt energy available follows directly from the lowering of the centre of gravity of the glacier. To illustrate the concept, schematic calculations are presented for a number of glaciers with different geometric characteristics. Typical dissipative melt rates, expressed as water-layer depth averaged over the glacier, range from a few cm per year for smaller glaciers to half a meter per year for Franz-Josef Glacier, one of the most active glaciers in the world (in terms of mass turnover. The total generation of meltwater during a surge is typically half a meter. For Variegated Glacier a value of 70 cm is found, for Kongsvegen 20 cm. These values refer to water layer depth averaged over the entire glacier. The melt rate depends on the duration of the surge. It is generally an order of magnitude larger than the water production by "normal" dissipation. On the other hand, the additional basal melt rate during a surge is comparable in magnitude to the water input from meltwater and precipitation. This suggests that enhanced melting during a surge does not grossly change the total water budget of a glacier. Basal water generated by enhanced sliding is an important ingredient of many theories of glacier surges. It provides a positive feedback mechanism that actually makes the surge happen. The results found here suggest that this can only work if water generated by enhanced sliding is accumulating in a part of the glacier base where surface meltwater and rain has no or very limited access. This finding seems compatible with the fact that on many glaciers surges are initiated in the lower accumulation zone.

J. Oerlemans

2013-06-01

241

Impacts of a changing winter precipitation regime on the Great Snowforest of British Columbia, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising air temperatures have profoundly impacted British Columbia (BC) mountain ecosystems, including its Interior Wetbelt. This region supports the sole Interior Temperate Rainforest (ITR), or perhaps more appropriately "snowforest", of North America. This snowforest encompasses about 30,500 km2 and contains Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and western hemlock (Tsuga heteropylla) in excess of 1500 years old. This region is projected to be one of the more vulnerable biogeoclimatic zones in BC due to forest operations and climate change. Loss of snow as a storage medium has the potential to negatively affect the forest. A decrease in snow water equivalent (SWE) has the potential to decrease soil moisture values; impacts of decreased water availability in this region have the possibility to affect soil moisture storage, vegetative species composition, flora and fauna interdependence, and pathogen outbreaks. Given the projected climate change in high latitude and altitude areas, this project analyzes the contemporary and potential future climate of BC's Interior Wetbelt and explores the possible environmental and ecohydrological impacts of climate change on the snowforest. Models project an increase in air temperature and precipitation but a decrease in snowfall in this region. Analyses of the snow depth, SWE, and temperature from the Upper Fraser River Basin automated snow pillow sites of the BC River Forecast Centre (RFC) were conducted; snow depth, SWE, and temperature were also measured at the field site via automated weather stations and bi-monthly snow surveys. Surveys recorded depth and SWE after observed peak accumulation and continued until snowpack was depleted in 80% of the field site. To determine the influence of precipitation on the soil moisture levels in the ITR, soil moisture and water table levels were measured for the 2011-12 water year in addition to meteorological conditions; snow, spring water, and near surface ground water samples were collected and analyzed for the environmental isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18. Analysis of the RFC's snow pillow data shows April 1 snow depth has been highly variable in the last 25 years with an overall decline in depth and SWE values. Soil moisture values at the study site were consistent through the year but showed a peak during spring melt and a decline during August, the driest month of summer in this region. Isotopic analysis on the water samples is on-going. The Upper Fraser River Basin experienced an above-normal to record snowpack the winter of 2011-12, thus observed values may not be indicative of the overall trend for this area. Trends in this interconnected ecosystem can assist in determining impacts of climate change to northern climates.

Knudsvig, H.; Dery, S. J.; Coxson, D.

2012-12-01

242

TEM studies of tempered structural steels with Ni  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The reason for writing this paper was to describe the influence of Ni addition on the microstructure of structural steels after tempering. In this investigation, four model alloys of the variable concentration of Ni and constant concentration of carbon and other elements were used.Design/methodology/approach: The alloys were melted in air and hot forged into bars 20×35 mm. The samples for investigations were machined after normalizing. All samples for TEM investigations were used in quenched and tempered conditions. Quenching was performed in oil at room temperature. After quenching samples were tempered at 200°C for 2 h. The microstructure of the investigated steels were investigated using JEM200CX transmission electron microscope.Findings: An increase of Ni content in investigated structural steels causes a decrease of ? carbide concentration in their microstructure after tempering at 200°C for 2 hours. Cementite precipitates in these steels independently on the boundaries of martensite needles boundaries and on the twin boundaries in the areas in which the precipitates of ? carbide dissolved. Research limitations/implications: Presented results may be used to design new technologies of tempering of structural steels with nickel addition.Originality/value: Morphology of ? carbides precipitates.

J. Pacyna

2007-03-01

243

Seasonal changes of the pelagic fish assemblage in a temperate estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

The pelagic (i.e. fishes that spend most of their time swimming and feeding in the water column) fish assemblage was examined within a temperate estuary to determine the seasonal patterns of abundance, biomass, richness, and species composition. These measures were related to abiotic measures including temperature, salinity, water transparency, and depth. Pelagic fish (nClupea harengus (frequency of occurrence, 27.4%; abundance, 80.5% of total catch), Menidia menidia (frequency of occurrence, 83.5%; abundance, 10.6% of total catch), Anchoa mitchilli (frequency of occurrence, 66.5%; abundance, 6.0% of total catch), and Anchoa hepsetus (frequency of occurrence, 23.1%; abundance, 1.9% of total catch). There were strong seasonal trends in species richness, total abundance, and total biomass with peaks in spring, summer, and autumn, and very low values for these parameters in winter. In addition, there were five seasonal groupings within this pelagic fish assemblage that were primarily, but not exclusively, represented by young-of-the-year (age 0+). Winter (December-March) was represented by adult Gasterosteus aculeatus and age 1+ by M. menidia. Spring (April-early June) was overwhelmingly dominated by age 0+ C. harengus. Early summer (late June-early July) was relatively species rich and characterized by age 0+ of Brevoortia tyrannus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Alosa pseudoharengus, and age 1+ of A. mitchilli. Late summer (late July-August) remained relatively species rich and included mostly age 0+ of A. mitchilli, A. hepsetus, and M. menidia. Autumn (September-November) continued to have high catches of age 0+ of M. menidia and A. mitchilli. As expected for temperate estuaries, the best of the measured abiotic predictors of these groupings included temperature, salinity, and degree of change in temperature. However, timing of life history characteristics, such as location, and timing of reproduction and migration also influenced the seasonal occurrence of these pelagic species. The large abundance and biomass of a relatively few species, as observed in this study, are typical of estuaries, although this is one of the few studies that have focused solely on the pelagic component of estuarine fish assemblages.

Hagan, S. M.; Able, K. W.

2003-01-01

244

Resistance to small plastic strains during martensite tempering under tension  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of plastic deformation of martensite of a series of hardened steels (N18, 20KhG, 50KhFA and others) during tempering under tension and the role of residual internal microstresses and phase transformations are studied. It is shown that martensite low resistance to small plastic deformations during tempering under tension which is usually associated with phase transformations depends as well on the level of residual internal microstresses in the martensite structure. The decrease of resistance to deformation in the course of the decomposition of a solid solution is due to weakening of martensitic matrix because of carbon departure from the solid solution and carbide coarsening. An assumption is made that martensite plastic deformation during tempering under tension is realized at the expense of the directed microplastic deformation in the regions of higher concentration of internal stresses

245

Resistance to small plastic strains during martensite tempering under tension  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mechanism of plastic deformation of martensite of a series of hardened steels (N18, 20KhG, 50KhFA and others) during tempering under tension and the role of residual internal microstresses and phase transformations are studied. It is shown that martensite low resistance to small plastic deformations during tempering under tension which is usually associated with phase transformations depends as well on the level of residual internal microstresses in the martensite structure. The decrease of resistance to deformation in the course of the decomposition of a solid solution is due to weakening of martensitic matrix because of carbon departure from the solid solution and carbide coarsening. An assumption is made that martensite plastic deformation during tempering under tension is realized at the expense of the directed microplastic deformation in the regions of higher concentration of internal stresses.

Zabil' skij, V.V.; Sarrak, V.I. (AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

1982-11-01

246

Resistance to softening during tempering of pearlitic and martensitic steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigated are 40Kh4MBF, 40Kh4M1V3F, 50KhGSVF, 50KhGVF, and 15KhNMFA commercial steels. It is shown that the influence character of transformations taking place in carbide phase and in a solid solution of different steels (medium-alloy martensitic, low-alloy medium-carbon pearlitic and low-carbon low-alloy pearlitic) on their resistance to softening at tempering is the same (when process kinetics differs greatly). Steel softening at tempering is braked in such cases when, resulting from thermal treatment preceding long-term tempering, such carbide phase (type, distribution, dimensions) and such character of its interaction with solid solution are obtained which will be more stable under the following long-term heating

247

Radiation processing of temperate fruits of Kashmir valley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kashmir valley is famous for its temperate horticulture. Main temperate fruits grown commercially in the valley include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry and apricot. These fruits being perishable and susceptible to microbial spoilage, have a short shelf-life. The short shelf-life in an impediment in their transportation and marketing and results in huge losses. Study was carried out at NRL, Srinagar to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the keeping quality of most of these fruits. The effect of gamma irradiation alone and in combination with other techniques like controlled low temperature storage, edible polysaccharide coating and calcium chloride treatment was studied in detail. The results revealed that there is a great potential for the use of radiation in extending the storage life of most of the temperate fruits produced in the valley of Kashmir. (author)

248

Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression. METHOD: We studied this hypothesis among 2910 civil servants from Århus, Denmark, who participated in a survey in January-February 2009. Mental symptoms (N=422) defined a common case category that we broke down into two parts: depression (N=66) and mood difficulties but no depression (N=356). A total of 222 controls were also sampled from the study population. All 644 participants reported the extent of outdoor work. RESULTS: The confounder-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of mood difficulties showed a decreasing trend by increasing hours of outdoor work of borderline statistical significance. The OR was 0.63 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.34-1.18)] for those working outdoors for >2 hours a day. No such effect was suggested for depression. CONCLUSION: Our study is limited by its cross-sectional design and low statistical power but nevertheless suggests that outdoor work during winter may protect against mood difficulties. If this finding holds true it may have significant impact on workers' health as well as public health in general. Therefore, further studies are recommended.

Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias B

2011-01-01

249

Why Do Some Evergreen Species Keep Their Leaves for a Second Winter, While Others Lose Them?  

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Full Text Available In subtropical montane semi-moist forest in SW China (SMSF, a large majority of evergreen tree and tall shrub species was found to have only one cohort of old leaves in early spring. In contrast, almost all species of evergreen tree and tall shrub in warm temperate rain forest (WTRF in Japan and sclerophylls in Mediterranean-climate forest (MSF of the Mediterranean Basin have two or more cohorts of old leaves in early spring; they drop their oldest cohort during or soon after leaf outgrowth in spring. Japanese WTRF has no dry season and MSF a dry summer. SMSF has a dry winter. On four evergreen Rhododendron species from SW China with only one cohort of old leaves in spring when in cultivation in Scotland, the majority of leaves in the senescing cohort fell by the end of December. We hypothesize that with dry winters, there is an advantage to dropping older leaves in autumn, because there is a low chance of appreciable positive assimilation in winter and a high chance of desiccation, reducing the resorption of dry mass and mineral nutrients from ageing leaves. Our hypothesis may be extended to cover evergreens at high altitude or high latitude that experience cold soils in winter.

Peter J. Grubb

2014-10-01

250

Causes for chromium steels embrittlement during high-temperature tempering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbide formation effect on transition of chromium steel with 0.33%C and 4.05% Cr to brittle failure has been investigated. After tempering at 600 deg C the brittleness temperature Tsub(cr) was determined from impact viscosity curves. At tempering times of 1.75 - 3 and 5.5 - 7 hours Tsub(cr) was found to increase. This effect arises from unfravourable ratio between the strength of intergranular boundaries weakened by adsorption of detrimental admixtures phosphorus in particular and that of grain bulk strengthened by M7C3 disperse carbides

251

Investigation of the parallel tempering method for protein folding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the suitability and efficiency of an adapted version of the parallel tempering method for all-atom protein folding. We have recently developed an all-atom free energy force field (PFF01) for protein structure prediction with stochastic optimization methods. Here we report reproducible folding of the 20-amino-acid trp-cage protein and the conserved 40-amino-acid three-helix HIV accessory protein with an adapted parallel tempering method. We find that the native state, for both proteins, is correctly predicted to 2 A backbone root mean square deviation and analyse the efficiency of the simulation approach

252

Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth seasonality in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus - comparisons with temperate and tropical cervids  

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Full Text Available Growth in temperate and arctic deer is seasonal, with higher growth rates in spring and summer while growth rates are low or negative in autumn and winter. We have measured IGF1 concentrations in the plasma of reindeer calves exposed to a manipulated photoperiod, indoors, of either 16 hours light followed by 8 hours dark each day (16L:8D (n = 3 or 8L:16D (n = 3 from about the autumnal to the vernal equinox, to determine whether the seasonal growth spurt normally seen in spring is associated with changes in the circulating level of IGF1. A high quality concentrate diet was available ad libitum. The animals were weighed, and bled every 2 weeks and plasma samples assayed for IGF1 by radioimmunoassay. 6-8 weeks after the start of the study those calves exposed to 16L.-8D showed a significant increase in plasma IGF1 concentration which was maintained until the close of the experiment, 24 weeks after the start. In contrast IGF1 plasma concentrations in those calves exposed to a daylength of 8L:16D did not significantly alter during the study. The elevated IFG1 in the 16L:8D group was associated with rapid weight gain compared with the 8L:16D group. We have shown that the seasonal growth spurt is preceded by an elevation in plasma IFG1 concentration. Further, this elevation in IGF1 is daylength dependent. For comparison IGF1 and growth rate seasonal profiles from temperate and tropical deer are included. This comparison reveals that seasonal increases in IGF1 take place only in animals with a seasonal growth spurt. Thus IGF1 plasma level elevations seem most closely associated with the resumption of rapid growth in spring following the winter.

J. M. Suttie

1993-12-01

253

Snow surface energy and mass balance in a warm temperate climate mountain  

Science.gov (United States)

In warm temperate mountain regions where water is often scarce vapor losses from the snow-surface can substantially limit snowmelt. Therefore, understanding the key snow dynamic processes that affect water availability in these mountains is essential. We studied the snowpack energy and mass balance in Mt. Hermon, Israel using a comprehensive field campaign during 2010/11. We analyzed the snowpack energy and mass balance during the winter of 2010/11 in a Deep Snow Patch (DSP), and in the Bulan valley experiment area (BVEA), where both windswept locations and lee-side (deep snowpack) locations were examined. We applied for this analysis an energy and mass balance snow model that was forced by input from two meteorological stations. The calibration of the model for the DSP and BVEA was based on surveyed snow water equivalent data, and melting cycles that were measured with time-lapse cameras, respectively. Using a step function to describe wind speed over the DSP we showed that the turbulent fluxes were influenced by changes in snowpack height. The turbulent fluxes were found as the dominant energy fluxes at the snow-surface. During winter, vapor losses varied between 46% and 82% of the total ablation. Consequently, latent heat flux consumed much of the available energy at the snow-surface, greatly limiting melting rate to 1 mm day-1. During spring, vapor flux was positive which enhanced condensation, resulting in an average melting flux of 86 mm day-1. The spatial variation in the vapor flux at the BVEA due to terrain orientation yield variation in space of the available water at the bottom of the snowpack.

Sade, Rotem; Rimmer, Alon; Litaor, M. Iggy; Shamir, Eylon; Furman, Alex

2014-11-01

254

A temperate former West Antarctic ice sheet suggested by an extensive zone of bed channels  

OpenAIRE

Several recent studies predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet will become increasingly unstable under warmer conditions. Insights on such change can be assisted through investigations of the subglacial landscape, which contains imprints of former ice-sheet behavior. Here, we present radio-echo sounding data and satellite imagery revealing a series of ancient large sub-parallel subglacial bed channels preserved in the region between the Möller and Foundation Ice Streams, West Antarctica. W...

Rose, Kathryn C.; Ross, Neil; Bingham, Robert G.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom A.; Le Brocq, Anne; Rippin, David M.; Siegert, Martin J.

2014-01-01

255

Challenges in the nutrition and management of herbivores in the temperate zone  

OpenAIRE

The expected higher global demand for animal proteins and the competition for starch and sugars between food, fuel and feed seem to favour herbivores that convert solar energy captured in fibrous plants into animal products. However, the required higher production level of herbivores questions the sustainability of this conversion. An increase in herbivore production can be achieved by increasing the number of animals associated with the increasing demand of plant biomass or by improving the ...

Vuuren, A. M.; Chilibroste, P.

2013-01-01

256

Shifts of climate zones in multi-model climate change experiments using the Koeppen climate classification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the future changes in the climate zones' distribution of the Earth's land area due to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations in three IPCC SRES emissions scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1). The Koeppen climate classification is applied to climate simulations of seven atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) and their multi-model mean. The evaluation of the skill of the individual climate models compared to an observation-reanalysis-based climate classification provides a first order estimate of relevant model uncertainties and serves as assessment for the confidence in the scenario projections. Uncertainties related to differences in simulation pathways of the future projections are estimated by both, the multi-model ensemble spread of the climate change signals for a given scenario and differences between different scenarios. For the recent climate the individual models fail to capture the exact Koeppen climate types in about 24-39 % of the global land area excluding Antarctica due to temperature and precipitation biases, while the multi-model ensemble mean simulates the present day observation-reanalysis-based distribution of the climate types more accurately. For the end of the 21{sup st} century compared to the present day climate the patterns of change are similar across the three scenarios, while the magnitude of change is largest for the highest emission scenario. Moreover, the temporal development of the climate shifts from the end of the 20st century and during the 21{sup st} century show that changes of the multi-model ensemble mean for the A2 and B1 scenario are generally within the ensemble spread of the individual models for the A1B scenario, illustrating that for the given range of scenarios the model uncertainty is even larger than the spread given by the different GHG concentration pathways. The multi-model ensemble mean's projections show climate shifts to dryer climates in the subtropics (Australia, Mediterranean Basin, southern Africa). This is consistent with an increase of area classified as Tropical Savanna Climate as well as Dry Climates. Furthermore, there is a poleward extension of the warmer climate types in the northern hemisphere causing a retreat of regions with Cold Climate with Moist Winter and Tundra Climate. The European region shows largest changes comparing the shifts in the different continents (37.1 % of the European land area) as a result of a large extension of the Humid Temperate Climate across eastern and north-eastern Europe at the cost of the Cold Climate with Moist Winter. (orig.)

Hanf, Franziska; Koerper, Janina; Spangehl, Thomas; Cubash, Ulrich [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie

2012-04-15

257

Isotopic variation across the Audubon's-myrtle warbler hybrid zone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differences in seasonal migratory behaviours are thought to be an important component of reproductive isolation in many organisms. Stable isotopes have been used with success in estimating the location and qualities of disjunct breeding and wintering areas. However, few studies have used isotopic data to estimate the movements of hybrid offspring in species that form hybrid zones. Here, we use stable hydrogen to estimate the wintering locations and migratory patterns of two common and widespread migratory birds, Audubon's (Setophaga auduboni) and myrtle (S. coronata) warblers, as well as their hybrids. These two species form a narrow hybrid zone with extensive interbreeding in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, which has been studied for over four decades. Isotopes in feathers grown on the wintering grounds or early on migration reveal three important patterns: (1) Audubon's and myrtle warblers from allopatric breeding populations winter in isotopically different environments, consistent with band recovery data and suggesting that there is a narrow migratory transition between the two species, (2) most hybrids appear to overwinter in the south-eastern USA, similar to where myrtle warblers are known to winter, and (3) some hybrid individuals, particularly those along the western edge of the hybrid zone, show Audubon's-like isotopic patterns. These data suggest there is a migratory divide between these two species, but that it is not directly coincident with the centre of the hybrid zone in the breeding range. We interpret these findings and discuss them within the context of previous research on hybrid zones, speciation and migratory divides. PMID:24779396

Toews, D P L; Brelsford, A; Irwin, D E

2014-06-01

258

Activity of the mangrove snail Cerithidea decollata (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in a warm temperate South African estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

A population of Cerithidea decollata, an intertidal marine gastropod usually found within mangroves, was studied within an area of Juncus kraussii in the upper reaches of the warm temperate Knysna estuary, which is at the southern-most limit of the recorded distribution of this snail. Activity (migratory and homing behaviour, distances travelled during foraging) of the snails was monitored over spring and neap tides in four seasons. Migratory patterns of the snails were affected by season, time of low tide (day vs night), tidal magnitude (spring vs neap) and zonation. In the summer and spring, a greater proportion of snails migrated from J. kraussii leaves onto the mud during the day at spring low tide. During neap tides in these two seasons, most snails did not climb J. kraussii leaves and remained on the mud, which was nearly always exposed. In autumn a few snails only were active and in winter snails were almost completely inactive, probably due to low air temperatures. Snails travelled greater distances on the mud on spring tides, during the diurnal low tides, and in the summer. No snails were found to home to individual J. kraussii leaves; however, homing behaviour was recorded to wooden poles within the Juncus wetland.

Hodgson, Alan N.; Dickens, John

2012-08-01

259

Seasonal dynamics of fungal communities in a temperate oak forest soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi are the agents primarily responsible for the transformation of plant-derived carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known of their responses to the seasonal changes in resource availability in deciduous forests, including photosynthate allocation below ground and seasonal inputs of fresh litter. Vertical stratification of and seasonal changes in fungal abundance, activity and community composition were investigated in the litter, organic and upper mineral soils of a temperate Quercus petraea forest using ergosterol and extracellular enzyme assays and amplicon 454-pyrosequencing of the rDNA-ITS region. Fungal activity, biomass and diversity decreased substantially with soil depth. The highest enzyme activities were detected in winter, especially in litter, where these activities were followed by a peak in fungal biomass during spring. The litter community exhibited more profound seasonal changes than did the community in the deeper horizons. In the litter, saprotrophic genera reached their seasonal maxima in autumn, but summer typically saw the highest abundance of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Although the composition of the litter community changes over the course of the year, the mineral soil shows changes in biomass. The fungal community is affected by season. Litter decomposition and phytosynthate allocation represent important factors contributing to the observed variations. PMID:24010995

Vo?íšková, Jana; Brabcová, Vendula; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

2014-01-01

260

Experimental evaluation of thermal and energy performance of temperate green roofs: a case study in Beijing  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental evaluation of thermal and energy performance of temperate green roofs was carried out by thermal and meteorological observation and energy budget modeling using a setup of green roof in Beijing urban area. From both the yearly and daily temperature trends, the green roof could effectively damp down the undulation of roof surface temperature comparing with the conventional one. As an insulating screen, the green roof abated the amplitude of temperature by 9.0 in winter and 9.1 °C in summer, respectively. Under different cloud conditions, the green roof in summer time resulted in decreases in sensible heat and heat flux by 125.3W m-2 and 32.0 W m-2, respectively, on daily average comparing with the conventional one. Based on the energy budget analyses, under an assumptive scenario of 50% roof-greening in Beijing, a total of 34.1 PJ of sensible heat and 8.7 PJ of heat flux would be decreased for a summer period of 90 days. This study demonstrated that green roof, serving as an insulating screen to building top in comparison with the conventional roof, proved thermal improving effect in building scale and high energy saving potential for urban development.

Sun, T.; Institute of Hydrology; Water Resources

2011-12-01

261

Abundance, activity, and community structure of pelagic methane-oxidizing bacteria in temperate lakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abundance and activity of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the water column were investigated in three lakes with different contents of nutrients and humic substances. The abundance of MOB was determined by analysis of group-specific phospholipid fatty acids from type I and type II MOB, and in situ activity was measured with a 14CH4 transformation method. The fatty acid analyses indicated that type I MOB most similar to species of Methylomonas, Methylomicrobium, and Methylosarcina made a substantial contribution (up to 41%) to the total bacterial biomass, whereas fatty acids from type II MOB generally had very low concentrations. The MOB biomass and oxidation activity were positively correlated and were highest in the hypo- and metalimnion during summer stratification, whereas under ice during winter, maxima occurred close to the sediments. The methanotroph biomass-specific oxidation rate (V) ranged from 0.001 to 2.77 mg CH4-C mg(-1) C day(-1) and was positively correlated with methane concentration, suggesting that methane supply largely determined the activity and biomass distribution of MOB. Our results demonstrate that type I MOB often are a large component of pelagic bacterial communities in temperate lakes. They represent a potentially important pathway for reentry of carbon and energy into pelagic food webs that would otherwise be lost as evasion of CH4. PMID:16269705

Sundh, Ingvar; Bastviken, David; Tranvik, Lars J

2005-11-01

262

Seasonal in situ observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the temperate oceans of the Southern Hemisphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal have been measured with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) cartridges and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), optimised for dicarbonyl detection, in clean marine air over the temperate Southern Hemisphere (SH) oceans. Measurements of a range of dicarbonyl precursors (volatile organic compounds, VOCs) were made in parallel. These are the first in situ measurements of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the remote temperate oceans. Six 24 h samples were collected in summer (February-March) over the Chatham Rise in the south-west Pacific Ocean during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) voyage in 2012, while 34 24 h samples were collected at Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in the late winter (August-September) of 2011. Average glyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 7 ppt at Cape Grim and 23 ppt over Chatham Rise. Average methylglyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 28 ppt at Cape Grim and 10 ppt over Chatham Rise. The mixing ratios of glyoxal at Cape Grim are the lowest observed over the remote oceans, while mixing ratios over Chatham Rise are in good agreement with other temperate and tropical observations, including concurrent Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations. Methylglyoxal mixing ratios at both sites are comparable to the only other marine methylglyoxal observations available over the tropical Northern Hemisphere (NH) ocean. Ratios of glyoxal : methylglyoxal > 1 over Chatham Rise but different formation and/or loss processes or rates dominate at each site. Dicarbonyl precursor VOCs, including isoprene and monoterpenes, are used to calculate an upper-estimate yield of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in the remote marine boundary layer and explain at most 1-3 ppt of dicarbonyls observed, corresponding to 10% and 17% of the observed glyoxal and 29 and 10% of the methylglyoxal at Chatham Rise and Cape Grim, respectively, highlighting a significant but as yet unknown production mechanism. Surface-level glyoxal observations from both sites were converted to vertical columns and compared to average vertical column densities (VCDs) from GOME-2 satellite retrievals. Both satellite columns and in situ observations are higher in summer than winter; however, satellite vertical column densities exceeded the surface observations by more than 1.5 × 1014 molecules cm-2 at both sites. This discrepancy may be due to the incorrect assumption that all glyoxal observed by satellite is within the boundary layer, or it may be due to challenges retrieving low VCDs of glyoxal over the oceans due to interferences by liquid water absorption or the use of an inappropriate normalisation reference value in the retrieval algorithm. This study provides much-needed data to verify the presence of these short-lived gases over the remote ocean and provide further evidence of an as yet unidentified source of both glyoxal and also methylglyoxal over the remote oceans.

Lawson, S. J.; Selleck, P. W.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Harvey, M. J.; Lerot, C.; Helmig, D.; Ristovski, Z.

2015-01-01

263

Tempered Water Lower Port Connector Structural Analysis Verification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structural analysis of the lower port connection of the Tempered Water System of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility was performed. Subsequent detailed design changes to enhance operability resulted in the need to re-evaluate the bases of the original analysis to verify its continued validity. This evaluation is contained in Appendix A of this report. The original evaluation is contained in Appendix B

264

STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION DURING COLD DEFORMED CARBON STEEL TEMPERING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of parameters of degree of plastic deformation for 30…80 % and subsequent temper on the structure and yielding stress in the microyield region of preimproved carbon steels has been studied. The classification of dispersed phase of ferrite into two types containing the high angle boundaries and substructure boundaries respectively in relation to steels has been discussed.

I. A. Vakulenko

2010-06-01

265

Tempered Water Lower Port Connector Structural Analysis Verification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Structural analysis of the lower port connection of the Tempered Water System of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility was performed. Subsequent detailed design changes to enhance operability resulted in the need to re-evaluate the bases of the original analysis to verify its continued validity. This evaluation is contained in Appendix A of this report. The original evaluation is contained in Appendix B.

CREA, B.A.

2000-05-05

266

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNAL FRICTION AND TEMPER BRITTLENESS OF ALLOY STEELS  

OpenAIRE

Impact tests and internal friction measurements were carried out for steels 40Mn2, 40Mn2Mo and 30CrMnSiNi2. Experimental results showed that the phenomenon of temper brittleness is related to the aging effect of ? - solid solution in steels with precipitation of Fe3 (C, N) particles causing dead-pinning of dislocations.

Tang, Chih-hsiou; Su, Mei; Lei, Ting-chuan

1981-01-01

267

Improvement of flour quality through carbohydrases treatment during wheat tempering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat flour is obtained by the milling process, which includes several steps such as cleaning, tempering, and milling. In the tempering the moisture content of wheat grains is increased to 15.5% by adding an adequate amount of water. The addition of different enzymes (cellulase, xylanase, and beta-glucanase) to the tempering solution has been tested in order to modify the quality of the resulting flour. Rheological and fermentative properties were measured by the farinograph, amylograph, and rheofermentometer. The data show that the technological parameters of the resulting flours were greatly modified by the addition of enzymes to the tempering solution. The quality of the fresh bread obtained from the carbohydrase-treated wheat was improved with regard to specific bread volume, bread shape, and crumb firmness. This method is revealed as an excellent tool to ensure a good distribution of the enzymes in the resulting flour, to control dosage during milling, and to obtain flour of specific characteristics according to their final use. PMID:12083895

Haros, Mónica; Rosell, Cristina M; Benedito, Carmen

2002-07-01

268

Dispersal of Aedes aegypti: Field study in temperate areas using a novel method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: Since Aedes aegypti was identified as vector of yellow fever and dengue, its dispersal is relevant for disease control. We studied the dispersal of Ae. aegypti in temperate areas of Argentina during egglaying, using the existing population and egg traps. Methods: Two independent replicas of a unique experimental design involving mosquitoes dispersing from an urbanized area to adjacent non-urbanized locations were carried out and analyzed in statistical terms. Results: We found relationship between stochastic variables related to the egg-laying mosquito activity (ELMA, useful to assess dispersal probabilities, despite the lack of knowledge of the total number of ovipositions in the zone. We propose to evaluate the egg-laying activity as minus the logarithm of the fraction of negative ovitraps at different distances from the buildings. Interpretation & conclusion: Three zones with different oviposition activity were determined, a corridor surrounding the urbanization, a second region between 10 and 25 m and the third region extending from 30 to 45 m from the urbanization. The landscape (plant cover and the human activity in the area appear to have an influence in the dispersal of Ae. aegypti. The proposed method worked consistently in two different replicas.

Paula E. Bergero

2013-08-01

269

Keep Dogs and Cats Safe During Winter  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Keep Dogs and Cats Safe During Winter Veterinarian offers tips ... 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Winter can be tough on dogs and cats, but there are a number of ...

270

Take Steps to Avoid Winter Falls  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Take Steps to Avoid Winter Falls Check the traction of ... of injuries during the winter, but there are steps you can take to help stay on your ...

271

Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games  

OpenAIRE

The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

2014-01-01

272

Prepare Your Home for Winter Weather  

Science.gov (United States)

... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Wildfires Winter Weather Prepare Your Home for Winter Weather Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

273

Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Forsmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Forsmark site during temperate conditions; i.e. from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 12,000 AD. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then in an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional', make use of continuous porous medium (CPM), equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) and discrete fracture network (DFN) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden))

2010-11-15

274

33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME...Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME...modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...of this regulation and other applicable laws. ...this section will be in effect the second Sunday...

2010-07-01

275

An empirical exploration of the world oil price under the target zone model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the behavior of the world oil price based on the first-generation target zone model. Using anecdotal data during the period of 1988-1999, we found that OPEC has tried to maintain a weak target zone regime for the oil price. Our econometric tests suggest that the movement of the oil price is not only manipulated by actual and substantial interventions by OPEC but also tempered by market participants' expectations of interventions. As a consequence, the non-linear model based on the target zone theory has very good forecasting ability when the oil price approaches the upper or lower limit of the band

276

Spring grazing winter cereals in Montana  

Science.gov (United States)

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is widely utilized for winter pasture and grain production in the central and southern US plains. Under rainfed conditions in the northern Great Plains, winter wheat seldom achieves adequate fall biomass for grazing, and little is known about the impacts of grazi...

277

Ectomycorrhizas in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica, an early-successional birch species, in cool-temperate forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae in the Northern Hemisphere and produces prized "matsutake" mushrooms. We questioned whether the symbiont could associate with a birch that is an early-successional species in boreal, cool-temperate, or subalpine forests. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. matsutake can form typical ectomycorrhizas with Betula platyphylla var. japonica; the associations included a Hartig net and a thin but distinct fungal sheath, as well as the rhizospheric mycelial aggregate "shiro" that is required for fruiting in nature. The in vitro shiro also emitted a characteristic aroma. This is the first report of an ectomycorrhizal formation between T. matsutake and a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the boreal or cool-temperate zones that T. matsutake naturally inhabits. PMID:25236465

Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Neda, Hitoshi

2015-04-01

278

Forage-mediated density and climate effects on body mass in a temperate herbivore: a mechanistic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interplay between density and climate in shaping the dynamics of herbivore populations is widely acknowledged, and current research is fueled by the identification of mechanisms underlying their effects on individuals and populations. We assessed whether forage availability mediated the effects of density and winter climate on body mass of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) yearlings by experimentally reducing deer density to 7.5 and 15 deer/km2 during eight growing seasons, and by using causal (graphical) hierarchical models and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to assess relationships. The abundance of preferred forage decreased with deer density and varied quadratically (positive parabola) with winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), whereas the fall mass of yearlings increased with forage abundance and spring mass. Fall mass did not differ between experimentally reduced deer densities, yet experimental yearlings were 30% heavier than yearlings harvested at ambient densities. Hence, forage abundance simultaneously mediated the effects of density and climate on fall body mass, which was also influenced by carry-over effects of spring body mass. Our findings increase our ability to anticipate how temperate large herbivores will respond to ongoing changes in intrinsic (e.g., large-herbivore density) and extrinsic (e.g., climate) factors. PMID:25000764

Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre; Simard, Marie Anouk; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Côté, Steeve D

2014-05-01

279

A late Middle Pleistocene temperate periglacial temperate sequence (Oxygen Isotope Stages 7 5e) near Marsworth, Buckinghamshire, UK  

Science.gov (United States)

River-channel and colluvial deposits, near Marsworth, Buckinghamshire, record a temperate-periglacial-temperate sequence during the late Middle Pleistocene. The deposits of a lower channel contain tufa clasts bearing leaf impressions that include Acer sp., and Sorbus aucuparia and containing temperate arboreal pollen attributed to ash-dominated woodland. The tufa probably formed at the mouth of a limestone spring before being redeposited in a small river whose deposits contain plant remains, Mollusca, Coleoptera, Ostracoda and vertebrate bones of temperate affinities. The sediments, sedimentary structures and limited biological remains above the Lower Channel deposits indicate that fluvial deposition preceded climatic cooling into periglacial conditions. Fluvial deposition recurred during a later temperate episode, as shown by the mammalian bone assemblage in stratigraphically higher channel deposits. The Upper Channel deposits are confidently attributed to Oxygen Isotope Sub-Stage 5e (Ipswichian) on the basis of their vertebrate remains. However, the age of the Lower Channel deposits is less clear. The mammalian and coleopteran remains in the Lower Channel strongly suggest correlation with Oxygen Isotope Stage 7 on the basis of their similarities to other sites whose stratigraphy is better known and the clear difference of the Lower Channel assemblage from well-established faunas of Ipswichian or any other age. By contrast, U-Th dating of the tufa clasts suggests an age post 160 ka BP, while Aile/Ile ratios on Mollusca point to an Ipswichian age and younger. Four ways of interpreting this age discrepancy are considered, the preferred one correlating the Lower Channel deposits with Oxygen Isotope Stage 7.

Murton, J. B.; Baker, A.; Bowen, D. Q.; Caseldine, C. J.; Coope, G. R.; Currant, A. P.; Evans, J. G.; Field, M. H.; Green, C. P.; Hatton, J.; Ito, M.; Jones, R. L.; Keen, D. H.; Kerney, M. P.; McEwan, R.; McGregor, D. F. M.; Parish, D.; Robinson, J. E.; Schreve, D. C.; Smart, P. L.

2001-12-01

280

Fractal zone plates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractal zone plates (FZPs), i.e., zone plates with a fractal structure, are described. The focusing properties of this new type of zone plate are compared with those of conventional Fresnel zone plates. It is shown that the axial irradiance exhibited by the FZP has self-similarity properties that can be correlated to those of the diffracting aperture. PMID:12836749

Saavedra, Genaro; Furlan, Walter D; Monsoriu, Juan A

2003-06-15

281

Temperature zone sweet sorghum ethanol production potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to determine factors that could affect maximum sugar yield of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) at temperature zone locations. Four sweet sorghum cultivars were tested for fermentable sugar production potential under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions with 0, 84, and 186 kg ha[sup -1] of added nitrogen fertilizer at two temperate zone locations (40.8[sup o] and 42[sup o]N latitude). Test sites represented a typical temperature zone irrigated location and a typical corn belt natural rainfall area. Average ethanol (EtOH) yields for the 2-year study were above 3100 litres ha[sup -1] and ranged up to 5235 litres ha[sup -1]. The irrigated location produced more gross green weight (89.8 Mg ha[sup -1]) compared with the natural rainfall location (65.0 Mg ha[sup -1]), but total sugar yield and theoretical EtOH were not significantly different. The results emphasize the potential of sweet sorghum as an alternative energy crop, capable of insulating ethanol prices from shifts in corn prices. Added nitrogen fertilizer had little discernible effect on increasing fermentable sugar production. (author).

Smith, G.A. (Agriculture Research Service, Fargo, ND (United States). Northern Crop Science Lab.); Buxton, D.R. (Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States))

1993-01-01

282

Writing TAFS for Winter Weather  

Science.gov (United States)

"Writing TAFs for Winter Weather" is the fourth unit in the Distance Learning Aviation Course 2 (DLAC2) series on producing TAFs that meet the needs of the aviation community. In addition to providing information about tools for diagnosing winter weather and its related impacts, the module extends the Practically Perfect TAF (PPTAF) process to address an airport’s operational thresholds. By understanding the thresholds at airports for which they produce TAFs, forecasters will be better able to produce a PPTAF. The unit also examines how to communicate effectively the logic and uncertainty using the aviation forecast discussion (AvnFD) and addresses maintaining an effective TAF weather watch and updating the TAF proactively.

2014-09-14

283

Shining light on "Dark Winter".  

Science.gov (United States)

On 22--23 June 2001, the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, in collaboration with the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Analytic Services Institute for Homeland Security, and the Oklahoma National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, held a senior-level exercise entitled "Dark Winter" that simulated a covert smallpox attack on the United States. The first such exercise of its kind, Dark Winter was constructed to examine the challenges that senior-level policy makers would face if confronted with a bioterrorist attack that initiated outbreaks of highly contagious disease. The exercise was intended to increase awareness of the scope and character of the threat posed by biological weapons among senior national security experts and to bring about actions that would improve prevention and response strategies. PMID:11880964

O'Toole, Tara; Mair, Michael; Inglesby, Thomas V

2002-04-01

284

Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the potential to further advance our understanding of animal dietary composition and foraging behaviour by allowing identification of a much greater proportion of prey items often with increased taxonomic resolution. We used morphological analysis and Illumina-based second generation sequencing to study the winter diet of Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) and compared the results obtained from these two approaches. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of the Illumina MiSeq platform as a data generation source for bat dietary analyses. RESULTS: Faecal pellets collected from a hibernation site in southern England during two winters (December-March 2009-10 and 2010-11), indicated that M. nattereri forages throughout winter at least in a location with a mild winter climate. Through morphological analysis, arthropod fragments from seven taxonomic orders were identified. A high proportion of these was non-volant (67.9% of faecal pellets) and unexpectedly included many lepidopteran larvae. Molecular analysis identified 43 prey species from six taxonomic orders and confirmed the frequent presence of lepidopteran species that overwinter as larvae. CONCLUSIONS: The winter diet of M. nattereri is substantially different from other times of the year confirming that this species has a wide and adaptable dietary niche. Comparison of DNA derived from the prey to an extensive reference dataset of potential prey barcode sequences permitted fine scale taxonomic resolution of prey species. The high occurrence of non-volant prey suggests that gleaning allows prey capture at low ambient temperatures when the abundance of flying insects may be substantially reduced. Interesting questions arise as to how M. nattereri might successfully locate and capture some of the non-volant prey species encountered in its faeces. The consumption of lepidopteran larvae such as cutworms suggests that M. nattereri eats agricultural pest species.

Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine

2014-01-01

285

Winter meeting of Deutsches Atomforum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first year after ''Super-Election-Year'', the begin of a new political phase, Deutsches Atomforum has once again made its yearly attempt to point out the determinants of nuclear energy in Germany. In January '95, around 200 decision-makers and managers from industry, science, politics and the administration met in Bonn for the Forum's winter meeting, which has mean while become the traditional platform for this annual advance. (orig.)

286

Environmental Controls and Management Effects on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in Two Grazed Temperate Grasslands  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperate grasslands constitute over 30% of the Earth's naturally-occurring biomes and make an important contribution towards the partial mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems. Accumulation of carbon (C) in grassland systems predominantly takes place in below-ground repositories, enhanced by the presence of a stable soil environment with low carbon turnover rates, active rhizodeposition and high levels of residue and organic inputs. However, this C sequestration is strongly influenced by soil characteristics and climatic variables. Furthermore, in managed pasture systems, carbon exchange across the soil-atmosphere boundary is additionally affected by management activities, such as biomass removal, grazing events and the deposition or application of organic amendments. These biotic and abiotic factors contribute greatly towards the large uncertainty associated with the carbon balance of grassland ecosystems and demand further analysis. In the present study, the controls and drivers of carbon dynamics in two rotationally-grazed grasslands in Ireland were examined. The sites experience similar temperate climatic regimes but differ in soil texture classification and stocking rate. Eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon were complemented by regular assessment of standing biomass, leaf cover, harvest exports and organic amendment inputs. Our study showed that mild weather conditions and an extended growing season sustained net C accumulation at both sites for at least ten months of the year. Despite differing soil drainage characteristics, winter fluxes of net carbon exchange and its component fluxes, gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration, were highly comparable between the two sites. Management practices during the active growing season exerted a strong influence on both the direction and the rate of C exchange in the grassland systems, with a strong dependence, however, on the timing and intensity of the management effect. Harvest-induced reductions in productivity and net C uptake were generally greater than grazing-induced shifts, however the effects were at times mediated by environmental conditions. Our research highlighted the complex nature of the investigated grasslands resulting from the heterogeneous footprint induced by rotational grazing, grass harvesting and intensive management practices. Further work will focus on the applicability of different gap-filling methodologies for capturing the temporal and spatial variability observed. The potential of vegetation indices as a means of tracking sward development will also be investigated, with the aim of improving our understanding of the impact of vegetation dynamics on measured ecosystem carbon fluxes.

Ni Choncubhair, O.; Humphreys, J.; Lanigan, G.

2013-12-01

287

Linking well-tempered metadynamics simulations with experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linking experiments with the atomistic resolution provided by molecular dynamics simulations can shed light on the structure and dynamics of protein-disordered states. The sampling limitations of classical molecular dynamics can be overcome using metadynamics, which is based on the introduction of a history-dependent bias on a small number of suitably chosen collective variables. Even if such bias distorts the probability distribution of the other degrees of freedom, the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution can be reconstructed using a recently developed reweighting algorithm. Quantitative comparison with experimental data is thus possible. Here we show the potential of this combined approach by characterizing the conformational ensemble explored by a 13-residue helix-forming peptide by means of a well-tempered metadynamics/parallel tempering approach and comparing the reconstructed nuclear magnetic resonance scalar couplings with experimental data. PMID:20441734

Barducci, Alessandro; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Parrinello, Michele

2010-05-19

288

Heavy tempering of large steel castings and forgings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When standard grade Cr-Mo-Ni low-alloy steels of high hardenability are employed for manufacture of large castings and forgings of high integrity, their composition can be modified by certain additions. In this article the various effects of Cr, Mo and V are dealt with on the basis of their influence on the properties of the steel grade BS 826M31. The effects of modification, to this steel by increasing the molybdenum content to 1,0% or additions of 0,2% and 0,4% vanadium, on stress relaxation, hardenability, reversible temper embrittlement (RTE), tempering resistance, embrittlement, chemical composition and charpy impact energy are illustrated. 11 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

289

Root plasticity maintains growth of temperate grassland species (online first)  

OpenAIRE

Background and aims The frequency of rain is predicted to change in high latitude areas with more precipitation in heavy, intense events interspersed by longer dry periods. These changes will modify soil drying cycles with unknown consequences for plant performance of temperate species. Methods We studied plant growth and root traits of juveniles of four grasses and four dicots growing in a greenhouse, when supplying the same total amount of water given either regular every other day...

Padilla, F. M.; Aarts, B. H. J.; Roijendijk, Y. O. A.; Caluwe, H.; Mommer, L.; Visser, E. J. W.; Kroon, H.

2013-01-01

290

Tropical Fishes Dominate Temperate Reef Fish Communities within Western Japan  

OpenAIRE

Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring t...

Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A.; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

2013-01-01

291

Nanostructure of a cold drawn tempered martensitic steel  

OpenAIRE

The carbon atom distribution in a tempered martensitic steel processed by cold drawing was investigated with a three-dimensional atom probe. Data clearly show that cementite starts to decompose at the early stage of deformation. This indicates that the driving force of cementite decomposition during plastic deformation is not related to a strong increase of the interfacial energy. Carbon atmospheres were also analysed. They probably result from pipe diffusion of carbon atoms...

Sauvage, Xavier; Quelennec, Xavier; Malandain, Jean-jacques; Pareige, Philippe

2006-01-01

292

A note on the water budget of temperate glaciers  

OpenAIRE

In this note the total dissipative melting in temperate glaciers is studied. The analysis is based on the notion that the dissipation is determined by the loss of potential energy, due to the downward motion of mass (ice, snow, meltwater and rain). A mathematical formulation of the dissipation is developed and applied to a simple glacier geometry. In a next step, meltwater production resulting from enhanced ice motion during a glacier surge is calculated. The amount of melt energy availa...

Oerlemans, J.

2013-01-01

293

Parallel Tempering Algorithm for Conformational Studies of Biological Molecules  

OpenAIRE

The effectiveness of a new algorithm, parallel tempering, is studied for numerical simulations of biological molecules. These molecules suffer from a rough energy landscape. The resulting slowing down in numerical simulations is overcome by the new method. This is demonstrated by performing simulations with high statistics for one of the simplest peptides, Met-enkephalin. The numerical effectiveness of the new technique was found to be much better than traditional methods an...

Hansmann, Ulrich H. E.

1997-01-01

294

Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils  

OpenAIRE

Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory i...

Felber, R.; Hu?ppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

2012-01-01

295

Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Laxemar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during temperate climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Joyce et al. 2010/. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a Hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The Hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional' make use of a discrete fracture network (DFN) and equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 15,000 AD. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO Environment AB, Falun (Sweden))

2010-12-15

296

Prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel properties  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The influence of processing parameters, such as pouring temperature and cooling rate during the casting, as well as application of hot working and pre-heat treatment, on strength and toughness of quenched and tempered steel was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: Strength and toughness were presented by yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness, respectively. Experimental procedure of material properties optimization was done using the 25-2 factor experiment.Findings: It was ...

Smoljan, B.; Iljkic?, D.; Novak, H.

2011-01-01

297

Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Laxemar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site during temperate climate conditions as a comparison to corresponding modelling carried out for Forsmark /Joyce et al. 2010/. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a Hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The Hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional' make use of a discrete fracture network (DFN) and equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 15,000 AD. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

298

Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database  

OpenAIRE

This database includes spatial data of Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid distribution (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) collected during many oceanographic campaigns led in the Southern Hemisphere from 1872 to 2010. The dataset lists occurrence data of echinoid distribution south of 35°S latitude, together with information on taxonomy (from species to genus level), sampling sources (cruise ID, sampling dates, ship names) and sampling sites (geographic coordinates and depth). Ech...

Benjamin Pierrat; Thomas Saucède; Alain Festeau; Bruno David

2012-01-01

299

The Research and Application of Webpage Temper-proofing System  

OpenAIRE

With the sharp increase of hacking attacks over the last couple of years, web application security has become a key concern. The attack to websites, especially the explosion of webpage interpolating incidents has becomeone of the most serious problems of it. In this paper, the system adopts Web server core embedded technology to imbed tamper detection module and application protection module into the Web server, define correspondingstrategies for temper-proofing, and realize the real-time m...

Wang Yongquan; Wu Beihua

2012-01-01

300

Comparative Genomics and Transduction Potential of Enterococcus faecalis Temperate Bacteriophages? †  

OpenAIRE

To determine the relative importance of temperate bacteriophage in the horizontal gene transfer of fitness and virulence determinants of Enterococcus faecalis, a panel of 47 bacteremia isolates were treated with the inducing agents mitomycin C, norfloxacin, and UV radiation. Thirty-four phages were purified from culture supernatants and discriminated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and restriction mapping. From these analyses the genomes of eight representative phages were pyros...

Yasmin, Azra; Kenny, John G.; Shankar, Jayendra; Darby, Alistair C.; Hall, Neil; Edwards, Clive; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.

2009-01-01

301

Nanostructure of a cold drawn tempered martensitic steel  

CERN Document Server

The carbon atom distribution in a tempered martensitic steel processed by cold drawing was investigated with a three-dimensional atom probe. Data clearly show that cementite starts to decompose at the early stage of deformation. This indicates that the driving force of cementite decomposition during plastic deformation is not related to a strong increase of the interfacial energy. Carbon atmospheres were also analysed. They probably result from pipe diffusion of carbon atoms along dislocations pined by Fe3C carbides.

Sauvage, X; Malandain, J J; Pareige, P; Sauvage, Xavier; Quelennec, Xavier; Malandain, Jean-Jacques; Pareige, Philippe

2006-01-01

302

Sensitization of bacteria to danofloxacin by temperate prophages.  

OpenAIRE

Danofloxacin (CP-76,136) is in a class of agents that inhibit DNA gyrase and trigger induction of the SOS response and temperate bacteriophages. Killing studies against the bovine pathogen Pasteurella haemolytica demonstrated that danofloxacin exhibits particularly rapid killing kinetics. Here, lysogenic Escherichia coli bearing lambda is found to be more sensitive to danofloxacin than nonlysogenic E. coli. Danofloxacin exposure also induced a prophage in P. haemolytica. The potency of danofl...

Froshauer, S.; Silvia, A. M.; Chidambaram, M.; Sharma, B.; Weinstock, G. M.

1996-01-01

303

Foraging Patch Selection in Winter: A Balance between Predation Risk and Thermoregulation Benefit  

Science.gov (United States)

In winter, foraging activity is intended to optimize food search while minimizing both thermoregulation costs and predation risk. Here we quantify the relative importance of thermoregulation and predation in foraging patch selection of woodland birds wintering in a Mediterranean montane forest. Specifically, we account for thermoregulation benefits related to temperature, and predation risk associated with both illumination of the feeding patch and distance to the nearest refuge provided by vegetation. We measured the amount of time that 38 marked individual birds belonging to five small passerine species spent foraging at artificial feeders. Feeders were located in forest patches that vary in distance to protective cover and exposure to sun radiation; temperature and illumination were registered locally by data loggers. Our results support the influence of both thermoregulation benefits and predation costs on feeding patch choice. The influence of distance to refuge (negative relationship) was nearly three times higher than that of temperature (positive relationship) in determining total foraging time spent at a patch. Light intensity had a negligible and no significant effect. This pattern was generalizable among species and individuals within species, and highlights the preponderance of latent predation risk over thermoregulation benefits on foraging decisions of birds wintering in temperate Mediterranean forests. PMID:23874632

Villén-Pérez, Sara; Carrascal, Luis M.; Seoane, Javier

2013-01-01

304

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

IRWIN, J.J.

1998-11-30

305

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Tempered Water (TW) and Tempered Water Cooling (TWC) System . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the TW and TWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SOD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved

306

The possibility of tribopair lifetime extending by welding of quenched and tempered stainless steel with quenched and tempered carbon steel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the conditions of tribocorrosion wear, extending of parts lifetime could be achieved by using stainless steel,which is hardened to sufficiently high hardness. In the tribosystem bolt/ bushing shell/link plate of the bucket elevator transporter conveyor machine, the previously quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel for bolts is hardened at ?47 HRC and welded with the quenched and tempered high yield carbon steel for bolts. Additional material, based on Cr-Ni-Mo (18/8/6 is used. The microstructure and hardness of welded samples are tested. On the tensile tester, resistance of the welded joint is tested with a simulated experiment. Dimensional control of worn tribosystem elements was performed after six months of service.

V. Maruši?

2015-04-01

307

Late winter temperature response to large tropical volcanic eruptions in temperate western North America: Relationship to ENSO phases  

Science.gov (United States)

February-March temperature reconstructions in western North America from 1500-1980 in the Common Era (CE) are used to evaluate, from a regional perspective, the hypothesis that radiative forcing by large tropical volcanic eruptions induces a tendency in the climate system towards an early post-event El Niño (EN) response followed by a delayed La Niña (LN) response. Post-event spatial composites using superposed epoch analysis (SEA) detect indications for an EN-like pattern in post-event Years 1-2; this result, however, is sensitive to the set of eruptions evaluated. Highly significant LN-like patterns are also observed for two eruptions during Year 1. In contrast, a clear and unique LN-like response is found in both evaluated eruption sets during Years 3-5; Year 3 in particular represents the time of strongest post-event response. No significant EN-like patterns occur during these years. The relative homogeneity of the SEA response for each post-event year is evaluated in terms of the ratio of the amplitude of the SEA composite to its standard deviation across the eruption events. In relation to the same metric determined from random-event-year SEAs, these signal-to-noise ratios are most highly significant in the portions of the domain with the strongest anomalies in Years 1-5, especially Year 3. The signal-to-noise ratios tend towards uniformly low and insignificant values beyond the first half-decade after the eruption, indicating generally reduced coherence across events. In relation to the larger-scale circulation, post-eruption 500mb February-March geopotential height composites from the 20th Century Reanalysis show ENSO-type features that are largely consistent with the SEA results from the primary eruption set during Year 1, but are inconsistent with the EN-like pattern exhibited by the second eruption set during Years 1-2. In Year 3, the pressure composite over North America and the adjacent Pacific and Atlantic is strongly LN-like, consistent with all SEA results; similarly, weakening coherence across events as time progresses beyond Year 3 is also consistent with more variable pressure composites noted after that time. The relatively robust character of the delayed LN-like response is evaluated in terms of the dynamic rebound of the climate system towards its initial energy balance as the radiative impact of immediate post-eruption aerosol cooling dissipates. The LN-like SEA temperature response in Years 3-5 exhibits a slight shift of its southern warm anomaly to the north and west relative to pure composite LN conditions, which is detected as a specifically post-eruption feature in the region.

Wahl, Eugene R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Ammann, Caspar M.

2014-11-01

308

Effect of simulated fall heat waves on cold hardiness and winter survival of hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria) is an important pest of eastern Canadian forests. The ongoing climate warming could modify the seasonal ecology of this univoltine species that lays eggs at the end of summer and overwinters at this stage. Indeed, the increase in frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as fall heat waves could interfere with the winter metabolism of the hemlock looper. Moreover, the host plant quality, which influences the quantity of insect energetic reserves, the geographic origin of populations and the conditions prevailing during the cold acclimation period, could cause various responses of this pest to climate warming. The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of these factors on hemlock looper winter biology. In October 2010, hemlock looper eggs initially collected from two geographic areas in the province of Québec, and from parents reared on two host plants, were exposed to fall heat waves of different intensities during 5 consecutive days. Supercooling points and cryoprotectant levels were measured on eggs on four different dates in 2010-2011 and survival rate was measured in April 2011. Our results show that hemlock looper eggs have a very low supercooling point and high levels of trehalose, glucose and mannitol in September and November. However, there is no clear relationship between the concentration of these compounds and the decrease in supercooling points. Contents in trehalose, glucose and mannitol were significantly influenced by fall heat waves and by the origin of the population. Winter survival of eggs from the temperate population was negatively affected by strong heat waves while the boreal population was not affected. This study suggests that the metabolism and winter survival of temperate hemlock looper populations in Québec will be more affected by fall heat waves that will increase in frequency due to climate change, than boreal populations. PMID:25585353

Vallières, Rosemarie; Rochefort, Sophie; Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Bauce, Éric

2015-02-01

309

Northward migrating trees establish in treefall gaps at the northern limit of the temperate-boreal ecotone, Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is expected to promote migration of species. In ecotones, areas of ecological tension, disturbances may provide opportunities for some migrating species to establish in otherwise competitive environments. The size of and time since disturbance may determine the establishment ability of these species. We investigated gap dynamics of an old-growth red pine (Pinus resinosa Sol. ex Aiton) forest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest in northern Ontario, Canada, a transition zone between temperate and boreal forest. We investigated the effects of gaps of different sizes and ages on tree species abundance and basal area. Our results show that tree species from the temperate forest further south, such as red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white pine (Pinus strobus L.), establish more often in large, old gaps; however, tree species that have more northern distributions, such as black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and red pine show no difference in establishment ability with gap size or age. These differences in composition could not be attributed to autogenic succession. We conclude that treefall gaps in this forest facilitate the establishment of northward migrating species, potentially providing a pathway for future forest migration in response to recent changes in climate. PMID:20859751

Leithead, Mark D; Anand, Madhur; Silva, Lucas C R

2010-12-01

310

Tailored tempering. Customized material properties for hot-stamped parts; Tailored Tempering. Massgeschneiderte Werkstoffeigenschaften fuer waermeumgeformte Bauteile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The requirements placed on vehicle crash performance and fuel consumption have increased consistently in recent years. Technologies such as the press hardening of manganese-boron steels can help reduce car body weight while optimizing service properties. ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe has developed an enhanced press hardening process called 'tailored tempering' that makes it possible to exploit the full range of strength levels offered by steel through precise control of the cooling process in the forming die. (orig.)

Sikora, Sascha; Banik, Janko; Graff, Stephane; Laurenz, Robert; Lenze, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG, Dortmund (Germany). FuE

2012-07-01

311

Trends of NDVI, precipitation and their relationship in different forest ecological zone of China during 1982 to 2006  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes the change of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and precipitation for forest in different ecological zones in China and their correlation over the period of 1982-2006. The specific aim of this paper was to identify the changing trends of NDVI and precipitation and understand their relations, especially, on which duration the precipitation influence NDVI strongly during growing season of forest in different ecological aspects. The results showed that 1) the break points of NDVI and precipitation appeared in different years in most ecological zones, but in temperate continental forest and temperate mountain system, they have a high degree of consistency; 2) the NDVI in boreal coniferous forest, temperate mountain system and tropical moist deciduous forest showed a increasing trend during 1982-2006 and the lowest value were appeared in different time and the precipitation in boreal coniferous forest and temperate mountain system showed a decreasing trend; 3) the forest in different ecological zones has different patterns with different periods and lags and the peak value of pearson correlation coefficients were showed in different duration and lag, and NDVI and precipitation generally have the negative but weak relation.

Wang, Sa; Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Xi; Zhang, Guo; Yang, Ting

2014-11-01

312

Bionomics of temperate and tropical Culicoides midges: knowledge gaps and consequences for transmission of Culicoides-borne viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Culicoides midges are abundant hematophagous flies that vector arboviruses of veterinary and medical importance. Dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Culicoides-borne arboviruses have occurred since 1998, including the emergence of exotic viruses in northern temperate regions, increases in global disease incidence, and enhanced virus diversity in tropical zones. Drivers may include changes in climate, land use, trade, and animal husbandry. New Culicoides species and new wild reservoir hosts have been implicated in transmission, highlighting the dynamic nature of pathogen-vector-host interactions. Focusing on potential vector species worldwide and key elements of vectorial capacity, we review the sensitivity of Culicoides life cycles to abiotic and biotic factors. We consider implications for designing control measures and understanding impacts of environmental change in different ecological contexts. Critical geographical, biological, and taxonomic knowledge gaps are prioritized. Recent developments in genomics and mathematical modeling may enhance ecological understanding of these complex arbovirus systems. PMID:25386725

Purse, B V; Carpenter, S; Venter, G J; Bellis, G; Mullens, B A

2015-01-01

313

Comparison of N2O Emissions from Soils at Three Temperate Agricultural Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux simulations by four models were compared with year-round field measurements from five temperate agricultural sites in three countries. The field sites included an unfertilized, semi-arid rangeland with low N2O fluxes in eastern Colorado, USA; two fertilizer treatments (urea and nitrate) on a fertilized grass ley cut for silage in Scotland; and two fertilized, cultivated crop fields in Germany where N2O loss during the winter was quite high. The models used were daily trace gas versions of the CENTURY model, DNDC, ExpertN, and the NASA-Ames version of the CASA model. These models included similar components (soil physics, decomposition, plant growth, and nitrogen transformations), but in some cases used very different algorithms for these processes. All models generated similar results for the general cycling of nitrogen through the agro-ecosystems, but simulated nitrogen trace gas fluxes were quite different. In most cases the simulated N20 fluxes were within a factor of about 2 of the observed annual fluxes, but even when models produced similar N2O fluxes they often produced very different estimates of gaseous N loss as nitric oxide (NO), dinitrogen (N2), and ammonia (NH3). Accurate simulation of soil moisture appears to be a key requirement for reliable simulation of N2O emissions. All models simulated the general pattern of low background fluxes with high fluxes following fertilization at the Scottish sites, but they could not (or were not designed to) accurately capture the observed effects of different fertilizer types on N2O flux. None of the models were able to reliably generate large pulses of N2O during brief winter thaws that were observed at the two German sites. All models except DNDC simulated very low N2O fluxes for the dry site in Colorado. The US Trace Gas Network (TRAGNET) has provided a mechanism for this model and site intercomparison. Additional intercomparisons are needed with these and other models and additional data sets; these should include both tropical agro-ecosystems and new agricultural management techniques designed for sustainability.

Frolking, S. E.; Moiser, A. R.; Ojima, D. S.; Li, C.; Parton, W. J.; Potter, C. S.; Priesack, E.; Stenger, R.; Haberbosch, C.; Dorsch, P.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

314

The kinetics of phase transformations during the tempering of HS6-5-2 steel  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: This work contains a detailed description of the kinetics of phase transformations during tempering of hardened HS6-5-2 high-speed steel. Moreover, the microstructure development in tested samples, reflecting the extend of the phase transformations during tempering, was discussed too.Design/methodology/approach: CHT diagram, illustrating the kinetics of phase transformations during continuous heating (tempering) from as-quenched state of investigated steel, was ...

Krawczyk, J.; Pacyna, J.; Ba?a, P.

2009-01-01

315

Effect of Tempering and Baking on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel  

Science.gov (United States)

Tempered AISI 4340 steel was hydrogen charged and tested for impact energy. It was found that samples tempered above 468 °C (875 °F) and subjected to hydrogen charging exhibited lower impact energy values when compared to uncharged samples. No significant difference between charged and uncharged samples tempered below 468 °C (875 °F) was observed. Neither exposure nor bake time had any significant effect on impact energy within the tested ranges.

Mori, K.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.; Niji, K.; Battel, G.; Tran, A.; Iriarte, E.; Perez, O.; Ruiz, H.; Choi, T.; Stoyanov, P.; Ogren, J.; Alrashaid, J.; Es-Said, O. S.

2015-01-01

316

The influence of kinetics of phase transformations during tempering on high-speed steels mechanical properties  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The main purpose of the presented paper was the determination of the influence of the phase transformation kinetics, at tempering, on the properties of high-speed steels. In order to achieve this aim investigations of the influence of continuous heating and isothermal tempering from the as-quenched state on the investigated steels hardness were performed. The advancement degree change obtained by changing the heating rate and by pre-tempering was applied in strength properties studie...

Ba?a, P.; Pacyna, J.

2010-01-01

317

Selective recharge and isotopic composition of shallow groundwater within temperate, epigenic carbonate aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers the variation of ?18O and ?2H (VSMOW) in precipitation and shallow groundwater from carbonate aquifers that lend insight into the source and timing of recharge within temperate, epigenic karst. The shallow groundwater collected during 2010 and 2011 at Stream Cave (SC) and Natural Bridge Caverns (NBC) represent one input to and the primary output from the Redmond Creek karst aquifer in the Cumberland Plateau of southeast Kentucky, respectively. These data are compared with the isotopic composition of concurrent samples of precipitation from the same watershed that covers some 1900 ha. Values of ?18O and ?2H at SC and NBC are statistically similar and cluster at the midpoint of the local meteoric water line. These values remain surprisingly constant despite seasonal changes in temperature regimens and discharge. Samples in 2012 from regional springs that include Redmond Creek are more depleted in the heavier isotope and similarly stable despite coming from aquifers of a range of sizes and physical characteristics. Applying a Priestly-Taylor model for daily values of potential evapotranspiration, only 43% of the 1.10 m of precipitation in the 2010-2011 dataset remains as potential recharge, primarily during cooler months with lower solar insolation. Weighting ?18O and ?2H values of precipitation by potential recharge creates a better match with the isotopic composition of shallow groundwater than by weighting by precipitation amount. The isotopic composition and deuterium excess of precipitation samples are directly and inversely proportional to temperature, respectively. Deuterium excess in this study and displays intra- and inter-annual variation that ranges from a minimum of +11.1‰ to a maximum of +29.5‰ that demonstrate the higher-than-average deuterium excess in greater Appalachia and the shifting latitude of moisture sources, including a significant winter component of re-evaporated, continental moisture.

Florea, Lee J.

2013-05-01

318

Drivers of long-term variability in CO2 net ecosystem exchange in a temperate peatland  

Science.gov (United States)

Land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variability, which subsequently affects the carbon sink strength of catchments across multiple temporal scales. Long-term studies are needed to fully capture the natural variability and therefore identify the key hydrometeorological drivers in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. NEE has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance at Auchencorth Moss, a temperate lowland peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Hence this is one of the longest peatland NEE studies to date. For 11 yr, the site was a consistent, yet variable, atmospheric CO2 sink ranging from -5.2 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -64.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing season. Mean winter air temperature explained 87% of the inter-annual variability in the sink strength of the following summer, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant productivity exhibited a marked hysteresis with respect to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) over the growing season, indicative of two separate growth regimes. Ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary productivity (GPP) were closely correlated (ratio 0.74), suggesting that autotrophic processes were dominant. Whilst the site was wet most of the year (water table depth <5 cm) there were indications that heterotrophic respiration was enhanced by drought, which also depressed GPP. NEE was compared to 5 other peatland sites which have published long-term NEE records. The CO2 uptake rate during the growing season was comparable to 3 other European sites, however the emission rate during the dormant season was significantly higher.

Helfter, C.; Campbell, C.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Drewer, J.; Coyle, M.; Anderson, M.; Skiba, U.; Nemitz, E.; Billett, M. F.; Sutton, M. A.

2014-10-01

319

Experimental warming does not enhance soil respiration in a semiarid temperate forest-steppe ecosystem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The influence of simulated climate change on soil respiration was studied in a field experiment on 4 m x 5 m plots in the semiarid temperate Pannonian sand forest-steppe. This ecosystem type has low productivity and soil organic matter content, and covers large areas, yet data on soil carbon fluxes are still limited. Soil respiration rate-measured monthly between April and November from 2003 to 2006-remained very low (0.09 - 1.53 mu mol CO2 m(-2) s(-1))in accordance with the moderate biological activity and low humus content of the nutrient poor, coarse sandy soil. Specific soil respiration rate ( calculated for unit soil organic matter content), however, was relatively high (0.36 - 7.92 mu mol CO g(-1) C(org)h(-1)) suggesting substrate limitation for soil biological activity. During the day, soil respiration rate was significantly lower at dawn than at midday, while seasonally clear temperature limitation in winter and water limitation in summer were detected. Between years, annual precipitation appeared to be important in determining soil carbon efflux intensity. Nocturnal warming increased soil temperature in 1 cm depth at dawn by 1.6 degrees C on the average, and decreased topsoil (0-11 cm) moisture content by 0.45 vol%. Drought treatment decreased soil moisture content by an average of 0.81 vol%. Soil respiration rate tended to decrease by 7-15% and 13-15% in response to heat and drought treatment, respectively, although the changes were not statistically significant. Nocturnal warming usually prevented dew formation, and that probably also influenced soil respiration. Based on these results, we expect a reduction in the volume and rate of organic matter turnover in this ecosystem in response to the anticipated climate change in the region.

Lellei-Kovacs, E.; Kovacs-Lang, E.

2008-01-01

320

Long-term CH3Br and CH3Cl flux measurements in temperate salt marshes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluxes of CH3Br and CH3Cl and their relationship with potential drivers such as sunlight, temperature and soil moisture, were monitored at fortnightly to monthly intervals for more than two years at two contrasting temperate salt marsh sites in Scotland. Manipulation experiments were conducted to further investigate possible links between drivers and fluxes. Mean (± 1 sd annually and diurnally-weighted net emissions from the two sites were found to be 300 ± 44 ng m?2 h?1 for CH3Br and 662 ± 266 ng m?2 h?1 for CH3Cl. A tentative scale-up indicates that salt marshes account for 0.5–3.2% and 0.05–0.33%, respectively, of currently-estimated total global production of these two gases, in line with previous findings from this and other research groups, but consistently lower than past global scale-up estimates from Southern Californian salt marshes. Fluxes followed both seasonal and diurnal trends with highest fluxes during summer days and lowest (negative fluxes during winter nights. Statistical analysis generally did not demonstrate a strong link between temperature or sunlight levels and methyl halide fluxes, although it is likely that temperatures have a weak direct influence on emissions, and both certainly have indirect influence via the annual and daily cycles of the vegetation. CH3Cl flux magnitudes from different measurement locations depended on the plant species enclosed whereas such dependency was not discernible for CH3Br fluxes. In 14 out of 19 collars CH3Br and CH3Cl net fluxes were significantly correlated. The CH3Cl/CH3Br net-emission mass ratio was 2.2, a magnitude lower than mass ratios of global methyl halide budgets (~22 or emissions from tropical rainforests (~60. This is likely due to preference for CH3Br production by the relatively high bromine content in the salt marsh plant material.

M. R. Heal

2010-08-01

321

Pure stands of temperate forest tree species modify soil respiration and N turnover  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of five different tree species common in the temperate zone, i.e. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis [Sichold and Zucc.] Gordon) and mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra), on soil respiration, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification rates were investigated. Soils were sampled in spring and summer 2002 at a forest trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, where pure stands of the five tree species of the same age were growing on the same soil. Soil respiration, gross rates of N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in the organic layers than in the Ah horizons for all tree species and both sampling dates. In summer (July), the highest rates of soil respiration, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification were found in the organic layer under spruce, followed by beech > larch > oak > pine. In spring (April), these rates were also higher under spruce compared to the other tree species, but were significantly lower than in summer. For the Ah horizons no clear seasonal trend was observed for any of the processes examined. A linear relationship between soil respiration and gross N mineralization (r2=0.77), gross N mineralization and gross nitrification rates (r2=0.72), and between soil respiration and gross nitrification (r2=0.81) was found. The results obtained underline the importance of considering the effect of forest type on soil C and N transformations.

Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Pilegaard, K.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

2005-04-01

322

Emergent toxins in North Atlantic temperate waters: a challenge for monitoring programs and legislation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are complex to manage due to their intermittent nature and their severe impact on the economy and human health. The conditions which promote HAB have not yet been fully explained, though climate change and anthropogenic intervention are pointed as significant factors. The rise of water temperature, the opening of new sea canals and the introduction of ship ballast waters all contribute to the dispersion and establishment of toxin-producing invasive species that promote the settling of emergent toxins in the food-chain. Tetrodotoxin, ciguatoxin, palytoxin and cyclic imines are commonly reported in warm waters but have also caused poisoning incidents in temperate zones. There is evidence that monitoring for these toxins exclusively in bivalves is simplistic and underestimates the risk to public health, since new vectors have been reported for these toxins and as well for regulated toxins such as PSTs and DSTs. In order to avoid public health impacts, there is a need for adequate monitoring programs, a need for establishing appropriate legislation, and a need for optimizing effective methods of analysis. In this review, we will compile evidence concerning emergent marine toxins and provide data that may indicate the need to restructure the current monitoring programs of HAB. PMID:25785464

Silva, Marisa; Pratheepa, Vijaya K; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

2015-03-01

323

Holocene Precipitation in the Coastal Temperate Rainforest Complex of Western North America  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollen data from 69 surface samples from Vancouver Island, Canada, were used to develop a ratio index of precipitation, DWHI (Douglas fir-western hemlock index). DWHI ratios were combined with interpolated estimates of mean annual precipitation to develop pollen-based precipitation transfer functions. The optimal regression model, with a predictive range of 960-2600 mm, was applied to 10 Holocene lake sediment records distributed across a ~150 km long coastal-inland precipitation gradient. Predicted precipitation was spatially modelled in a geographic information system to examine the spatio-temporal history of precipitation from this representative portion of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) complex of western North America. The reconstructions show widespread early Holocene dry conditions coupled with a steep east-west precipitation gradient. Thereafter, the modern precipitation gradient established 7000 years ago, illustrating that the CTR complex has experienced marked short-distance east-west changes in precipitation in the past. Changes in the abundance of arboreal and non-arboreal vegetation, as well as fire disturbance, are often concomitant with changes in Holocene precipitation. Given the precipitation and vegetation history of the region, conservation initiatives should focus on the moist outer coastal zone since it appears to have the greatest amount of resilience to perturbations in precipitation, whereas monitoring programs for signs of climate change should be initiated in central areas as they appear sensitive to changes in the moisture regime.

Brown, K. J.; Fitton, R. J.; Schoups, G.; Allen, G. B.; Wahl, K. A.; Hebda, R. J.

2006-12-01

324

Holocene precipitation in the coastal temperate rainforest complex of southern British Columbia, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollen data from 69 surface samples from Vancouver Island, Canada, were used to develop a ratio index of precipitation, Douglas fir-western hemlock index (DWHI). DWHI ratios were combined with interpolated estimates of mean annual precipitation to develop pollen-based precipitation transfer functions. The optimal regression model, with a predictive range of 960-2600 mm, was applied to 10 Holocene lake sediment records distributed across a ˜150 km long coastal-inland precipitation gradient. Predicted precipitation was spatially modelled in a geographic information system to examine the spatio-temporal history of precipitation from this representative portion of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) complex of western North America. The reconstructions show widespread early Holocene dry conditions coupled with a steep east-west precipitation gradient. Thereafter, the modern precipitation gradient established 7000 years ago, illustrating that the CTR complex has experienced marked short-distance east-west changes in precipitation in the past. Changes in the abundance of arboreal and non-arboreal vegetation, as well as fire disturbance, are often concomitant with changes in Holocene precipitation. Given the precipitation and vegetation history of the region, conservation initiatives should focus on the moist outer coastal zone since it appears to have the greatest amount of resilience to perturbations in precipitation, whereas monitoring programs for signs of climate change should be initiated in central and eastern areas as they appear sensitive to changes in the moisture regime.

Brown, K. J.; Fitton, R. J.; Schoups, G.; Allen, G. B.; Wahl, K. A.; Hebda, R. J.

2006-11-01

325

Discovering the importance of lateral CO2 transport from a temperate spruce forest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our study investigated the concentration of dissolved carbon at the point when water leaves the pedosphere and whether this amount represents a significant proportion of terrestrial carbon cycling. The investigations were carried out in a temperate forest catchment (Black Forest, Germany) over a period of 1 year. The annual export of dissolved C compounds (14.4 g C m-2 year-1) was dominated by CO2 (9.7 vs. 4.7 g C m-2 year-1 DOC). Even though the direct CO2 degassing at the spring was inferior (0.4 kg C year-1), considerably lower CO2 concentrations were measured 17 m downstream of the spring. This shows that a large proportion of dissolved CO2 (93%) originating from the pedosphere is not captured anymore within a short distance from the spring. The measured lateral C-transport was in the same order of magnitude as reported for the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) observed for German spruce forests (-4 to -55 g C m-2 year-1). Therefore, the results clearly demonstrated that the lateral transport of dissolved carbon can be a significant part of terrestrial carbon budgets and for this study site CO2 was dominating this 'indirect' pathway. However, for generalisation, it is important to extend this investigation to other landscapes and climatic zones. (author)

326

Invasion of Nostocales (cyanobacteria to subtropical and temperate freshwater lakes – Physiological, regional and global driving forces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Similarly to the increased number of studies on invasive plants and animals in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, many reports were recently published on the invasion of Nostocales (cyanobacteria to freshwater environments worldwide. Invasion and proliferation of Nostocales in new habitats have the potential to significantly alter the structure of native community and to modify ecosystem functioning. But most importantly, they influence the water quality due to a variety of toxic compounds that some species produce. Therefore a special attention was given to the invasion and persistence of toxic cyanobacteria in many aquatic ecosystems. Here we summarize the currently published records on the invasion of two Nostocales genera, Cylindrospermopsis and Aphanizomenon, to lakes and water reservoirs in subtropical and temperate zones. These invading species possess traits thought to be common to many invasive organisms: high growth rate, high resource utilization efficiency and overall superior competitive abilities over native species when local conditions vary. Assuming that dispersion routes of cyanobacteria have not been changed much in recent decades, their recent establishment and proliferation in new habitats indicate changes in the environment under which they can exploit their physiological advantage over the native phytoplankton population. In many cases global warming was identified as the major driving force for the invasion of Nostocales. Due to this uncontrollable trend, invasive Nostocales species are expected to maintain their presence in new habitats and further expand to new environments. In other cases regional changes in nutrient loads and in biotic conditions were attributed to the invasion events

AssafSukenik

2012-03-01

327

Hydrogen induced cold cracking studies on armour grade high strength, quenched and tempered steel weldments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quenched and tempered (Q and T) steels are prone to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) in the heat affected zone after welding. The use of austenitic stainless steel (ASS) consumables to weld the above steel was the only available remedy because of higher solubility for hydrogen in austenitic phase. The use of stainless steel consumables for a non-stainless steel base metal is not economical. Hence, alternate consumables for welding Q and T steels and their vulnerability to HIC need to be explored. Recent studies proved that low hydrogen ferritic (LHF) steel consumables can be used to weld Q and T steels, which can give very low hydrogen levels in the weld deposits. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the influence of welding consumables and welding processes on hydrogen induced cold cracking of armour grade Q and T steel welds by implant testing. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux cored arc welding (FCAW) processes were used for making welds using ASS and LHF welding consumables. ASS welds made using FCAW process offered a higher resistance to HIC than all other welds considered in this investigation. (author)

Magudeeswaran, G.; Balasubramanian, V. [Centre for Materials Joining Research (CEMAJOR), Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhusudhan Reddy, G. [Metal Joining Section, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Kanchanbagh (P.O.) Hyderabad 560 058 Andhra Pradesh (India)

2008-04-15

328

Recent carbonate sedimentation on Balearic platform: model for temperate-climate carbonate shelves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing models for carbonate sedimentation on continental platforms are derived from the study of modern carbonate platforms in tropical climates. The Balearic platform in the western Mediterranean provides a new model for carbonate sedimentation in a temperature, semiarid climate. On most of the continental shelf around the Balearic Islands, modern sediments are exclusively bioclastic carbonates. Shoreline carbonate sediments are bioclastic sands and muds accumulating in beach-dune systems without significant tidal influence (there are no astronomical tides in the western Mediterranean ). From the upper shoreface to 35 m deep, the sandy bottom is extensively colonized by sea grass (Posidonia oceanica), the rhizomes and roots of which form a rigid entrapment that retains the sediment derived from calcareous organisms living within the sea grass and from calcareous epiphytes living on the stems and leaves. Archeological dating establishes a rate of vertical accretion in this zone of 10/sup 3/ Bubnoff units (1 Bubnoff unit = 1 mm/1000 years). Between depths of 40 and 60 m, carbonate sands are composed predominantly or red-algal fragments. Intensely bioturbated wave ripples occur in environments dominated by laminar red algae (Lithothamnium and Phymatolithon). Below depths of 60 m, coarse sediment produced by rhodolitic and ramose red algae is deposited in areas of tens to hundreds of meters in size. Biogenic buildups up to 2 m high occur in sandy areas as well as in deeper muddy areas. At the same depth in open-platform zones, the bottom topography is characterized by large hummocks several hundred meters across. From the horizontal distribution of facies, it is possible to construct the probable vertical sequence of lithofacies which would characterize carbonates accumulating on a temperate-climate carbonate shelf. Many of these lithofacies are recognized in upper Miocene limestones on the Balearic Islands.

Fornos, J.; Rodriguez-Perea, A.; Massuti, C.; Pomar, L.; Acosta, J.; Herranz, P.; Sanz, J.L.

1989-03-01

329

Standardized precipitation index zones for Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Precipitation zone systems exists for Mexico based on seasonality, quantity of precipitation, climates and geographical divisions, but none are convenient for the study of the relation of precipitation with phenomena such as El nino. An empirical set of seven exclusively Mexican and six shared zones was derived from three series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) images, from 1940 through 1989: a whole year series (SPI-12) of 582 monthly images, a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for winter months (November through April), and a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for summer months (May through October). By examination of principal component and unsupervised classification images, it was found that all three series had similar zones. A set of basic training fields chosen from the principal component images was used to classify all three series. The resulting thirteen zones, presented in this article, were found to be approximately similar, varying principally at zones edges. A set of simple zones defined by just a few vertices can be used for practical operations. In general the SPI zones are homogeneous, with almost no mixture of zones and few outliers of one zone in the area of others. They are compared with a previously published map of climatic regions. Potential applications for SPI zones are discussed. [Spanish] Existen varios sistemas de zonificacion de Mexico basados en la estacionalidad, cantidad de precipitacion, climas y divisiones geograficas, pero ninguno es conveniente para el estudio de la relacion de la precipitacion con fenomenos tales como El Nino. En este trabajo se presenta un conjunto de siete zonas empiricas exclusivamente mexicanas y seis compartidas, derivadas de tres series de imagenes de SPI (Indice Estandarizado de la Precipitacion), desde 1940 a 1989: una serie de 582 imagenes mensuales (SPI-12), una series de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de invierno (noviembre a abril), y otra de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de verano (mayo a octubre). Al examinar imagenes de componentes principales y de clasificaciones no supervisadas, se descubrio que las tres series tenian una zonificacion similar. Un conjunto de campos de entrenamiento fue utilizado para clasificar las tres series. Despues de doce tanteos las zonas resultantes, presentadas aqui, fueron casi identicas para las tres series, con variaciones principalmente alrededor de los bordes. Un conjunto de zonas sencillas definidas por pocos vertices puede ser usado para operaciones practicas. En general, las zonas son homogeneas, casi sin mezcla de zonas y con pocos fragmentos de una zona en otra. Estas zonas se comparan con un mapa previamente publicado de zonas climaticas. Se mencionan posibles aplicaciones.

Giddings, L.; Soto, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Rutherford, B.M.; Maarouf, A. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2005-01-01

330

Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer. PMID:22238762

Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

2011-06-01

331

Multi-proxy summer and winter precipitation reconstruction for southern Africa over the last 200 years  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the first consolidation of palaeoclimate proxy records from multiple archives to develop statistical rainfall reconstructions for southern Africa covering the last two centuries. State-of-the-art ensemble reconstructions reveal multi-decadal rainfall variability in the summer and winter rainfall zones. A decrease in precipitation amount over time is identified in the summer rainfall zone. No significant change in precipitation amount occurred in the winter rainfall zone, but rainfall variability has increased over time. Generally synchronous rainfall fluctuations between the two zones are identified on decadal scales, with common wet (dry) periods reconstructed around 1890 (1930). A strong relationship between seasonal rainfall and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the surrounding oceans is confirmed. Coherence among decadal-scale fluctuations of southern African rainfall, regional SST, SSTs in the Pacific Ocean and rainfall in south-eastern Australia suggest SST-rainfall teleconnections across the southern hemisphere. Temporal breakdowns of the SST-rainfall relationship in the southern African regions and the connection between the two rainfall zones are observed, for example during the 1950s. Our results confirm the complex interplay between large-scale teleconnections, regional SSTs and local effects in modulating multi-decadal southern African rainfall variability over long timescales.

Neukom, Raphael; Nash, David J.; Endfield, Georgina H.; Grab, Stefan W.; Grove, Craig A.; Kelso, Clare; Vogel, Coleen H.; Zinke, Jens

2014-05-01

332

Exposure of Trucking Company Workers to Particulate Matter during the Winter  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzed the workplace area concentrations and the personal exposure concentrations to fine particulate (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) measured during the winter period in trucking companies. The averaged personal exposure concentrations at breathing zones of workers are much greater than those of the microenvironment concentrations. The highest difference between the area (microenvironment) and personal exposure concentrations was in the PM2.5 concentratio...

Lee, Byeong-kyu; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Natkin, Jonathan; Reaser, Paul; Lane, Kevin; Lee, Haengah Kim

2005-01-01

333

Corrosion fatigue in nitrocarburized quenched and tempered steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to investigate the fatigue strength and fracture mechanism of salt bath nitrocarburized steels, specimens of the steels SAE 4135 and SAE 4140, in a quenched and tempered state, and additionally in a salt bath nitrocarburized and oxidizing cooled state as well as in a polished (after the oxidizing cooling) and renewed oxidized state, were subjected to comparative rotating bending fatigue tests in inert oil and 5 pct NaCl solution. In addition, some of the quenched and tempered specimens of SAE 4135 material were provided with an approximately 50-{mu}m-thick electroless Ni-P layer, in order to compare corrosion fatigue behavior between the Ni-P layer and the nitride layers. Long-life corrosion fatigue tests of SAE 4135 material were carried out under small stresses in the long-life range up to 10{sup 8} cycles with a test frequency of 100 Hz. Fatigue tests of SAE 4140 material were carried out in the range of finite life (low-cycle range) with a test frequency of 13 Hz. The results show that the 5 pct NaCl environment drastically reduced fatigue life, but nitrocarburizing plus oxidation treatment was found to improve the corrosion fatigue life over that of untreated and Ni-P coated specimens. The role of inclusions in initiating fatigue cracks was investigated. It was found that under corrosion fatigue conditions, the fatigue cracks started at cavities along the interfaces of MnS inclusions and matrix in the case of quenched and tempered specimens. The nitrocarburized specimens, however, showed a superposition of pitting corrosion and corrosion fatigue in which pores and nonmetallic inclusions in the compound layer play a predominant role concerning the formation of pits in the substrate.

Karim Khani, M.; Dengel, D. [Technical Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Materials Technology

1996-05-01

334

Laser beam welding tempered 300M ultrahigh mechanical strength steel  

OpenAIRE

AISI 300M ultrahigh strength steel has been used in a number of high demanding applications, such as the VLS Brazilian rocket project. This work intends to propose laser beam welding, with subsequent tempering, as a possible route for the fabrication of engineering pieces of this steel. A 2 kW fiber laser was used to produce welded coupons for metallographic, hardness and tensile strength tests. It has been shown that convenient laser parameters for a 3 mm thick plate are 50 mm/s welding spee...

Sheila Medeiros de Carvalho; Milton Sérgio Fernandes de Lima

2012-01-01

335

Resolutions of tempered representations of reductive p-adic groups  

CERN Document Server

Let G be a reductive group over a non-archimedean local field and let S(G) be its Schwartz algebra. We compare Ext-groups of tempered G-representations in several module categories: smooth G-representations, algebraic S(G)-modules, bornological S(G)-modules and an exact category of S(G)-modules on LF-spaces which contains all admissible S(G)-modules. We simplify the proofs of known comparison theorems for these Ext-groups, due to Meyer and Schneider-Zink. Our method is based on the Bruhat-Tits building of G and on analytic properties of the Schneider-Stuhler resolutions.

Opdam, Eric

2012-01-01

336

Joints in Tempered Glass Using Glass Dowel Discs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the major reasons for using glass in structures is its transparency; however, traditional mechanical joints such as friction joints and steel dowel pinned connections are compromising the transparency. The present paper describes a novel joint which is practically maintaining the complete transparency of the glass. This is achieved by using a dowel disc made entirely of tempered glass. The concept of the joint is proved by pilot tests and numerical models. From the work it is seen that the load-carrying capacity of such a connection is similar to what is found for traditionally in-plane loaded steel dowel pinned joints.

Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

337

PLCO News, Fall/Winter 1998  

Science.gov (United States)

PLCO News, Fall/Winter 1998 Volume 1, Number 2 ----- Fall/Winter 1998 Trial Update Enrollment goal: 148,000 Total enrollment (as of September 30, 1998): 111,515 Men enrolled: 58,283 Women enrolled: 53,232 Number of people enrolled

338

Vegetables and grass winter covers in rotation  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotation of different crops may allow for extended usage of crop land. The early maturing ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), cv. Shiwasuaoba, and the later maturing cv. Gulf, were planted as over-wintering covers. Controls consisted of a fall planted winter wheat cultivar and bare soil. The fol...

339

Carbon 14 dating of carbonate rocks in arid zones: corrections and uncertainties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The validity of the Munnich-Vogel model for carbon-14 dating is questioned, even for the temperate zone. In the arid zone, extra difficulties arise such as soils with low humus content, lakes which are merely exits of very 'old' groundwaters, and water-mixing which occurs in large aquifers (e.g. Tibesti, Syrtes Basin, 'albienne' groundwater). The case of areas without limestone is discussed and they also need minor correction. A Munnich-Vogel type correction is suggested, but it must be made to vary in agreement with the river basin, and be accompanied by a large uncertainty bandwidth. (author)

340

Winter Olympics Physics and Biomechanics  

Science.gov (United States)

Many Winter Olympic sports are greatly dependent on technique, engineering, and/or gravity. For example, during luge, while gravity is accelerating the sled up to 80 mph down the track, the slider must use good technique to steer the sled and minimize air resistance. To excel in these type of sports, it is helpful to have a full appreciation of physics and biomechanics. Physics is a broad field which includes mechanics, electricity, magnetism, optics, etc., and biomechanics is the study of the mechanics of living systems. In the module we will use the sports of luge and figure skating to teach you four basic mechanical concepts: linear kinematics, linear dynamics, projectile motion, and conservation of angular momentum. In addition, we have developed a glossary which defines and illustrates all the physics terminology you will need to complete this module.

341

Parallel Tempering for sampling and optimization in seismic inverse problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of seismology is rich with inverse problems. Seismologists are constantly seeking new ways to use seismic waveforms, and data products derived from them, to constrain subsurface structure in the form of Earth properties in 1-, 2- and 3 dimensions, as well as seismic sources in space and time. Every approach has its limitations and a virtual smorgasbord of methods exist, and have been applied over thirty years, with varying degrees of success. In this presentation we discuss a new class of approach. Parallel Tempering (PT) is a technique originating in the field of computational statistics that is finding increasing success for probabilistic sampling problems in astro and quantum physics, and more recently ocean acoustics but appears to be virtually unknown in the solid earth geosciences. In seismology two classes of inference approach are common for nonlinear inverse problems, Bayesian (probabilistic) sampling and optimization. Parallel Tempering can be applied to both situations and is related to better known methods such as Simulated Annealing and Metropolis Sampling. PT is distinguished as it has a theoretical basis for being superior to both. PT is best viewed as a `meta' algorithm. In a sense wrapping around existing optimization or Bayesian sampling methods to facilitate more robust performance (optimization) and more rapid exploration of parameter space (sampling). PT has generated much interest across the physical sciences with encouraging results emerging. This presentation will describe the basic ideas, and present results of implementations on seismic waveform inversion for both sampling and optimization.

Sambridge, Malcolm

2013-04-01

342

Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3– but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

R. Felber

2012-01-01

343

Prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The influence of processing parameters, such as pouring temperature and cooling rate during the casting, as well as application of hot working and pre-heat treatment, on strength and toughness of quenched and tempered steel was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: Strength and toughness were presented by yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness, respectively. Experimental procedure of material properties optimization was done using the 25-2 factor experiment.Findings: It was found out that yield strength is insensitive on differences between applied manufacturing processes, but by application of hot working and with appropriate pouring temperature the Charpy-V notch toughness is increased. Also, Charpy-V notch toughness is increased by interactive effect of the appropriate cooling rate during the casting and application of hot working.Research limitations/implications: The research was focused mainly on Charpy-V notch toughness of carbon and low alloyed heat treatable steels.Practical implications: The established algorithms can be used for prediction of tensile strength, yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness in heat treating practice.Originality/value: Original relation for prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel Charpy-V notch toughness are developed.

B. Smoljan

2011-12-01

344

Methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes from temperate forest litter  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl halide fluxes were measured from fine (nonwoody) litter samples at a temperate deciduous forest site in Scotland on 16 occasions over more than a year and at a coniferous forest site. The resulting mean (±1 sd) CH 3Br and CH 3Cl fluxes were 4.1 ± 3.7 ng kg -1 h -1 and 0.98 ± 0.62 ?g kg -1 h -1, respectively, for dry mass leaf litter and 5.7 ± 6.3 ng kg -1 h -1 and 0.47 ± 0.14 ?g kg -1 h -1 for dry mass needle litter. Temporal variations of net fluxes from leaf litter were significantly greater than spatial variations suggesting seasonality in the fluxes. The mean CH 3Cl/CH 3Br mass ratio of fluxes was ˜200 (to 1 sig. fig.), an order of magnitude larger than the ratio of their estimated global turnovers. Temperate forest litter may be a moderate net source of CH 3Cl globally but a negligible source of CH 3Br. These statements refer to the nonwoody litter component only.

Blei, Emanuel; Heal, Mathew R.

2011-03-01

345

Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2, prolonged summer drought and temperature increase on N2O and CH4 fluxes in a temperate heathland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In temperate regions, climate change is predicted to increase annual mean temperature and intensify the duration and frequency of summer droughts, which together with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, may affect the exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. We report results from the CLIMAITE experiment, where the effects of these three climate change parameters were investigated solely and in all combinations in a temperate heathland. Field measurements of N2O and CH4 fluxes took place 1–2 years after the climate change manipulations were initiated. The soil was generally a net sink for atmospheric CH4. Elevated temperature (T) increased the CH4 uptake by on average 10 ?g C m?2 h?1, corresponding to a rise in the uptake rate of about 20%. However, during winter elevated CO2 (CO2) reduced the CH4 uptake, which outweighed the positive effect of warming when analyzed across the study period. Emissions of N2O were generally low (

Carter, Mette Sustmann; Ambus, Per

2011-01-01

346

Temperate Ice Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR)  

Science.gov (United States)

Glaciers in several parts of the world are reported to be retreating and thinning rapidly over the last few years. A key variable in the study of glacier dynamics is ice thickness. A few attempts have been made to develop airborne sounding radars for temperate-ice thickness measurements [Arcone et al., 2000]. There is an urgent need for compact radar for routine ice thickness measurements from ground-based and airborne platforms. Radars (Radio Detection and Ranging) have been widely used to measure ice thickness in Greenland and Antarctica. However, the radars used in these areas operate in the VHF and UHF part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Due to the composition of temperate ice, the attenuation and back-scatter from large pockets of water makes UHF and VHF ineffective in sounding of its thickness. Radars operating in lower part of the HF spectrum are required for sounding temperate ice. We are designing and developing a Temperate Ice Depth-Sounding Radar (TIDSoR) that can penetrate through the water pockets and provide a more accurate measurement of the ice thickness. TIDSoR is a light-weight system for ground-based operations in mountainous terrain or aerial surveys in which weight is an important factor, such as in an UAV. TIDSoR operates on two channels in the HF spectrum using two-linear, frequency-modulated chirp waveforms. The two chirp frequency ranges are 7 to 8 MHz and 13.5 to 14.5 MHz. The radar will operate from a 12-V battery and is designed to weigh less than 2 kg, excluding the battery. The radar consists of three main sections: Digital, RF and antenna. The digital-section generates the transmitter waveforms, timing and control signals, and digitizes processes and stores the received signal. The RF-section consists of a transmitter with a 20-W peak-power amplifier, band-pass filters, and a switching system for a shared antenna. The receiver consists of a blanking switch, a limiter, a low-noise amplifier, a band-pass filter and a data acquisition system to store the acquired data. At HF, a physically large-antenna is needed. TIDSoR takes advantage of the helix antenna concept to minimize its physical dimensions and weight. Moreover, the ability to achieve different polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical) was considered to maximize the performance of the radar system. Arcone, S. A., Lawson, D. E., Moran, M. and Delaney, A. J., 2000, 12-100-MHz profiles of ice depth and stratigraphy of three temperate glaciers. In: Proc. GPR 2000, Eighth Intl. Conf. Ground-Penetrating Radar, Gold Coast, Austral., 23-26 May, 2000.

Jara, V.; Player, K.; Gogineni, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Thompson, L.

2007-12-01

347

Impurity effect on tendency to temper brittleness in heat resistant Cr-Mo-V steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of sulfur-, phosphorus-, copper-, arsenic-, autimony-, tin impurities on temper brittleness in 25Kh1M1F steel of 18 compositions has beep investigated. It is concluded that only phospohorus and antimony influence noticeably on tendency to temper brittleness in fine-grained steel, at the same time influence of phosphorus is much greater

348

On microstructure and performance of tempered high-boron high-speed steel roll  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influences of the tempering temperature on the microstructure, mechanical property and wear resistance of High-Boron High Speed Steel (HBHSS roll materials were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction, hardness measurement, impact tester, tensile tester and pin abrasion tester. The results show that the as-cast structure of HBHSS consists of a great amount of martensite and M2(B,C and a few retained austenites and M23(B,C6. After solution treated at 1,050 °C and followed by oil cooling, the amount of M23(B,C6 carbo-borides in quenched HBHSS increases obviously and the macrohardness of the quenched HBHSS is 66 HRC, which is very close to the 65.8 HRC of as-cast HBHSS. On the whole, the hardness of HBHSS alloy shows a trend of slight decrease with increasing tempering temperature when tempered below 500 °C. While when above 500 °C, the hardness increases slightly as the tempering temperature increases and reaches a peak at 525 °C and then decreases obviously. The impact toughness of HBHSS has a tendency to increase as the tempering temperature increases. Tempering can improve the tensile strength and elongation of HBHSS, but a higher tempering temperature causes a slight decrease in both tensile strength and elongation. Excellent wear resistance can be obtained by tempering at 500 to 550 °C.

Fu Hanguang

2012-08-01

349

The effects of boro-tempering heat treatment on microstructural properties of ductile iron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the effects of boro-tempering heat treatment on microstructural properties of ductile iron were investigated. Test samples with dimensions of 10 x 10 x 55 mm were boronized at 900 oC for 1, 3 and 5 h and then tempered at four different temperatures (250, 300, 350 and 450 oC) for 1 h. Both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to reveal the microstructural details of coating and matrix of boro-tempered ductile iron. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the constituents of the coating layer. The boride layer formed on the surface of boro-tempered ductile cast iron is tooth shape form and consisted of FeB and Fe2B phases. The thickness of boride layer increases as the boronizing time increases and tempering temperature decreases. Tempering temperature is more effective than boronizing time on the matrix structure. Boro-tempering heat treatment reduces the formation of lower and upper ausferritic matrix temperature according to classical austempering. This causes formation of upper ausferritic matrix in the sample when tempered at 300 oC. This is in contrast to general case which is the formation of lower ausferritic matrix via austempering at this temperature.

350

Parallel Tempering in Lattice QCD with O(a)-Improved Wilson Fermions  

CERN Document Server

We present details of our investigation of the Parallel Tempering algorithm. We consider the application of action matching technology to the selection of parameters. We then present a simple model of the autocorrelations for a particular parallel tempered system. Finally we present numerical results from applying the algorithm to lattice QCD with O(a)-improved dynamical fermions with twin ensemble systems

Joó, B; Sexton, J C; Pendleton, B J; Pickles, S M; Sroczynski, Z; Joo, Balint; Irving, Alan C; Sexton, James C.; Pendleton, Brian; Pickles, Stephen M; Sroczynski, Zbigniew

1999-01-01

351

Kinetics of reversible temper brittleness of steels during continious cooling after temperig  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of reversible temper brittleness of chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel with different molybdenum content is investigated. Isothermal and thermokinetic diagrams are plotted, which represent the curves of reaching the similar T50 values under isothermal holding and continuous cooling with constant rates within the temper brittleness interval

352

The winter St. Helena climate index and extreme Benguela upwelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate changes in the subtropical South-east Atlantic turn out to be well described by the St. Helena Island Climate Index (HIX) and observed fluctuations are in good agreement with inter-decadal variability of the entire South Atlantic Ocean. Year-to-year variations of the averaged austral winter HIX (July-September), representative of the main upwelling season, were compared with (i) corresponding averages of the geostrophic alongshore component of the south-east trade wind (SET) between St. Helena Island in the south-west and Luanda/Angola in the north-east, (ii) the meridional distribution of surface waters colder than 13 °C to characterise intense Benguela upwelling (IBU), and (iii) the meridional position of the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone (ABFZ) determined by means of sea surface temperature images for offshore distances between 50 and 400 km. Temporal changes of these parameters were investigated and showed that the frequency of consecutive years of strong and relaxed Benguela upwelling is characterised by a quasi-cycle of about 11-14 years. It is proposed that the index of the winter HIX may be used as a 'surveyor's rod' to describe interannual changes in the Benguela upwelling regime as well as those of the embedded marine ecosystem.

Hagen, Eberhard; Agenbag, Jacobus J.; Feistel, Rainer

2005-09-01

353

Temperate carbonate cycling and water mass properties from intertidal to bathyal depths (Azores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rugged submarine topography of the Azores supports a diverse heterozoan association resulting in intense biotically-controlled carbonate-production and accumulation. In order to characterise this cold-water (C factory a 2-year experiment was carried out in the southern Faial Channel to study the biodiversity of hardground communities and for budgeting carbonate production and degradation along a bathymetrical transect from the intertidal to bathyal 500 m depth.

Seasonal temperatures peak in September (above a thermocline and bottom in March (stratification diminishes with a decrease in amplitude and absolute values with depth, and tidal-driven short-term fluctuations. Measured seawater stable isotope ratios and levels of dissolved nutrients decrease with depth, as do the calcium carbonate saturation states. The photosynthetic active radiation shows a base of the euphotic zone in ~70 m and a dysphotic limit in ~150 m depth.

Bioerosion, being primarily a function of light availability for phototrophic endoliths and grazers feeding upon them, is ~10 times stronger on the illuminated upside versus the shaded underside of substrates in the photic zone, with maximum rates in the intertidal (?631 g/m2/yr. Rates rapidly decline towards deeper waters where bioerosion and carbonate accretion are slow and epibenthic/endolithic communities take years to mature. Accretion rates are highest in the lower euphotic zone (955 g/m2/yr, where the substrate is less prone to hydrodynamic force. Highest rates are found – inversely to bioerosion – on down-facing substrates, suggesting that bioerosion may be a key factor governing the preferential settlement and growth of calcareous epilithobionts on down-facing substrates.

In context of a latitudinal gradient, the Azores carbonate cycling rates plot between known values from the cold-temperate Swedish Kosterfjord and the tropical Bahamas, with a total range of two orders in magnitude. Carbonate budget calculations for the bathymetrical transect yield a mean 266.9 kg of epilithic carbonate production, ?54.6 kg of bioerosion, and 212.3 kg of annual net carbonate production per metre of coastline in the Azores C factory.

M. Wisshak

2010-08-01

354

Temperate carbonate cycling and water mass properties from intertidal to bathyal depths (Azores, N-Atlantic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rugged submarine topography of the Azores supports a diverse heterozoan association resulting in intense biotically-controlled carbonate production and accumulation. In order to characterise this cold-water (C factory a 2-year experiment was carried out to study the biodiversity of hardground communities and for budgeting carbonate production and degradation along a bathymetrical transect from the intertidal to bathyal 500 m depth.

Seasonal temperatures peak in September (above a thermocline and bottom in March (stratification diminishes with a decrease in amplitude and absolute values with depth, and with tidal-driven short-term fluctuations. Measured seawater stable isotope ratios and levels of dissolved nutrients decrease with depth, as do the calcium carbonate saturation states. The photosynthetic active radiation shows a base of the euphotic zone in ~70 m and a dysphotic limit in ~150 m depth.

Bioerosion, being primarily a function of light availability for phototrophic endoliths and grazers feeding upon them, is ~10 times stronger on the illuminated upside versus the shaded underside of substrates in the photic zone, with maximum rates in the intertidal (?631 g/m2/yr. Rates rapidly decline towards deeper waters where bioerosion and carbonate accretion are slow and epibenthic/endolithic communities take years to mature. Accretion rates are highest in the lower euphotic zone (955 g/m2/yr, where the substrate is less prone to hydrodynamic force. Highest rates are found – inversely to bioerosion – on downward facing substrates, suggesting that bioerosion may be a key factor governing the preferential settlement and growth of calcareous epilithobionts on downward facing substrates.

In context of a latitudinal gradient, the Azores carbonate cycling rates plot between known values from the cold-temperate Swedish Kosterfjord and the tropical Bahamas, with a total range of two orders in magnitude. Carbonate budget calculations for the bathymetrical transect yield a mean 266.9 kg of epilithic carbonate production, ?54.6 kg of bioerosion, and 212.3 kg of annual net carbonate production per metre of coastline in the Azores C factory.

M. Wisshak

2010-05-01

355

Three-dimensional circulation in the NW Africa coastal transition zone  

OpenAIRE

High-resolution data collected southeast of the Canary Islands during late winter 2006 are analyzed to describe the hydrography and three-dimensional circulation in the coastal transition zone off NW Africa. The data are optimally interpolated over a regular grid, the geostrophic velocity field is calculated and the Q-vector formulation of the omega equation is used to compute the quasi-geostrophic (QG) mesoscale vertical velocity. The coastal transition zone is divided into upwelling, fronta...

Beni?tez-barrios, V. M.; Pelegri?, Josep Llui?s; Herna?ndez Guerra, Alonso; Lwiza, K. M. M.; Gomis, Damia?; Ve?lez-belchi?, Pedro; Herna?ndez Leo?n, Santiago

2011-01-01

356

Monte Carlo Methods for Rough Free Energy Landscapes: Population Annealing and Parallel Tempering  

Science.gov (United States)

Parallel tempering and population annealing are both effective methods for simulating equilibrium systems with rough free energy landscapes. Parallel tempering, also known as replica exchange Monte Carlo, is a Markov chain Monte Carlo method while population annealing is a sequential Monte Carlo method. Both methods overcome the exponential slowing associated with high free energy barriers. The convergence properties and efficiencies of the two methods are compared. For large systems, population annealing is closer to equilibrium than parallel tempering for short simulations. However, with respect to the amount of computation, parallel tempering converges exponentially while population annealing converges only inversely. As a result, for sufficiently long simulations parallel tempering approaches equilibrium more quickly than population annealing.

Machta, J.; Ellis, R. S.

2011-08-01

357

Mechanisms and kinetics of tempering in weldments of 9Cr-1Mo steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microstructural mechanisms and the kinetics of the tempering process in an MMA welded 9Cr-1Mo steel have been studied in detail. Based on the microstructural studies of the various regions of the weldment tempered at different temperatures, three distinct mechanisms could be identified for the gradual softening observed in the weldments. A classification scheme has been proposed based on which the temperature regimes over which tempering proceeds through different mechanisms, have been rationalised. The kinetics of the tempering process have been studied using the temperature dependence of the rate of softening. The apparent activation energy of the tempering process is evaluated using an Arrhenius analysis and the corresponding rate-controlling process is identified as the diffusion of carbon in ?-ferrite

358

Mechanisms and kinetics of tempering in weldments of 9Cr-1Mo steel  

Science.gov (United States)

The microstructural mechanisms and the kinetics of the tempering process in an MMA welded 9Cr-1Mo steel have been studied in detail. Based on the microstructural studies of the various regions of the weldment tempered at different temperatures, three distinct mechanisms could be identified for the gradual softening observed in the weldments. A classification scheme has been proposed based on which the temperature regimes over which tempering proceeds through different mechanisms, have been rationalised. The kinetics of the tempering process have been studied using the temperature dependence of the rate of softening. The apparent activation energy of the tempering process is evaluated using an Arrhenius analysis and the corresponding rate-controlling process is identified as the diffusion of carbon in ?-ferrite.

Vijayalakshmi, M.; Saroja, S.; Mythili, R.; Thomas Paul, V.; Raghunathan, V. S.

2000-06-01

359

Wetlands, climate zones and Barmah Forest virus disease in Queensland, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is the second most common mosquito-borne disease in Australia, but the linkages of the wetlands and climate zones with BFV transmission remain unclear. We aimed to examine the relationship between the wetlands, climate zones and BFV risk in Queensland, Australia. Data on the wetlands, climate zones, population and BFV cases for the period 1992 to 2008 were obtained from relevant government agencies. BFV risk was grouped as low-, medium- and high-level based on BFV incidence percentiles. The buffer zones around each BFV case were made using 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50km distances. We performed a discriminant analysis to determine the differences between wetland classes and BFV risk within each climate zone. The discriminant analyses show that saline 1, riverine and saline tidal influence were the most significant contributors to BFV risk in all climate and buffer zones, while lacustrine, palustrine, estuarine and saline 2 and saline 3 wetlands were less important. These models had classification accuracies of 76%, 98% and 100% for BFV risk in subtropical, tropical and temperate climate zones, respectively. This study demonstrates that BFV risk varies with wetland class and climate zone. The discriminant analysis is a useful tool to quantify the links between wetlands, climate zones and BFV risk. PMID:23122869

Naish, Suchithra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

2012-12-01

360

On Brillouin Zones  

OpenAIRE

Brillouin zones were introduced by Brillouin in the thirties to describe quantum mechanical properties of crystals, that is, in a lattice in $\\R^n$. They play an important role in solid-state physics. It was shown by Bieberbach that Brillouin zones tile the underlying space and that each zone has the same area. We generalize the notion of Brillouin Zones to apply to an arbitrary discrete set in a proper metric space, and show that analogs of Bieberbach's results hold in this...

Veerman, J. J. P.; Peixoto, M. M.; Rocha, A. C.; Sutherland, S.

1998-01-01

361

Multifractal zone plates.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present multifractal zone plates (MFZPs) as what is to our knowledge a new family of diffractive lenses whose structure is based on the combination of fractal zone plates (FZPs) of different orders. The typical result is a composite of two FZPs with the central one having a first-order focal length f surrounded by outer zones with a third-order focal length f. The focusing properties of different members of this family are examined and compared with conventional composite Fresnel zone plates. It is shown that MFZPs improve the axial resolution and also give better performance under polychromatic illumination. PMID:20686590

Giménez, Fernando; Furlan, Walter D; Calatayud, Arnau; Monsoriu, Juan A

2010-08-01

362

Temper Outbursts in Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Their Association with Depressed Mood and Treatment Outcome  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Temper outbursts in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are a common source of concern, but remain poorly understood. This study examined a set of hypotheses related to: (a) the prevalence of temper outbursts in paediatric OCD, (b) the associations of temper outbursts with OCD severity and depressive symptoms; and (c) the…

Krebs, Georgina; Bolhuis, Koen; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David; Turner, Cynthia; Stringaris, Argyris

2013-01-01

363

Half a Century of Schladming Winter Schools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Schladming Winter Schools have started as early as in 1962. Over the times the yearly Schools have closely followed the actual developments in nuclear, particle, or more generally, in theoretical physics. Several new achievements have first been dealt with in length in the lectures at the Schladming Winter School. It has seen very prominent lecturers, among them a series of Nobel laureates (some of them reporting on their works even before they got their Nobel prizes). I will try to highlight the role of the Schladming Winter Schools in pro- mulgating new developments of theoretical physics in depth at the lectures given over the past 50 years. (author)

364

Corrosion fatigue in nitrocarburized quenched and tempered steels  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the fatigue strength and fracture mechanism of salt bath nitrocarburized steels, specimens of the steels SAE 4135 and SAE 4140, in a quenched and tempered state, and additionally in a salt bath nitrocarburized and oxidizing cooled state as well as in a polished (after the oxidizing cooling) and renewed oxidized state, were subjected to comparative rotating bending fatigue tests in inert oil and 5 pct NaCl solution. In addition, some of the quenched and tempered specimens of SAE 4135 material were provided with an approximately 50-?m-thick electroless Ni-P layer, in order to compare corrosion fatigue behavior between the Ni-P layer and the nitride layers. Long-life corrosion fatigue tests of SAE 4135 material were carried out under small stresses in the long-life range up to 108 cycles with a test frequency of 100 Hz. Fatigue tests of SAE 4140 material were carried out in the range of finite life (low-cycle range) with a test frequency of 13 Hz. The results show that the 5 pct NaCl environment drastically reduced fatigue life, but nitrocarburizing plus oxidation treatment was found to improve the corrosion fatigue life over that of untreated and Ni-P coated specimens. The beneficial effect of nitrocarburizing followed by oxidation treatment on cor-rosion fatigue life results from the protection rendered by the compound layer by means of a well-sealed oxide layer, whereby the pores present in the compound layer fill up with oxides. The role of inclusions in initiating fatigue cracks was investigated. It was found that under corrosion fatigue conditions, the fatigue cracks started at cavities along the interfaces of MnS inclusions and matrix in the case of quenched and tempered specimens. The nitrocarburized specimens, however, showed a superposition of pitting corrosion and corrosion fatigue in which pores and nonmetallic inclusions in the compound layer play a predominant role concerning the formation of pits in the substrate.

Khani, M. Karim; Dengel, D.

1996-05-01

365

Benthic fluxes of dissolved organic carbon in three temperate Australian estuaries: Implications for global estimates of benthic DOC fluxes  

Science.gov (United States)

Light and dark benthic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fluxes and sediment characteristics (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), TOC isotope ratio (?13C), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentration, and compound-specific ?13C) were measured seasonally in a range of habitats in three warm-temperate Australian estuaries to determine what factors control benthic DOC fluxes. Benthic DOC fluxes were seasonal with the highest rates generally observed during summer. Most habitats displayed uptake of DOC during the dark and efflux during the light, and were a net source of DOC to the overlying waters over the diel cycle. Macrophyte habitats (seagrass and macroalgae) had the highest benthic fluxes of DOC (up to ˜50 mmol C m-2 d-1). Organic matter supply to the sediment was dominated by in situ production, and both quantity and source exerted control over benthic DOC fluxes. DOC flux was tightly coupled to bacteria and algal PLFA concentrations during summer, and algal PLFA concentrations during winter, indicating a strong influence of microbial interactions on benthic DOC flux and a temperature-related decoupling of algae and bacteria under cooler conditions. Estimates of the global estuarine benthic DOC flux indicate that these areas are a significant source of DOC to the ocean (1-41 Tg C yr -1). Inclusion of macrophyte, salt marsh, mangrove, and intertidal benthic DOC flux estimates resulted in a higher global continental margin benthic DOC flux (106-416 Tg C yr -1) than the previous estimate (90 Tg C yr-1).

Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B. D.

2010-12-01

366

Bacterial Diversity in the South Adriatic Sea during a Strong, Deep Winter Convection Year.  

Science.gov (United States)

The South Adriatic Sea is the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea and represents a key area for both the Adriatic Sea and the deep eastern Mediterranean. It has a role in dense water formation for the eastern Mediterranean deep circulation cell, and it represents an entry point for water masses originating from the Ionian Sea. The biodiversity and seasonality of bacterial picoplankton before, during, and after deep winter convection in the oligotrophic South Adriatic waters were assessed by combining comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The picoplankton communities reached their maximum abundance in the spring euphotic zone when the maximum value of the chlorophyll a in response to deep winter convection was recorded. The communities were dominated by Bacteria, while Archaea were a minor constituent. A seasonality of bacterial richness and diversity was observed, with minimum values occurring during the winter convection and spring postconvection periods and maximum values occurring under summer stratified conditions. The SAR11 clade was the main constituent of the bacterial communities and reached the maximum abundance in the euphotic zone in spring after the convection episode. Cyanobacteria were the second most abundant group, and their abundance strongly depended on the convection event, when minimal cyanobacterial abundance was observed. In spring and autumn, the euphotic zone was characterized by Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteroidetes clades NS2b, NS4, and NS5 and the gammaproteobacterial SAR86 clade were detected to co-occur with phytoplankton blooms. The SAR324, SAR202, and SAR406 clades were present in the deep layer, exhibiting different seasonal variations in abundance. Overall, our data demonstrate that the abundances of particular bacterial clades and the overall bacterial richness and diversity are greatly impacted by strong winter convection. PMID:25548042

Korlevi?, M; Pop Ristova, P; Gari?, R; Amann, R; Orli?, S

2015-03-01

367

Seasonal dynamics of wintering waterbirds in two shallow lakes along Yangtze River in Anhui Province.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shallow lake wetlands in the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain are important wintering and stopover habitats for migratory waterbirds on the East Asia-Australia Flyway. With increasing fishery practices in recent years, however, the wetlands have deteriorated significantly and now threaten wintering waterbirds. To gain insight into the influence of deteriorating wetlands on waterbirds, we conducted a survey of wintering waterbird species, population size, and distribution across 11 belt transects in Caizi Lake and Shengjin Lake, two shallow lakes along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province from November 2007-April 2008 and from November 2008-April 2009, respectively. The impacts of different fishery patterns on the distribution of waterbirds were also analyzed. A total of 43 waterbirds species belong to 7 orders of 12 families were counted during the surveys, of which 38 were found in Caizi Lake with a density of 8.2 ind./hm(2), and 42 in Shengjin Lake with a density of 3.5 ind./hm(2). Geese (Anser cygnoides), bean geese (Anser fabalis), tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus), and dunlin (Calidris alpina) were the dominant species in the two shallow lakes. Species number and individual assemble reached maximum at the end of December and in early January of the following year, without coincidence of the largest flock for different ecological groups. Based on waterbird diversity across the 11 belt transects and the fishery patterns, habitats could be divided into three groups. Gruiformes, Anseriformes and Charadriiformes had relatively higher densities in the natural fishery zones and lower densities in the cage fishery zones; whereas, the density of Ardeidae showed little change across all lake zones. It is important to develop sustainable fishery patterns in shallow lakes along the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain to better protect resources of wintering waterbirds. PMID:22006808

Chen, Jin-Yun; Zhou, Li-Zhi; Zhou, Bo; Xu, Ren-Xin; Zhu, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Wen-Bin

2011-10-01

368

An approach to the determination of winter chill requirements for different Ribes cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Winter chilling is critical for flowering and fruiting of many temperate fruits, with evidence that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) cropping has been adversely affected by warm winters. Accurate models of chill accumulation in blackcurrant are required so that breeding strategies can be formulated for the generation of new cultivars with resilience to future climates. Existing models for chill accumulation have largely been derived from statistical correlation; here we report the derivation of improved models for blackcurrant using controlled environment treatments. Hardwood cuttings from a diverse set of cultivars were exposed to constant or varying chilling temperatures and the effects on bud break after transfer to a warm, permissive environment evaluated. The impact of different combinations of temperature and chilling periods were described in terms of their overall 'Effectiveness' (E). Clear genotypic differences were found, with excessive chilling often inhibiting bud break. There was a significant interaction between observed chilling response and the period of low temperature exposure. A number of chilling models to explain observed interactions between chilling temperature and time of exposure on bud break were compared; the most effective involved an optimal response to increasing chill accumulation. The effects of varying temperatures during chilling on bud break were complex, with warm temperature breaks substantially inhibiting bud development and cooler temperature breaks tending to enhance bud burst. The relevance of these models to generic studies of endodormancy is discussed, together with their potential application to the development of phenotyping screens for future breeding using diverse blackcurrant germplasm. PMID:22512943

Jones, H G; Hillis, R M; Gordon, S L; Brennan, R M

2013-01-01

369

Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones  

Science.gov (United States)

This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

2010-01-01

370

Methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes from temperate forest litter  

OpenAIRE

Methyl halide fluxes were measured from fine (nonwoody) litter samples in a temperate deciduous forest site in Scotland on 16 occasions over more than a year and from a coniferous forest site. The resulting mean (+/-1 sd) CH3Br and CH3Cl fluxes were 4.1 +/- 3.7 ng kg-1 h-1 and 0.98 +/- 0.62 µg kg-1 h-1, respectively, for dry mass leaf litter and 5.7 +/- 6.3 ng kg-1 h-1 and 0.47 +/- 0.14 µg kg-1 h-1 for dry mass needle litter. Temporal variations of net fluxes from leaf litter were sig...

Blei, Emanuel; Heal, Mathew R.

2011-01-01

371

Parallel tempering and 3D spin glass models  

Science.gov (United States)

We review parallel tempering schemes and examine their main ingredients for accuracy and efficiency. We discuss two selection methods of temperatures and some alternatives for the exchange of replicas, including all-pair exchange methods. We measure specific heat errors and round-trip efficiency using the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model, and also test the efficiency for the ground state production in 3D spin glass models. We find that the optimization of the GS problem is highly influenced by the choice of the temperature range of the PT process. Finally, we present numerical evidence concerning the universality aspects of an anisotropic case of the 3D spin-glass model.

Papakonstantinou, T.; Malakis, A.

2014-03-01

372

The Fracture Process of Tempered Soda-Lime-Silica Glass  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This work presents experimental observations of the characteristic fracture process of tempered glass. Square specimens with a side length of 300 mm, various thicknesses and a residual stress state characterized by photoelastic measurements were used. Fracture was initiated using a 2.5 mm diamond drill and the fragmentation process was captured using High-Speed digital cameras. From the images, the average speed of the fracture front propagation was determined within an accuracy of 1.0%. Two characteristic fragments were found to form on each side of the initiation point and are named “Whirl-fragments” referring to the way they are generated. An earlier estimation of the in-plane shape of the fracture front is corrected and a hypothesis on the development for the fracture front is offered. The hypothesis is supported by investigations of the fragments using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) which also revealed a micro scale crack bridging effect.

Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

2009-01-01

373

Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This database includes spatial data of Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid distribution (Echinodermata: Echinoidea collected during many oceanographic campaigns led in the Southern Hemisphere from 1872 to 2010. The dataset lists occurrence data of echinoid distribution south of 35°S latitude, together with information on taxonomy (from species to genus level, sampling sources (cruise ID, sampling dates, ship names and sampling sites (geographic coordinates and depth. Echinoid occurrence data were compiled from the Antarctic Echinoid Database (David et al., 2005a, which integrates records from oceanographic cruises led in the Southern Ocean until 2003. This database has been upgraded to take into account data from oceanographic cruises led after 2003. The dataset now reaches a total of 6160 occurrence data that have been checked for systematics reliability and consistency. It constitutes today the most complete database on Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic echinoids.

Benjamin Pierrat

2012-06-01

374

Photosynthesis in submersed macrophytes of a temperate lake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways and levels of carbon-fixing enzymes of four dominant submersed macrophytes of Lawrence Lake, southern Michigan, were investigated during the main growth season (May to November). All four species (Scirpus subterminalis Torr., Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. and Schmidt, Potamogeton praelongus Wulf., and Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx.) were C3 plants based on their patterns of 14C pulse-chase incorporation. High levels of phosphoenolypyruvate carboxylase were also found in these species. These levels, as well as the ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase ratio of the leaves, varied throughout the growing season and exhibited highest values in July. No shift in carbon fixation pathways, however, could be detected from July to October. The possible functions of phosphoenolypyruvate carboxylase in these plants, as well as the significance of C3 metabolism in submersed plants of temperate lakes, are delineated

375

Adaptive Parallel Tempering for Stochastic Maximum Likelihood Learning of RBMs  

CERN Document Server

Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM) have attracted a lot of attention of late, as one the principle building blocks of deep networks. Training RBMs remains problematic however, because of the intractibility of their partition function. The maximum likelihood gradient requires a very robust sampler which can accurately sample from the model despite the loss of ergodicity often incurred during learning. While using Parallel Tempering in the negative phase of Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML-PT) helps address the issue, it imposes a trade-off between computational complexity and high ergodicity, and requires careful hand-tuning of the temperatures. In this paper, we show that this trade-off is unnecessary. The choice of optimal temperatures can be automated by minimizing average return time (a concept first proposed by [Katzgraber et al., 2006]) while chains can be spawned dynamically, as needed, thus minimizing the computational overhead. We show on a synthetic dataset, that this results in better likelihood ...

Desjardins, Guillaume; Bengio, Yoshua

2010-01-01

376

Temperance internationalism: Guy Hayler and the World Prohibition Federation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Prohibition Federation, organized in 1909, and the International Record, published from 1917 to 1968, sought to internationalize the temperance movement by collecting and disseminating anti-drink news from around the globe. The Federation was based in London, and most of its activities were English-speakers. A British reformer named Guy Hayler served as its honorary president for thirty years and edited the "International Record" until his death in 1943. The Federation emphasized that prohibitionists comprised a moral community, united regardless of race, religion, nationality, or politics. Poorly funded, the Federation had difficulty competing with the World League against Alcoholism after the Anti-Saloon League of America organized this rival propaganda society in 1919. PMID:20063495

Fahey, David M

2006-01-01

377

Influence of titanium on the tempering structure of austenitic steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microstructure of titanium-stabilized and initially deformed (approximately 20%) austenitic stainless steels used in structures of fast neutrons reactors has been studied after one hour duration annealings (500 0C) by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, microhardness and transmission electron microscopy. The studied alloys were either of industrial type CND 17-13 (0.23 to 0.45 wt% Ti) or pure steels (18% Cr, 14% Ni, 0 or 0.3 wt% Ti). During tempering, the pure steels presented some restauration before recristallization. In the industrial steels, only recristallization occurred, and this only in the most deformed steel. Precipitation does not occur in the titanium-free pure steel. In industrial steels, many intermetallic phases are formed when recristallization starts

378

Development of reversible temper brittleness in WWER pressure vessel steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Susceptibility was studied to embrittlement due to the development of reversible temper brittleness in steels 15Kh2MFA and ASTM-A543. Steel 15Kh2MFA shows excellent brittleness resistance both after slow cooling from temperatures exceeding 820 K and after subsequent isothermal exposure up to a temperature of 723 K for 10,000 hours. On the other hand, in steel ASTM-A543 in both cases, embrittlement occurs associated with an altered fracture characteristic, ie., from transcrystalline to intercrystalline fracture. After cooling from a temperature exceeding 820 K at a rate of 30 K/h, transient temperature increased by about 100 K and during subsequent exposure to a temperature of 723 K for a duration of 10,000 hrs further increase took place by 200 K higher than in cooling in water. Embrittlement took place especially in the temperature range 720 to 770 K. (J.B.)

379

Enhanced Monte Carlo Sampling through Replica Exchange with Solute Tempering  

Science.gov (United States)

With a view to improving the consistency of free energy perturbation calculations in Monte Carlo simulations of protein–ligand complexes, we have implemented the replica exchange with solute tempering (REST) method in the MCPRO software. By augmenting the standard REST approach with regular attempted jumps in selected dihedral angles, our combined method facilitates sampling of ligand binding modes that are separated by high free energy barriers and ensures that computed free energy changes are considerably less dependent on the starting conditions and the chosen mutation pathway than those calculated with standard Monte Carlo sampling. We have applied the enhanced sampling method to the calculation of the activities of seven non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, and its Tyr181Cys variant, and have shown that a range of binding orientations is possible depending on the nature of the ligand and the presence of mutations at the binding site. PMID:24803853

2015-01-01

380

Scorecard on winter weather forecast  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of the observed temperatures and precipitation for this past winter (maps on left) with predicted temperatures and precipitation (maps on right) shows that the National Weather Service (NWS) temperature prediction was below par, but that the NWS precipitation forecast was ‘quite good,’ according to Don L. Gilman, chief of the NWS long-range forecast branch. The predictions, issued November 29, 1982 (Eos, December 14, 1982, p. 1211), covered December, January, and February.NWS long-range forecasters had thought that frigid Arctic air would swoop far south to bring below-normal temperatures to the western United States. Instead, an east Pacific trough, which may have been the strongest since 1900, brought a strong influx of air from the west, according to Gilman. The intense, low-pressure anomaly in the east Pacific, with the strong westerly winds, teamed with heavy rains south and southwest of Hawaii and warm equatorial Pacific waters to bring warm, wet air to the western United States. The results (see maps): Throughout most of the country, observed temperatures were above normal (A) or normal (N), while observed precipitation was heavy (H) o r normal (no code). Below-normal temperatures (B) occurred only in a portion of the southcentral U.S. and the Florida Keys. Light precipitation (L) fell over two patches in the northern plains, in the Appalachian region, and along the Maine coast.

Richman, Barbara T.

381

The testicular cycle of captive Tupinambis merianae lizards in a temperate environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las poblaciones de Tupinambis merianae, que habitan las regiones templadas y subtropicales, muestran un comportamiento marcadamente estacional con períodos equivalentes de actividad e hibernación. Correspondientemente, la reproducción en estos lagartos es un fenómeno cíclico caracterizado por una corta actividad sexual primaveral. Este trabajo examina los cambios testiculares que ocurren durante el ciclo reproductivo de especímenes de Tupinambis merianae criados en un ambiente templado. Evalúa la participación de la porción renal sexual como glándula sexual secundaria. En otoño e invierno, el testículo exhibe una gametogénesis discontinua. La espermatocitogénesis ocurre en otoño dando lugar a una espermiogénesis precoz abortiva, que concluye en los meses fríos. En la primavera temprana, la gónada reinicia su actividad espermiogénica alcanzando prontamente un pico de máximo crecimiento y abundante producción de esperma. El clímax testicular ocurre brevemente después de la hibernación y coincide con un período de cópulas de alrededor de un mes (octubre. En ese período, el epidídimo considerablemente dilatado se encuentra revestido por un epitelio cilíndrico y contiene grandes masas de esperma. Simultáneamente, la porción sexual de los túbulos renales exhibe células columnares hipertróficas cargadas de grandes gránulos citoplasmáticos PAS (+. Pronto la actividad reproductiva cesa y da lugar a una fase de involución gonadal, que se extiende a través del resto de la primavera y verano (noviembre-febrero, indicando la existencia de un único evento reproductivo al ario. Las observaciones se discuten en relación con los factores climáticos y las características biológicas del grupo. Tupinambis merianae populations living in temperate and subtropical regions show a distinctly seasonal behaviour, with equivalent periods of activity and hibernation. Correspondingly, reproduction in these lizards is a cyclic phenomenon, characterized by a short spring sexual activity. This work examines the testicular changes that occur during the reproductive cycle of Tupinambis merianae specimens raised in a temperate environment. The involvement of the kidney sexual portion as a secondary sexual gland is also considered. In autumn and winter, the testicle exhibits a discontinuous gametogenesis. Spermacytogenesis takes place in autumn, giving rise to a precocious abortive spermiogenesis which concludes at cool months. At early spring, the gonad restarts its spermiogenetic activity attaining promptly a peak of maximal growth and abundant sperm production. The testicular climax occurs shortly after hibernation and coincides with a mating period of about a month (October. At that period, the quite enlarged epididymis is lined with a cylindrical epithelium and contains large sperm masses. Simultaneously, the sexual portions of kidney tubules display hypertrophic columnar cells filled with large PAS (+ cytoplasmic granules. Soon, the reproductive activity ceases and makes way for a phase of gonadal involution which extends through the rest of spring and summer (November-February, indicating the existence of a single reproductive event per year. The observations are discussed in connection with climate factors and biological features of the group.

Noriega, Teresa

2002-08-01

382

Efeito do revenido na resistência à corrosão dos aços inoxidáveis supermartensíticos / Effect of tempering on the corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os aços inoxidáveis supermartensíticos são utilizados nas indústrias de petróleo e gás, pois aliam boas propriedades mecânicas, soldabilidade e excelente resistência à corrosão. Eles são endurecidos pelo tratamento térmico de têmpera e, para otimizar suas propriedades mecânicas, são submetidos ao re [...] venimento. Durante o revenimento, ocorre precipitação de fases, que, dependendo dos parâmetros temperatura e tempo, induz alterações indesejadas nas propriedades desses aços. Nesse trabalho, o objetivo foi estudar a microestrutura e a resistência à corrosão de um aço inoxidável supermartensítico em diferentes condições de revenido (550°C, 600°C e 650°C). Observou-se, na microestrutura da amostra revenida a 650°C, a formação de austenita e precipitados de cromo do tipo Cr3C2 e Cr7C3. As curvas de polarização indicaram que o tratamento térmico influencia o comportamento anódico, modificando a região passiva e as características do filme passivo. O revenido altera a resistência à corrosão, com o grau de sensitização diminuindo com o aumento de temperatura de 550°C para 650°C, devido à recuperação das zonas empobrecidas de cromo. Abstract in english Supermartensitic stainless steels have been used in the oil and gas industry for onshore and offshore tubing applications, due to their good mechanical properties, weldability and excellent corrosion resistance. They are hardened by quenching heat treatment, and to improve their toughness, are submi [...] tted to tempering. During the tempering, some phase precipitation occurs, which depending on the time and temperature parameters, produces some undesired changes in the steel properties. The aim of this research was to study the microstructure and the corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel in quenched and different tempered conditions (550°C, 600°C and 650°C). At the microstructure of the 650°C tempered sample was observed the formation of austenite and precipitates of chromium, like Cr3C2 and Cr7C3.The polarization curves indicated that the heat treatment influences the anodic behavior, changing the passive region and the passive film characteristics. The tempering changes the corrosion resistance, decreasing the degree of sensitization when increasing the temperature from 550°C to 650°C, this occurs due to the recovery of the chromium impoverished zones.

Ana Paula Ciscato, Camillo; Carlos Alberto Della, Rovere; José Mario de, Aquino; Sebastião Elias, Kuri.

2010-03-01

383

Efeito do revenido na resistência à corrosão dos aços inoxidáveis supermartensíticos Effect of tempering on the corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os aços inoxidáveis supermartensíticos são utilizados nas indústrias de petróleo e gás, pois aliam boas propriedades mecânicas, soldabilidade e excelente resistência à corrosão. Eles são endurecidos pelo tratamento térmico de têmpera e, para otimizar suas propriedades mecânicas, são submetidos ao revenimento. Durante o revenimento, ocorre precipitação de fases, que, dependendo dos parâmetros temperatura e tempo, induz alterações indesejadas nas propriedades desses aços. Nesse trabalho, o objetivo foi estudar a microestrutura e a resistência à corrosão de um aço inoxidável supermartensítico em diferentes condições de revenido (550°C, 600°C e 650°C. Observou-se, na microestrutura da amostra revenida a 650°C, a formação de austenita e precipitados de cromo do tipo Cr3C2 e Cr7C3. As curvas de polarização indicaram que o tratamento térmico influencia o comportamento anódico, modificando a região passiva e as características do filme passivo. O revenido altera a resistência à corrosão, com o grau de sensitização diminuindo com o aumento de temperatura de 550°C para 650°C, devido à recuperação das zonas empobrecidas de cromo.Supermartensitic stainless steels have been used in the oil and gas industry for onshore and offshore tubing applications, due to their good mechanical properties, weldability and excellent corrosion resistance. They are hardened by quenching heat treatment, and to improve their toughness, are submitted to tempering. During the tempering, some phase precipitation occurs, which depending on the time and temperature parameters, produces some undesired changes in the steel properties. The aim of this research was to study the microstructure and the corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel in quenched and different tempered conditions (550°C, 600°C and 650°C. At the microstructure of the 650°C tempered sample was observed the formation of austenite and precipitates of chromium, like Cr3C2 and Cr7C3.The polarization curves indicated that the heat treatment influences the anodic behavior, changing the passive region and the passive film characteristics. The tempering changes the corrosion resistance, decreasing the degree of sensitization when increasing the temperature from 550°C to 650°C, this occurs due to the recovery of the chromium impoverished zones.

Ana Paula Ciscato Camillo

2010-03-01

384

Influence of tempering on mechanical properties of ferritic martensitic steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the mid-1980s research programs for development of low activation materials began. This is based on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guidelines (10CFR part 61) that were developed to reduce long-lived radioactive isotopes, which allows nuclear reactor waste to be disposed of by shallow land burial when removed from service. Development of low activation materials is also key issue in nuclear fusion systems, as the structural components can became radioactive due to nuclear transmutation caused by exposure to high dose neutron irradiation. Reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels have been developed in the leading countries in nuclear fusion technology, and are now being considered as primary candidate material for the test blanket module (TBM) in the international thermonuclear experiment reactor (ITER). RAFM steels developed so far (e.g., EUROFER 97 and F82H) meet the requirement for structural application in the ITER. However, if such alloys are used in the DEMO or commercial fusion reactor is still unclear, as the reactors are designed to operate under much severe conditions (i.e., higher outlet coolant temperature and neutron fluences). Such harsh operating conditions lead to development of RAFM steels with better creep and irradiation resistances. Mechanical properties of RAFM steels are strongly affected by microstructural features including the distribution, size and type of precipitates, dislocation density and grain size. For a given composition, such microstructural characteristics are determined mainly by thermo-mechanical process employed to fabricate the final product, and accordingly a final heat treatment, i.e., tempering is the key step to control the microstructure and mechanical properties. In the present work, we investigated mechanical properties of the RAFM steels with a particular attention being paid to effects of tempering on impact and creep properties.

Chun, Y. B.; Han, C. H.; Choi, B. K.; Lee, D. W.; Kim, T. K.; Jeong, Y. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

385

Influence of tempering on mechanical properties of ferritic martensitic steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the mid-1980s research programs for development of low activation materials began. This is based on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Guidelines (10CFR part 61) that were developed to reduce long-lived radioactive isotopes, which allows nuclear reactor waste to be disposed of by shallow land burial when removed from service. Development of low activation materials is also key issue in nuclear fusion systems, as the structural components can became radioactive due to nuclear transmutation caused by exposure to high dose neutron irradiation. Reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels have been developed in the leading countries in nuclear fusion technology, and are now being considered as primary candidate material for the test blanket module (TBM) in the international thermonuclear experiment reactor (ITER). RAFM steels developed so far (e.g., EUROFER 97 and F82H) meet the requirement for structural application in the ITER. However, if such alloys are used in the DEMO or commercial fusion reactor is still unclear, as the reactors are designed to operate under much severe conditions (i.e., higher outlet coolant temperature and neutron fluences). Such harsh operating conditions lead to development of RAFM steels with better creep and irradiation resistances. Mechanical properties of RAFM steels are strongly affected by microstructural features including the distribution, size and type of precipitates, dislocation density and grain size. For a given compo density and grain size. For a given composition, such microstructural characteristics are determined mainly by thermo-mechanical process employed to fabricate the final product, and accordingly a final heat treatment, i.e., tempering is the key step to control the microstructure and mechanical properties. In the present work, we investigated mechanical properties of the RAFM steels with a particular attention being paid to effects of tempering on impact and creep properties

386

The Exxon Valdez winter monitoring program results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that Eighteen stations in Prince William Sound have been monitored on a monthly basis as part of the winter studies program developed by NOAA for scientific support at the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The objectives of the winter monitoring program were to: determine the persistence of oil at stations representative of the various shoreline types, degrees of exposure, extent of oiling, and treatment received during the summer of 1989; track the winter storm activity through the deployment of meteorological stations in the Sound; monitor the beach morphology changes and correlate them with winter storm intensity; quantify the oil changes at the stations and estimate the amount of oil remaining on the shoreline as of spring 1990; and characterize the weathering trends in chemical composition of the residual oil in both surface and subsurface sediments, for determination of treatability requirements and toxicity/bioavailability of oil remaining on the shoreline in 1990

387

Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 15, ?. 1 (2012), s. 19-26. ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovi?, P.; Pecho, Jozef

2012-01-01

388

Exploring the severe winter haze in Beijing  

OpenAIRE

Extreme haze episodes repeatedly shrouded Beijing during the winter of 2012–2013, causing major environmental and health problems. To better understand these extreme events, we analyzed the hourly observation data of PM2.5 and its major chemical composition, with support of model simulations. Severe winter haze was shown to result from stable synoptic meteorological conditions over a large part of northeastern China, rather than from an abrupt increase in ...

Zheng, G. J.; Duan, F. K.; Ma, Y. L.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; Huang, T.; Kimoto, T.; Chang, D.; Su, H.; Po?schl, U.; Cheng, Y. F.; He, K. B.

2014-01-01

389

Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.  

OpenAIRE

This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the inhalation of particles. A summary of the assessment of air quality and the results of epidemiological research is presented. Some policy questions are answered as far as possible at this stage of...

Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, S.

1994-01-01

390

Numerical simulation of a winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes the cause of rare occurrence of winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00-18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options, hail or graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. On evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that hail option shows similar precipitation intensity with TRMM observation than the graupel option and is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model simulated output with hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached upto the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of WD. Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

Chevuturi, A.; Dimri, A. P.; Gunturu, U. B.

2014-09-01

391

Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes the cause of the rare occurrence of a winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, a recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00-18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with a comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. Upon evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that the hail option shows a more similar precipitation intensity with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observation than the graupel option does, and it is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model-simulated output with the hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on a numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached up to the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of a western disturbance (WD). Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

Chevuturi, A.; Dimri, A. P.; Gunturu, U. B.

2014-12-01

392

Numerical simulation of a rare winter hailstorm event over Delhi, India on 17 January 2013  

KAUST Repository

This study analyzes the cause of the rare occurrence of a winter hailstorm over New Delhi/NCR (National Capital Region), India. The absence of increased surface temperature or low level of moisture incursion during winter cannot generate the deep convection required for sustaining a hailstorm. Consequently, NCR shows very few cases of hailstorms in the months of December-January-February, making the winter hail formation a question of interest. For this study, a recent winter hailstorm event on 17 January 2013 (16:00–18:00 UTC) occurring over NCR is investigated. The storm is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) microphysics scheme with two different options: hail and graupel. The aim of the study is to understand and describe the cause of hailstorm event during over NCR with a comparative analysis of the two options of GCE microphysics. Upon evaluating the model simulations, it is observed that the hail option shows a more similar precipitation intensity with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observation than the graupel option does, and it is able to simulate hail precipitation. Using the model-simulated output with the hail option; detailed investigation on understanding the dynamics of hailstorm is performed. The analysis based on a numerical simulation suggests that the deep instability in the atmospheric column led to the formation of hailstones as the cloud formation reached up to the glaciated zone promoting ice nucleation. In winters, such instability conditions rarely form due to low level available potential energy and moisture incursion along with upper level baroclinic instability due to the presence of a western disturbance (WD). Such rare positioning is found to be lowering the tropopause with increased temperature gradient, leading to winter hailstorm formation.

Chevuturi, A.

2014-12-19

393

The effect of carbide precipitate morphology on fracture toughness in low-tempered steels containing Ni.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel is known to increase the resistance to cleavage fracture of iron and decrease a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. The medium-carbon, low-alloy martensitic steels attain the best combination of properties in low-tempered condition, with tempered martensite, retained austenite and transition carbides in the microstructure. This paper is focused on the influence of Ni addition (from 0.35 to 4.00%) on the microstructure and fracture toughness of structural steels after tempering. In this research, four model alloys of different concentration of Ni and constant concentration of carbon and other elements were used. All samples were in as-quenched and tempered conditions. Quenching was performed in oil at room temperature. After quenching, samples were tempered at 200 degrees C for 2 h. The microstructure of the investigated steels was analyzed using JEM200CX transmission electron microscope. An increase of nickel content in the investigated structural steels causes a decrease of epsilon carbide concentration in their microstructure after tempering. In these steels, cementite precipitates independently in the boundaries of martensite needles and in the twin boundaries in the areas where the Fe(2.4)C carbide has been dissolved. These results will be used to design new technologies of tempering of structural steels with nickel addition. PMID:20500408

Krawczyk, J; Ba?a, P; Pacyna, J

2010-03-01

394

Determination of the optimal tempering temperature in hard facing of the forging dies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here is analyzed selection of the optimal technology for heat treatment during the reparation of the damaged forging dies. Those tools are manufactured from alloyed tool steels for operation at elevated temperatures. Those steels are prone to self-hardening, so in reparatory hard-facing they must be preheated, additionally heated and tempered. During the tempering, in temperature interval 500-600°C, a secondary increase of hardness and decrease of impact toughness occurs, the so-called reversible tempering brittleness. Here is shown that it can be avoided by application of metallurgical and technological measures. Metallurgical measures assume adequate selection of steels. Since the considered steels are per se prone to tempering brittleness, we conducted experimental investigations to define the technological measures to avoid it. Tests on models were conducted: tempering from different temperatures, slow heating and cooling in still air. Hardness measurements showed that at 520°C, the secondary increase of hardness occurs, with drop of the impact toughness. Additional hard-facing tests included samples tempered at various regimes. Samples were prepared for mechanical and metallographic investigations. Results presented illustrate influence of additional heat treatment on structure, hardness and mechanical properties of the hard-faced layers. This enabled establishing the possibility of avoiding the tempering brittleness through technological measures. 

Milan Mutavdži?

2012-05-01

395

DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL TEMPERING TEMPERATURE IN HARD FACING OF THE FORGING DIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here is analyzed selection of the optimal technology for heat treatment during the reparation of the damaged forging dies. Those tools are manufactured from alloyed tool steels for operation at elevated temperatures. Those steels are prone to self-hardening, so in reparatory hard-facing they must be preheated, additionally heated and tempered. During the tempering, in temperature interval 500-600°C, a secondary increase of hardness and decrease of impact toughness occurs, the so-called reversible tempering brittleness. Here is shown that it can be avoided by application of metallu