WorldWideScience
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76 FR 64343 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Science.gov (United States)

...Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...under the Natural Gas Act for authorization...abandon certain natural gas transmission facilities...end and abandon the pipeline in-place and asserts that the abandonment of the pipeline...

2011-10-18

2

76 FR 31957 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Science.gov (United States)

...Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice...Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and...operation and abandonment of natural gas storage facilities...the interstate pipeline facilities...

2011-06-02

3

Proceedings of the 13. Williston Basin petroleum conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and technologies that have resulted in more efficient oil drilling and production methods in the Williston Basin, which plays a significant role in the economies of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, North and South Dakota and Montana. Various enhanced recovery methods were discussed, as well as new surveying techniques. Well construction, new technologies in injection, swelling packer and artificial lift systems were reviewed. Various fracturing options were examined. Updates on oil and gas activities were presented, along with new policies and legislation aimed at increasing productivity in the oil and gas industry. Thirty-nine papers were presented at this conference, 17 of which have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. (author)

4

Improved recovery demonstration for Williston Basin carbonates. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, and methods for improved completion efficiency. The investigations and demonstrations were focussed on Red River and Ratcliffe reservoirs in the Williston Basin within portions of Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Both of these formations have been successfully explored with conventional 2-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) seismic was investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterizations were integrated with geological and engineering studies. The project tested lateral completion techniques, including high-pressure jetting lance technology and short-radius lateral drilling to enhance completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary oil where low permeability is a problem and higher-density drilling of vertical infill wells is limited by drilling cost. New vertical wells were drilled to test bypassed oil in ares that were identified by 3D seismic. These new wells are expected to recover as much or greater oil than was produced by nearby old wells. The project tested water injection through vertical and horizontal wells in reservoirs where application of waterflooding has been limited. A horizontal well was drilled for testing water injection. Injection rates were tested at three times that of a vertical well. This demonstration well shows that water injection with horizontal completions can improve injection rates for economic waterflooding. This report is divided into two sections, part 1 covers the Red River and part 2 covers the Ratcliffe. Each part summarizes integrated reservoir characterizations and outlines methods for targeting by-passed oil reserves in the respective formation and locality.

Sippel, M.A.

1998-07-01

5

76 FR 5586 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Science.gov (United States)

...measurement facilities at its Baker Storage Reservoir. Williston Basin also adds two natural...gas-fueled unit, rated at 1,680 hp, at the Sandstone Creek Compressor Station. The proposed...the deliverability of the Baker Storage Reservoir by 35,000 Mcf/day and provide...

2011-02-01

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The geological storage of spent nuclear fuel and depleted uranium beneath the Williston Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to prevent or retard the leakage of buried nuclear material into the surrounding rocks, regulatory agencies in Canada and the United States are recommending that spent nuclear fuel eventually be stored in suitable geological repositories with highly-engineered barriers. This presentation discussed the development of a repository somewhere in the Precambrian Shield beneath the Williston Basin in Canada, as well as a repository that was under construction at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in the United States. Potential storage sites in Canada were provided in an illustration and a figure of the proposed repository development was provided. Other illustrations included a light-water fuel rod and assembly as well as storage containers and drip shield. It was shown that in order to prevent potential migration, it would be highly beneficial if a repository were located where the groundwater surrounding the repository was not vertically mobile. A map of the Williston Basin boundary and a fluid-flow model and alternate model through the Williston Basin were also presented. The primary benefits of developing a deep geological repository were presented. These included a favourable hydrogeological regime which would likely isolate and contain the eventual release of any radioactive material. Other benefits that were discussed included minimal disturbance to the geological media during development; elimination of most underground-related mining construction; and, radiation safety issues. tabs., figs.

Brunskill, B. [Helix Geological Consultants, Regina, SK (Canada)

2007-07-01

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Review of Oil Families and their Petroleum Systems of the Williston Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The petroleum system concept was first applied in 1974 (Dow/Williams) to identify three oil systems in the Williston Basin, and recent studies have expanded the number to at least nine. This paper reviews the petroleum geochemistry, oil-oil, and oil-source correlations of the oil systems of the Williston Basin, providing a new perspective and some new findings. Petroleum systems with a known source (documented oil-source correlation) include the Red River (Ordovician), Winnipegosis (Devonian), Bakken (Devonian-Mississippian), Madison (Mississippian), and Tyler (Pennsylvanian) systems. Petroleum systems with an identified source rock but no documented oil-source correlation are considered hypothetical and include the Winnipeg (Ordovician), Duperow (Devonian), and Birdbear (Devonian). The Deadwood (Cambrian-Ordovician) petroleum system is speculative because a good oil-prone source rock has not been identified. The stratigraphic distribution of the oil families from each system is generally limited to the same formation from which they were sourced due to efficient seals and a paucity of vertical migration pathways, but some notable exceptions do occur. Oil bulk properties such as API gravity, sulfur content, and pour point are much underutilized in the recent geochemical literature and are found to be useful here in differentiating oil families. The Red River petroleum system has two oil families that can be differentiated based on pour point. The oils in the Madison petroleum system can be divided into two families based on API gravity-sulfur content relationships, with one family derived from Type II-S kerogen and the other family derived from Type II kerogen with medium sulfur content. The Tyler petroleum system of the Williston Basin may be distinguished from the Heath-Tyler petroleum system in central Montana based on differences in geology and petroleum geochemistry, with Tyler petroleum system oils having a higher pour point and lower sulfur content.

Lillis, Paul G.

2013-01-01

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Proceedings of the 15. Williston Basin petroleum conference and prospect expo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Williston Basin plays an important role in the economies of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana. This conference provided an opportunity to exchange research results and emerging technologies that have resulted in more efficient oil drilling and production methods in the basin. Various enhanced recovery methods were discussed along with new surveying techniques. The presentations reviewed well construction techniques, innovative well injection methods and swelling packer and artificial lift systems. In addition, a range of fracturing options were examined and updates on oil and gas activities were presented, along with new policies and legislation aimed at increasing productivity in the oil and gas industry. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 7 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

NONE

2007-07-01

9

Risk assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources from energy development in glacial drift deposits: Williston Basin, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination to aquatic resources from co-produced water (brine) associated with energy development has been documented in the northeastern portion of the Williston Basin; an area mantled by glacial drift. The presence and magnitude of brine contamination can be determined using the contamination index (CI) value from water samples. Recently, the U.S. Geological Survey published a section (~2.59 km(2)) level risk assessment of brine contamination to aquatic resources for Sheridan County, Montana, using oilfield and hydrogeological parameters. Our goal was to improve the Sheridan County assessment (SCA) and evaluate the use of this new Williston Basin assessment (WBA) across 31 counties mantled by glacial drift in the Williston Basin. To determine if the WBA model improved the SCA model, results from both assessments were compared to CI values from 37 surface and groundwater samples collected to evaluate the SCA. The WBA (R(2)=0.65) outperformed the SCA (R(2)=0.52) indicating improved model performance. Applicability across the Williston Basin was evaluated by comparing WBA results to CI values from 123 surface water samples collected from 97 sections. Based on the WBA, the majority (83.5%) of sections lacked an oil well and had minimal risk. Sections with one or more oil wells comprised low (8.4%), moderate (6.5%), or high (1.7%) risk areas. The percentage of contaminated water samples, percentage of sections with at least one contaminated sample, and the average CI value of contaminated samples increased from low to high risk indicating applicability across the Williston Basin. Furthermore, the WBA performed better compared to only the contaminated samples (R(2)=0.62) versus all samples (R(2)=0.38). This demonstrates that the WBA was successful at identifying sections, but not individual aquatic resources, with an increased risk of contamination; therefore, WBA results can prioritize future sampling within areas of increased risk. PMID:25468531

Preston, Todd M; Chesley-Preston, Tara L

2015-03-01

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Improved recovery demonstration for Williston basin carbonates. Annual report, June 10, 1994--June 9, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate targeted infill and extension drilling opportunities, better determinations of oil-in-place, methods for improved completion efficiency and the suitability of waterflooding in Red River and Ratcliffe shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Williston Basin, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing three-dimensional and multi-component seismic are being investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Improved completion efficiency is being tested with extended-reach jetting lance and other ultra-short-radius lateral technologies. Improved completion efficiency, additional wells at closer spacing and better estimates of oil in place will result in additional oil recovery by primary and enhanced recovery processes.

Sippel, M.; Zinke, S.; Magruder, G.; Eby, D.

1995-09-01

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Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

Chu, Min H.

1991-09-10

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Apatite fission-track dating of two crater structures in the Canadian Williston Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The High Rock Lake and Lake St. Martin structures, on the northeastern flank of the Williston Basin in Manitoba, are circular craters commonly thought to be astroblemes. Apatite fission-track (FT) ages from basement rocks in the two structures are markedly younger than those previously derived in the region. Constraints from regional geohistory combined with forward modelling of apatite FT data indicate the following: 1. At High Rock Lake, apatites in a weakly foliated granite and a brecciated and metasomatised granite from the uplifted southwestern crater rim, were totally, or nearly totally, annealed in the range of ?435 ± 10 Ma. This range is interpreted as dating the time of cratering and is in excellent agreement with stratigraphic evidence which constrains the event as Late Ordovician to Mid-Silurian; 2. At Lake St. Martin, apatite from the central basement uplift was totally annealed in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic time in the range ?208 ± 14 Ma. This range is concordant with a previous Rb/Sr isotope estimate of 219 ± 32 Ma for the impact event. The crater rim at Lake St. Martin records an older apatite FT age which is attributed to the partial annealing effect (temperatures of ?125-130 deg C) from the same impact event; and 3. The resetting of apatite FT clocks within the basement rocks by two discrete Phanerozoic cratering events provides a unique opportunity to study the post cratering thermal history of the region. At High Rock Lake and Lake St. MaAt High Rock Lake and Lake St. Martin samples achieved maximum paleotemperatures (?60-70 deg C) during the Eocene. This temperature range is in good agreement with data independently attained from organic maturity indicators elsewhere in the northeastern Williston Basin area. (author). 44 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

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Paleohydrogeology of the Cretaceous sediments of the Williston Basin using stable isotopes of water  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydraulic and isotopic data collected from aquifers are routinely used to characterize hydrogeological conditions within sedimentary basins, but similar data from confining units are generally not collected despite their ability to provide insights on important water/solute transport controls. We characterized paleogroundwater flow and solute transport mechanisms across 384 m of Cretaceous shale (aquitard) in the Williston Basin, Canada, using high-resolution depth profiles of water isotopes (?18O, ?2H). Water samples were also collected from wells installed in the underlying regional sandy aquifer (Mannville Fm; 93 m thick) and from seepage inflows into potash mine shafts (to 825 m below ground). The 1-D numerical transport modeling of ?18O profiles provided insight into large-scale/long-term solute transport in both Cretaceous sediments and the basin. Despite the potential for significant advective migration during glaciations, molecular diffusion appears to be the dominant solute transport mechanism through the aquitard. Simulations suggest average vertical groundwater velocities of <0.05 m/10 ka and an average excess hydraulic head of <10 m; these values are much less than anticipated by successive glaciations. The dominant paleoevent reflected in present-day profiles is introduction during the Pleistocene of glaciogenic meteoric water to the aquifer underlying the shale, likely along an aquifer outcrop area east of the site or through local vertical conduits. Simulations suggest these recharge events occurred during one or more glacial periods. The isotopic profile over the upper 25 m of Pleistocene till and shale is consistent with glacial deposition and transport processes within these units over the Holocene (past 10 ka).

Hendry, M. Jim; Barbour, S. L.; Novakowski, K.; Wassenaar, L. I.

2013-08-01

14

Fingerprinting formation waters using stable isotopes : applications to petroleum exploration and production in the Williston Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of water chemical techniques have historically been used to determine if the fluid recovered during well-testing is pure formation water or contaminated with drilling fluid. However, standard chemical fingerprinting techniques can be problematic or ambiguous, and therefore, a new fingerprinting technique using stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen and strontium and the trace element bromine in formation waters has been developed that overcomes many of the problems associated with previous methods. This presentation discussed this new fingerprinting technique. The presentation provided an introduction to stable isotopes; a discussion of measurement and nomenclature of isotopes; and, information on industry applications and fingerprinting methodology. Water fingerprinting examples from the Williston Basin were also presented along with case studies of the Lignite Field in North Dakota and the Pinto Field in Saskatchewan. The presentation also addressed some of the most common sampling and analytical problems and pitfalls. It was concluded that stable isotopes are reliable natural tracers, without requiring injection and without danger of radioactive contamination. tabs., figs.

Arkadakskiy, S.V.; Rostron, B.J. [Isobrine Solutions Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Jensen, G.K. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

15

Re-Evaluating Geothermal Potential with GIS Methods and New Data: Williston Basin, North Dakota  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of North Dakota Geothermal Laboratory is working on the National Geothermal Data Aggregation project in conjunction with Southern Methodist University (SMU) and other partners, and funded by the Department of Energy to collect data for exploration and utilization of resources for geothermal power production. We have examined 10,951 wells in the Williston Basin to determine accurate methods for estimating power extraction potential in a sedimentary basin. The calculations we used involved defining the area of wells within designated ranges and calculating the geothermal fluid reservoir volume using porosity data from the North Dakota Geological Survey Wilson M. Laird Core Library. We defined the parameters for our calculations as: bottom-hole temperature (BHT), formation thickness data, surface area of the polygon around wells within the temperature range, and porosity data. The wells in each formation with a BHT over 90°C were imported into ArcGIS, buffered to 1.6 kilometers from centroid, and outlined with a polygon feature to define the surface area. We then included average formation thickness to determine an approximate volume for ten water and rock reservoirs. In calculating this available energy the following three assumptions were made; that 1/1000 of the water volume is available to use per year, that the temperature is lowered to 50°C during electrical power production, and that the efficiency of the binary power plant utilized is 14%. The estimated recoverable energy in the volume of rock containing geothermal fluids by temperature range is as follows: 1.32 x 108 MW for 90°-100° C, 1.92 x 108 MW for 100°-110° C, 2.15 x 108 MW for 110°-120° C, 2.4 x 108 MW for 120°-130° C, 1.4 x 108 MW for 130°-140° C, 4.95 x 107 MW for 140°-150° C, and 3.67 x 107 MW for 150° C and up.

Crowell, A. M.; Gosnold, W. D.; UND Geothermal Laboratory

2011-12-01

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Long-term solute transport through thick Cretaceous shale in the Williston Basin Canada using naturally-occurring tracer profiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in abstract form only. The hydrogeologic evolution of sedimentary basins is generally determined from hydraulic and chemical data collected from aquifers. Hydraulic and chemical data from aquitards, which constitute a much greater volume of basins than aquifers and provide important controls on water and solute transport in the basins, are generally not collected nor studied. In this study we characterized the paleo-groundwater flow and solute transport controls through a vertical section of Cretaceous sediments in the Williston Basin, Canada located near Esterhazy, Saskatchewan. It consists of 384 m of thick argillaceous sediment (aquitard) overlying 93 m of heterogeneous calcareous silt, shale and sandstone (Mannville Fm.; aquifer). Paleo-hydrologic conditions were determined by interpreting high-resolution depth profiles of natural tracers of water isotopes (?18O and (?2H) and Cl- measured on (1) continuous core samples through the aquitard, upper aquifer, and thin Quaternary sediments, (2) water samples collected from monitoring wells installed in the aquifer and the Quaternary sediments, and (3) water samples collected from mine shaft inflows to 900 m below ground. 1D numerical transport modeling reproduced the measured profiles and yielded valuable information on the large-scale and long-term transport behavior in both the Cretaceous aquitard and the Basin. In the modeling, the shapes of the tracer profiles was explaineapes of the tracer profiles was explained by diffusion with paleo-events identified from the modeling including the introduction of fresher water into the aquifer possibly from the onset of glaciation (activation of the lower boundary) about 1 Ma ago and the impact of the most recent deglaciation about 10 ka ago (activation of the upper boundary). These findings show that the hydrogeologic conditions in deep, extensive basins, such as the Williston Basin, cannot be assumed to be static over geologic time. (authors)

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Reservoir characterization of the Mississippian Ratcliffe, Richland County, Montana, Williston Basin. Topical report, September 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Mississippian Ratcliffe in portions of Richland County, MT. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity and methods for improved recovery. The report covers investigations of geology, petrography, reservoir engineering and seismic. The Ratcliffe is a low permeability oil reservoir which appears to be developed across much of the study area and occurs across much of the Williston Basin. The reservoir has not been a primary drilling target in the study area because average reserves have been insufficient to payout the cost of drilling and completion despite the application of hydraulic fracture stimulation. Oil trapping does not appear to be structurally controlled. For the Ratcliffe to be a viable drilling objective, methods need to be developed for (1) targeting better reservoir development and (2) better completions. A geological model is presented for targeting areas with greater potential for commercial reserves in the Ratcliffe. This model can be best utilized with the aid of 3D seismic. A 3D seismic survey was acquired and is used to demonstrate a methodology for targeting the Ratcliffe. Other data obtained during the project include oriented core, special formation-imaging log, pressure transient measurements and oil PVT. Although re-entry horizontal drilling was unsuccessfully tested, this completion technology should improve the economic viability of the Ratcliffe. Reservoir simulation of horizontal completions with productivity of three times that of a vertical well suggested two or three horizontal wells in a 258-ha (640-acre) area could recover sufficient reserves for profitable drilling.

Sippel, M.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.

1998-07-01

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Magnesium and calcium isotope study of limestone and dolomite in Middle and Upper Ordivician strata of the Williston Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Using Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) isotopes, we investigate a complex, discontinuous, pattern of subsurface dolomitization including intervening beds of limestone through the Upper Yeoman and Lower Herald Formations within the Williston Basin, cored near the town of Midale in southeastern Saskatchewan. The character of the stratigraphic sequence suggests paleoaquifers as an explanation of the partially dolomitized units. Previous work has demonstrated a large range of fractionation with ? 44/40Ca between the precursor limestone value (inferred from mixing calculations) and the dolomite value within the Yeoman Formation, suggesting that Ca isotope values could be used to identify sources of dolomitizing fluids. ? 26Mg in conjunction with ? 44/40Ca may be used to better constrain the source of these Mg-rich fluids. Preliminary data reveal a range in limestone ? 26Mg values from -2.77±0.05 to -2.86±0.07permil with a mean value of -2.81permil. Dolomite ? 26Mg values range from -1.31±0.07 to -1.64±0.06permil with a mean value of -1.48permil. Measured dolomite Mg isotope values are consistent with reported dolomite values from a Mississippian aged carbonate aquifer [Jacobson et al., 2010]. Measured limestone Mg isotope values are analogous to modern day values reported in the literature [Wombacher et al., 2011], although modern limestones exhibit a much wider array of fractionation than dolomites. Further analyses of dolomite samples from younger stratigraphic levels within the Williston Basin sequence are being conducted in order to determine the extent of Mg isotope variability. Jacobson, A.D., Zhang, Z., Lundstrom, C., Huang, F. (2010) Behavior of Mg isotopes during dedolomitization in the Madison Aquifer, South Dakota, EPSL 297, 446-452. Wombacher, F., Eisenhauer, A., Boehm, F., Gussone, N., Regenberg, M., Dullo, W. -Chr., Rueggeberg, A. (in press) Magnesium stable isotope fractionation in marine biogenic calcite and aragonite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2011.07.017

Worsham, S. R.; Holmden, C. E.

2011-12-01

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Comparing vertical profiles of natural tracers in the Williston Basin to estimate the onset of deep aquifer activation  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparing high-resolution depth profiles of different naturally occurring environmental tracers in aquitards should yield consistent and perhaps complementary information about solute transport mechanisms and the timing of major hydrogeological and climatological events. This study evaluated whether deep, continuous profiles of aquitard pore water chloride concentration could provide further insight into the paleohydrology of the Williston Basin, Canada, than possible using high-resolution depth profiles of stable H/O isotopes of water (?18O, ?2H). Pore water samples were obtained from extracts of cores taken over 392 m of the thick Cretaceous shale aquitard. Water samples were also collected from wells installed in the underlying regional sandy aquifer (Mannville Group; 93 m thick) and from seepage inflows into potash mine shafts (to 825 m below ground). Numerical modeling of the 1-D vertical Cl- profile supported diffusion dominated solute transport in the shales. The modeling also showed a similar time frame for development of the Cl- profile prior to activation of the aquifer as determined from the ?18O profile (20-25 Ma); however, it provided a significantly longer and potentially better-constrained time frame for evolution of the profile during the activation phase of the aquifer (0.5-1 Ma). The dominant paleoevent reflected in present-day profiles of both tracers is the introduction of glaciogenic meteoric water to the Mannville aquifer underlying the shale during the Pleistocene. The source area of this water remains to be determined.

Hendry, M. Jim; Harrington, Glenn A.

2014-08-01

20

Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

1998-07-01

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Input-form data for the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the Devonian and Mississippian Bakken and Devonian Three Forks Formations of the U.S. Williston Basin Province, 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the Bakken and Three Forks Formations of the U.S. portion of the Williston Basin. The Bakken and Three Forks Formations were assessed as continuous and hypothetical conventional oil accumulations using a methodology similar to that used in the assessment of other continuous- and conventional-type assessment units throughout the United States. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation and information used in the Bakken-Three Forks assessment.

U.S. Geological Survey Bakken-Three Forks Assessment Team; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

2013-01-01

22

Geology of the upper part of the Fort Union Group (Paleocene), Williston Basin, with reference to uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tabular sandstone beds in the Sentinel Butte Formation are thicker (as much as 30 m thick), more laterally extensive (more than 2 km wide in many places), and more abundant than in the Tongue River Formation. This indicates that high-sinuosity streams were more abundant where the Sentinel Butte Formation was deposited, and the streams were deeper and occupied wider meander belts, as would be found on the landward part of the delta plain. Siltstone, claystone, lignite, and a small amount of limestone were deposited on natural levees, crevasse splays, and in flood basins. The vertical arrangement of the two formations indicates a progradation of a large deltaic complex into the sea in which the Cannonball Formation was deposited. Sandstone in the Tongue River Formation classifies mostly as carbonate litharenite, and the fine fraction of the formation consists mostly of mica-group minerals, some kaolinite-group minerals, and a little montmorillonite. Sandstone in the Sentinel Butte Formation classifies mostly as volcanic litharenite, and the fine fraction consists mostly of montmorillonite, some kaolinite-group minerals, and a little of the mica-group minerals. The highest-grade uranium deposits in North Dakota are in the Sentinel Butte Formation in the area of the Little Missouri River escarpment in eastern Billings and northwestern Stark Counties. Little uranium has been found in the Tongue River Formation. Uranium may be more abundant in the Sentinel Butte Formation babundant in the Sentinel Butte Formation because of the abundance of glassy volcanic matter, which has now been largely altered to montmorillonite, and the abundance of fragments of volcanic rock. Weathering of the upper part of the Sentinel Butte Formation during formation of the Eocene paleosol in the northern Great Plains may have mobilized uranium that was deposited in the formation below the paleosol before deposition of the overlying Oligocene and younger sediment

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Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Williston Basin, Central Montana Basins, and Montana Thrust Belt study areas: Chapter J in Geologic Framework for the National Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales.

Buursink, Marc L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Craddock, William H.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

2014-01-01

24

Quantitative subsidence analysis of the Western Canada foreland basin with implications for short-term facies changes  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a quantitative study of Jurassic-Lower Tertiary basement subsidence in the Western Canada foreland basin, corrected for local sediment loading and paleobathymetrical changes. Subsidence patterns have been investigated for the effects of erosion induced uplift by means of analytical estimations. It is demonstrated that phases of rapid basin shallowing may be related to periods of dominant erosion of the Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt, leading to 200-20 m flexural uplift of the lithosphere within distances of 300 km of the belt. The amount of sediment that has been derived from the orogenic belt in such a period, can be sufficient for a shelf edge progradation of at least 300 km Myr -1. The history of the Western Canada foreland basin has been subdivided in five stages, 200-154.7 Ma (sI), 154.7-124.5 Ma (sII), 124.5-104 Ma (sIII), 104-77.7 Ma (sIV), and 77.7-60 Ma (sV), recording polyphase lateral and temporal changes in the loading history. The subdivision between stage I and stages II-V is based on a transition from significant vertical motions in the Williston basin in the southeast and minor sedimentation to the west during sI, to continued vertical motions in the Williston basin and major subsidence and sediment accumulation to the west during sII-sV. This major change forms the expression of the transition from passive to convergent margin conditions (cf. Davies and Poulton, 1986). The sII-sIII transition is marked by the expansion of the area of tectonic activity towards the north due to a large scale plate reorganization (cf. Chamberlain and Lambert, 1985). Stage IV is characterized by generally continuous subsidence with deposition of shales, interrupted by phases of rapid uplift with deposition of sandy shallow water units, while the subsequent stage V is defined by similar tectonic processes, but sedimentation conditions changed from mainly shale accumulation to mainly sand accumulation. These latter two stages probably reflect lateral and temporal changes in the rate of progradation of the accretionary wedge.

Peper, Tim

1993-11-01

25

Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India  

Science.gov (United States)

Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

2014-07-01

26

Chicxulub impact basin: Gravity characteristics and implications for basin morphology and deep structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The K-T-aged Chicxulub Impact Structure is buried beneath the Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Northern Yucatan Platform. Consequently its morphology and structure are poorly understood. Reprocessed Bouguer (onshore) and Free Air (offshore) gravity data over Northern Yucatan reveal that Chicxulub may be a 200-km-diameter multi-ring impact basin with at least three concentric basin rings. The positions of these rings follow the square root of 2 spacing rule derived empirically from analysis of multi-ring basins on other planets indicating that these rings probably correspond to now-buried topographic basin rings. A forward model of the gravity data along a radial transect from the southwest margin of the structure indicates that the Chicxulub gravity signature is compatible with this interpretation. We estimate the basin rim diameter to be 204 +/- 16 km and the central peak ring diameter (D) is 104 +/- 6 km.

Sharpton, Virgil L.; Burke, Kevin; Hall, Stuart A.; Lee, Scott; Marin, Luis E.; Suarez, Gerardo; Quezada-Muneton, Juan Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

1993-01-01

27

Basin modeling of the Parang (Socotra) Basin, northern East China Sea shelf: Implications for hydrocarbon potential  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrocarbon potential of the Parang (Socotra) Basin in the northern East China Sea shelf has remained poorly understood. We performed one-dimensional basin modeling for a dummy well located in the depocenter of the northern part of the Parang Basin to investigate the timings of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. First, a depth-converted seismic profile crossing the dummy well was restored by backstripping and decompaction for eight regional and subregional unconformities, including the top of the acoustic basement, to reconstruct the subsidence history and to determine the timing of trap formation. The basin modeling, assuming rifting heat-flow model and source rocks with type III kerogen, suggests that the main phase of hydrocarbon (mostly gas) expulsion peaked in the Late Eocene, predating the inversion that created traps in the early Middle to latest Middle Eocene. Thus, the potential for large hydrocarbon accumulations in the northern Parang Basin is probably limited.

Kim, H.; Moon, S.; Lee, G.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, H.

2013-12-01

28

New aerogeophysical study of the Eurasia Basin and Lomonosov Ridge: Implications for basin development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 1998 and 1999, new aerogeophysical surveys of the Arctic Ocean's Eurasia Basin produced the first collocated gravity and magnetic measurements over the western half of the basin. These data increase the density and extend the coverage of the U.S. Navy acromagnetic data from the 1970s. The new data reveal prominent bends in the isochrons that provide solid geometrical constraints for plate reconstructions. Tentative identification of anomaly 25 in the Eurasia Basin links early basin opening to spreading in the Labrador Sea before the locus of spreading in the North Atlantic shifted to the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. With the opening of the Labrador Sea, Greenland began similar to200 km of northward movement relative to North America and eventually collided with Svalbard, Ellesmere Island, and the nascent Eurasia ocean basin. Both gravity and magnetic data sets reconstructed to times prior to chron 13 show a prominent linear anomaly oriented orthogonal to the spreading center and immediately north of the YermakPlateau and Morris Jesup Rise. This anomaly may mark the locus of shortening and possibly subduction as Greenland collided with the nascent Eurasia Basin and impinged upon the southern Gakkel Ridge. This collision may have contributed to vollcanism on the Morris Jesup Rise. By chron 13, Greenland had ended its northward motion and had become fixed to North America, and the plateau north of Greenland had rifted apart to become the Morris Jesup Rise and the Yermak Plateau.

Brozena, J.M.; Childers, V.A.

2003-01-01

29

Stratigraphy of the Caloris basin, Mercury: Implications for volcanic history and basin impact melt  

Science.gov (United States)

Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust and upper mantle.

Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watters, Thomas R.

2015-04-01

30

Multi-Ring Basins on Europa: Implications for Subsurface Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Two of the most circular Europan maculae are surrounded by multiple rings (e.g., Moore et al, LPSC XXVIII, 1997, Thomas, LPSC XXVIII, 1997) Although debate still exists as to whether these features are exogenic or endogenic in origin (Moore et al, LPSC XXVIII, 1997), in this study we have assumed that they are analogous to multi-ring impact basins seen elsewhere in the solar system. The rings around these structures are thought to be formed as a result of inward flow in a fluid soft ice or water layer located beneath the rigid icy crust (McKinnon and Melosh, Icarus 44, 1980). This flow occurs as the crater relaxes and induces radial tension, which is relieved by the formation of concentric normal faults around the crater (Allemand and Thomas, JGR 96, 1991). We are currently using finite-element methods to model the formation of multi-ring basins. Three candidate multi-ring basin systems exist on Europa: Tyre Macula (34 N, 146 W); the provisionally-named Callanish Macula (16 S, 334 W); and the much smaller crater Taliesin (23 S, 137 W). An interesting fourth data point is the relatively young crater Pwyll (Greeley et al., LPSC XXVIII, 1997) which has no visible concentric rings. Preliminary results from our modeling indicate that relaxation of an impact basin emplaced in a layered surface, with a thin ( ~ 10 km) liquid water layer sandwiched between a thin rigid upper crust of comparable thickness and a thick rigid lower layer, induces sufficient stresses to cause fracturing of the overlying ice (5-10 bars, Parmerter and Coon, JGR 77, 1972). For thicker rigid surface or liquid water layers, the radial extent of the zone of sufficient extensional stress is inconsistent with the observed fractures around Callanish. We are currently varying the thicknesses of the rigid and liquid layers, as well as the transient crater size, to constrain the crustal structure necessary for the formation of the observed craters.

Turtle, E. P.; Phillips, C. B.

1997-07-01

31

Quantification of Exhumation from Sonic Velocity Data, Cooper Basin, Australia, and Implications for Hydrocarbon Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhumation (defined as rock uplift minus surface uplift) in the Cooper Basin of South Australia and Queensland has been quantified using the compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by the amount of porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence is used for quantifying exhumation from compaction. The traditional way of estimating exhumation based on the degree of overcompaction of a single shale unit has been modified and five units ranging in age from Permian to Triassic have been analysed. The results reveal that exhumation increases eastwards from the South Australia into the Queensland sector of the basin. The results show that exhumation in Late Triassic - Early Jurassic times, after the Cooper Basin deposition, seems to be 200-400 m higher than exhumation in Late Cretaceous - Tertiary times, after the Eromanga Basin deposition. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rocks will be greater for any given geothermal history if exhumation is incorporated in maturation modelling. Exhumation values can also be used to improve porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

Mavromatidis, Angelos

2006-05-01

32

Waterford Formation in the south-eastern Karoo: Implications for basin development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Extensive research on the rocks of the Karoo Supergroup has shown that this sequence, which contains an unsurpassed record of Permian-Jurassic tetrapods, records a largely unbroken stratigraphic succession from 300 Ma to 180 Ma. This Gondwanan succession was deposited in a changing environmental set [...] ting reflecting glacial marine through deltaic to fluvial and aeolian desert conditions. The contact between the Ecca and Beaufort Groups (at the top of the Waterford Formation of the Ecca Group) in the southern and western Karoo represents a change in depositional environment from a subaqueous to a subaerial delta plain. By contrast, the Waterford Formation has not yet been recognised in the south-eastern Karoo Basin, which might imply that a major unconformity is present between the Fort Brown Formation of the Ecca Group, deposited in a prodelta environment, and the overlying fluvially deposited Koonap Formation of the Beaufort Group. From careful documentation of lithofacies and sedimentological data, it can be demonstrated that the Waterford Formation is indeed present in the south-eastern part of the basin and that no major unconformity is present - a fact that has implications for the mapping of Karoo rocks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, for understanding the depositional environment of 'reptilian' fossils from the lowermost Beaufort in this part of the Karoo basin, and for basin development models.

Bruce S, Rubidge; P. John, Hancox; Richard, Mason.

33

Waterford Formation in the south-eastern Karoo: Implications for basin development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extensive research on the rocks of the Karoo Supergroup has shown that this sequence, which contains an unsurpassed record of Permian–Jurassic tetrapods, records a largely unbroken stratigraphic succession from 300 Ma to 180 Ma. This Gondwanan succession was deposited in a changing environmental setting reflecting glacial marine through deltaic to fluvial and aeolian desert conditions. The contact between the Ecca and Beaufort Groups (at the top of the Waterford Formation of the Ecca Group in the southern and western Karoo represents a change in depositional environment from a subaqueous to a subaerial delta plain. By contrast, the Waterford Formation has not yet been recognised in the south-eastern Karoo Basin, which might imply that a major unconformity is present between the Fort Brown Formation of the Ecca Group, deposited in a prodelta environment, and the overlying fluvially deposited Koonap Formation of the Beaufort Group. From careful documentation of lithofacies and sedimentological data, it can be demonstrated that the Waterford Formation is indeed present in the south-eastern part of the basin and that no major unconformity is present – a fact that has implications for the mapping of Karoo rocks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, for understanding the depositional environment of ’reptilian‘ fossils from the lowermost Beaufort in this part of the Karoo basin, and for basin development models.

Richard Mason

2012-03-01

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Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface- and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river-basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly examines policy frameworks in three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions – central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain – where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

C. A. Scott

2013-07-01

35

Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river basin resilience  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface water and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly considers three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

2014-04-01

36

Finding the boundary between evolutionary basins of attraction, and implications for Wright's fitness landscape analogy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1932 Wright introduced the notion of the fitness landscape. By analogy with a physical landscape, whose gradient predicts a rolling marble's spatial trajectory, the contours of the fitness landscape are meant to predict an evolving population's genetic trajectory. Wright's chief interest was in the possibility that mutational interactions might frustrate natural selection, giving rise to multiple maxima on the fitness landscape. Here we study a dynamical system over the state space defined by allele frequencies and linkage disequilibria between alleles. We first analytically locate the saddle between basins of attraction in infinite-sized populations evolving under the influence of selection and recombination for the simplest two-locus case. We further show numerically that the boundary between basins is approximately linear with respect to linkage disequilibrium, though not allele frequency. We also employ this framework to develop novel perspectives on two venerable results for single-peaked fitness landscapes. Finally we sought the potential function whose contours would predict evolutionary trajectories through this state space. Importantly not every dynamical system can be described by a potential function, and the present problem is provably one such case. Thus in the parlance of Wright's analogy, in locating the floor of the fitness valley we have lost the landscape, and this conclusion is not limited to our choice of parameterization, nor of problem. This result motivates us to carefully review the formal implications and requirements of this widely used analogy

37

Quantification of exhumation in the Eromanga Basin and its implications for hydrocarbon exploration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exhumation in the Eromanga Basin of South Australia and Queensland has been quantified using compaction methodology. All methods of estimating exhumation utilize rock properties that are affected by, and retain a memory of, burial in excess of that presently observed. The tool used for estimating the exhumation in this study is analysis of the degree of overcompaction of rock units. Since porosity describes compaction state, the sonic log, controlled strongly by the amount of porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction and, hence, is used for quantifying exhumation from compaction. The standard method of estimating exhumation based on the degree of overcompaction of a single shale unit has been modified, and seven units, predominantly shales ranging in age from the Cretaceous to the Jurassic, have been analysed. All units yield similar results. Burial at depth greater than currently observed is the most likely cause of overcompaction since it is unlikely that sedimentological and/or diagenetic processes are responsible for similar amounts of overcompaction in different lithologies. The results of the compaction analysis reveal that Late Cretaceous-Tertiary exhumation increases eastwards from the Patchawarra Trough, through the Gidgealpa-Merrimelia-Innamincka Trend and Nappamerri Trough into the Queensland sector of the basins. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Predicted maturation of source rocks will be greater for any given geothermal history if exhumation is incorporated in maturation modelling. The exhumation study helps to quantify velocity anomalies associated with overcompaction. Exhumation values can also be used to improve porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets. (author)

Mavromatidis, A.; Hillis, R.

2005-07-01

38

Williston Reservoir: Site preparation and post-flood cleanup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Williston Reservoir is the second largest in Canada and ranks ninth on the world scale. It was formed by the construction of the W.A.C. Bennet Dam and is the most important hydroelectric storage reservoir and largest body of fresh water in British Columbia. Site preparation for the reservoir began in 1962, with pre-flood clearing involving salvage of merchantable timber, handfalling, machine downing, burning of slash and burial. Post-flood cleanup included timber salvage, bailing and burning debris, tractor piling and burning, crane piling in shallows, underwater cutting, and hand cutting during low drawdown. Various types of floating debris have presented problems for recreational use, log booming and transport, waterways and aviation. Protection of the spillway is accomplished with a floating boom upstream of the channel. Administration, funding, forest clearance, salvage methods, clearing standards, wood volumes, project costs, environmental concerns, and future priorities are discussed. 5 figs., 2 tabs

39

Gravity anomalies of sedimentary basins and their mechanical implications: Application to the Ross Sea basins, West Antarctica [rapid communication  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, sedimentary basins are characterized by negative free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies. However, the extensional basins of the Ross Sea are paradoxical in that positive gravity anomalies overlay the Victoria Land Basin, Northern Basin, Central Trough and Northern Central Trough while basement highs are associated with negative gravity anomalies. Measured basement densities from DSDP basement cores give values between 2600-2800 kg/m 3 while bulk sediment densities range from 1210-2200 kg/m 3, indicating a normal density relationship between basement and sediment infill. In contrast, the relatively young and narrow Terror Rift is associated with negative free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, but has a different geological history as compared to the larger Ross Sea basins. Process-oriented gravity modeling indicates that magmatic underplating and crustal intrusions are inconsistent with the observed gravity and basement geometry of the Ross Sea basins. The magma volume necessary to account for the distribution and amplitude of the positive gravity anomaly of the Central Basin and be isostatically balanced would need to be comparable to the tholeiitic flood basalt volume of the Columbia River province—it is thus unlikely that the volume of Neogene volcanics of the Ross Sea region is sufficient to explain the observed gravity relationship by modifying the bulk density of the crust. We demonstrate that positive free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies over extensional basins are the consequence of a relatively low flexural strength of the lithosphere during rifting being contrasted by higher flexural strengths later during sedimentation. As the difference between the rigidity of the lithosphere during sedimentation increases relative to the rigidity of the rifted lithosphere, the gravity over the basin becomes progressively more positive but only for a limited range of wavelengths. The narrow width of the Terror Rift precludes it from having a positive gravity anomaly while the opposite is true for the large Ross Sea basins. For the Ross Sea region, such a loading scenario requires a significant delay between extension and the timing of sediment infilling of the basins, consistent with the late Cretaceous extension of the Ross Sea region and the sedimentary succession being dominated by large-scale late Eocene-Neogene glaciogenic progradational sequences. Sediment source was presumably from the denudation of the Transantarctic Mountains, which commenced in the late Paleogene. The time delay between the late Cretaceous formation of the Transantarctic Mountains, late Paleogene exhumation, and the generation of significant Paleogene paleobathymetry requires either the Ross Sea region to be sub-aerial and sediment starved for most of the Paleogene and/or the Paleogene climate was ineffective in producing clastics until the onset of glaciation in the late Eocene-early Oligocene.

Karner, Garry D.; Studinger, Michael; Bell, Robin E.

2005-07-01

40

Apatite fission track age of mesozoic sandstones from Beipiao basin, eastern China: Implications for basin provenance and tectonic evolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The apatite fission track (FT) analysis of Jurassic sandstones from the Beipiao basin in the eastern China indicates a large variation in FT age peaks. The sandstone of the Beipiao Formation has two peak ages at 178.8 and 40.0 Ma, while the sandstone of the Tuchengzi Formation has three age peaks at 152.0, 77.5 and 32.5 Ma. This implies that the provenance of the Beipiao basin in the early Jurassic and later Jurassic changed obviously. According to the Mesozoic regional thermo-tectonic evolution of the Yan-Liao orogenic belt, these apatites with different FT ages possibly represent different source components, although partial annealing had occurred to these apatites. The apatites of the oldest peak age (178.8-152.0 Ma) possibly originated from the pre-Mesozoic sedimentary covers of the North China Block (NCB), while the apatites of the intermediate peak age (77.5 Ma) and the younger peak age (40.0-32.5 Ma) came from the underlying Archean basement rocks and the Mesozoic volcanic detritus respectively. It is recognized that the basin sediments in the early Jurassic are composed of the Mesozoic volcanic detritus and pre-Mesozoic sedimentary detritus eroded from the uplifted regions around the basin. The existence of the intermediate peak age in the Tuchengzi Formation implies that the Archean basement rocks of the NCB might have become an important source of the upper Jurassic, which responded well to the south-south-east-trending thrust faulting in the northern of theing thrust faulting in the northern of the NCB. Apatite FT ages of both the lower and upper Jurassic sediments in the Beipiao basin have a major peak age (30-40 Ma), which perhaps recorded an important Cenozoic thermo-tectonic event accompanied by the intensive rifting, basin subsidence and strong basaltic magmatism in the North China Block. Given a paleo-thermal gradient of 30degC/km, it can be deduced that the Liaoxi area has uplifted about 3 km at an average rate of about 0.1 mm/a since 30-40 Ma. (author)

41

Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water resources are redistributed by very developed and extensive irrigation system. Irrigation water balance is complex because of strong interactions among surface, ground, river and irrigation water. Lower reaches is an extremely arid environment. Water availability in lower reaches has a great impact on the evolution of natural ecosystem and vice versa the landscape change reshapes the hydrological cycle. After the water resource reallocation project implemented in 2000, the water delivered to lower reaches has increased by 36%. Of all the available water resource, about 10% is used to sustain a terminal lake and other water bodies, 20% is used for irrigation to support very rapidly increased farmlands, 40-50% is used to nurture the natural oasis, and other water is lost due to evaporation. The features of hydrological cycle in the HRB is very typical for inland river basins in China's arid region. In this region, air temperature is rising and precipitation is most likely to increase. Accelerating glacier retreat will also produce more water. However, water demand increases more rapidly due to quickly developing economy and growing population. Therefore, how to turn our understanding of hydrological cycle in this environmental fragile region into more rational water resource management is a grand challenge.

Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

2013-12-01

42

(U-Th)/He apatite ages from the Taranaki basin, New Zealand implications for cooling and denudation in the Pliocene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Taranaki basin, located in central-western New Zealand, contains a predominantly terrigenous Late Cretaceous to Holocene terrestrial to marine succession, generally 3-5 km thick and with an estimated maximum thickness of 8 km. This basin is of particular interest because it provides most of New Zealand's commercial hydrocarbon discoveries. Previously published apatite fission track analysis of four well sections in the Taranaki basin indicated that in the southern part cooling from elevated paleotemperatures was effected by the initiation of Late Miocene uplift and erosion ranging from 1-3 km of section (Kamp and Green, 1990). However, the timing of when the denudation ended is poorly defined, being constrained by poorly dated Quaternary sediments overlying mid Miocene deposits. (U-Th)/He apatite age analysis has been applied initially to samples from one well section (1 Fresne) in the southern part of the Taranaki basin. The ages indicate cooling below 75 deg C occurred in the upper section in the early Pliocene, whereas deeper samples record progressively younger ages as they currently reside in the He partial retention zone (40-85 deg C; Wolf et al., 1998). This interpretation is based on the assumption that the samples have resided at the current down hole temperatures since the Pliocene. These data possibly imply that cooling and denudation of the 1 Fresne well section extended beyond the end of the Late Miocene and into the Pliocene. This work is ocene and into the Pliocene. This work is to be extended to other well sections in the basin that intersect other inversion structures. The implications of this work for the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the basin is that it better defines the timing of the formation of the potential trapping structures in relation to the timing of maturation. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

43

Corrosion and pyrophoricity of ZPPR fuel plates: Implications for basin storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of recent experimentation and analysis of the pyrophoric behavior of corroded Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) HEU fuel plates and the implications of these results for the handling, drying, and passivation of uranium metal fuels stored in water basins. The ZPPR plates were originally clad in 1980; crevice corrosion of the uranium metal in a dry storage environment has occurred due to the use of porous cladding end plugs. The extensive corrosion has resulted in bulging and, in some cases, breaching of the cladding over a 15 year storage period. Processing of the plates has been initiated to recover the highly enriched uranium metal and remove the storage vulnerability identified with the corroded plates, which have been shown to contain significant quantities of the pyrophoric compound uranium hydride (UH3). Experiments were undertaken to determine effective passivation techniques for the corrosion product; analysis and modeling was performed to determine whether heat generated by rapid hydride re-oxidation could ignite the underlying metal plates. The results of the initial passivation experiment showed that simple exposure of the hydride-containing corrosion product to an Ar-3 vol.% O2 environment was insufficient to fully passivate the hydride--flare-up of the product occurred during subsequent vigorous handling in air. A second experiment demonstrated that corrosion product was fully stable following grinding of the product to a fine powder in the Ar-3 vol.% O2 atmosphere. Numerical modeling of a corroded plate indicated that ignition of the plate due to the heat from hydride re-oxidation was likely if hydride fractions in the corrosion product exceeded 30%

44

Basin development north of Great Salt Lake and implications for Neogene structural history of northern Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cenozoic deposits within and near the North Promontory Mountains comprise a tilted Miocene basin (Sand Hollow basin), Pliocene overlap deposits, and varied Quaternary deposits. The Sand Hollow basin contains the Salt Lake Formation, a complex tuffaceous unit deposited in lacustrine, fluvial, alluvial, eolian, and volcanic environments. Isotopic ages of tuffs indicate deposition spanning the middle Miocene. Initial deposition within sub-basins accounts for about 600 m of locally-derived conglomerate, sedimentary breccia, and finer grained tuffaceous materials. Moderate down-to-the-east tilting led to an eastward-deepening basin with deposits over 2.5 km thick. Subsequent tilting and erosional beveling of the tuffs took place before loess and alluvium, which contain little volcanic material, were deposited at [approximately]5 Ma. The Pliocene strata in turn were faulted to produce the basic physiographic and structural framework of the northern Great Salt Lake. Isotopic ages, correlations of tephra chemistry, and lithologic correspondence establish that several basins across northern Utah contain the Salt Lake Formation and are temporally equivalent. In several piedmont exposures, the formation was tilted and eroded much like the deposits in Sand Hollow basin. On the basis of this regional correlation, the authors suggest that Basin and Range magmatism and basin development began at about 18 Ma. Basins received thick deposits of tuffaceous sediment until about 9 Ma. Between [approximately]8 and 5 Ma, strata in some locations were uplifted, tilted, and eroded, presumably as adjacent basins deepened. Lower Pliocene overlap strata were faulted during the late Pliocene to form depocenters that coincide with present basins, suggesting that current topography is Pliocene and younger.

Miller, D.M.; Pringle, M.S.; Nakata, J.K.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Meyer, C.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1993-04-01

45

The Botrychiopsis genus and its biostratigraphic implications in Southern Paraná Basin  

OpenAIRE

Botrychiopsis has been considered an important floristic element of Westphalian/Artinskian associations of the Paraná Basin. The occurrence of Botrychiopsis in roof-shales of the Rio Bonito Formation in Southern Paraná Basin (Quitéria area), supported by the identification of Botrychiopsis valida, enlarges the genus biochron. Consequently, the stratigraphic hierarchy for Botrychiopsis plantiana and Botrychiopsis valida was defined for the Paraná Basin. Although it is climatically controll...

André Jasper; Margot Guerra-Sommer; Miriam Cazzulo-Klepzig; Rualdo Menegat

2003-01-01

46

Styles of subsidence in the Michigan Basin and implications for lithospheric rheology and behavior  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geometries of Cambrian through Carboniferous structural sequences in the Michigan Basin record discrete episodes of subsidence. To determine structural sequences, subsurface well log correlations are corrected for paleobathymetry and compaction in order to determine the change in basement depth for each interval. This delta DB parameter represents the structural change in the basement for a given interval of time. Twelve structural sequences are identified in the Michigan Basin based on subsurface data from several hundred well logs and core evaluation. Basin subsidence patterns vary in time from early, rift-related subsidence through several episodes of basin-centered subsidence and eastward tilting toward the Appalachian foreland. Basin-centered subsidence in Michigan correlates temporally with deformational events of Taconic and Acadian orogenic activity in the Appalachian region. Significant eastward tilting of the basin requires either very high lithospheric rigidities or significant continental tilting due to geoid deformation. In contrast, basin-centered subsidence in Michigan is restricted to a 200 km radius with very low rigidities. Intraplate stress changes related to plate margin interactions provide a mechanism for driving basin-centered subsidence with low flexural rigidity. These contrasting styles of lithospheric behavior record a detailed history of the changing tectonic regime in eastern North America during the Paleozoic.

Howell, P.D. (Allegheny Coll., Meadville, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

47

Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and 2006 years, show an increment in the number of small farmers, from 27 to 196, that are planting eucalyptus sp in the region and also an increase in the whole silvicuture production. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is recognized to be a great water consuming and a driver of water pollution by pesticides and fertilizers. The study carried out combines a landscape descriptor with land use and land cover changes mapping to provide an important database for ecohydrological studies, regarding the water resources management.

Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

2014-05-01

48

Alboran basin, Southern Spain. Part II: Neogene tectonic implications for the orogenic float model  

OpenAIRE

We infer that the Alboran Basin, the first western Mediterranean Basin found after crossing Gibraltar, is an orogenic float underlained by a de´ collement system, a multi-layered ductile shear extending from 10km to between 30 and 40km below sea level. This float was formed as consequence of the collision of the African–Eurasian plates in the Oligocene–late Miocene. Synchronous with this compression the float experienced basin wide crustal thinning and subsidence about 25 m/year ago by s...

Go?mez Ballesteros, Mari?a; Rivera, Jesus; Mun?oz, Araceli; Mun?oz Marti?n, Alfonso; Acosta, Juan; Carbo? Gorosabel, Andre?s; Uchupi, E.

2008-01-01

49

Soil gas 222Rn in sedimentary basins in Central Italy: its implications in radiation protection zoning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil gas investigations for tectonic prospecting in clayey basins highlighted, over tectonic discontinuities, the occurrence of high Rn concentrations induced by a vertical and rapid migration of deep seated gases through faulted rocks. (author)

50

Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin  

Science.gov (United States)

Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or ‘jumped’ eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the Late Mesozoic extrusion tectonics, the Cenozoic NW-directed crustal extension, and the regional far-field eastward flow of the western asthenosphere due to the India-Eurasia plate collision, accompanied by eastward jumping and roll-back of subduction zones of the Pacific Plate.

Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

2014-07-01

51

Association of the Purana basins and the middle Proterozoic mobile belts in peninsular India: implications on targeting uranium deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disparate Archaean Cratonic Nuclei of the Indian peninsular shield coalesced together through late Archaean - Palaeoproterozoic accretionary tectonic events. The subsequent Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sequences are preserved either in the Purana basins or in the middle Proterozoic mobile belts (MPMB). The latter contain deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal sequences; and can be ascribed to compressive tectonic regimes. The Purana basins on the other hand represent shallow marine, epicratonic, passive-margin sequences deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Major deformational events and metamorphism of the MPMB are known to have taken place around 1600 ±200 Ma and 900 ± 100 Ma. These two periods coincide with the ages of initiation and major intrabasinal breaks in the growth of the Purana basins. The contemporary juxtapositioning of these two dissimilar tectonic regimes in peninsular India, is examined within the framework of the available data on them and the current models of Proterozoic tectonics. Its implications on uranium mineralization and possible regions for targeting exploration activities are discussed on this basis. (author). 112 refs., 4 figs

52

Sand provenance and implications for paleodrainage in a rifted basin: the Tera Group (N. Spain)  

OpenAIRE

Fluvial-fan and fluvial siliciclastic strata, developed during the rifting that generated the Cameros Basin (North Spain), record important provenance changes that reveal source areas compositions and locations, paleodrainage evolution and rift patterns. The Tera Group represents the first rifting stage in the Cameros Basin, containing fluvial-fan sediments at the lower part of the sedimentary fill that evolve to fluvial and lacustrine systems in the upper part of the record. Our qua...

Gonza?lez Acebro?n, Laura; Arribas Mocoroa, Jose?; Mas, J. R.

2010-01-01

53

Population subdivision in Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis in the Mekong River basin: implications for management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A molecular approach was employed to investigate stock structure in Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis populations collected from 14 sites across mainland south-east Asia, with the major focus being the lower Mekong River basin. Spatial analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment (ATPase 6 and 8) identified four stocks in the Mekong River basin that were all significantly differentiated from a population in the nearby Khlong River, Thailand. In the Mekong River basin, populations in northern Lao People's Democratic Republic and northern Thailand represent two independent stocks, and samples from Thai tributaries group with those from adjacent Mekong sites above the Khone Falls to form a third stock. All sites below the Khone Falls constituted a single vast stock that includes Cambodia and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. While H. siamensis is considered currently to undertake extensive annual migrations across the Mekong River basin, the data presented here suggest that natural gene flow may occur over much more restricted geographical scales within the basin, and hence populations may need to be managed at finer spatial scales than at the whole-of-drainage-basin level. PMID:20738620

Adamson, E A S; Hurwood, D A; Baker, A M; Mather, P B

2009-10-01

54

Isotopic geochemistry in acidic volcanic rocks of the Parana Basin, and associated genetic implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three samples representatives of the acidic volcanism of the Parana Basin, collected in the States of PR, SC and RS, were dated by Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Chemical analyis classify the three occurrences as belonging to the group enriched in phosphorus, titanium and LIL elemets (HPT), compared to the other (LPT) defined for the Parana Basin. Mineral isochrons show the cogeneticity of the components, and the resultant Rb-Sr age is sytematically higher than the value obtained by K-Ar method in the plagioclase phenocrysts. Sr initial ratio indicates a common source for the three occurrences. (Author)

55

Numerical Modeling of Basin-Forming Impacts: Implications for the Heat Budget of Planetary Interiors  

Science.gov (United States)

Basin-forming impacts create shock waves travelling through a whole planet. We carried out a suite of three-dimensional models of inclined impacts using the iSALE-3D hydrocode to study the effect of oblique impacts on planetary interiors.

Bierhaus, M.; Wünnemann, K.; Elbeshausen, D.

2012-03-01

56

Implications of climate change for water resources in the Great Lakes basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several authors have suggested the following impacts of global warming for the Great Lakes region. The average annual warming is predicted by one model to be ca 4.5 degree C, slightly more in winter and slightly less in summer. Annual precipitation is projected to increase by ca 8% for points in the central and western basin, but to decrease by 3-6% for the eastern basin. Basin snowpack could be reduced by up to 100% and the snow season shortened by 2-4 weeks, resulting in a reduction of more than 50% in available soil moisture. Buoyancy-driven turnovers of the water column on four of the six lakes may not occur at all. Presently the phenomena occurs twice per year on all the lakes. Ice formation would be greatly reduced. Maximum ice cover may decline from 72-0% for Lake Superior, 38-0% for Lake Michigan, 65-0% for Lake Huron, 90-50% for Lake Erie and 33-0% for Lake Ontario. Net basin supplies would be reduced probably in the range 15-25% below the current mean value. Possible responses include integrated studies and research, better and continually updated information, assessment of public policies in the U.S. and Canada, enhanced private planning efforts, and increased global cooperation

57

Channel morphometry, sediment transport, and implications for tectonic activity and surficial ages of Titan basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluvial features on Titan and drainage basins on Earth are remarkably similar despite differences in gravity and surface composition. We determined network bifurcation (Rb) ratios for five Titan and three terrestrial analog basins. Tectonically-modified Earth basins have Rb values greater than the expected range (3.0–5.0) for dendritic networks; comparisons with Rb values determined for Titanbasins, in conjunction with similarities in network patterns, suggest that portions of Titan's north polar region are modified by tectonic forces. Sufficient elevation data existed to calculate bed slope and potential fluvial sedimenttransport rates in at least one Titanbasin, indicating that 75 mm water ice grains (observed at the Huygens landing site) should be readily entrained given sufficient flow depths of liquid hydrocarbons. Volumetric sedimenttransport estimates suggest that ~6700–10,000 Titan years (~2.0–3.0 x 105 Earth years) are required to erode this basin to its minimum relief (assuming constant 1 m and 1.5 m flows); these lowering rates increase to ~27,000–41,000 Titan years (~8.0–12.0 x 105 Earth years) when flows in the north polar region are restricted to summer months.

Cartwright, Richard; Clayton, Jordan A.; Kirk, Randolph L.

2011-01-01

58

Extension of the Parana Basin to offshore Brazil: Implications for coalbed methane evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coalbed methane (CBM) is a worldwide exploration target of the petroleum industry. In Brazil, the most important coal-bearing succession is associated with the Permian Rio Bonito Formation of the Parana Basin. The gas-prone areas are located at the southeastern margin of the Parana Basin and possibly in the offshore region of the northern part of the Pelotas Basin. Coalfields end abruptly at the present day shoreline, a result of rifting of Gondwana and the evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean. All geologic indicators suggest that in pre-rift times the coal seams extended further eastwards, probably now lying deeply buried below the sedimentary succession of the Pelotas Basin. The present paper discusses structural, stratigraphic, seismic and aeromagenetic data that support the preservation of continental crust beneath ocean sediment. If the coal beds had similar lateral extent to known onshore coals, and coal beds extended across the projected extension of the Parana basin, and there was a conservative 5 m of cumulative coal thickness, then a potential methane volume can be estimated for this newly inferred resource. Average onshore coal gas content is 32 scf/ton (1.00 m(3)/ton). If this is similar in the offshore coal deposits, then the hypothetical methane volume in the offshore area could be in excess of 1.9 x 10(12) scf (56 x 10(9) m(3)). Metamorphism from dikes associated with rifting are potential complicating factors in these deposits, and since no borehole reaching the deep-lying strata in the offshore area are available, this is a hypothetical gas resource with a certain level of uncertainty which should be tested in the future by drilling a deep borehole.

Holz, M.; Kalkreuth, W.; Rolim, S.B.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

2010-05-15

59

Anatomy of a 2nd-order unconformity: stratigraphy and facies of the Bakken formation during basin realignment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because classic Laramide compressional structures are relatively rare, the Williston Basin is often considered as structurally simple, but because of the presence of numerous sub-basins, simplistic lithofacies generalization is impossible, and detailed facies mapping is necessary to unravel Middle Bakken paleogeography. The unconformity above the Devonian Three Forks is explained by the infilling and destruction of the Devonian Elk Point basin, prepares the Bakken system, and introduces a Mississippian Williston Basin with a very different configuration. Black shales are too often considered as deposits that can only be found in deep water, but to a very different conclusion must be drawn after a review of stratigraphic geometry and facies successions. The whole Bakken is a 2nd-order lowstand to transgressive systems tract lying below the basal Lodgepole, which represents an interval of maximal flooding. This lowstand to transgressive stratigraphic context explains why the sedimentary process and provenance shows high aerial variability.

Skinner, Orion; Canter, Lyn; Sonnenfeld, Mark; Williams, Mark [Whiting Oil and Gas Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

2011-07-01

60

Spatial modeling of small stream hydrology in a North American river basin and implications under a warmer, drier future climate  

Science.gov (United States)

Stream flows are predicted to decrease in many arid regions worldwide as a result of climate change. In arid and semiarid southwestern US streamflow timing has shifted to earlier in the spring and mean annual streamflow is projected to decrease under climate change including late summer and fall discharge. It is likely that minimum flows will decrease and some perennial streams will shift to intermittent streamflow under climate-driven changes in timing and magnitude of precipitation and runoff, and increases in temperature. Streams shifting from perennial to intermittent flow could have significant effects on aquatic and riparian ecosystems as well as important implications for human water use. We studied small streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin, one of the most intensively managed river systems in the world and a vital water resource in the western US. Our objectives were to spatially model streamflow metrics using environmental variables and to project low flow metrics on ungaged streams across the study basin. We used random forest models to predict mean and minimum flow metrics at gaged streams based on environmental variables such as climate, geology, soils and land cover. We found winter and spring monthly precipitation, forest land cover, and PET were the most important variables for predicting mean flow. For low flow metrics, precipitation, PET, and drainage area were most important. For predicting zero flow days and months, percent snow, and soil rainfall and runoff factor index were also important. We then used our random forest models to project mean flow, low flow, and low flow variability to all small streams in the basin and generated maps suggesting where streams are at risk of shifting hydrologic regimes. Our resulting maps can be linked with biologic information to understand how stream-dependent communities may be affected in the future.

Reynolds, L. V.; Shafroth, P. B.; Poff, N.

2013-12-01

61

Tertiary basin development and tectonic implications, Whipple detachment system, Colorado River extensional corridor, California and Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on geologic mapping, stratigraphic and structural observations, and radiometric dating of Miocene deposits of the Whipple detachment system, Colorado River extensional corridor of California and Arizona. From these data, four regions are distinguished in the study area that correspond to four Miocene depositional basins. It is shown that these basins developed in about the same positions, relative to each other and to volcanic sources, as they occupy at present. They formed in the early Miocene from a segmentation of the upper crust into blocks bounded by high-angle faults that trended both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of extension and which were terminated at middle crustal depths by a low-angle detachment fault.

Nielson, J. E.; Beratan, K. K.

1990-01-01

62

Geohistory analysis of Neogene Point Arena Basin, California: implications for its tectonic evolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Neogene Point Arena basin of northwestern California is located west of the San Andreas fault system and south of the Mendocino triple junction. Key units of the Point Arena sequence are exposed from Iversen Landing north to Point Arena, California, including the Oligocene-Miocene Iversen Basalt (23.8 Ma), the lower Miocene Skooner Gulch and Gallaway Formations, and the lower to mid-Miocene Point Arena Formation. Lithologic and thickness data, together with evidence of age and paleobathymetry from both onshore and offshore sequences in the Point Arena basin, were used in a geohistory analysis of basin development. The resulting geohistory diagram tracks depths of specific stratigraphic zones, variations in paleobathymetry, and patterns of subsidence and uplift during late Paleogene through Neogene time. Geohistory analysis indicates that the late Paleogene margin was uplifted during approach of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge. Subsequently, a pulse of volcanism during latest Oligocene-Miocene signaled initial Neogene subsidence of the margin as marked by the Iversen Basalt. Subsidence likely involved both initial thermal subsidence as well as later transtensional deformation during the passage of the Mendocino triple junction and initiation of the San Andreas fault system. Rapid initial subsidence was accompanied by deposition of turbidites (Skooner Gulch and Gallaway Formation). The highly organic shales and petroliferous sands of the overlying Point Arena Formation indicate an abrupt cessation of turbidite deposition and a slower rate of basin subsidence during the middle Miocene. Episodes of warping from mid-Miocene through Holocene can be attributed to crustal flexing associated with wrench tectonism, with a major event bringing the Point Arena sequence above sea level during the late Pliocene-Pleistocene.

Loomis, K.B.; Ingle, J.C. Jr.

1988-03-01

63

Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation in the Upper Indus Basin, global teleconnections and hydrological implications  

OpenAIRE

Most of the flow in the River Indus from its upper mountain basin is derived from melting snow and glaciers. Climatic variability and change of both precipitation and energy inputs will, therefore, affect rural livelihoods at both a local and a regional scale through effects on summer runoff in the River Indus. Spatial variation in precipitation has been investigated by correlation and regression analysis of long-period records. There is a strong positive correlation between winter ...

Archer, D. R.; Fowler, H. J.

2004-01-01

64

The Botrychiopsis genus and its biostratigraphic implications in Southern Paraná Basin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O gênero Botrychiopsis tem sido considerado um elemento florístico importante das associações do intervalo Westphaliano/Artinskiano da Bacia do Paraná. O registro de formas relacionadas ao gênero Botrychiopsis, especificamente Botrychiopsis valida, em roof-shales na área de Quitéria, Formação Rio Bo [...] nito, no sul da Bacia do Paraná amplia o biocron do gênero, definindo uma hierarquia estratigráfica para as espécies Botrychiopsis plantiana e Botrychiopsis valida para esta bacia. A distribuição estratigráfica do gênero está condicionada a controle climático relacionado a um ciclo de deglaciação em estágio icehouse, com espectro de tolerância climática abrangente, desde condições climáticas do tipo frio até temperado/ quente. É proposto um novo zoneamento fitoestratigráfico para essa porção da bacia, incluindo uma Zona Botrychiopsis (Asseliano/Kunguriano) com duas sub-zonas Botrychiopsis plantiana (Asseliano/Artinskiano) e Botrychiopsis valida (topo do Artinskiano/Kunguriano). Abstract in english Botrychiopsis has been considered an important floristic element of Westphalian/Artinskian associations of the Paraná Basin. The occurrence of Botrychiopsis in roof-shales of the Rio Bonito Formation in Southern Paraná Basin (Quitéria area), supported by the identification of Botrychiopsis valida, e [...] nlarges the genus biochron. Consequently, the stratigraphic hierarchy for Botrychiopsis plantiana and Botrychiopsis valida was defined for the Paraná Basin. Although it is climatically controlled and related to a deglaciation icehouse stage, stratigraphic distribution of the genus presents a substantial climate tolerance, from cold/cool to warm/temperate conditions. A new phytostratigraphic zonation is proposed for the southern portion of the basin that includes the Botrychiopsis Zone (Asselian/Kungurian), which is subdivided into the Botrychiopsis plantiana (Asselian/Artinskian) and Botrychiopsis valida (Late Artinskian/Kungurian) subzones.

André, Jasper; Margot, Guerra-Sommer; Miriam, Cazzulo-Klepzig; Rualdo, Menegat.

2003-12-01

65

Ordovician conodonts from the Mithaka Formation (Georgina Basin, Australia). Regional and paleobiogeographical implications  

OpenAIRE

The systematic analysis of conodonts from the previously unstudied Mithaka Formation (Georgina Basin) yielded 1366 identifiable elements, representing 25 species and 21 genera. One new species was recovered and identified, Triangulodus mithakensis n. sp. Four other new species are described in open nomenclature as Bergstroemognathus? n. sp. A, ?Periodon n. sp. A, Phragmodus n. sp. A and Taoqupognathus n. sp. A. The Mithaka Fm fauna shows similarity with conodonts from several previous Austral...

Kuhn, T. S.

2005-01-01

66

Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation in the Upper Indus Basin, global teleconnections and hydrological implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the flow in the River Indus from its upper mountain basin is derived from melting snow and glaciers. Climatic variability and change of both precipitation and energy inputs will, therefore, affect rural livelihoods at both a local and a regional scale through effects on summer runoff in the River Indus. Spatial variation in precipitation has been investigated by correlation and regression analysis of long-period records. There is a strong positive correlation between winter precipitation at stations over the entire region, so that, for practical forecasting of summer runoff in some basins, a single valley-floor precipitation station can be used In contrast, spatial relationships in seasonal precipitation are weaker in summer and sometimes significantly negative between stations north and south of the Himalayan divide. Although analysis of long datasets of precipitation from 1895 shows no significant trend, from 1961–1999 there are statistically significant increases in winter, in summer and in the annual precipitation at several stations. Preliminary analysis has identified a significant positive correlation between the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and winter precipitation in the Karakoram and a negative correlation between NAO and summer rainfall at some stations. Keywords: upper Indus basin, climate change, time series analysis, spatial correlation, teleconnections

D.R. Archer

2004-01-01

67

Thermal maturity history and implications for hydrocarbon exploration in the Catatumbo basin, Colombia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thermal model integrated with oil and gas geochemical study has been constructed for the Catatumbo basin, Colombia for provides petroleum system data for hydrocarbon exploration. The calibration of the thermal model with maturity data took into account a changing heat flow scheme which included a thermal increase towards the end of the Jurassic and another one in the early Eocene, associated with rifting events. Locally, active/generating source rocks are within the synclines axes. The hydrocarbon expulsion time for Cretaceous source rocks (Capacho and La Luna formations) started in the upper Paleocene-Eocene, while for the los Cuervos Formation the generation and expulsion started of 1 0 my. The petroleum expelled during the Paleocene-Miocene, were likely accumulated in structures formed since the end of the cretaceous, while the younger structures that resulted from the Andean orogen were charged by remigration from the older structures and additionally with the youngest lately generated hydrocarbons. The accumulations of hydrocarbons are mainly the result of generation and migration locally within the basin. The Catatumbo Basin contains thermogenic wet gases with different degrees of thermal maturity which varies from around 1,0 for 2,5 equivalent Ro. The highest degree of thermal evolution according to maturity indicators and thermal modeling is in the southern area, which is prospective for wet gas. The central and northern area appears more prospective for oilhern area appears more prospective for oil with minor amounts of gas

68

Implications of transient deformation in the northern Basin and Range, western United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Transient deformation events observed in Global Positioning System (GPS) data from the Basin and Range extensional province may illuminate qualitatively similar transient events observed in subduction zones and other tectonic environments. We model GPS time series at 22 sites using a combination of hyperbolic tangent function analysis and elastic load deformation estimated from climatological data. We identify two transient events, ~2000.4 and ~2004.4, with roughly similar timing and displacement to those described previously by other researchers. The first few years of GPS observations, adopted as a reference state in earlier studies, are found to be anomalous. Our results differ from previous studies in two respects. First, a significant component of northward transient motion occurs during both events, despite a reversal of sign in east component motion. Second, sites move coherently in the eastern as well as the western Basin and Range. Surface mass loading, the largest source of transient stress forcing in the region, exhibits no evidence of a simple relationship to the deformation transients. Prior studies inferred slip on a single megadetachment at the Moho, but that hypothesis assumes negligible ductile deformation of the lower crust and a dry olivine rheology for the uppermost mantle. Recent measurements of crustal quartz abundance and effective elastic thickness suggest both assumptions are unlikely. Basin and Range transients can be reconciled with the frictional slip mechanism widely accepted for subduction zone transients provided that slip is occurring on discontiguous detachment surfaces at midcrustal depths.

Chamoli, Ashutosh; Lowry, Anthony R.; Jeppson, Tamara N.

2014-05-01

69

Morphological elements of the Lofoten Basin Channel - implications for the properties of the latest turbidity currents  

Science.gov (United States)

A modern turbidite system, the Andøya Canyon - Lofoten Basin Channel and associated deposits, is located on the continental margin offshore northern Norway (Laberg et al., 2005; 2007). Based on swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar records, and high-resolution seismic data, the Lofoten Basin Channel can be followed from the mouth of the canyon at the base of the continental slope into the abyssal plain of the Lofoten Basin. The proximal part of the channel is a straight erosional feature, up to 30 m deep and about 3 km wide with poorly developed levees. Coring retrieved sandy turbidites deposited both on the channel floor and on its levees. Thus, some of the most recent flows were sandy, up to 3 km wide and more than 30 m high in order to overspill the channel. About 50 km off the mouth of the Andøya Canyon, the Lofoten Basin Channel joins with another channel entering from the northeast. Beyond there is a complex sea floor morphology including one main channel, several smaller channels and various erosional features. The main channel terminates 20 - 30 km to the southwest. Further into the basin an elongated, positive lobe-formed deposit is located. In front of it part of an older, smaller lobe is seen. The main channel is continuing into the deepest part of the Lofoten Basin where it terminates at about 3200 m water depth. About 20 - 25 km from its termination the channel splits into several smaller (up to 500 m wide and 10 - 30 m high), meandering channels. The inter-channel areas are dominated by down-flow elongated scour marks, some located near and in parallel with the channels. These were probably formed by smaller flows confined by the meandering channels. Other scour marks are oriented parallel to the overall flow direction and were probably formed by larger unconfined flows that overtopped and moved independently of the meandering channels. The latter may have been up to an order of magnitude wider and higher compared to the confined flows. A depositional lobe is located beyond the mouth of the meandering channels. Its areal extent is yet unknown. High-resolution sub-bottom profiler records show units of some meter thickness that can be followed for several tens of kilometres. They are separated by continuous to slightly discontinuous medium to high amplitude reflections. Recent coring has identified up to 4 m thick intervals of sand between units of mud. Acknowledgement This work is a contribution to the UNESCO Training Through Research (TTR) program (http://ioc.unesco.org/ttr/) and the Democen project (http://www.ig.uit.no/Democen/). Financial support from the Research Council of Norway and StatoilHydro is greatly acknowledged. References Laberg, J.S., Vorren, T.O., Kenyon, N.H., Ivanov, M., Andersen, E.S. 2005. A modern canyon-fed sandy turbidite system of the Norwegian continental margin. Norwegian Journal of Geology 85, 267-277. Laberg, J.S., Guidard, S., Mienert, J., Vorren, T.O., Haflidason, H., Nygård, A. 2007. Morphology and morphogenesis of a high-latitude canyon; the Andøya Canyon, Norwegian Sea. Marine Geology 246, 68-85.

Laberg, J. S.; Forwick, M.; Johannesen, H. B.; Ivanov, M.; Kenyon, N. H.; Vorren, T. O.

2009-04-01

70

Peace/Williston fish and wildlife compensation program: 1992-1993 public compensation report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program is a joint initiative by British Columbia Hydro and the provincial environment ministry to enhance and protect fish and wildlife resources and their habitat in the Williston watershed affected by the construction of the WAC Bennett and Peace Canyon dams on the Peace River. The interest from a fund of $11 million, established by BC Hydro in 1988, is used to maintain the compensation programs. Public input to the ongoing fish and wildlife programs is provided by a public consultation program. To date, the Peace/Williston compensation program has undertaken 93 projects to either conserve or enhance fish and wildlife through habitat improvement and protection. A summary is presented of the activities undertaken by the public consultation program in 1992/93 and public attitudes toward the consultation program. Activities undertaken in the fish and wildlife enhancement program are summarized in appendices. Fisheries programs included stocking, stream fertilization, small lake surveys, preparation of a side channel in Carbon Creek for multi-species spawning, and creation of an artificial spring at Windy Point for spawning purposes. Wildlife programs included channel clearance and vegetation supply improvements to enhance muskrat and beaver habitat; radio monitoring of sheep and elk; studying the feasibility of transplanting elk herds; and purchase of critical ungulate winter habitat lands. 13 figs., 4 tabshabitat lands. 13 figs., 4 tabs

71

Ecosystem performance assessment for grasslands in the Greater Platte River Basin: implications for cellulosic biofuel development  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies lands suitable for cellulosic biofuel (e.g., switchgrass) development across the Northern Great Plains, with an initial emphasis on the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), using satellite observations, climate data, and ecosystem models. Our approach is based on previous successful ecosystem performance (EP) studies in the Yukon River Basin and the Upper Colorado River Basin. We hypothesize that areas with fairly consistent high grassland productivity (i.e., high site potential) in fair to good range condition (persistent ecosystem overperformance or normal performance with few ecological disturbances) are potentially suitable for cellulosic biofuel (switchgrass) development. Ecosystem site potential was calculated using a 9-year (2000-2008) average of annually integrated growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN), geophysical and biophysical data, climate data, and a rule-based piecewise regression tree model. The GSN derived from eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations was used as a proxy for the actual ecosystem performance. The weather-based expected EP (EEP) was computed using site potential, yearly seasonal climate variables, and piecewise regression tree models. The ecosystem performance anomaly (EPA) for a specific year was estimated based on the difference between the actual EP and the EEP during that year. The final EPA maps were categorized as normal performance, underperformance, and overperformance at the 90% confidence levels. Pixels that either overperformed or normally performed for three of four years from 2005 to 2008 and that have moderate or high site potential within the GPRB are identified as probable areas for future cellulosic biofuel development. Results from this study will help land managers and decision makers make optimal land use decisions for cellulosic biofuel development and sustainability within the grassland regions of the GPRB.

Gu, Y.; Boyte, S. P.; Wylie, B. K.; Tieszen, L. L.

2010-12-01

72

Ages of Martian basins and their implication for the end of the heavy bombardment  

Science.gov (United States)

Global stratigraphic schemes for planetary bodies are usually based on the most common resurfacing process: the impacts of planetesimals which remain as craters or crater-related features on planetary surfaces. Through this random cratering process, counting of the accumulated number of impact craters on planetary surface units offers a valuable procedure in understanding the chronostratigraphy of a certain object. Recent ground-based observational data indicate a wavy (deviating from a simple power law) size-frequency distribution (SFD) for main belt and near-Earth asteroid populations. Neukum proposed a non-power law SFD for the lunar cratering record (Neukum and Ivanov, 1994). This SFD has kept its shape over a period of more than 4 Gyr. The lunar crater SFD is used to estimate the crater-generating family of projectiles from the lunar crater production function since the imagery of the Moon is the most complete and best investigated among the terrestrial planets. Two lunar crater production functions (PF's) were proposed by W. Hartmann (HPF) and G. Neukum (NPF) (Hartmann and Neukum, 2001). The maximum discrepancy between the HPF and NPF is roughly a factor of 3 for crater diameters near D=6 km. For diameters D3.9 Gyr ago and the situation should be similar for Mars. Heavily cratered terrain on Mars was created between about 4.2 to 3.8 billion years ago during the period of the heavy bombardment that is recorded on most of the solid bodies of the Solar System whose surfaces subsequently have not been extensively modified. For the interpretation of the ages of Martian basins we remapped the ejecta blankets of about 20 impact basins (most of them larger than 250 km) on Viking imagery. Additional information for the interpretation of important geological units was obtained using MOLA topographic data. Preliminary results for the basins with detectable ejecta blankets are within the expected range of 3.7 - 4.1 Gyr. This implies that like on the Moon the formation of basins ceased around 3.8 Gyr ago. This is consistent with the applied chronology model. Here we will present these results. Hartmann and Neukum, 2001, In: Chronology and evolution of Mars, Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194. Neukum and Ivanov, 1994, In: Hazards due to Asteroids and Comets, Arizona Press, 359-416.

Werner, S. C.; Neukum, G.

2003-04-01

73

Hydrogeology of an ancient arid closed basin: Implications for tabular sandstone-hosted uranium deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogeologic modeling shows that tabular-type uranium deposits in the grants uranium region of the San Juan basin, New Mexico, formed in zones of ascending and discharging regional ground-water flow. The association of either lacustrine mudstone or actively subsiding structures and uranium deposits can best be explained by the occurrence of lakes at topographic depressions where ground water having different sources and compositions is likely to converge, mix, and discharge. Ascending and discharging flow also explains the association of uranium deposits with underlying evaporites and suggests a brine interface. The simulations contradict previous suggestions that ground water moved downward in the mudflat

74

Facies characteristics of Talchir Formation, Jharia Basin, India: Implications for initiation of Gondwana sedimentation  

Science.gov (United States)

A long phase of nondeposition that prevailed in peninsular India since the Late Proterozoic came into an end with the onset of Gondwana sedimentation. The Talchir Formation, the lowest unit of Gondwana Supergroup, deserves special attention for understanding the Late Paleozoic geological history in this part of the globe. Signatures of three major events have been identified in the Talchir Formation in different Gondwana basins of India: (1) intracratonic rifting, (2) Permo-Carboniferous glaciation and (3) marine incursion. But a unique model to explain the specific relation between these events is yet to be formulated. The present study reveals that the Talchir succession of Jharia Basin of eastern India bears certain evidences, which may lead to a possible solution to this problem. The lower part of the succession is represented by a glacigenic conglomerate, which underwent brecciation possibly due to hydraulic fracturing during deglaciation. Facies analysis leads to the conclusion that a thick fan deposit, presumably produced through resedimentation of preexisting unconsolidated glacial sediments, represents the rest of the Talchir succession. The presence of fragments of brecciated conglomerate within this fan deposit confirms a significant break in the sedimentation history. Three fining upward cycles can be identified within the proximal part of the fan succession. The lower and the middle cycles bear the signature of emplacement of subaqueous high-density flows and variations in facies pattern developed through progressive flow transformation. The upper cycle, however, is represented by sheet-flood and stream-flow deposits. Products of dominantly suspension fall-out over a vast area, with periodic influx of coarser material, constitute the distal fan deposit. The fan succession is unconformably overlain by a fluvial succession, which, in turn, interfingers with the fluviolacustrine deposits of the younger Barakar Formation derived from the opposite side of the basin. This indicates asymmetric pattern of basin-filling as expected in a continental extensional setting. The overall character of this succession indicates that: (1) emplacement of the intracratonic rift system was a post-glaciation event, (2) initial phase of deposition was dominated by resedimentation of the preexisting glacial debris, and (3) marine incursion probably followed deglaciation and persisted for a short time until isostatic equilibrium was attained before the rift system came into existence.

Dasgupta, Prabir

2006-03-01

75

Implication of biomarkers signatures of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, during the Pleistocene  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the molecular distribution of the n-alkanes, alkenone and C/N ratio and ?13C of bulk sediment were used to assess changes in organic matter (OM) source and transport which could be related with paleoclimate change. The proxy records corresponding to the Pleistocene have been obtained from the well-studied the Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Expedition 2 (UBGH2) site 11 in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. The distribution of carbon preference index (CPI) of n-alkane encountered in this study confirmed the importance of terrestrial OM in the marine sediment. Alkenone has been widely applied for sea surface temperature (SST) reconstruction. The data results show that CPI values generally increase with decreasing paleo-SST. Plot of C/N ratio versus ?13C shows a predominance of marine algae origin in the study area. It may indicate that the minimum CPI in warm period is related with the contribution of probably enhanced biodegradation, while the maximum CPI value in cold period result from restrain of OM input associated with sea level lowering. It is likely that the vertical variations of the biomarkers signature reflect the shifts in sedimentary environment and transportation related with change of ocean currents and sea level during the Pleistocene period.

Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Yoo, Dong-Geun

2014-05-01

76

Leaiid conchostracans from the uppermost Permian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: Chronostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Conchostracan fossils are abundant and relatively diversified in the Rio do Rasto Formation (Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil), but leaiids (' Leaia pruvosti' [Reed, F.R.C., 1929. Novos Phyllopodos Fósseis do Brasil. Boletim do Serviço Geológico e Mineralógico do Brasil 34, 2-16]) were previously found at only one locality of the formation in the northern Santa Catarina State. New specimens of the Family Leaiidae, collected from two outcrops in central Paraná State near the top of the formation, stimulated a revision of related taxa. Both the new and the previously known leaiids are herein assigned to Hemicycloleaia mitchelli [Etheridge Jr., R., 1892. On Leaia mitchelli Etheridge. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 7, 307-310] based on the presence of three carinae and subovate shape. This species was originally recorded in the upper Tatarian (Wuchiapingian, Late Permian) of Sydney Basin, eastern Australia and therefore corroborates the interpretation that the leaiid bearing strata of the Rio do Rasto Formation cannot be younger than Permian. H. mitchelli possibly was one of the most widespread, eurytopic and conservative Late Paleozoic conchostracans of Gondwana (although records from Africa, India and Antarctica must still be confirmed) and it was also found in the Tatarian of Russia. The sudden disappearance of leaiids after their apparent success is consistent with the hypothesis about the biotic crisis around the Permo-Triassic boundary.

Ferreira-Oliveira, Luis Gustavo; Rohn, Rosemarie

2010-03-01

77

Multi-Seam Well Completion Technology: Implications for Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential benefits of applying multiseam [well] completion (MSC) technology to the massive stack of low-rank coals in the Powder River Basin. As part of this, the study objectives are: Estimate how much additional CBM resource would become accessible and technically recoverable--compared to the current practice of drilling one well to drain a single coal seam; Determine whether there are economic benefits associated with MSC technology utilization (assuming its widespread, successful application) and if so, quantify the gains; Briefly examine why past attempts by Powder River Basin CBM operators to use MSC technology have been relatively unsuccessful; Provide the underpinnings to a decision whether a MSC technology development and/or demonstration effort is warranted by DOE. To a great extent, this assessment builds on the previously published study (DOE, 2002), which contains many of the key references that underlie this analysis. It is available on the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy technology Laboratory, Strategic Center for Natural Gas website (www.netl.doe.gov/scng). It is suggested that readers obtain a copy of the original study to complement the current report.

Office of Fossil Energy; National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-09-01

78

Gas-and water-saturated conditions in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado: Implications for fractured reservoir detection in a gas-centered coal basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mesaverde Group reservoirs in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado contain a large reservoir base. Attempts to exploit this resource base are stymied by low permeability reservoir conditions. The presence of abundant natural fracture systems throughout this basin, however, does permit economic production. Substantial production is associated with fractured reservoirs in Divide Creek, Piceance Creek, Wolf Creek, White River Dome, Plateau, Shire Gulch, Grand Valley, Parachute and Rulison fields. Successful Piceance Basin gas production requires detailed information about fracture networks and subsurface gas and water distribution in an overall gas-centered basin geometry. Assessment of these three parameters requires an integrated basin analysis incorporating conventional subsurface geology, seismic data, remote sensing imagery analysis, and an analysis of regional tectonics. To delineate the gas-centered basin geometry in the Piceance Basin, a regional cross-section spanning the basin was constructed using hydrocarbon and gamma radiation logs. The resultant hybrid logs were used for stratigraphic correlations in addition to outlining the trans-basin gas-saturated conditions. The magnitude of both pressure gradients (paludal and marine intervals) is greater than can be generated by a hydrodynamic model. To investigate the relationships between structure and production, detailed mapping of the basin (top of the Iles Formation) was used to define subtle subsurface structures that control fractured reservoir development. The most productive fields in the basin possess fractured reservoirs. Detailed studies in the Grand Valley-Parachute-Rulison and Shire Gulch-Plateau fields indicate that zones of maximum structural flexure on kilometer-scale structural features are directly related to areas of enhanced production.

Hoak, T.E.; Decker, A.D.

1995-10-01

79

Implications of Paleogene Foreland Basin Evolution in NW Argentina for Timing of Andean Orogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The timing and paleogeography of early Andean mountain building are topics of ongoing debate. We track development of the early central Andes in Bolivia and NW Argentina by studying widespread Tertiary deposits in the Altiplano-Puna and Eastern Cordillera. These deposits accumulated on top of Late Cretaceous post-rift marginal marine facies and Precambrian-Paleozoic basement. Over a north-south distance of 1000 km, the Paleocene-Oligocene succession consists of three stratigraphic assemblages: (1) Paleocene-Eocene fluvial- lacustrine siltstone and marl, up to ~200 m thick; (2) a 10-100 m thick zone of stacked Eocene paleosols, including stage III-IV Calcisols, Vertisols, and strongly reduced Gleysols; and (3) an upward coarsening, several km-thick sequence of fluvial to alluvial fan deposits. Locally, upper Eocene-Miocene rocks consist of thick (>2 km), proximal alluvial fan deposits containing growth structures. Modal petrographic data indicate derivation from metasedimentary and plutonic source terranes, and paleocurrent data show eastward sediment transport. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate derivation from Paleozoic low-grade metasedimentary and igneous source rocks. Eocene detrital AFT ages from apatite grains that yield early Paleozoic U-Pb crystallization ages require rapid exhumation (0.4 mm/yr to >1mm/yr) of western source areas in neighboring regions such as the Eastern Cordillera and indicate a constructional orogen. Combined with previous structural studies, our data are consistent with a Late Cretaceous-Eocene thrust belt in the Cordillera de Domeyko in northern Chile, flanked to the east by a several hundred km wide foreland basin system. Flexural subsidence dominated the proximal region, and back-bulge and post-rift thermal subsidence may have operated in the distal eastern part of the basin. Approximately 500 km of eastward migration of the foreland basin system produced the vertical succession preserved in the Paleogene of the Puna and Eastern Cordillera. Shortening estimates for NW Argentina combined with simple flexural modeling raise the issue of the possible whereabouts of a roughly 300 km long slab of underthrust South American lower crust and lithosphere.

Decelles, P. G.; Carrapa, B.; Horton, B. K.; Starck, D.; Gehrels, G. E.

2007-12-01

80

Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluated the spatial and temporal responses of precipitation in the basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and Indian Ocean (IO dipole modes using observed precipitation records at 43 stations across the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins from 1982 to 2010. Daily observed precipitation records were extracted from Global Surface Summary of the Day dataset and spatial and monthly anomalies were computed. The anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by climate modes combinations. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduced (60% and 88% of baseline in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, respectively precipitation during the monsoon months in the northwestern and central Ganges basin and across the Brahmaputra basin. In contrast, co-occurrence of La Niña and a positive IO dipole mode significantly enhanced (135% and 160% of baseline, respectively precipitation across both basins. During the co-occurrence of neutral phases in both climate modes (occurring 13 out of 28 yr, precipitation remained below average to average in the agriculturally extensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, eastern Nepal, and the Rajshahi district in Bangladesh in the Ganges basin and northern Bangladesh, Meghalaya, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh in the Brahmaputra basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely in these areas with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Major flooding and drought occurred as a consequence of the interactive effects of the ENSO and IO dipole modes, with the sole exception of extreme precipitation and flooding during El Niño events. This observational analysis will facilitate well informed decision making in minimizing natural hazard risks and climate impacts on agriculture, and supports development of strategies ensuring optimized use of water resources in best management practice under changing climate.

M. S. Pervez

2014-02-01

81

Petrophysical and Mechanical Properties of Fractured Aquifers in the Northern Newark Basin: Implications for Carbon Sequestration  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the key factors in predicting the performance of low-permeability fractured reservoirs is a detailed understanding of the in-situ state of stress and the distribution and orientation of natural fractures and faults. In this study we analyze borehole geophysical data from a deep characterization well in the northern Newark Basin, a candidate CO2-storage site, and provide petrophysical and geomechanical characterization of fractured sedimentary and igneous formations. Previous studies in the northern Newark basin demonstrated no unique relationship between hydraulic conductivity and degree of fracturing, fracture apertures or orientation. Therefore, in the absence of hydraulic testing data predicting fracture behavior under CO2 injection condition presents a significant challenge for baseline formation characterization. Moreover, fluid injection in deep wells can cause reactivation of existing faults or new fracture initiation due to significant increase in the pore pressure. We analyze electrical resistivity images and full-wave sonic data to constrain the state of the current in-situ stress in the northern Newark basin, and to evaluate how the interaction between in-situ stress and the distribution and orientation of natural fractures influences their hydraulic properties. We then combine it with the full suite of wireline logs to describe petrophysical, hydraulic, and geomechanical properties of the fractured aquifers at the locality. The Sandia Technologies, LLC Tandem Lot #1 geologic characterization well (Rockland County, NY) is about 6,800 ft deep and transects Triassic terrestrial sediments and the Palisades diabase sill that are both characterized by abundant natural fractures. A suite of standard wireline logs, high-resolution electrical resistivity images and full-wave sonic data were collected in the borehole but no hydraulic data or in-situ stress estimates are available. Borehole breakouts are clearly observed in the resistivity images in distinct sedimentary layers and strike predominantly SSE-NNW. In the Palisades sill breakouts are absent but the wellbore is consistently enlarged by up to 4 inches in the SE-NW direction (nominal hole diameter is 8.5 in). Drilling-induced tensile fractures and drilling-enhanced natural fractures appear in the tensile quadrants striking NE-SW. Preliminary analysis of sonic wavefields also suggest the NE orientation of the fast shear azimuth. For a vertical borehole these factors indicate maximum horizontal stress in the NE-SW direction, and are consistent with earthquake focal plane solutions and previous stress direction estimates in the Newark Basin. Borehole images also provide an excellent tool to describe natural fracture distribution and orientation. Combined with other petrophysical data such as core-calibrated density log, elastic moduli and stress-induced shear-wave anisotropy indicator, they allow to constrain geomechanical properties of the formation and to predict fracture behavior for potential CO2 injection conditions.

Zakharova, N. V.; Goldberg, D.; Collins, D.; Olsen, P. E.

2012-12-01

82

Implications of customary norms and laws for implementing IWRM: findings from Pangani and Rufiji basins, Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the preliminary findings of a WARFSA-funded study, whose objective is to facilitate the formulation of better policies and guidelines for implementing IWRM through a case study of local water conflicts. It is observed that, although the current water reforms in the country focus on the use of statutory legal systems to regulate the use of water resources, the country operates under a plural legal system. Apart from the statutory laws, diverse customary systems are relied upon in resolving water-related conflicts. Neglect of these norms and laws may have negative consequences for the majority of the villagers who rely on them. The paper presents some of the water-related conflicts in the study areas and the views of government authorities and river basin managers regarding customary norms and laws for water resource management. Also, the paper describes how different types of conflicts over water resources are handled through official legal channels.

Maganga, Faustin P.; Kiwasila, Hilda L.; Juma, Ibrahim H.; Butterworth, John A.

83

Electrical Conductance Map for the Kachchh Rift Basin: Constraint on Tectonic Evolution and Seismotectonic Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Geomagnetic field variations recorded by an array of magnetometers spread across the Kachchh Rift basin are reduced to a set of induction arrows as a diagnostic of lateral electrical conductivity variations. A non-uniform thin-sheet electrical conductance model is developed to account for the salient induction patterns. It indicates that the imaged conductivity anomalies can be related to the sediment-filled structural lows in between the fault bounded uplifts. It is suggested that sagging structural lows preserved the marine sediments deposited during the Mesozoic sea transgression and later developed into first order embayment basins for the deposition of sediments in association with Late Eocene transgression. Depth integrated electrical conductance helped in mapping two depo-centres: along the ENE-WSW trending Banni half-Graben bounded by the Kachchh Main fault on the south and, second, along the Vinjan depression formed in response to the subsidence between the Vigodi fault and westward extension of the Katrol Hill fault together with the westward bending of the Median High. Presence of metamorphosed graphite schist clasts in shale dominated Mesozoic sequence and/or thin films of carbon resulting from the thermal influence of Deccan activity on Carbonate-rich formations can account for the high electrical conductivity anomalies seen in the depo-centres of thick Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments. Additionally two high conductivity zones are imaged encompassing a block defined by the 2001 Bhuj earthquake and its aftershocks. In agreement with gravity, magnetic and seismic velocity signatures, aqueous fluids released by recrystallizing magmatic bodies intruded in association with Deccan trap activity account for mapped high conductivity zones. High fluid pressure in such a fractured domain, surrounding the intruded magmatic plugs, perturb the regional stress concentrations to produce frequent and low magnitude aftershocks in the shallow section of the epicentral track of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake.

Subba Rao, P. B. V.; Arora, B. R.; Singh, A. K.

2014-09-01

84

Fracturing of doleritic intrusions and associated contact zones: Implications for fluid flow in volcanic basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Igneous intrusions act as both carriers and barriers to subsurface fluid flow and are therefore expected to significantly influence the distribution and migration of groundwater and hydrocarbons in volcanic basins. Given the low matrix permeability of igneous rocks, the effective permeability in- and around intrusions is intimately linked to the characteristics of their associated fracture networks. Natural fracturing is caused by numerous processes including magma cooling, thermal contraction, magma emplacement and mechanical disturbance of the host rock. Fracturing may be locally enhanced along intrusion-host rock interfaces, at dyke-sill junctions, or at the base of curving sills, thereby potentially enhancing permeability associated with these features. In order to improve our understanding of fractures associated with intrusive bodies emplaced in sedimentary host rocks, we have investigated a series of outcrops from the Karoo Basin of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, where the siliciclastic Burgersdorp Formation has been intruded by various intrusions (thin dykes, mid-sized sheet intrusions and thick sills) belonging to the Karoo dolerite. We present a quantified analysis of fracturing in- and around these igneous intrusions based on five outcrops at three individual study sites, utilizing a combination of field data, high-resolution lidar virtual outcrop models and image processing. Our results show a significant difference between the three sites in terms of fracture orientation. The observed differences can be attributed to contrasting intrusion geometries, outcrop geometry (for lidar data) and tectonic setting. Two main fracture sets were identified in the dolerite at two of the sites, oriented parallel and perpendicular to the contact respectively. Fracture spacing was consistent between the three sites, and exhibits a higher degree of variation in the dolerites compared to the host rock. At one of the study sites, fracture frequency in the surrounding host rock increases slightly toward the intrusion at approximately 3 m from the contact. We conclude by presenting a conceptual fluid flow model, showing permeability enhancement and a high potential for fluid flow-channeling along the intrusion-host rock interfaces.

Senger, Kim; Buckley, Simon J.; Chevallier, Luc; Fagereng, Åke; Galland, Olivier; Kurz, Tobias H.; Ogata, Kei; Planke, Sverre; Tveranger, Jan

2015-02-01

85

Identification and Implications of a Submarine Monogenetic Field in the NE Lau Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Short-lived, volcanism at discrete, closely spaced volcanic cones and low lying lava flows in the NE corner of the Lau backarc basin shares many characteristics with subaerial monogenetic fields. We use geological, morphological, petrological, and geochemical observations of this volcanic field made on five research expeditions since 2008, along with comparisons to well-known terrestrial monogenetic fields to assess whether the Mata volcanic group is best thought of as a submarine mongenetic volcanic field (a term rarely, if ever, applied to submarine settings). The volcanism has constructed a series of 9 small, very closely spaced, hydrothermally-active, elongate volcanic edifices near the east-west portion of the Tonga Trench, which are 1.5 to 7.5 km apart (summit to summit) and are 450 to 1400m tall. Only one of the volcanoes (West Mata) is currently active, erupting boninite pillow lavas along with explosively-generated volcaniclastic sediments. The ages of the youngest volcanics on the other Mata volcanoes are not yet determined but most are hydrothermally active and are surfaced with relatively young lava flows without significant sediment cover. The volcanoes are all formed predominantly of low effusion rate pillow lavas with variable amounts of pyroclastic deposits mantling the constructional topography, suggesting relatively long-lived volcanism (ca 100-200 yrs) at each center, similar to large lava shields in Iceland (e.g., skjaldbreidur). Detailed stratigraphic observations are as yet only available for one volcano (with more to come during an ROV field campaign in Sept. 2012). Bottom photographs provide no clear evidence for long-lived hiatuses at any of these cones and bathymetric data do not intricate overlapping constructional structures, resurgent construction, or large scale collapse or mass wasting structures, as might be expected for a protracted, many-eruption volcanic history at any single volcano. However, the oldest edifice does show evidence of post-volcanic tectonism and several of the smallest volcanoes appear to be built on a basement of either failed earlier volcanoes or rifted lithosphere. All but one of the cones are built of broadly boninitic volcanic products (the other is meimikite), yet major and trace element compositions are distinct enough (Glancy et al., this volume) to imply that each is fed by separate, poorly mixed, small magma batches, much like the MGVF in central western Mexico. The northern portion of the Lau Basin is the fastest opening backarc on Earth; this rapid extension combined with thin lithosphere, and episodic and dispersed magma supply from the nearby subduction system, appears to promote conditions favoring dispersed monogenetic volcanism over longer lived volcanic edifices or ridges.erspective view of the Matas from the west

Rubin, K. H.; Embley, R. W.

2012-12-01

86

Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

S. Quiroga

2010-08-01

87

Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

2010-08-01

88

Crop yields response to water pressures in the Ebro basin in Spain: risk and water policy implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro river basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

S. Quiroga

2011-02-01

89

Crop yields response to water pressures in the Ebro basin in Spain: risk and water policy implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro river basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

2011-02-01

90

Delineation of Piceance Basin basement structures using multiple source data: Implications for fractured reservoir exploration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fractured production trends in Piceance Basin Cretaceous-age Mesaverde Group gas reservoirs are controlled by subsurface structures. Because many of the subsurface structures are controlled by basement fault trends, a new interpretation of basement structure was performed using an integrated interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), high altitude, false color aerial photography, gas and water production data, high-resolution aeromagnetic data, subsurface geologic information, and surficial fracture maps. This new interpretation demonstrates the importance of basement structures on the nucleation and development of overlying structures and associated natural fractures in the hydrocarbon-bearing section. Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, Plateau, Shire Gulch, White River Dome, Divide Creek and Wolf Creek fields all produce gas from fractured tight gas sand and coal reservoirs within the Mesaverde Group. Tectonic fracturing involving basement structures is responsible for development of permeability allowing economic production from the reservoirs. In this context, the significance of detecting natural fractures using the intergrated fracture detection technique is critical to developing tight gas resources. Integration of data from widely-available, relatively inexpensive sources such as high-resolution aeromagnetics, remote sensing imagery analysis and regional geologic syntheses provide diagnostic data sets to incorporate into an overall methodology for targeting fractured reservoirs. The ultimate application of this methodology is the development and calibration of a potent exploration tool to predict subsurface fractured reservoirs, and target areas for exploration drilling, and infill and step-out development programs.

Hoak, T.E.; Klawitter, A.L.

1995-10-01

91

Drmno lignite field (Kostolac basin, Serbia: Origin and palaeoenvironmental implications from petrological and organic geochemical studies  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the origin and to reconstruct the geological evolution of lignites from the Drmno field (Kostolac Basin, Serbia. For this purpose petrological and organic geochemical analyses were used. Coal from the Drmno field is typical humic coal. Peat-forming vegetation dominated by decay of resistant gymnosperm (coniferous plants, followed by prokaryotic organisms and angiosperms. Coal forming plants belonged to the gymnosperm families Taxodiaceae, Podocarpaceae, Cupressaceae, Araucariaceae, Phyllocladaceae and Pinaceae. Peatification was performed in neutral to slightly acidic, fresh water environment. Considering that organic matter of Drmno lignites was deposited at the same time, in the relatively constant climate, it could be supposed that climate probably had only small impact on peatification. Therefore, variations in compositions of macerals and biomarkers indicate changes in the water level, due to seasonal drying of the mire, which caused vegetation differences in the palaeoplant communities and changes of redox conditions (from anoxic to slightly oxic during peatification. Diagenetic transformations of the organic matter were mainly governed by microbial activity, rather than thermal alteration.

Stojanovi? Ksenija

2012-01-01

92

A 250,000-Year Climatic Record from Great Basin Vein Calcite: Implications for Milankovitch Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

A continuous record of oxygen-18 (? 18O) variations in the continental hydrosphere during the middle-to-late Pleistocene has been obtained from a uranium-series dated calcitic vein in the southern Great Basin. The vein was deposited from ground water that moved through Devils Hole--an open fault zone at Ash Meadows, Nevada--between 50 and 310 ka (thousand years ago). The configuration of the ? 18O versus time curve closely resembles the marine and Antarctic ice core (Vostok) ? 18O curves; however, the U-Th dates indicate that the last interglacial stage (marine oxygen isotope stage 5) began before 147 ± 3 ka, at least 17,000 years earlier than indicated by the marine ? 18O record and 7,000 years earlier than indicated by the less well dated Antarctic ? 18O record. This discrepancy and other differences in the timing of key climatic events suggest that the indirectly dated marine ? 18O chronology may need revision and that orbital forcing may not be the principal cause of the Pleistocene ice ages.

Winograd, Isaac J.; Szabo, Barney J.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Riggs, Alan C.

1988-12-01

93

Isotopic composition of rainfall and runoff in a small arid basin with implications for deep percolation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to characterize the isotopic composition of potential recharge in an arid rocky watershed. Unique field observations were obtained from an arid watershed in the Negev Highlands, Israel, through utilization of the dynamic variations in the isotopic composition of rainfall and runoff. The hydrological system's inputs are rainfall and its isotopic composition. Rainfall and runoff were sampled in eight storms. High variability in the isotopic composition of rainfall was observed during any single rainstorm. The isotopic distribution in the runoff at the outlet of the basin appeared often not to be correlated to the isotopic patterns of the associated rain storm. A new mathematical model was developed to describe these physical processes. The model called A Double-Component Kinematic Wave Flow and Transport Approach, was designated to assess the dynamic isotopic distribution in arid rain storms and runoff. This model simulates the transport of rainfall into overland flow and runoff in an arid rocky watershed with uniformly distributed shallow depression storage. A numerical solution for the problem was developed, to estimate the depression storage parameters. The model also reflects the isotopic memory effect due to the depression storage between sequential rain showers. A good agreement between the observed and computed hydrograph and the change of the ?18O values in runoff in time confirms the validity of the model. (author) 138 figs., 125 refs

94

Globalization and the Spatial Economy: Implications for the Amazon Basin in the 21st Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Global demand for food and energy will increase in the next decades as world population grows, incomes in developing countries rise, and new energy sources from biofuels are sought. Despite gains in productivity, much of the future demand for those agricultural products will be met by bringing new lands into production. Tropical forests, and in particular the Brazilian Amazon, the focus of our article, are already facing pressures from expanding production of soy, beef, cotton, and biofuels as deforestation advances the agricultural frontier. This article begins by reviewing the recent literature and provides evidences of indirect land cover change in the Amazon driven by the tandem soy - cattle, whereby mechanized agriculture encroaches on existing pastures, displacing them to the Amazonian frontier. We then consider conditions in the spatial economy that potentially inhibit ongoing forest loss. In particular, we address the prospect of forest transition in the Amazon basin. This necessitates a review of the so-called Borlaug hypothesis, and the circumstances under which land sparing occurs. Land sparing, a sufficient if not necessary condition for forest transition, represents a potential solution to environmental problems associated with land change, one that promotes sustainability by furthering rural development with improved technologies. The paper concludes by contrasting the current Brazilian agricultural and environmental policies with the conditions set in the previous section.

Arima, E.; Walker, R.; Richards, P.

2011-12-01

95

New seismo-stratigraphic data of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, Tyrrhenian margin, southern Italy: implications for tectono-stratigraphy of the Campania and Latium sedimentary basins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A geological section of the Volturno Basin (northern Campania, continental margin, Italy has been constructed based on new multi-channel seismic data, to show the stratigraphic relationships between the filling in the Quaternary basin and the Meso-Cenozoic acoustic basement. The new seismic sections presented here outline the underlying structures of the basin and their relationships to the filling in the Quaternary basin. Deep exploration wells in Campania and Latium on the Tyrrhenian margin have gathered litho-stratigraphic and commercial multi-channel seismic data that can be used for better integration of the geological data for the area under study. The trending of the seismic units is controlled by the Massico Structural High, which forms the boundary of the Volturno Basin towards the north-west. This produces a geometry that is characteristic of a fan complex, with NE-SW trending. This qualitative calibration of the seismic sequences that fill the sedimentary basin was carried out through the litho-stratigraphic data of the «Castelvolturno 2» well, which highlights the pyroclastic layers and conglomeratic strata of the lagoon and delta environments as they evolve upwards towards marine sediments. Seismo-stratigraphic analysis shows the complex depositional geometries of the filling in the Volturno Basin, which overlie the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic basement and the related flysch deposits. Coupled with regional geological evidence, the data interpretation here suggests that the Volturno Basin represents a half-graben structure that is characterized by down-thrown blocks along normal faults.

Ennio Marsella

2011-07-01

96

Possible pingo fields in the Utopia basin, Mars: Geological and climatical implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of pingos on Mars has been hypothesized since the period of the Viking mission. In fact, a diverse range of pingo-like features has been found at various martian sites including Elysium, Chryse and Utopia Planitiae in the northern lowlands. Due to the morphology and the geological setting, some of those features were interpreted in different ways, creating some controversies, as happened in Athabasca Valles. This reflects the complexity of interpreting these features by remote sensing and multiple plausible interpretations of the same feature. With the objective of identifying new possible pingos or rootless cones on Mars, we selected a study area in Utopia Planitia (10-55° N, 210-260° W) where the presence of both features is possible due to its geological history (volcanic and hydrological). We analyzed more than 2100 Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)-narrow angle images in addition to Viking, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, together with Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA)-derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with a Geographic Information System (GIS). We found in 94 MOC-narrow angle images dome, cone, and ring-shaped features. We analyzed them from morphological and morphometrical points of view in order to compare them with relevant features on Mars and Earth. We tested different possible origins for those features following the approach of multiple working hypotheses. We conclude that the dome, cone, and ring-shaped features could be pingos, which is in agreement with their geological settings. Regarding the driving heat source for the formation of the purported pingos, we propose the existence of a heat source, possibly a magma chamber, underneath the surface of the Utopia basin. Together with possible climatic shifts, the past activities of the heat source may have caused melting of ground ice. The pingo growth due to freezing of the water would have occurred during the following cold climatic conditions.

de Pablo, Miguel Ángel; Komatsu, Goro

2009-01-01

97

Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Two major traces of active thrust faults were identified in the Kashmir Basin (KB) using satellite images and by mapping active geomorphic features. The ~N130°E strike of the mapped thrust faults is consistent with the regional ~NE-SW convergence along the Indian-Eurasian collision zone. The ~NE dipping thrust faults have uplifted the young alluvial fan surfaces at the SW side of the KB. This created a major tectono-geomorphic boundary along the entire strike length of the KB that is characterised by (1) a low relief with sediment-filled sluggish streams to the SE and (2) an uplifted region, with actively flowing streams to the SW. The overall tectono-geomorphic expression suggests that recent activity along these faults has tilted the entire Kashmir valley towards NE. Further, the Mw 7.6 earthquake, which struck Northern Pakistan and Kashmir on 8 October 2005, also suggests a similar strike and NE dipping fault plane, which could indicate that the KB fault is continuous over a distance of ~210 km and connects on the west with the Balakot Bagh fault. However, the geomorphic and the structural evidences of such a structure are not very apparent on the north-west, which thus suggest that it is not a contiguous structure with the Balakot Bagh fault. Therefore, it is more likely that the KB fault is an independent thrust, a possible ramp on the Main Himalayan Thrust, which has uplifting the SW portion of the KB and drowning everything to the NE (e.g. Madden et al. 2011). Furthermore, it seems very likely that the KB fault could be a right stepping segment of the Balakot Bagh fault, similar to Riasi Thrust, as proposed by Thakur et al. (2010). The earthquake magnitude is measured by estimating the fault rupture parameters (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith in Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994). Therefore, the total strike length of the mapped KB fault is ~120 km and by assuming a dip of 29° (Avouac et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 249:514-528, 2006) and a down-dip limit of 20 km, a Mw of 7.6 is possible on this fault.

Shah, A. A.

2013-02-01

98

Ultramorphological features of the egg of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston) (Diptera, Psychodidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Aspectos ultramorfológicos do ovo de Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston) (Diptera, Psychodidae). As moscas da família Psychodidae, também conhecidas como moscas de banheiro, são de importância médica e veterinária. Informações gerais sobre ciclo de vida e hábitos do adulto são facilmente encontr [...] adas, mas pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do ovo. Dessa forma, neste estudo, a ultramofologia do ovo de Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893) foi analisada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura com o objetivo de descrever sua estrutura, provendo importantes dados para futuras comparações entre moscas de diferentes espécies e gêneros. O aspecto geral do ovo de T. albipunctatus é similar a outros Psychodidae, medindo aproximadamente 0.4 mm de comprimento e 0.1 mm de largura. Entretanto, baseado nas esculturas contínuas e descontínuas do exocórion, as quais podem ser espécie-específicas, podemos inferir que os ovos de T. albipunctatus podem sobreviver sob condições de muita umidade ou seca, dificultando o controle da espécie. Nossos resultados ressaltam a importância do uso da microscopia eletrônica como uma ferramenta no estudo dos padrões do exocórion. A morfologia externa do ovo de T. albipunctatus pode ser usada como base para futuros estudos e como ferramenta para comparação de diferentes espécies de moscas do gênero Psychodidae. Abstract in english Ultramorphological features of the egg of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston) (Diptera, Psychodidae). Psychodidae flies, also known as sewage, sand and filter flies are important for medical and veterinary purposes. General information about life cycle and adult habits is available, but few spec [...] ies are known about the egg morphology. Therefore, in this study, the egg ultramorphology of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to describe its structure, generating data for further comparison between different fly species and genera. General aspects of T. albipunctatus egg are similar to other Psychodidae; egg measuring approximately 0.4 mm in length and 0.1 mm in width. However, based on the continuous and discontinuous longitudinal ridge sculptures observed on the exochorion, which can be species-specific, we can infer that T. albipunctatus eggs can survive under dry or moist conditions, making their control much more difficult. Our data emphasize the advantages of the electron microscope approach in the study of the exochorion patterns. Eggshell morphology of T. albipunctatus can be used as basis for further studies and as a tool to compare different species of Psychodidae flies.

Thalita, Rocha; José Augusto de Oliveira, David; Flávio Henrique, Caetano.

2011-06-01

99

Ultramorphological features of the egg of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ultramorphological features of the egg of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae. Psychodidae flies, also known as sewage, sand and filter flies are important for medical and veterinary purposes. General information about life cycle and adult habits is available, but few species are known about the egg morphology. Therefore, in this study, the egg ultramorphology of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893 was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to describe its structure, generating data for further comparison between different fly species and genera. General aspects of T. albipunctatus egg are similar to other Psychodidae; egg measuring approximately 0.4 mm in length and 0.1 mm in width. However, based on the continuous and discontinuous longitudinal ridge sculptures observed on the exochorion, which can be species-specific, we can infer that T. albipunctatus eggs can survive under dry or moist conditions, making their control much more difficult. Our data emphasize the advantages of the electron microscope approach in the study of the exochorion patterns. Eggshell morphology of T. albipunctatus can be used as basis for further studies and as a tool to compare different species of Psychodidae flies.Aspectos ultramorfológicos do ovo de Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae. As moscas da família Psychodidae, também conhecidas como moscas de banheiro, são de importância médica e veterinária. Informações gerais sobre ciclo de vida e hábitos do adulto são facilmente encontradas, mas pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do ovo. Dessa forma, neste estudo, a ultramofologia do ovo de Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893 foi analisada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura com o objetivo de descrever sua estrutura, provendo importantes dados para futuras comparações entre moscas de diferentes espécies e gêneros. O aspecto geral do ovo de T. albipunctatus é similar a outros Psychodidae, medindo aproximadamente 0.4 mm de comprimento e 0.1 mm de largura. Entretanto, baseado nas esculturas contínuas e descontínuas do exocórion, as quais podem ser espécie-específicas, podemos inferir que os ovos de T. albipunctatus podem sobreviver sob condições de muita umidade ou seca, dificultando o controle da espécie. Nossos resultados ressaltam a importância do uso da microscopia eletrônica como uma ferramenta no estudo dos padrões do exocórion. A morfologia externa do ovo de T. albipunctatus pode ser usada como base para futuros estudos e como ferramenta para comparação de diferentes espécies de moscas do gênero Psychodidae.

Thalita Rocha

2011-06-01

100

Vertical Changes in Formation Water Composition in Arkosic California Basins: Implications for Types of Water-Rock interaction and Fluid transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

New formation water analyses from the Los Angeles (LA) basin are being used to verify upward fluid flow along intrabasin faults, including the Newport-Inglewood fault zone. Upward fluid flow has been proposed based on transient thermal anomalies observed in shut-in wells. We are using major elements and 87/86Sr, 18/16O, and D isotopes to characterize the waters. Formation waters in the LA basin have distinct differences between shallow and deeper levels, including decreasing salinity, decreasing magnesium, and increasing alkalinity and boron content with depth. Formation waters in the LA Basin have different compositions than those in the San Joaquin Basin to the north, even though both are derived from pore water interaction with Miocene and younger marine arkosic sandstone. One major difference between the sample sets is that the San Joaquin samples have been buried more deeply (i.e., hotter) than those in the LA Basin and this difference is reflected in the type of water-rock interaction. Although the initial connate water trapped in these reservoirs was presumably sea water, the present day waters are generally less saline (up to 30%) than sea water salinity. Dilution of the initial sea water is presumably due to dewatering of smectite during conversion to illite, although we are evaluating meteoric contribution from basin flank uplift. Low Sr ratios and high Ca/Na ratios indicate that deeper reservoirs in the San Joaquin and LA Basins are characterized by plagioclase reactions (i.e., albitization). High Sr ratios in the shallow LA Basin reservoirs suggest dominantly clay-water and K-feldspar-water interaction due to weathering and/or shallow burial reactions. Overall, this unique data set has implications for fluid transfer in fault zones and types of fluid-rock interaction from CO2 sequestration. Results to date indicate that formation waters from the deep basin can be distinguished from those at shallow levels, allowing detection of upward fluid movement along pathways, such as faults.

Boles, J. R.; Garven, G.; Mallory, M.; Camacho, M.

2011-12-01

101

Assessing the implications of baseline climate uncertainty on simulated water yield within the Himalayan Beas river basin in NW India  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the impacts of the changing water cycle on future water resources and society is one of the most important issues surrounding anthropogenic climate change, especially in regions with limited adaptive capacity or highly water-dependent economies. One such region is the north western Himalayan region of India, where supplementary irrigation is used in the non-monsoon seasons and where over 90% of the population are reliant on agriculture for their livelihoods. This paper focuses on the transboundary 12,560km2 Beas catchment in Himachal Pradesh, which is one of the case study catchments of the Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change in Indian agriculture (MICCI) project of the UK NERC Changing Water Cycle Programme. However, understanding of the impacts of changes in the water cycle in such regions is dependent on the quality of available observational climate datasets- a challenge given the relative paucity of ground-based observations in mountainous terrains. River flows in the Beas, which support both irrigation and hydropower, are highly seasonal, being dependent on the Indian Monsoon augmented by seasonal snow and ice melt from the Himalayas. This paper describes the uncertainty in simulating water yield in the Beas catchment, using the HySim hydrological model, associated with the use of a diverse range of public domain and governmental observed and derived precipitation and evapo-transpiration datasets (including gridded ground-based data from the Indian Meteorological Department; TRMM, NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and the APHRODITE project). For example, basin annual average precipitation (2000-07) ranges from 1476 mm/yr (CFSR), 2093mm/yr (APHRODITE) to 2357 mm/yr (TRMM), whilst basin annual average reference evapotranspiration ranges from 1320 mm/yr (with a minimum to maximum sub-basin range of 136-4680 mm/yr) using the Priestley Taylor to 2296 mm/yr (190-6954 mm/yr) with Penman-Monteith. The selection of datasets affects baseline hydrological model performance with, for example, calibration Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranging from 0.56 to 0.68 across the precipitation datasets (using CFSR data to derive evapotranspiration) for the river Beas. To evaluate the potential impact of such uncertainty on assessments of future water yield, we further describe the application of a scenario-neutral modelling framework using IPPC AR4 ranges of temperature and precipitation changes to the baseline datasets to assess the differences in their response surfaces. The results show that the uncertainty in the driving hydroclimatological variables, associated with the choice of underlying observational dataset and the choice of evopo-transpiration method, translates into significant temporal and spatial uncertainty in simulated baseline and future water yield with significant implications for our ability to project changes in the water cycle in such sensitive regions.

Holman, I.; Remesan, R.; Adeloye, A.; Ojha, C. S.

2013-12-01

102

Enriched back-arc basin basalts from the northern Mariana Through: Implications for the magmatic evolution of back-arc basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The composition of basalts erupted at the earliest stages in the evolution of back-arc basin permit unique insights into the composition and structure of the sub-arc mantle. We report major and trace element chemical data and O-, Sr-, Nd-, and Pb-isotopic analyses for basalts recovered from four dredge hauls and one ALVIN dive in the northern Mariana Trough near 22deg N. The petrography and major element chemistry of these basalts (MTB-22) are similar to tholeiites from the widest part of the Trough, near 18deg N (MTB-18), except that MTB-22 have slightly more K2O and slightly less TiO2. The trace element data exhibit a very strong arc signature in MTB-22, including elevated K, Rb, Sr, Ba, and LREE contents; relatively low K/Ba and high Ba/La and Sr/Nd. The Sr- and Nd-isotopic data plot in a field displaced from that of MTB-18 towards Mariana arc lavas, and the Pb-isotopic composition of MTB-22 is indistinguishable from Mariana arc lavas and much more homogeneous than MTB-18. Mixing of 50-90% Mariana arc component with a MORB component is hypothesized. We cannot determine whether this resulted from physical mixing of arc mantle and MORB mantle, or whether the arc component is introduced by metasomatism of MORB-like mantle by fluids released from the subducted lithosphere. The strong arc signature in back-arc melts from the Mariana Trough at 22deg N, where the back-arc basin is narrow, supports general models for back-arc basin evolution whereby eels for back-arc basin evolution whereby early back-arc basin basalts have a strong arc component which diminishes in importante relative to MORB as the back-arc basin widens. (orig.)

103

Organofacies and kerogen tranformation kinetics: Implications for hydrocarbon generation in the Bucomazi Formation, lower Congo coastal basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deposited under lacustrine conditions during the rift-phase opening of the southern Atlantic, the lower Congo Bucomazi Formation is a highly productive source rock sequence. Reaching considerable thickness (1.8 km), a heterogeneous organofacies reflects both rapid accumulation and changing conditions during Early Cretaceous Barremian sedimentation. As a component of organofacies, low resolution studies showed kerogen kinetic parameters (Ea/A) varied widely according to the gross paleoenvironmental conditions prevailing during deposition. As a a general trend, refractory (type I, higher Ea) kerogens of the [open quotes]basin fill[close quotes] Organic Rich Zone (ORZ) give way to more labile (type II, lower Ea) assemblages in the up-section [open quotes]sheet drape[close quotes] sediments. At higher resolution, a considerable fine structure in Ea fluctuation, presumably reflecting micropaleoenvironment control, becomes evident. Using Ea values assembled for the Bucomazi type section, subsidence modeling for a Ponta Vermelha depocenter section showed a wide disparity in behavior. Being more representative of the sheet-drape episode, type II assemblages matured earlier, at lesser overburdens, and provided the initial hydrocarbon charge. For the ORZ assemblages, the dominant type I component was of retarded maturation, only becoming productive at commensurately greater overburdens. Cumulatively, these events merge to provide an extended period of hydrocarbon generation with implications for production of aggregate oils of varied emplacement histories. Significantly, the net effect of the observed Ea contrast results in the less prolific (but more labile) uppermost Bucomazi assuming a more important charging role than the ORZ of superior source richness. The latter can only realize its full potential under the greatest overburdens attainable in the most subsident depocenters.

Burwood, R.; Fortems, G.; Mycke, B.; Paulet, J.; De Witte, S.M. (Petrofina S.A., Brussels (Belgium))

1993-09-01

104

Peace/Williston fish and wildlife compensation program: 1991-1992 Public compensation report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program is a joint initiative by British Columbia Hydro and the provincial environment ministry to enhance and protect fish and wildlife resources and their habitat in the Williston watershed affected by the construction of the WAC Bennett and Peace Canyon dams on the Peace River. The interest from a fund of $11 million, established by BC Hydro in 1988, is used to maintain the compensation programs. Public input to the ongoing fish and wildlife programs is provided by a public consultation program. A summary is presented of the activities undertaken by the public consultation program in 1991/92 and public attitudes toward the consultation program. Activities undertaken in the fish and wildlife enhancement program are summarized in appendices. Fisheries programs included stocking, stream fertilization, small lake surveys, preparation of a side channel in Carbon Creek for multi-species spawning, and creation of an artificial spring at Windy Point for spawning purposes. Wildlife programs included channel clearance and vegetation supply improvements to enhance muskrat and beaver habitat; radio monitoring of sheep and elk; studying the feasibility of transplanting elk herds; and purchase of critical ungulate winter habitat lands. 1 fig., 12 tabs

105

Integrated Analysis on Gravity and Magnetic Fields of the Hailar Basin, NE China: Implications for Basement Structure and Deep Tectonics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hailar Basin is one of the most representative basins among the Northeast China Basin Group, which is situated in the east of East Asia Orogene between the Siberia Plate and the North China Plate. Based on the detailed analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly, aeromagnetic anomaly as well as petrophysical data, we studied the features of gravity-magnetic fields in the basin and its neighboring areas. A combined approach of Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition and Power Spectrum Analysis was adopted to quantitatively grade the gravity and magnetic anomalies into four levels. Accordingly, the apparent depths of the source fields can be assessed. The results reveal the crustal density and magnetic structures of the Hailar Basin. Low-order wavelet details of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying basin basement structure. Seven major basement faults of the basin were identified, and the basement lithology was discussed and predicted. Three major uplifts and 14 depressions were delineated according to basement depth inversion by the Park method. High-order wavelet approximations of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying deep tectonics of the basin. The average Moho depth of the study area is about 40 km, with a mantle uplift located in the northeast of the basin. The average depth of the Curie interface is about 19 km, while the uplift of the Curie interface is in the basin center and its east and west sides are depressions. Finally, inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies was conducted on an across-basin GGT profile using the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition. The inversion results are consistent with those of GGT seismic inversion, suggesting that the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition can be applied to distinguish major crustal density interfaces.

Sun, B.; Wang, L.; Dong, P.; Scientific Team Of Applied Geophysics

2010-12-01

106

Anthropogenic driven modern recharge and solute flux to arid basin aquifers: Results and implications for sustainability based on field observations and computational modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of natural grass and scrubland for agricultural use (grazing and irrigated agriculture) has changed recharge mechanisms and raised questions about the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. When quantifying the availability of water in the region, previous research relied upon the ';classic' conceptual model; minimal modern recharge, no widespread recharge on basin floors, and no recharge from anthropogenic sources such as irrigation return flow. Increasing nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in basin groundwater from the 1950's to present (median increase of 3-4 mg/L (as NO3-) over approximately 40 years) belie the model of limited modern recharge and pose a risk to water quality throughout the basins. We posit that grazing practices and irrigated agriculture have affected hydrologic processes in the basins by altering 1) the vegetation regime on the basin floors and 2) the magnitude and spatial distribution of infiltrating water. These impacts have increased recharge and transported Cl- and mobile nitrogen (N) from the vadose zone to the underlying groundwater. Using a spatially distributed net infiltration model, we estimate that between 7-20% of recharge occurring in the basins results from widespread recharge on the basin floors and that between 1960 and 2000 an additional 8.5 x 10^3 to 1.2 x 10^6 cubic meters of irrigation water has potentially been returned through irrigation return flow. Vadose zone cores collected from beneath land used for agricultural purposes document changes in water content and pore water chemistry that imply an increase in downward flux of moisture and solute resulting from human alteration of the natural system; reservoirs of NO3- and Cl- typically observed beneath the rooting depth of un-impacted vegetation are either displaced downward or flushed beyond the core depth under land with historical or ongoing irrigated agriculture. There are significant implications for the sustainability of groundwater resources in this system based upon the trends in groundwater NO3- concentrations, vadose zone core data, and results of the net infiltration models: 1) there may be more recharge to the basins than previously estimated and 2) there is a potential long-term concern for water quality. Due to the thick unsaturated zone in much of the system, long travel times are expected between the base of the root zone and the water table. It is unclear if the flux of NO3- and Cl- to the groundwater has peaked or if effects from the alteration of the natural vegetation regime will continue for years to come.

Robertson, W. M.; Sharp, J. M.

2013-12-01

107

Tectono-stratigraphy of the Neogene basins in Western Turkey: Implications for tectonic evolution of the Aegean Extended Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The western part of the Aegean region includes several Neogene basins containing volcano-sedimentary successions. The Neogene basins, located along the northern Menderes Extensional Metamorphic Complex (MEMC) were developed during the Miocene as supra-detachment basins. They contain two distinct volcano-sedimentary successions, separated by a regional unconformity. The basins located to the west of the MEMC were developed as strike-slip basins and contain volcanic and sedimentary units getting younger from NE to SW with no remarkable unconformity. Available paleomagnetic studies in the Aegean Region suggest to us that, the basins to the west of the MEMC were developed in response to southward clockwise rotational roll-back of the Aegean subduction zone. The eastern margin of this rotational deformation is characterized on the surface by a large strike-slip zone, which is known as ?zmir-Bal?kesir Transfer Zone (?BTZ). The sedimentary successions in the basins along the northern MEMC do not show southward younging and are interpreted to be developed in response to exhumation of the MEMC. During the Pliocene to Quaternary, ~ E-W-trending grabens such as the Gediz (Ala?ehir), Büyük and Küçük Menderes Grabens were developed in response to tectonic escape accompanying the slab-roll back process. These grabens truncate the MEMC basins. During this time, strike-slip deformation and associated sedimentation continued along the ?BTZ.

Ersoy, E. Y.; Çemen, ?.; Helvac?, C.; Billor, Z.

2014-11-01

108

The structural evolution of the Ghadames and Illizi basins during the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic: Petroleum implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ghadames and Illizi basins cover the majority of the eastern Sahara of Algeria. Geologicaly, this part of the Central Saharan platform has been influenced by a series of structural arches and {open_quotes}moles{close_quotes} (continental highs) which controlled sedimentation and structure through geologic time. These features, resulting from and having been affected by nine major tectonic phases ranging from pre-Cambrian to Tertiary, completely bound the Ghadames and Illizi Basins. During the Paleozoic both basins formed one continuous depositional entity with the Ghadames basin being the distal portion of the continental sag basin where facies and thickness variations are observed over large distances. It is during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic that the Ghadames basin starts to evolve differently from the Illizi Basin. Eustatic low-stand periods resulted in continental deposition yielding the major petroleum-bearing reservoir horizons (Cambrian, Ordovician, Siluro-Devonian and Carboniferous). High-stand periods corresponds to the major marine transgressions covering the majority of the Saharan platform. These transgressions deposited the principal source rock intervals of the Silurian and Middle to Upper Devonian. The main reservoirs of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are Triassic sandstone sequences which are covered by a thick evaporite succession forming a super-seal. Structurally, the principal phases affecting this sequence are the extensional events related to the breakup of Pangea and the Alpine compressional events. The Ghadames and Illizi basins, therefore, have been controlled by a polphase tectonic history influenced by Pan African brittle basement fracturing which resulted in complex structures localized along the major basin bounding trends as well as several subsidiary trends within the basin. These trends, as demonstrated with key seismic data, have been found to contain the majority of hydrocarbons trapped.

Gauthier, F.J. [Anadarko Petroleum Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Boudjema, A. [Somatrach, Algiers (Algeria); Lounis, R. [Anadarko Algeria Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

109

Late-Quaternary morphodynamics of Ejina Basin, Inner Mongolia, China: Quantification of neotectonic subsidence and palaeohydrological implications  

Science.gov (United States)

From space, the Ejina Basin (Gaxun Nur Basin) - enclosed by the Tibetan Plateau in the south and the Gobi -Tien Shan in the north - appears as the world's second largest inland delta of approx. 28,000 km2. Today, the crescent-shaped series of terminal lakes (Gaxun Nur, Sogo Nur and Juyanze) represent the endorheic erosion base for the Black River (Hei River) drainage system originating in the Qilian Mountains (>5,000 m asl.). The up to 300 m thick Quaternary basin fill of lacustrine and alluvial origin was deposited during the last approx. 250,000 yrs. Gobi gravel plains protecting Late Pleistocene fine sediments against deflation cover most parts of the basin. They are considered to be a unique sequence within the sediment stratigraphy of the entire basin. The slightly convex-shaped surface of the western basin resembles the prograding formation of an alluvial fan with clear evidence of local subsidence to the north and west, as indicated by the concave shaped surface there. However, the recent terminal lake basins at the northern margin of Ejina Basin are structurally related to tectonic pull-apart basins that were active since Late Pleistocene. The rhomb-shaped Gaxun Nur basin is the most distinct pull-apart feature indicating a left-lateral strike-slip movement parallel to the continental Gobi-Tien-Shan Fault in the north. New radiocarbon dates of lacustrine sediments within a fossil cliff at the southern shore support the estimated subsidence rate of >0.8m per kyr (Hartmann et al. 2011) after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The more trapezoid fault system of the Juyanze pull-apart basin exhibits a more manifold set of tectonically induced geomorphological features. Whereas Hartmannn et al. (2011) assumed a W-E-striking fault by comparing dating inversions along yardangs of lacustrince chalks that host seismites. A nearby new railway construction pit revealed a normal fault that affected the lake sediments that are 35±1 kyr BP in age. The most impressive set of features related to young tectonic subsidence in Ejina basin resembles inverted channels south of western Juyanze. Radiocarbon dates of lacustrine sediments below the gravel cover suggest a reversal of surface gradient, conservation and dissection of gravel beds by subsidence that most likely occurred after 13.6 kyr BP. The continuation of the S-N-striking strike-slip-duplex of the Gurinai structure separates Juyanze in two basins by an impressive >20 m emerging cliff formed within remains of an isolated large alluvial fan. This fan should have been active after approx. 18 kyr BP. Hence, a synopsis of at least 65 radiocarbon dates of lacustrine sediments from the margins and centres of the sub-basins suggests four times higher subsidence rates from the north-western (0.8 m/kyr) to the north-eastern (2-3.6 m/kyr) margin of Ejina Basin. Considering the flat and spatially uncertain water divide to the depression of Wentugaole (and its continuation to the northwest), it seems likely that the basin has lost its endorheic character at least once. Hence, the morphology of basin margins of this large intermontane foreland basin shows up with tectonically active margins and sensitive water divides. Reference: Hartmann, K., Wünnemann, B., Hölz, S., Kraetschell, A., Zhang, H. (2011): Neotectonic constraints on the Gaxun Nur inland basin in north-central China, derived from remote sensing, geomorphology and geophysical analyses. - In: Gloaguen, R. & Ratschbacher, L. (eds.): Growth and Collapse of the Tibetan Plateau. - Geological Society of London Special Publications 353: 221-233.

Hartmann, Kai; Wünnemann, Bernd; Reicherter, Klaus; Rudersdorf, Andreas; Blaauw, Maarten; Diekmann, Bernhard; Bölscher, Judith; Lu, Huayu

2014-05-01

110

Eocene to Miocene back-arc basin basalts and associated island arc tholeiites from northern Sulawesi (Indonesia): Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the Celebes basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eocene BABB basalts intruded by tholeiitic and calk-alkalic island arc magmatic rocks are reported from the north arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Age and geochemical similarities between these basalts and those drilled in the Celebes Sea indicate this North Sulawesi volcanic arc was built on the same oceanic crust. The 25 deg late Neogene clockwise rotation of the north arm of Sulawesi following its collision with fragments of Australia (Sula, Buton) is not sufficient to explain the asymmetrical magnetic anomalies in the Celebes basin. The North Sulawesi island arc could be interpreted as having progressively retreated northward on its own Celebes sea back arc basin, during an episode of Palaeogene-early Neogene tectonic erosion along the trench. (authors)

111

Hydrocarbon Potentials, Thermal and Burial History in Herwa-1 Well from the Nigerian Sector of the Chad Basin: An Implication of 1-D Basin Modeling Study  

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Full Text Available This research study attempt to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentials, thermal and burial history and the timing of hydrocarbon generation in Herwa-1 well within the Nigerian Sector of the Chad basin. Organic geochemical study of some ditch cuttings samples from Herwa-1 well and a One-dimensional basin modeling study was carried out. The result of the geochemical analysis revealed a moderate to good TOC greater than 0.5wt% in Fika and Gongila formation, the Hydrogen Index (HI ranges from 150-300 (mgHC/g and the Tmax values falls within the range of greater than or equal to 430°C. The hydrocarbon potentials in Herwa-1 well was further supported with the values of S1+S2 which is greater than or equal to 2 mg/g of rock in almost all the samples, suggesting a good hydrocarbon potentials. The 1-D basin model was constructed for Herwa-1 well in order to assess the burial history and thermal maturity of the potential source rocks in the Nigerian sector of the Chad basin. The modeling results indicate that maximum burial occurred in the late Miocene and suggesting erosion might have been the cause of the thinning of the Tertiary sediments in the present time. The calibration of Vitrinite reflectance against Temperature revealed the present day heat flow to be at 60 mW/m2 and Paleo heat flow falls within the range of 68 mW/m2. However, it is also revealed that Oil Window begins at (0.60-1.30% VRr at the depth of (2000-3000 m in the middle Cretaceous and the Gas Window start during the late Cretaceous to Tertiary with a value of (1.3-2.5% VRr at a depth greater than (3500 m.

Abubakar Mijinyawa

2013-06-01

112

New insights into the magnetic variations of aeolian sands in the Tarim Basin and its paleoclimatic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tarim Basin, where aeolian activity is widespread, has been regarded as a major source for global dust production. Therefore, knowledge about variation of magnetic parameters in aeolian sands from the Tarim Basin has a global significance. Systematic rock magnetic studies of aeolian sands from this region are still scarce because of the vast area and poor accessibility of the basin. In this paper, multi-parameter rock magnetic investigations of a larger number of aeolian sand samples from a wide area in the Tarim Basin have been conducted. We find that magnetic properties of aeolian sands are controlled by changes in the concentration of larger pseudo-single domain and multidomain magnetite grains, which are produced by weathering and erosional processes in the surrounding mountain regions. In addition, aeolian sands, collected from different geographic regions of the Tarim Basin, exhibit different magnetic properties, suggesting that selective wind and river transport and low-temperature oxidation might play a critical role for the magnetic properties of aeolian sands in the Tarim Basin. Our study also provides a better understanding of the complex relationships between magnetic properties and source materials for Pliocene deposits in the basin.

Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Appel, Erwin; Yan, Maodu; Yang, Shengli

2014-04-01

113

Hydrological Controls of Riverine Ecosystems of the Napo River (Amazon Basin): Implications for the Management and Conservation of Biodiversity  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific understanding of neotropical floodplains comes mainly from work on large rivers with predictable seasonal flooding regimes. Less studied rivers and floodplains on the Andean-Amazon interface are distinct in their hydrology, with more erratic flow regimes, and thus ecological roles of floodplain inundation differ in those ecosystems. Multiple and unpredictable flooding events control inundation of floodplains, with important implications for fish and wildlife, plant communities, and human activities. Wetlands along the river corridor exist across a continuum from strong river control to influence only by local waters, with the latter often lying on floodplain paleoterraces. The goal of this study was to understand the hydrological interactions and habitat diversity of the Napo River, a major Amazon tributary that originates in the Andes and drains exceptionally biodiverse Andean foreland plains. This river system is envisioned by developers as an industrial waterway that would require hydrological alterations and affect floodplain ecosystems. Water level regimes of the Napo River and its associated environments were assessed using networks of data loggers that recorded time under water across transects extending inland from the river across more than 100 sites and for up to 5 years. These networks also included rising stage samplers that collected flood water samples for determination of their origin (i.e., Andean rivers vs. local waters) based on hydrochemical composition. In addition, this work entails a classification of aquatic environments of the Napo Basin using an object-oriented remote sensing approach to simultaneously analyze optical and radar satellite imagery and digital elevation models to better assess the extent and diversity of flooded environments. We found out a continuum of hydrological regimes and aquatic habitats along the Napo River floodplains that are linked to the river hydrology in different degrees. Overall, environments that are proximal or that have high hydrological connectivity are riverine controlled versus systems that are distal or that have less or no connectivity that rely on rainwater or local runoff as a source of flooding. Outcomes of this research gave us insight on the extent and diversity of aquatic habitats of the Napo River, the role that the river has on their ecohydrology, the potential effects of different hydrologic scenarios on these ecosystems, and the management measures that need to be considered to support conservation in the region.

Celi, J. E.; Hamilton, S. K.

2013-12-01

114

Provenance of Cretaceous-Oligocene Sedimentary Strata of the Floresta Basin, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia and Tectonic Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

We use integrated detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, sandstone petrography, sedimentary facies analysis, and paleocurrent measurements from a Mesozoic-Cenozoic clastic succession preserved in the northern Andean fold-thrust belt to address foreland-basin disruption in the Paleogene. The Floresta basin is situated along the axis of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and sandstone petrography indicate that the Floresta basin first received sediment from the eastern craton (Guyana shield) in the Cretaceous-early Paleocene and then from the western magmatic arc (Central Cordillera) starting in the mid-Paleocene. The upper-crustal magmatic arc was replaced by a metamorphic basement source, which we identify as Magdalena valley basement equivalent, in the middle Eocene. This, in turn, was replaced by an upper-crustal thrust-belt source in the late Eocene which persisted until Oligocene truncation of the Cenozoic section by the eastward advancing Soapaga thrust. This upper crustal source is interpreted to represent uplift of the western flank of the Eastern Cordillera. The combined provenance data indicates that sediments were derived from eastward-migrating sources. Throughout the Paleogene, paleocurrent and sediment provenance data point to a uniform western or southwestern sediment source with no evidence of the complex sourcing or sediment dispersal patterns emblematic of a broken foreland basin. Therefore, these data show that the Floresta basin existed as part of a laterally extensive, unbroken foreland basin connected with the western (Magdalena) basin from Cretaceous to late Eocene time, when it was isolated by uplift of the western flank of the Eastern Cordillera. The Floresta basin was also connected with the eastern (Llanos) basin from the Cretaceous until its late Oligocene truncation by the advancing thrust front.

Saylor, J.; Corredor, J.; Mora, A.; Horton, B. K.; Nie, J.

2010-12-01

115

Late Oligocene Recent stress evolution in rift basins of northern and central Thailand: implications for escape tectonics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tertiary rift basins of Thailand are known through sub-surface seismic and borehole data collected for hydrocarbon and coal exploration, outcrops in open-cast coal mines, and a few natural outcrops. These data provide mixed perspectives on how the basins evolved, some providing data on ages and structural geometries, others palaeostress data. In general, the region evolved under approximately E-W extension, although the extension direction probably changed periodically within basins. Extension was episodically interrupted by inversion events associated with sub-horizontal NW-SE to NE-SW ? 1 direction. There is no evidence to suggest that the string of rift basins running from N. Thailand and Laos into the Gulf of Thailand evolved in a similar way. On the contrary, the evolution of each basin seems different, although certain regional trends along the rift system are apparent as follows: (1) Oligocene-Lower Miocene extension is widespread in the region. (2) In central and northern Thailand Middle Miocene extension is also important, and extension persisted into the Upper Miocene-Pliocene. (3) In the extreme south of the area (W. Natuna basin, Penyu basin, Malay basin) extension ceased in the earliest Miocene. (4) In the northern Gulf of Thailand extension ceased in the Middle Miocene. (5) Thermal subsidence is greatest (up to 4 km) in the south (Malay, Pattani, W. Natuna and Penyu basins) and least in northern Thailand (a few tens to hundreds of metres). (6) Inversion in the southern Gulf of Thailand was intense and occurred during the Lower and Middle Miocene. In the northern Gulf of Thailand inversion is very mild and occurred during the Lower and Middle Miocene. Onshore inversion is patchy during the Miocene, but is strongest in the northwestern rift basins (particularly the Li basin). The most widespread inversion event that affects the north occurred during the Plio-Pleistocene. It might be associated with the change from left to right lateral motion on the Red River Fault. The relationship between strike-slip faults and rift basins in terms of timing of extensional and inversion events, and palaeostress orientation and evolution is more complex than can be explained by simple escape tectonic models.

Morley, C. K.; Woganan, N.; Sankumarn, N.; Hoon, T. B.; Alief, A.; Simmons, M.

2001-05-01

116

Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope geochemistry of basaltic rocks from the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin, South Korea: Implications for basin formation  

Science.gov (United States)

To better understand the formative mechanism of the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin in South Korea, we determined the geochemical compositions of Early Cretaceous syntectonic basaltic rocks intercalated with basin sedimentary assemblages. Two distinct compositional groups appeared: tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts from the Yeongyang sub-basin and high-K to shoshonitic basaltic trachyandesites from the Jinju and Uiseong sub-basins. All collected samples exhibit patterns of light rare earth element enrichment and chondrite-normalized (La/Yb)N ratios ranging from 2.4 to 23.6. In a primitive-mantle-normalized spidergram, the samples show distinctive negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, and Ti and a positive anomaly in Pb. The basalts exhibit no or a weak positive U anomaly in a spidergram, but the basaltic trachyandesites show a negative U anomaly. The basalts have highly radiogenic Sr [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70722-0.71145], slightly negative ?Nd, positive ?Hf [(?Nd)i = -2.7 to 0.0; (?Hf)i = +2.9 to +6.4], and radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions [(206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.20-19.19; (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.60-15.77; (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.38-39.11]. The basaltic trachyandesites are characterized by radiogenic Sr [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70576-0.71119] and unradiogenic Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions [(?Nd)i = -14.0 to -1.4; (?Hf)i = -17.9 to +3.7; (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.83-18.25; (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.57-15.63; (208Pb/204Pb)i = 38.20-38.70]. The 'crust-like' signatures, such as negative Nb-Ta anomalies, elevated Sr isotopic compositions, and negative ?Nd(t) and ?Hf(t) values, of the basaltic trachyandesites resemble the geochemistry of Early Cretaceous mafic volcanic rocks from the southern portion of the eastern North China Craton. Considering the lower-crust-like low U/Pb and high Th/U ratios and the unradiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, the basaltic trachyandesites are considered to be derived from lithospheric mantle modified by interaction with melts that originated from foundered eclogite. Basaltic volcanism in the Yeongyang sub-basin is coeval with the basaltic trachyandesite magmatism, but it exhibits an elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratio at a given 143Nd/144Nd and highly radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, which imply an origin from an enriched but heterogeneous lithospheric mantle source. Melts from subducted altered oceanic basalt and pelagic sediments are considered to be the most likely source for the metasomatism. An extensional tectonic regime induced by highly oblique subduction of the Izanagi Plate beneath the eastern Asian margin during the Early Cretaceous might have triggered the opening of the Gyeongsang Basin. Lithospheric thinning and the resultant thermal effect of asthenospheric upwelling could have caused melting of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle, producing the Early Cretaceous basaltic volcanism in the Gyeongsang Basin.

Choi, S.; Kwon, S.; Lee, D.

2013-12-01

117

U-Pb zircon ages from the southwestern Karoo Basin, South Africa - Implications for the Permian-Triassic boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

U-Pb ages determined using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry on 205 single-grain zircons from 16 ash beds within submarine fan deposits of the Ecca Group provide the first evidence of a marine Permian-Triassic (P-T) boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. These U-Pb ages provide an objective basis for correlating the deep-marine sediments of the southwest Karoo Basin with fluvial-deltaic deposits in the central and eastern parts of the basin where the P-T boundary is recorded in a diverse macrofauna. Furthermore, these new zircon ages and their correlation imply asymmetric subsidence and variable sedimentation rates across the basin. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

Fildani, A.; Weislogel, A.; Drinkwater, N.J.; McHargue, T.; Tankard, A.; Wooden, J.; Hodgson, D.; Flint, S.

2009-01-01

118

Implications for the Formation of Transform Faults from Pliocene Basins on Isla San Jose, Southern Gulf of California  

Science.gov (United States)

Pliocene basins on islands in the southern Gulf of California offer a superb opportunity to evaluate how transform faults form in a highly oblique plate boundary. Pliocene strata are exposed in two subbasins on Isla San Jose, 100 km north of La Paz, Mexico. The subbasins have broadly similar stratigraphy and part of the basin is subsided offshore. A ~1 km thick lower sequence deepens upward from a thick alluvial fan unit through marginal marine strata to an outer shelf to upper slope mudstone (based on lithology and benthic forams). The uppermost mudstone has planktonic forams that indicate an early late Pliocene age ( ~3.5-3 Ma). There is evidence for widespread syn-sedimentary deformation in the lower sequence. The upper sequence is a ~50 - 120 m thick shallow marine calcarenite that lies across a low-angle to abruptly gradational unconformity. The overall stratigraphy represents 1 - 1.5 km of subsidence in the lower sequence before 3 Ma, followed by local tilting of the basin and rapid upward shallowing at and after 3 Ma. A late Pliocene to Quaternary unconformity lies above the basin and most Quaternary deposits are alluvial. The southern subbasin is bounded by NW-N striking Pliocene normal and normal-dextral faults, while the northern subbasin has mainly buttress unconformities and local faults along an irregular embayment. The subbasins on Isla San Jose may have initiated at the northern end of an early transform fault emanating from the Cerralvo trough, which suggests basin inception at 5 - 6 Ma. This implies a reasonable rate of subsidence for a rift basin. The rapid basin uplift indicates a major reorientation (or cessation) of Cerralvo transform faulting at ~3 Ma. Mudstone deposition at 3.5 - 3 Ma followed by basin uplift is similar to events in the Perico basin on Isla Carmen, 120 km to the NW near Loreto. These synchronous events on two separate islands may mean that the development of early transform faults acted in unison from Loreto to the mouth of the Gulf. This implies that there was a major reorganization of early transform faults to the modern configuration at 3 Ma. In contrast, later fault reorientation in the Loreto basin at 2.4 - 2 Ma suggests that there may be a northward propagation of transform fault development. The evidence from the islands shows that MCS and bathymetric data from the narrow shelf are needed to resolve the connections from the basins and faults we are studying on the islands to the main plate boundary transform spreading ridge system in the middle of the Gulf of California.

Umhoefer, P. J.; Schwennicke, T.; Ingle, J. C.; Del Margo, M. T.; Ruiz-Geraldo, G.

2001-12-01

119

Population genetic analysis of Arapaima gigas, one of the largest freshwater fishes of the Amazon basin : implications for its conservation  

OpenAIRE

The present study reports the first population genetic analysis of Arapaima gigas, an important but critically over-exploited fish species of the Amazon basin. We sequenced two discontinuous mitochondrial DNA regions of 1204 base-pairs (bp) (NADH1 segment) and 1143 bp (ATPase segment) from 139 individuals of A. gigas representing eight localities spanning the Amazon basin from Iquitos, Peru to Macap´a, Brazil. We discovered 34 haplotypes separated by 44 segregating sites. The two most common...

Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni P.; Crossa, Marcelo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Porto, Jorge I. R.; Meyer, Axel

2005-01-01

120

Provenance of Miocene submarine fans in the Shikoku Basin: Results from NanTroSEIZE and implications for stratigraphic correlation of subduction inputs  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismo-stratigraphy, coring and LWD during IODP Expeditions 319, 322, and 333 (Sites C0011 / C0012) show three Miocene submarine fans in the NE Shikoku Basin, with broadly coeval deposits at ODP Site 1177 and DSDP Site 297, NW Shikoku Basin. Pickering et al. (2013) have shown that the sediment dispersal patterns for these fans have major implications for paleogeographies at that time. The oldest, Middle Miocene Kyushu Fan is the finest grained, has a sheet-like geometry, and was fed by quartz-rich sediment gravity-flows derived mostly from an ancestral landmass in the East China Sea. This likely sediment provenance is further supported by U-Pb zircon and fission track analysis of both zircons and apatites from sediments taken from the forearc and trench of the Nankai Trough, together with rivers from southwest Japan, that point to the influence of the Yangtze River in supplying into the Shikoku Basin prior to rifting of the Okinawa Trough at 10 to 6 Ma (Clift et al. 2013). During prolonged hemipelagic mud deposition at C0011-C0012 (12.2 to 9.1 Ma), sand supply continued at Sites 1177 and 297. Sand delivery to much of the Shikoku Basin, however, probably halted during a phase of sinistral strike-slip and oblique plate motion, after which the Daiichi Zenisu Fan (9.1 to 8.0 Ma) was fed by submarine channels. The youngest fan (Daini Zenisu; 8.0 to 7.6 Ma) has sheet-like geometry with thick-bedded, coarse-grained pumiceous sandstones. The pumice fragments were fed from a mixed provenance that included the collision zone of the Izu-Bonin and Honshu arcs. The shift from channelized to sheet-like flows was probably favored by renewal of relatively rapid northward subduction, which accentuated the trench as a bathymetric depression. Understanding the stratigraphic position and 3-D geometry of the sandbodies has important implications for stratigraphic correlation throughout the northern Shikoku Basin, together with subduction-related processes, including the potential for focused fluid flow and fluid overpressures above and below the plate-boundary fault. References Pickering, K.T., Underwood, M.B., Saito, S., Naruse, H., Kutterolf, S., Scudder, R., Park, J.-O., Moore, G.F. & Slagle, A. 2013. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20107 Clift, P.D., Carter, A., Nicholson, U. & Masago, H. 2013. Tectonics, doi: 10.1002/tect.20033

Pickering, K. T.; Underwood, M.; Moore, G. F.

2013-12-01

121

Palynology and age of the Early Oligocene units in Cardak-Tokca Basin, Southwest Anatolia: Paleoecological implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the lignite bearing sediments of Cardak-Tokca basin exposed in southwest Anatolia, were palynologically examined. A well preserved and diverse palynomorph assemblage indicating an Early Oligocene age was recovered from the Hayrettin and Tokca formations. The palynomorph assemblage is dominated by Pinus, Sparganiaceae, Juglandaceae and diverse tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. In addition a few species of marine dinoflagellate cysts were encountered as well. The Early Oligocene age is based primarily on the presence of stratigraphic markers such as: Boehlensipollis hohli, Slowakipollis hippophaeoides, Aglaoreidia cyclops, Dicolpopollis kockeli, Compositoipollenites rhizophorus ssp. burghasungensis, Mediocolpopollis compactus ssp. ellenhausensis, Pentapollenites pentangulus, Subtriporopollenites simplex and Intratriporopollenites instructus. Palynological data indicate a humid subtropical climatic conditions during the deposition of the Cardak-Tokca sediments. Ecological analysis of the palynomorph assemblage identifies several paleo-associations of montana, lowland and slope, swamp and water-edge and freshwater aquatic elements. In this study, Cardak-Tokca, Cankiri-Corum, Thrace and southwest Anatolian molasse basins (Kale-Tavas and Denizli) were correlated in accordance with their palynostratigraphic content and the results show that the deposition took place during the Early Oligocene in the Cardak-Tokca basin. This basin is older than Thrace basin and southwest Anatolian molasse basins (Kale-Tavas and Denizli molasse) which were deposited during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene.

Akkiraz, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey)

2005-06-01

122

Palaoenvironments, source rock potential and thermal maturity of the Upper Benue rift basins, Nigeria: implications for hydrocarbon exploration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Upper Benue rift comprising the Gongola and Yola Basins in Nigeria consists of the Aptian-Albian Bima Formation, the Yolde Formation (Cenomanian-Turonian), Gongila/Pindiga/Dukul Formation (Turonian-Coniacian) and Gombe Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian). To evaluate the maturity and source rocks potential, vitrinite reflectance, Rock-Eval pyrolysis and infrared spectroscopy were carried out on 52 shale samples collected from boreholes, mine quarries and outcrop sections. In the Gongola Basin, mean random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub om}) values range from 0.45% in the Gombe Formation to 0.69% in the Pindiga Formation and to 0.82% in the Bima Formation. Reflectance values in the Yola Basin also increase with stratigraphic age ranging from 0.73% in the Dukul Formation to 0.94% in the Yolde Formation and up to 1.37% in the Bima Formation. Our preliminary data suggest that Cretaceous successions in the Gongola Basin are thermally immature to marginally mature whereas source rocks in the Yola Basin are thermally mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. The predominance of Type III kerogens in the Gongola Basin suggest their potential to generate gas in the deeply buried sections. The Dukul and Yolde formations with Type II-III kerogens may have generated some quantities of oil and gas in the deeper non-emergent sections. (author)

Akande, S.O.; Ojo, O.J. [University of Ilorin (Nigeria). Dept. of Geology; Erdtmann, B.D. [Technische Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie; Hetenyi, M. [Attila Jozsef University, Szeged (Hungary). Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Petrography

1998-12-31

123

Implications of Spatial Variability in Heat Flow for Geothermal Resource Evaluation in Large Foreland Basins: The Case of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin  

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Full Text Available Heat flow and geothermal gradient of the sedimentary succession of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB are mapped based on a large thermal database. Heat flow in the deep part of the basin varies from 30 mW/m2 in the south to high 100 mW/m2 in the north. As permeable strata are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important aquifers are discussed and evaluated. Regional temperature distribution within different aquifers is mapped for the first time, enabling a delineation of the most promising areas based on thermal field and aquifer properties. Results of previous regional studies on the geothermal potential of the WCSB are newly evaluated and discussed. In parts of the WCSB temperatures as high as 100–210 °C exist at depths of 3–5 km. Fluids from deep aquifers in these “hot” regions of the WCSB could be used in geothermal power plants to produce electricity. The geothermal resources of the shallower parts of the WCSB (>2 km could be used for warm water provision (>50 °C or district heating (>70 °C in urban areas.

Simon Weides

2014-04-01

124

Correlation of Triassic stratigraphy between the Simao and Lampang-Phrae Basins: implications for the tectonopaleogeography of Southeast Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on our extensive fieldwork in southwestern Yunnan and northern Thailand, followed by detailed stratigraphic and paleontological studies, we propose that the Triassic Simao Basin in Yunnan can be correlated with the Triassic Lampang-Phrae Basin in Thailand. Strata equivalent to those in the southern Lancangjiang sub-basin have not been identified in northern Thailand. We consider that during the Triassic the Simao and the Lampang-Phrae Basins belonged to the same tectonopaleogeographic unit. The orogenic belt to the east of this unit includes the Nan-Uttaradit and Ailaoshan sutures. The 'Shan-Thai Block' in northern Thailand, can be divided from east to west into the Sukhothai, the Inthanon, and the Shan terranes. According to tectonopaleogeographic correlation, our results support the idea that the Sukhothai Terrane, including the Lampang-Phrae Basin, belongs to the Cathaysian domain and not to Gondwana domain, and that the geosuture corresponding to the Changning-Menglian Suture in Yunnan must lie to the west of the Sukhothai Terrane in Thailand.

Feng, Qinglai; Chonglakmani, Chongpan; Helmcke, Dietrich; Ingavat-Helmcke, Rucha; Liu, Benpei

2005-03-01

125

Paleocene-Eocene potential source rocks in the Avengco Basin, Tibet: Organic geochemical characteristics and their implication for the paleoenvironment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Avengco Basin is located in the western part of the Tibetan Plateau and is similar to the Nima Basin in the central part of the plateau and the Lunpola Basin in the eastern part in terms of sedimentary characteristics and tectonic settings, which are well known to provide a good source rock potential. However, the organic geochemical characteristics of the Paleocene-Eocene potential source rocks in the Avengco Basin have been under debate. Thirty-four marl and mudstone outcrop samples of the Niubao Formation in the Avengco Basin were collected and subjected to the following analyses: total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, stable carbon isotopes of kerogen, gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Here, we present the results indicating the organic matter of the upper Niubao Formation is mainly composed of Type II kerogen with a mixed source, which is dominated by algae. However, the lower Niubao Formation has the less oil-prone Type II-III kerogen, and the sources of the organic matter are mainly terrestrial plants with less plankton. In addition, the samples are thermally immature to marginally mature. The Niubao Formation was deposited in an anoxic-oxic environment which was brackish with an imperceptible stratified water column. The upper Niubao Formation has a medium to good hydrocarbon-generating potential. However, the lower Niubao Formation has a zero to poor hydrocarbon-generating potential.

Han, Zhongpeng; Xu, Ming; Li, Yalin; Wei, Yushuai; Wang, Chengshan

2014-10-01

126

Anomalous crustal and lithospheric mantle structure of southern part of the Vindhyan Basin and its geodynamic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Tectonically active Vindhyan intracratonic basin situated in central India, forms one of the largest Proterozoic sedimentary basins of the world. Possibility of hydrocarbon occurrences in thick sediments of the southern part of this basin, has led to surge in geological and geophysical investigations by various agencies. An attempt to synthesize such multiparametric data in an integrated manner, has provided a new understanding to the prevailing crustal configuration, thermal regime and nature of its geodynamic evolution. Apparently, this region has been subjected to sustained uplift, erosion and magmatism followed by crustal extension, rifting and subsidence due to episodic thermal interaction of the crust with the hot underlying mantle. Almost 5-6 km thick sedimentation took place in the deep faulted Jabera Basin, either directly over the Bijawar/Mahakoshal group of mafic rocks or high velocity-high density exhumed middle part of the crust. Detailed gravity observations indicate further extension of the basin probably beyond NSL rift in the south. A high heat flow of about 78 mW/m2 has also been estimated for this basin, which is characterized by extremely high Moho temperatures (exceeding 1000 °C) and mantle heat flow (56 mW/m2) besides a very thin lithospheric lid of only about 50 km. Many areas of this terrain are thickly underplated by infused magmas and from some segments, granitic-gneissic upper crust has either been completely eroded or now only a thin veneer of such rocks exists due to sustained exhumation of deep seated rocks. A 5-8 km thick retrogressed metasomatized zone, with significantly reduced velocities, has also been identified around mid to lower crustal transition.

Pandey, O. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Vedanti, N.; Dutta, S.; Dimri, V. P.

2014-09-01

127

Peleolakes and impact basins in southern Arabia Terra, including Meridiani Planum: Implications for the formation of hematite deposits on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

The hematite deposit in Meridiani Planum was selected for a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site because water could be involved in the formation of hematite, and water is a key ingredient in the search for life. Our discovery of a chain of paleolake basins and channels along the southern margin of the hematite deposits in Meridiani Planum with the presence of the strongest hematite signature adjacent to a paleolake basin, supports the possible role of water in the formation of the hematite and the deposition of other layered materials in the region. The hematite may have formed by direct precipitation from lake water, as coatings precipitated from groundwater, or by oxidation of preexisting iron oxide minerals. The paleolake basins were fed by an extensive channel system, originating from an area larger than Texas and located south of the Schiaparelli impact basin. On the basis of stratigraphic relationships, the formation of channels in the region occurred over much of Mars' history, from before the layered materials in Meridiani Planum were deposited until recently. The location of the paleolake basins and channels is connected with the impact cratering history of the region. The earliest structure identified in this study is an ancient circular multiringed basin (800-1600 km diameter) that underlies the entire Meridiani Planum region. The MER landing site is located on the buried northern rim of a later 150 km diameter crater. This crater is partially filled with layered deposits that contained a paleolake in its southern portion. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

Newsom, H.E.; Barber, C.A.; Hare, T.M.; Schelble, R.T.; Sutherland, V.A.; Feldman, W.C.

2003-01-01

128

Along-strike Variation in the Sandino Basin of Nicaragua and Implications for the Development of the Central American Forearc  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sandino forearc basin is about 40 km wide and filled with 6 to as much as 15 km of Upper Cretaceous to Recent sediments. The sediments overly the margin wedge, consisting of the Ophiolitic Nicoya complex of Cretaceous to Early Tertiary age. In the south, the basin thins rapidly southward against ultramafic rocks of the Santa Elena peninsula of Costa Rica. Sediment thickness locally exceeds 13 km in the central and northern parts of the basin. The oldest units (Upper Cretaceous-Middle Eocene) are very thick off northern Nicaragua, with relatively thin middle to late Cenozoic deposits. In contrast, off central Nicaragua the Middle-Upper Miocene units attain great thickness (5-6 km) and the older units are thin. This pattern suggests a history of successive deepening of the basin from north to south off Nicaragua. The Nicoya complex was emplaced during Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene. Coeval uplift of the outer high and subsidence of the forearc basin are recorded in the seismic data. The variation in sediment thickness suggests an early collision of an oceanic plateau or thickened basaltic ridge in this area and likely off El Salvador as well. Basin formation may have begun with early imbrication or underplating along its seaward edge in the north during the Eocene, continuing southward in the Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene. During the Oligocene the Corvina and Argonaut anticlines divided the depocenter of the basin into an inner, deeper part, and a western, shallower part. The anticlines are structurally fault-propagation folds, although they may have a strike-slip component of displacement. Widespread normal faulting on the outer shelf and upper slope region in the late Cenozoic and stratigraphic evidence of subsidence of this region may coincide with a period of subduction erosion combined with a steepening subduction angle. Latest Miocene uplift of the sequences along the present coastal region shifted the basin depocenter westward. Slow uplift has continued along part of the central coast into the late Pleistocene.

Silver, E. A.; Costa Pisani, P.; McIntosh, K. D.; Ahmed, I.

2003-12-01

129

Distinguishing aeolian signature from lacustrine sediments of the Qaidam Basin in northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its palaeoclimatic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Qarhan playa is located in the eastern-central Qaidam Basin in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. As a lake-depocenter since the Pleistocene and surrounded by Gobi and yardang fields, it might have deposited abundant aeolian materials. Distinguishing its aeolian signature from lacustrine sediments is important for understanding the landform processes and environmental changes, which is the focus of the current study. Based on major-elements analysis, microtextures of quartz grains, and features of grain-size frequency curves and other grain-size parameters, we demonstrate the existence of aeolian component in the lacustrine sequences of a 102 m core (ISL1A). Grain-size distribution curve statistics on 60 samples from two extreme palaeoclimate environments (hyperarid and humid), as well as multi-proxies records comparison, indicate that the mode at about 40 ?m represents the aeolian component and the 10-70 ?m fraction of grain-size is a valid proxy of East Asian winter monsoon, and that the 70-650 ?m fraction represents the intensity of dust storms. The erosive lacustrine sediments in the western Qaidam Basin and the alluvial/fluvial fans in nearby piedmont are probably important sources for these aeolian materials. The similarities of major-element data for samples from the Qaidam Basin (both lacustrine and loess), Qinghai Lake (loess), and the Chinese Loess Plateau (loess) indicate that the Qaidam Basin is a dust source for the loess in Qinghai Lake and the Chinese Loess Plateau.

An, FuYuan; Ma, HaiZhou; Wei, HaiCheng; Lai, ZhongPing

2012-06-01

130

Variation of bee communities on a sand dune complex in the Great Basin: Implications for sand dune conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand dunes across the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts house rich bee communities. The pollination services these bees provide can be vital in maintaining the diverse, and often endemic, dune flora. These dune environments, however, are threatened by intense off-highway vehicle (OHV) use. Conservati...

131

Pleistocene magnetochronology of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin and implications for early human evolution  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nihewan Basin of North China is a key archaeological area, in which most of the Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites in China were found. Recent magnetostratigraphic dating of several Paleolithic sites in this basin have notably increased our understanding of early human colonization of high northern latitudes in East Asia. The Shangshazui (SSZ) locality is the first Paleolithic site found in the Nihewan Basin. Up to now, however, its reliable age is still not available. Here we contribute to this topic with detailed magnetostratigraphic and mineral-magnetic analyses on the 54-m thick SSZ section. Results indicate that magnetite and hematite have a primary sedimentary magnetic fabric and are reliable carriers of characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Magnetostratigraphic results suggest that SSZ section recorded the Brunhes and upper Matuyama chrons, including the Jaramillo and the Olduvai subchrons. The SSZ artifact layer occurs just below the Jaramillo Olduvai, with an estimated age of ca. 2.1 Ma. This finding represents the age of the earliest documented stone tools in Asia, a bit latter than the presence of stone tools in Africa. The early Pleistocene stone tools in Africa were generally thought to be made and used by Home erectus. However, our present age estimate indicates that the occurrence of stone tools in the Nihewan Basin is prior to the currently documented first appearance of H. erectus in Africa. This implies two possible scenarios. (1) The lithic technique in the Nihewan Basin was ascribe to H. erectus, in which case the H. erectus in the Nihewan Basin could be the oldest H. erectus. Thus the latter H. erectus in West Asia and Africa was possibly migrated from East Asia. (2) The lithic technique corresponded to the technique of prior-H. erectus hominin in Africa. This indicates that some early humans prior to H. erectus have started to immigrate from Africa to East Asia and were able to survive the more complex, hostile and unstable climate than the low-latitude Africa before 2 million years ago.

Ao, H.; Dekkers, M. J.; Wei, Q.

2011-12-01

132

SHRIMP zircon age of the high aeromagnetic anomaly zone in central Tarim Basin and its geological implications  

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Full Text Available In order to get the correct isotopic age, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon date of Precambrian hornblende granite in Well TD2, located in the central aeromagnetic belt in the eastern of the Tarim basin, was carried out. The result showed a dependable age of 1908.2 ± 8.6 Ma, which demonstrated that the granite pluton is the result of the magmatic activity in early Palaeoproterozoic. It is indicated that the central aeromagnetic belt across Tarim basin, divided it into north and south block, is formed before Neoproterozoic by a large scale tectonothermal events based on the seismic and drilling date. The Tarim continent may have different age and type basements formed the united crystalline basement in Precambrian. This result has yielded new intraplate evidence to constrain the relation between the Tarim plate and the Colombia supercontinent.

Chengze Zhang

2011-12-01

133

Magnetostratigraphy of the Miocene continental deposits of the Montes de Castejón (central Ebro basin, Spain): geochronological and paleoenvironmental implications  

OpenAIRE

A detailed magnetostratigraphic study has been carried out in the early to middle Miocene distal alluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Montes de Castejón (central Ebro Basin). The study was based on the analysis of 196 magnetostratigraphic sites sampled along a stratigraphic interval of about 240 meters. Local magnetostratigraphy yielded a sequence of 12 magnetozones (6 normal and 6 reverse) which could be correlated with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) interval C5Cr to C5AD (b...

Pe?rez-rivare?s, F. J.

2004-01-01

134

Late orogenic magmatism and sedimentation within Late Carboniferous to Early Permian basins in the Balkan terrane (Bulgaria): geodynamic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The orogenic Balkanid belt, which developed between the Moesian Plate and the Moravian-Rhodopi-Thracian Massifs, was affected by the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian opening of W-E oriented graben structures. The progressive tectonic rejuvenation of the basins is demonstrated by the deposition of repeated regional sedimentary cycles, associated with volcanism that was mostly localised along the tectonic boundaries, in an intramontane setting.

Cortesogno, Luciano; Gaggero, Laura; Ronchi, Ausonio; Yanev, Slavcho

2004-09-01

135

Paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental implications of magnetofossil occurrences in late Miocene marine sediments from the Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain  

OpenAIRE

Although recent studies have revealed more widespread occurrences of magnetofossils in pre-Quaternary sediments than have been previously reported, their significance for paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental studies is not fully understood. We present a paleo- and rock-magnetic study of late Miocene marine sediments recovered from the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain). Well-defined paleomagnetic directions provide a robust magnetostratigraphic chronology for the two studied sediment cores. Rock m...

JuanCruzLarrasoaña; QingsongLiu; AndrewPhilipRoberts; FranciscoJavierSierro; JoséNPérez-Asensio

2014-01-01

136

Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium and hydrocarbon exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains as in the channel sandstones deposited by the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River extending westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel sandstones with a Granite Mountain source occur south of this segment of the Eocene Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district but channel sandstones between the Gas Hills district and the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River are potentially mineralized. This area includes the entire southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel sandstones derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the Paleocene Wind River flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing Eocene Wind River. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene Wind River channel sandstones, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel sandstones and of overlap of the channel sandstones and natural gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits. The channel sandstones of the Paleocene and Eocene Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation

137

Information from geology: Implications for soil formation and rehabilitation in the post coal mining environment, Bowen Basin, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coal mining industry is likely to disturb as much as 60,000 ha of the Bowen Basin up to the year 2000. While comprising only a small proportion of the approximately 32,000 km2 of the Bowen Basin, this considerable area will eventually need to be rehabilitated by creating appropriate land forms with a stabilizing and self-sustaining cover of vegetation. The job of restoring the disturbed area will fall to the practitioners of rehabilitation science. This paper briefly outlines the actual and potential significance of geological information to rehabilitation practice in the open-cut coal mining industry of the Bowen Basin. It focuses particularly on the problems of soil formation and the consequent limitations to ecosystem development due to the nature of the overburden materials and the environment. Lastly, it describes some of the distinctive features of the mine-soils of the area. Geological information can assist in the identification, classification, description and behaviour of post-mining materials. Potential inputs are not restricted to these and there is scope for wider inputs to management of the mining environment although the interface with biology requires further development. (author). 4 figs., 31 refs

138

Identification of multiple detrital sources for Otway Supergroup sedimentary rocks: implications for basin models and chronostratigraphic correlations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Correlation of apatite chlorine content (wt%) with apatite fission track age (Ma) from Lower Cretaceous Otway Supergroup sediments at present-day low temperatures, allows identification of two characteristic detrital source regions. Apatites from eroded Palaeozoic basement terrains yield low Cl content (generally 0.5 wt%) and syndepositional fission track ages. Where post-depositional thermal annealing ( > 70 degree C) has significantly reduced the fission track age, provenance information is preserved in the apatite Cl composition alone. In the Otway Supergroup, evidence for contemporaneous volcanism was found in both the Eumeralla Formation (Albian-Aptian), and Crayfish Group (Aptian-Berriasian) in samples located towards the central rift, where less sandy facies dominate. Results suggest that Crayfish Group sediments deposited along the northern margin of the basin were predominantly derived from eroding basement material, while the section located towards the central rift contains a greater proportion of volcanogenic detritus. Evidence from this study suggests that volcanogenic detritus was a distal sediment source throughout the entire early rift phase, prior to the main influx of arc-related volcanogenic material during deposition of the Eumerallmaterial during deposition of the Eumeralla Formation. As diagenesis of volcanogenic sediments significantly reduces porosity and permeability of the sandstones, reservoir quality and petroleum potential may be significantly reduced in the Crayfish Group in deeper parts of the basin where a greater proportion of volcanogenic detritus is suggested. The results presented here provide important information regarding Lower Cretaceous Otway Basin stratigraphy and clearly indicate that this methodology may have wider application. (authors)

139

Single-grain detrital-muscovite ages from Lower Cretaceous sandstones, Scotian Basin, and their implications for provenance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detrital muscovite is relatively abundant in the Lower Cretaceous rocks of the Scotian Basin, where the deltaic sandstones form important gas reservoirs. This paper reported on a study that used the single-grain geochronology dating technique to re-examine the significance of muscovite as a detrital mineral in the Scotian Basin. The objective was to better understand the sources of sediments in the offshore reservoir sandstone and to identify sediment dispersal patterns. Information on the detrital petrology and sediment provenance of the Lower Cretaceous sandstone is important for exploration models and for determining diagenesis and reservoir quality. One hundred muscovite grains were dated from a transect of wells near Sable Island. An additional 17 grains were dated from the Naskapi N-30 well in the western part of the basin. In general, the muscovite ranges in age from ca. 420 to 240 Ma, suggesting that ages were not reset by post-depositional alteration. The principal sources were rocks that had experienced resetting during Alleghenian deformation and Late Triassic, earliest Jurassic rifting. According to the distribution of ages and mass balance calculations, the sources were primarily Meguma metasedimentary rocks on the inner Scotian Shelf. The age distribution at Naskapi N-30 is similar to that in the South Mountain batholith, except for some grains younger than 360 Ma that suggest an offshore source with Alleghenian resetting. This paper also provided evidence that the inner shelf was an erosional area during the Early Cretaceous. 59 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs., 1 appendix.

Reynolds, P.H.; Grist, A.M. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Pe-Piper, G. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Piper, D.J.W. [Geological Survey of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Atlantic Geoscience Center

2009-03-15

140

Magnetostratigraphy of deep drilling core SG-1 in the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau) and its tectonic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The Qaidam Basin is the largest intermontane basin of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and contains a continuous Cenozoic sequence of lacustrine sediments. A ~ 1000-m-deep drilling (SG-1) with an average core recovery of ~ 95% was carried out in the depocenter of the Chahansilatu playa (sub-depression) in the western Qaidam Basin, aimed to obtain a high-resolution record of the paleoenvironmental evolution and the erosion history. Stepwise alternating field and thermal demagnetization, together with rock magnetic results, revealed a stable remanent magnetization for most samples, carried by magnetite. The polarity sequence consisted of 16 normal and 15 reverse zones which can be correlated with chrons 1n to 2An of the global geomagnetic polarity time scale. Magnetostratigraphic results date the entire core SG-1 at ~ 2.77 Ma to ~ 0.1 Ma and yielded sediment accumulation rate (SAR) ranging from 26.1 cm/ka to 51.5 cm/ka. Maximum SARs occurred within the intervals of ~ 2.6-2.2 Ma and after ~ 0.8 Ma, indicating two episodes of erosion, which we relate to pulse tectonic uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau with subsequent global cooling.

Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Fang, Xiaomin; Song, Chunhui; Cirpka, Olaf

2012-07-01

141

Magnetostratigraphy of drill-core SG-1b in the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau) and tectonic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The Qaidam Basin is an ideal archive to study long-term climate and erosion histories at the NE Tibetan Plateau. We present a magnetostratigraphic study of the 723 m deep drill-core SG-1b of lacustrine sediments at the Jianshan anticline in the western Qaidam Basin. The polarity sequence shows 18 normal and 19 reverse polarity zones which can be readily correlated with chrons C1n-C3Br of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale 2004 (GPTS 2004), dating the core at about 7.3-1.6 Ma. The resulting mean sediment accumulation rate (SAR) between polarity boundaries ranges from 6.5 to 30.4 cm ka-1. High SARs occur within the intervals of >7.3-6.0, 5.2-4.2 and 3.6-2.6 Ma indicating three episodic phases of higher erosion. From the derived variation of SARs and previous results, we conclude that growth strata at the Jianshan anticline started to develop at ˜1.6 Ma by limb rotation. All this we relate to pulse tectonic uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau and fault-propagation-folding in the Qaidam Basin.

Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Fang, Xiaomin; Song, Chunhui; Setzer, Fabian; Herb, Christian; Yan, Maodu

2014-04-01

142

Geologic implications of large-scale trends in well-log response, northern Green River Basin, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Well-log response in lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks in the northern Green River basin, Wyoming, is examined. Digitally recorded well-log data for selected wells located throughout the basin were processed by computer and displayed as highly compressed depth-scale plots for examining large-scale geologic trends. Stratigraphic units, formed under similar depositional conditions, are distinguishable by differing patterns on these plots. In particular, a strong lithologic contrast between Tertiary and underlying Upper Cretaceous non-marine clastic rocks is revealed and correlated through the study area. Laboratory analysis combined with gamma-ray spectrometry log data show that potassium feldspars in the arkosic Tertiary sandstones cause the contrast. The nature and extent of overpressuring has been examined. Data shift on shale conductivity and shale acoustic transit-time plots, previously ascribed to changes in pore pressure, correspond to stratigraphic changes and not necessarily with changes in pore pressure as indicated by drilling-mud weights. Gulf Coast well-log techniques for detecting overpressuring are unreliable and ineffectual in this basin, which has experienced significantly different geologic depositional and tectonic conditions

143

Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin: Seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implications  

Science.gov (United States)

During the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment, the Western Carpathians and Pannonian basin region was investigated by a dense system of deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present the results of modeling refracted and reflected waves employing 2D ray tracing for seven interlocking profiles that were jointly modeled and interpreted with the constraint that the models match at the crossing points of the profiles. The resulting P-wave velocity models reveal complex structures in the crust and large variations in the depth of the Moho discontinuity (˜25-45 km). In the southern part of the area, the relatively thin Pannonian basin crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with velocities of 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the central region, the upper crust of the ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) microplate contains a high velocity body of Vp ? 6.4 km/s, which spatially corresponds with the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km greater than in the adjacent Tisza-Dacia microplate. To the north in the area of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and Carpathian foredeep, we observe a 10-20 km thick upper crust with low velocity ( Vp ? 6.0 km/s). Sub-Moho velocities have average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin, while in the Western Carpathians, the TESZ and the East European Craton (EEC) area, they are slightly higher (8.0-8.1 km/s). Lower velocities beneath the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates could be caused by compositional variations and the significantly higher surface heat flow. Beneath some profiles, reflectors in the lithospheric mantle were found sub-parallel to the Moho but 10-20 km below it. Our integrated geophysical and geological analysis indicates that the observed structure was created by collision of two lithospheric plates with only a moderate degree of convergence. The northern plate consists of older European tectonic units of the EEC and TESZ. However, the southern one consists of younger tectonic units of the Western Carpathians and the back-arc Pannonian basin that generated the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates. We interpret the complex present day structure to be the result of the soft continental collision between the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates and the south margin of the European plate, which was mainly followed by the extensional process beneath the back-arc Pannonian basin.

Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Heged?s, Endre; Kovács, Csaba Attila; Kovács, István; Keller, G. Randy; Celebration 2000 Working Group

2011-08-01

144

Geochemical and isotopic characterization of the Bodélé Depression dust source and implications for transatlantic dust transport to the Amazon Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bodélé Depression (Chad) in the central Sahara/Sahel region of Northern Africa is the most important source of mineral dust to the atmosphere globally. The Bodélé Depression is purportedly the largest source of Saharan dust reaching the Amazon Basin by transatlantic transport. Here, we have undertaken a comprehensive study of surface sediments from the Bodélé Depression and dust deposits (Chad, Niger) in order to characterize geochemically and isotopically (Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes) this dust source, and evaluate its importance in present and past African dust records. We similarly analyzed sedimentary deposits from the Amazonian lowlands in order to assess postulated accumulation of African mineral dust in the Amazon Basin, as well as its possible impact in fertilizing the Amazon rainforest. Our results identify distinct sources of different ages and provenance in the Bodélé Depression versus the Amazon Basin, effectively ruling out an origin for the Amazonian deposits, such as the Belterra Clay Layer, by long-term deposition of Bodélé Depression material. Similarly, no evidence for contributions from other potential source areas is provided by existing isotope data (Sr, Nd) on Saharan dusts. Instead, the composition of these Amazonian deposits is entirely consistent with derivation from in-situ weathering and erosion of the Precambrian Amazonian craton, with little, if any, Andean contribution. In the Amazon Basin, the mass accumulation rate of eolian dust is only around one-third of the vertical erosion rate in shield areas, suggesting that Saharan dust is "consumed" by tropical weathering, contributing nutrients and stimulating plant growth, but never accumulates as such in the Amazon Basin. The chemical and isotope compositions found in the Bodélé Depression are varied at the local scale, and have contrasting signatures in the "silica-rich" dry lake-bed sediments and in the "calcium-rich" mixed diatomites and surrounding sand material. This unexpected finding implies that the Bodélé Depression material is not "pre-mixed" at the source to provide a homogeneous source of dust. Rather, different isotope signatures can be emitted depending on subtle vagaries of dust-producing events. Our characterization of the Bodélé Depression components indicate that the Bodélé "calcium-rich" component, identified here, is most likely released via eolian processes of sand grain saltation and abrasion and may be significant in the overall global budget of dusts carried out by the Harmattan low-level jet during the winter.

Abouchami, Wafa; Näthe, Kerstin; Kumar, Ashwini; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Williams, Earle; Horbe, Adriana M. C.; Rosa, João W. C.; Balsam, William; Adams, David; Mezger, Klaus; Andreae, Meinrat O.

2013-10-01

145

Reassessment of Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic basin sediments of Arizona: Implications for tectonic growth of southern Laurentia and global tectonic configurations  

Science.gov (United States)

Proterozoic crustal provinces that underlie much of the United States record prolonged southward growth of the North American craton (Laurentia) between ca. 1.8 and 1.0 Ga. Exposures throughout central Arizona's Tonto Basin represent multiple generations of sedimentary basins formed during Proterozoic accretion. Metasedimentary rocks sampled across Tonto Basin resulted have identified remnants of a previously undated but potentially widespread Mesoproterozoic basin called the Yankee Joe Basin. Sediments of Yankee Joe Basin are particularly interesting because they have depositional age's ca. 200 m.y. younger than previously thought and because they are rich in detrital zircons with ages between 1.6-1.48 Ga, a time period not widely represented in the igneous record of Laurentia. Metasedimentary rocks with similar age and provenance are found in northern New Mexico and in the lower parts of the Belt Supergroup in northern Idaho, Montana, and Canada. Zircon ages and Hf isotopic characteristics suggest the distinctive 1.6-1.48 Ga grains might have been derived from non-Laurentian sources, most likely one or more formerly adjacent cratons such as north Australia. Circa 1.48-1.43 Ga units in the Yankee Joe Basin rest disconformably on Paleoproterozoic quartzite, and all were deformed together during northwest-directed foreland-style thrusting. This event was previously interpreted to represent the ca. 1.66-1.60 Ga Mazatzal orogeny. However, new findings challenge this view and suggest a major deformation event occurred ca. 1.47-1.45 Ga, possibly representing the Picuris orogeny as recently described in northern New Mexico. Regional thrust faulting during the Mesoproterozoic might have unroofed and removed significant portions of the Yankee Joe section, potentially shedding detritus north from the thrust front into the upper parts of the Belt-Purcell basin. Detrital zircon ages and hafnium isotope compositions provide a critical test of sediment provenance and depositional age and were used to reassess sedimentary age and sources multiple Proterozoic unconformity-bound metasedimentary successions exposed across Arizona. These successions represent a series of ca. 1.75 to 1.3 Ga basins that span the Proterozoic accretionary provinces of southwestern Laurentia, representing key elements in the tectonic evolution of the continental margin. The ca. 1.75 Ga Vishnu Schist contains a bimodal detrital zircon age distribution with prominent Archean (2.5 Ga) and Early Paleoproterozoic (1.8 Ga) populations and minor juvenile 1.75 Ga input. The predominance of 3.3-1.8 Ga detrital zircon ages and initial epsilon Hf (epsilonHf) values of +4 to -13 in both detrital grains of the Vishnu Schist and xenocrystic grains in plutons from cross-cutting plutons suggests the Vishnu Schist was derived primarily from recycling of the Mojave and other older basement provinces, possibly including one or more outboard cratons. In contrast, the ca. 1.74-1.72 Ga Jerome and ca. 1.72 Ga Alder successions of central Arizona, show a marked shift to strongly unimodal detrital zircon age distributions with initial epsilonHf values ranging from +13 to -5, generally more positive and near-juvenile. Cross-cutting ca. 1.74-1.72 Ga plutons that intrude these rocks also have largely juvenile Hf isotopic signatures. The prominent ca. 1.73 Ga age peaks and relatively juvenile epsilonHf values of detrital grains and plutons are consistent with first-cycle sediment derived from local arc systems formed during progressive assembly of the Yavapai province with the older Mojave province. The ca.1.66-1.63 Ga Mazatzal succession is more compositionally mature and contains broader unimodal detrital zircon age spectra, interpreted to represent increasing regional crustal recycling following the culmination of the Yavapai orogeny. In the northern Tonto Basin, detrital zircon age populations from similar looking quartzite and shale successions were used to develop new regional correlations. First, the Houdon Quartzite of the Alder Group was correlated to the Pine Creek Conglomerate.

Doe, Michael Frederick

146

New evidence on the Neogene uplift of South Tianshan: constraints from the (U-Th)/He and AFT ages of borehole samples of the Tarim basin and implications for hydrocarbon generation  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified a Neogene rapid uplift-denudation event of the South Tianshan based on apatite (U-Th)/He and apatite fission track (AFT) ages in Tertiary rocks of the Tarim basin, using borehole samples. The (U-Th)/He thermochronology can be used to reveal the tectono-thermal events with lower temperature than that of AFT thermochronology and has not been used previously to study the uplift of the Tianshan Mountain. Using these data, we show the relationship between the uplift of the South Tianshan and the subsidence/deposition of the northern Tarim basin during the Neogene. The apatite helium ages reveal the migration of uplift, erosion and deposition in the northern Tarim basin. A rapid uplift of the South Tianshan during the Miocene and a corresponding rapid subsidence in the northern Tarim basin occurred. However, in the Pliocene, the Kuqa Depression and South Tianshan uplifted and eroded at the same time and in turn provided the detrital source rocks for the Northern Uplift of the Tarim basin. In contrast to earlier studies, we arrive at the conclusion that the South Tianshan experienced rapid uplift in the Miocene based on (U-Th)/He data of apatite obtained from borehole samples collected in the Tarim basin itself, and not from the bordering mountain chain. Combined apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track thermochronometry enables reconstruction of thermal histories of sedimentary rocks between 40 and 120°C, and this has implications for the generation of liquid hydrocarbon in the 65-120°C range in the basin. Thermal and burial histories of typical samples were also modelled to show the rapid uplift in our study. Our works not only provide a new evidence for the South Tianshan uplift but also indicate that there is a coupling between uplift and subsidence in the South Tianshan and adjacent northern part of the Tarim basin, which controlled hydrocarbon accumulation in the Kuqa Depression and Northern Uplift of the Tarim basin.

Qiu, Nansheng; Chang, Jian; Li, Jiawei; Li, Wenzheng; Yun, Lu; Li, Huili

2012-09-01

147

Minerals and trace elements in silcretes of the Sado basin (Alentejo, southern Portugal) and implications for silcrete formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils in the eastern part of the Sado basin (southern Portugal) are often characterized by massive cementations caused by silica. The thickness and massive character of these silcretes led to the hypothesis that accumulation of silica took place not only vertically within a soil profile, but also by enrichment through lateral water and element flow into the Sado basin. The aims of the study reported here were: 1) to characterize the cementing agent with regard to its mineralogy; 2) to test the hypothesis that silification was enhanced through lateral silica transport from the adjacent Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Aim 1) was achieved by scratching silica coatings from ped surfaces of the silicified soil horizons and cleaning them manually in the lab under a binocular microscope. After careful smashing with a mortar, density separation by sodium polytungstate solution was applied to remove any remaining mineral grains from the silica samples. The cleaned silica samples were then subjected to XRD and SEM in combination with EDS. Aim 2) was attained by using trace element contents of predominant rock types of the Alto Alentejo and of the silcretes in the Sado basin for identifying lateral pathways of water and silica in the landscape. Ten rock samples from the assumed source area of silica were combusted by fusion melt, and their contents of Ba, Co, Cs, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were analyzed by ICP-MS. The same elements were analyzed in NaOH extracts of the cemented soil horizons in the Sado basin. The X-ray diagrams of the silica coatings show the expected broad hump of amorphous silica. In addition, quartz, kaolinite, and surprisingly high amounts of halloysite are identified, the latter reflecting conditions of intensive weathering and pedogenesis during the formation of the silica coatings. This intensive soil formation and hence silification most likely took place during Pliocene. Greater age is impossible, because the silification took place in Pliocene sediments; later, on the other hand, the climate became cooler, hence intensity of pedogenesis should have decreased. It is assumed that halloysite was preserved over such long period of time, because it was occluded in the silica mass. The micromorphology of the coatings under the SEM includes laminar coverings, banded and alveolar structures. EDS analysis shows that the coatings consist mainly of silicon; in addition they contain aluminum and some also have minor amounts of iron. Trace element contents of the rock samples and silcretes enabled tracing lateral silica flows from the Alto Alentejo into the Sado basin. Some rock samples and silcretes contained considerable amounts of Barium. Even barite crystals were observed in the silica coatings under the SEM. Acknowledgement The authors thank Beate Podtschaske for her valuable help in the laboratory and the German Research Foundation DFG for financial support (project STA 146/45-3).

Sauer, Daniela; Kullmann, Sarah; Zarei, Mehdi; Stahr, Karl

2014-05-01

148

Implications of Magmatic Events on Hydrocarbon Generation: Occurrences of Gabbroic Rocks in the Orito Field, Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia  

Science.gov (United States)

Mafic dikes and sills intruded the sedimentary succession in the Orito Oil Field, located in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia. One sample from the Orito-4 well yields a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (40K/40Ar on amphibole 6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous event in the basin. This coincides with the widely recognized regional Andean orogenic uplift that affected most of sub-Andean Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Furthermore, the uplift consequently coincides with a second pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in the Putumayo Basin. This second pulse was thermally more evolved than the first one (Late Oligocene - Miocene). The high content of CO2 in the gas budget recovered in different wells along the basin may be related to the heat flux of the mafic intrusions. There are four geological events that coincide with this large scale evolution during the late Miocene to early Pliocene (13 - 3 Ma): regional orogenic uplift, persistent igneous intrusions, CO2 formation, and a second pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The Late Miocene - Pliocene age of the intrusion is the key to formulate a hypothesis where these four events are joined together. Regional uplift and intrusions: The mafic rocks of the Orito Oil Field show Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions that suggest derivation from a mantle source below the western edge of the South American continent. The geochemical signature of these rocks that form part of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) reflects subduction-related magmatism. Thus, they record subduction and start of the last pervasive uplift episode that took place during the Late Neogene. Intrusions and second migration phase: The Late Miocene pulse of hydrocarbon generation and migration coincides closely with the estimated age of the intrusions; therefore, a causal link with the geothermal anomaly induced by the mafic igneous rocks is likely. The temperature of a mafic magma reaching 1000 to 1200°C is sufficient to heat the host rocks, where the abundance of dikes eventually changed the regional heat flux. Intrusions and CO2: The presence of CO2 in the basin can be explained as the result of carbonate breakdown associated with igneous intrusions in carbonate sequences. Moreover, since the carbonates are part of the source and reservoir formations of the basin, this gas represents a fundamental factor when assessing the economic risk during various exploration phases. These gabbroic intrusions played an important role in the paleo-heat flow scenario. The magmatic input led to an increase of the maturity of the source rock. The combination of the four elements mentioned above from middle Miocene to Pliocene favored the formation of thermally more-evolved hydrocarbons, but also promoted the generation of major contents of CO2 accumulating in the same traps as the hydrocarbons.

Vásquez, M.; Altenberger, U.; Romer, R. L.

2005-12-01

149

Population synchronies within and between ocean basins: Apparent teleconnections and implications as to physical-biological linkage mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Major fish populations in large marine ecosystems separated by thousands of kilometres often seem to fluctuate in decadal-scale synchrony indicating strong forcing of ecosystem processes and population dynamics by regional and global climatic variability. The climate signals propagating through the atmosphere appear to act as synchronizing agents leading to teleconnection patterns between distant marine ecosystems and populations. This review is an attempt (i) to summarize these apparent within and between ocean basin teleconnection patterns in a comparative framework using particularly suggestive examples and (ii) to unravel physical-biological linkage mechanisms between a climate signal and fish populations. Synchronies in the timing of physical and biological processes between the Kuroshio and the Humboldt Current ecosystems are particularly striking. The collapse of the Peruvian anchovy in 1971 and the rapid decrease of the Japanese anchovy seem not to be directly associated with climate indices such as the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The "climate regime shift" in the mid-1970s in the North Pacific indicated by the PDO is not reflected in the dynamics of anchovies and sardines and other main components in both ecosystems, whereas the Asian Winter Monsoon Index (MOI) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) seem to correlate with these events, at least in the Northwest Pacific. We speculate that the synchrony between processes in the Kuroshio and Humboldt systems is brought about by changes in the basin-scale coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation in North and South Pacific basins. The example of European aquatic systems describes physical-biological synchronies for which the NAO appears to be the synchronizing agent. When the NAO index changed in the late 1980s from a negative to a positive phase, a coherent increase in water temperature was observed in the Central Baltic, the North Sea, the NW Mediterranean and north and central European lakes which was associated with regime shifts in all these ecosystems and which involved all trophic levels. Finally, apparent physical-biological synchronies between the Pacific and Atlantic basins are presented. It is concluded that the multi-regional, multi-species comparative approach, in which the available time series can be considered as different realizations of a common set of basic issues, may be the only way to make real progress.

Alheit, Jürgen; Bakun, Andrew

2010-02-01

150

Chronostatigraphic basin framework for Palaeoproterozoic rocks (1730-1575 Ma) in northern Australia and implications of base-metal mineralisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new chronostratigraphic subdivision for Palaeoproterozoic rocks of northern Australia provides an improved framework for future resource exploration. The nine supersequence boundaries identified in the ca 1730-1575Ma Calvert and Isa Superbasins enable the timing of major tectonic events and their stratigraphic response to be better understood. Third- and 4th-order sequence boundaries facilitate the determination of stratigraphic architecture, ultimately providing the necessary information for constraining the flow of fluids in these basins. SHRIMP zircon ages are essential for determining the magnitude of depositional hiatuses at supersequence and some sequence boundaries, and together with palaeomagnetic data provide independent age constraints for the sequence interpretations. Pb/Pb model ages for the world class Broken Hill, Mt Isa, McArthur River and Century Zn Pb Ag deposits coincide with tectonic events recorded at the Gun, Loretta, River Supersequence boundaries and the superbasin boundary formed during closure of the Isa Superbasin during D2 at Mt Isa. The coincidence of a Pb/Pb model age for Broken Hill with an apparent polar wander path inflection at the Gun Supersequence boundary indicates that the regional chronostratigraphic basin framework developed for northern Australia is applicable to rocks of similar age elsewhere in Australia. Furthermore, if the ultimate cause of these inflections is interplate stress, the basin framework should be ate stress, the basin framework should be globally applicable. Hand-held spectrometers provide an efficient and cost-effective method for collecting gamma-ray data from outcrops. The resulting gamma-ray curves permit more accurate correlation with subsurface stratigraphies and together with facies information facilitate the identification of stratigraphic sequences and their bounding stratal surfaces, the essential building blocks of regional chronostratigraphic correlations. Contrary to general belief most of the sections measured in this study preserve their original gamma-ray signal and are not significantly altered by K-metasomatism, fluid-flow events. The absence of these overprints from the regional datasets suggests a local distribution for the fluids responsible for K-metasomatism. Copyright (2000) Geological Society of Australia

151

Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial lower Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium- and hydrocarbon-exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains, as in the channel-sandstone bodies deposited in Eocene time by a 40-kilometer segment of the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River that exended westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel-sandstone bodies with a Granite Mountains source occur south of this segment of the paleo-Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district, but the channel-sandstone bodies between the Gas Hills district and the 40-kilometer segment of the paleo-Wind River may also be mineralized. This area includes the southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel-sandstone bodies derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the paleo-Wind River in Paleocene time flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River of Eocene time. The channel-sandstone bodies of the paleo-Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particu potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where they are underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene paleo-Wind River channel-sandstone bodies, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel-sandstone bodies and natural-gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits

152

Impact of Heterogeneity on Flow in Fluvial-Deltaic Reservoirs: Implications for the Giant ACG field, south Caspian Basin  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The Azeri, Chirag and Gunashli (ACG) oilfield is located in the offshore Azerbaijan sector of the south Caspian Basin~ This dissertation focuses on the Azeri Field which has over 8 billion barrels of oil in place. The major reservoir interval is the Pliocene Pereriv Suite, which is characterized by laterally continuous layers of variable net-to-gross (NTG) deposited in a fluvial-deltaic environment. The Azeri Field is being developed by both down-dip water injection and up-dip gas in...

Choi, Kevin

2011-01-01

153

Hypoxia tolerance of introduced Nile perch: implications for survival of indigenous fishes in the Lake Victoria basin  

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Full Text Available The introduction of predatory Nile perch (Lates niloticus into the Lake Victoria basin coincided with a dramatic decline in fish diversity. However, remnant populations of indigenous fishes persist in lagoons and satellite lakes separated from the main lakes by extensive areas of swamp, while other indigenous species find refuge in ecotonal areas at edges of marginal swamps in the main lakes. Low-oxygen conditions in these wetlands may physiologically stress Nile perch and therefore minimize its interaction with prey species. This study examined the low-oxygen tolerance of Nile perch collected from Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, by documenting behavioural and physiological strategies that relate to oxygen uptake.  In response to hypoxia, Nile perch used aquatic surface respiration (ASR at the air–water interface, ventilating their gills with water from the surface. However, several lines of evidence suggest that Nile perch in Lake Nabugabo are inefficient at ASR and relatively intolerant of low  oxygen conditions. These include high thresholds for ASR relative to other indigenous fishes of the Lake Victoria basin, no decrease in gill ventilation rate with the onset of ASR, a faster time to loss of equilibrium in hypoxic conditions than other species from the region, and a high critical oxygen tension (24 mm Hg.  

Lauren J. Chapman

2011-10-01

154

A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

R. P. M. Topper

2011-03-01

155

Geochemistry of Neogene sedimentary rocks from Borneo Basin, Malaysia: implications on paleo-weathering, provenance and tectonic setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Multi-element geochemistry and mineralogy are used to characterize the chemical composition, degree of paleo-weathering, provenance and tectonic settingsof the Neogene sedimentary rocks of Borneo Basin from east Malaysia. The sedimentary rocks are classified as extremely weathered sandstones (i.e. wacke, arkose, litharenite, Fe-sandstone and quartz arenite). Higher values of both weathering indices of alteration (i.e. CIA>83 and PIA>89) suggest that the sandstones have undergone extreme chemical weathering. Absence of any feldspar in the mineralogical analysis indicates its degradation during the weathering. Except for the quartz arenite, all other sandstones are characterized by post-depositional K-metasomatism and zircon enrichment through sediment recycling. The geochemical characteristics suggest a mixed-nature provenance for the sandstones with contribution coming from both felsic and mafic igneous rocks. Enriched Cr in quartz arenite and Fe-sandstone are related to contribution from ophiolite or fractionation of Cr-bearing minerals. The inferred tectonic settings are variable and suggest a complex nature of tectonic environment in the basin.

Ramasmay, N.; Roy, P.; MP, J.; Rufino, L.; Franz, L. K.; Viswanathan, P. M.

2013-05-01

156

Geochemical analysis of selected hydrocarbon samples in the Douala basin, Cameroon: Implications for an oil-prone source rock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several oil seeps from the onshore Douala basin in southwest Cameroon have been analyzed by GC/MS, PY/GC, and PY/GC/MS to determine the nature and quality of their source rocks. Geochemical data indicate oil-prone source rocks exist in the Upper Cretaceous to middle Tertiary passive margin sedimentary section. Paleoenvironmental indicators suggest these source rocks were deposited in paralic/deltaic to hypersaline marine settings. In conjunction with existing geological data, two geochemical models are proposed. (1) The oils were derived from a kerogen facies, which grades from a hypersaline marine environment in the Albian to a marine facies in the Cenomanian Maastrichtian. (2) The oils were derived from a hypersaline marine facies in the Albian and a second marine facies deposited during the Oligocene. Although previous work by other authors has shown the Upper Cretaceous/lower Tertiary source rocks from wells in the Logbaba gas field to be gas prone (type III), data from the present study provide evidence that at least one mature oil-prone source rock exists within this interval elsewhere in the basin.

Ackerman, W.C.; Boatwright, D.C. (Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Burwood, R.; Mycke, B.; Van Lerberche, D. (Petrofina S.A., Brussels (Belgium)); Bondjo, E.; Tamfu, S.; Ovono, D. (Societe Nationale des' Hydrocarbures, Yaounde (Cameroon))

1993-09-01

157

A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary locality in the western powder River basin, Wyoming: biological and geological implications  

Science.gov (United States)

A newly discovered Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary locality in the western Powder River basin, Wyoming, is characterized by a palynologically defined extinction horizon, a fern-spore abundance anomaly, a strong iridium anomaly, and shock-metamorphosed quartz grains. Detailed microstratigraphic analyses show that about one third of the palynoflora (mostly angiosperm pollen) disappeared abruptly, placing the K-T boundary within a distinctive, 1- to 2-cm-thick claystone layer. Shocked quartz grains are concentrated at the top of this layer, and although fern-spore and iridium concentrations are high in this layer, they reach their maximum concentrations in a 2-cm-thick carbonaceous claystone that overlies the boundary claystone layer. The evidence supports the theory that the K-T boundary event was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body or bodies. Palynological analyses of samples from the K-T boundary interval document extensive changes in the flora that resulted from the boundary event. The palynologically and geochemically defined K-T boundary provides a unique time-line of use in regional basin analysis. ?? 1992.

Nichols, D.J.; Brown, J.L.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Orth, C.J.

1992-01-01

158

Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin System: seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implication  

Science.gov (United States)

During CELEBRATION 2000 experiment the area of the Western Carphathians and Pannonian Basin System on the territory of southeastern Poland, Slovak Republic and Hungary was investigated by dense system of the deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present results of modelling of refracted and reflected waves with use 2-D ray tracing technique for profiles CEL01, CEL04, CEL05, CEL06, CEL11, CEL12 and CEL28. All seven profiles were jointly interpreted with verification and control the models at crossing points. Obtained P-wave velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle are very complex and show differentiation of the seismic structure, where the depth of the Moho discontinuity is changing from about 25 to about 45 km. In the southern part of the area the relatively thin Pannonian Basin System crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the upper crust of ALCAPA beneath profile CEL05 a high velocity body of Vp? 6.4 km/s was detected in the uppermost 5 km, which corresponds to the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km bigger than in the Tisza-Dacia. In the northern part of the area we observe 10-20 km thick uppermost crust with low velocity (Vp?6.0 km/s), connected with TESZ and Carpathian Foredeep. Together with ca. 6.2-6.5 km/s and 6.5-6.9 km/s crustal layers they have a total thickness of 30-45 km (north of the Pieniny Klippen Belt). A sub-Moho velocities have in average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin System, while in the Western Carpathian, the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and the East European Craton (EEC) part they are slightly bigger, 8.0-8.1 km/s. Lower velocities beneath the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia could be caused by the different mineralogical and petrological compositions and the significant higher surface heat flow and temperature within the upper mantle. Beneath some profiles reflectors in the lithospheric mantle were found 10-20 km below the Moho, following its shape and generally dipping to the north. Interpretation of seismic profiles was the background for the tectonic description of two colliding lithospheric plates. The northern one - underthrusting - is represented by the older European tectonic units consists of the EEC and TESZ. The southern one - overthrusting - is built up by the younger tectonic units of the Western Carpathians and the back-arc Pannonian Basin System (generating the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia). It is suggested that present day complex structure is a result of the complicated continental collision between microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia and the south margin of the European Platform, which was accompanied by the thermal back-arc extensional process beneath the Pannonian back-arc Basin System.

Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Heged?s, Endre; Attila Kovács, Csaba; Kovács, István.; Celebration 2000 Working Group

2010-05-01

159

Provenance of sediments from Mesozoic basins in western Shandong: Implications for the evolution of the eastern North China Block  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dates and in situ Hf isotope analyses of detrital zircons from the Mesozoic basins in western Shandong, China, with the aim to constrain the depositional ages and provenances of the Mesozoic strata as well as the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Block (NCB). The Mesozoic strata in western Shandong, from bottom to top, include the Fenghuangshan, Fangzi, Santai and Wennan formations. Most of the analyzed zircon grains exhibit oscillatory growth zoning and have relatively high Th/U ratios (generally 0.2-3.4), suggesting a magmatic origin. Zircons from the Fenghuangshan Formation in the Zhoucun Basin yield six main age populations (2489, 1854, 331, 305, 282, and 247 Ma). Zircons from the Fangzi Formation in the Zhoucun and Mengyin basins yield eight main age populations (2494, 1844, 927, 465, 323, 273, 223, and 159 Ma) and ten main age populations (2498, 1847, 932, 808, 540, 431, 315, 282, 227, and 175 Ma), respectively, whereas zircons from the Santai Formation in the Zhoucun and Mengyin basins yield nine main age populations (2519, 1845, 433, 325, 271, 237, 192, 161, and 146 Ma) and six main age populations (2464, 1845, 853, 277, 191, and 150 Ma), respectively. Five main age populations (2558, 1330, 609, 181, and 136 Ma) are detected for zircons from the Wennan Formation in the Pingyi Basin. Based on the youngest age, together with the contact relationships among formations, we propose that the Fenghuangshan Formation formed in the Early-Middle Triassic, the Fangzi Formation in the Middle-Late Jurassic, the Santai Formation after the Late Jurassic, and the Wennan Formation after the Early Cretaceous. These results, together with previously published data, indicate that: (1) the sediments of the Fenghuangshan Formation were sourced from the Precambrian basement and from late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic igneous rocks in the northern part of the NCB; (2) the sediments of the Fangzi and Santai formations were sourced from the Precambrian basement, late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic igneous rocks in the northern part of the NCB, and the Sulu terrane, as well as from Middle-Late Jurassic igneous rocks in the southeastern part of the NCB; and (3) the Wennan Formation was sourced from the Tongshi intrusive complex, the Sulu terrane, and minor Precambrian basement and Early Cretaceous igneous rocks. The evolution of detrital provenance indicates that in the Early-Middle Triassic, the northern part of the NCB was higher than its interior; during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, the eastern NCB was uplifted, resulting in a period of non-deposition; and an important transition from a compressional to an extensional tectonic regime occurred during the Middle-Late Jurassic. The presence of Neoproterozoic and Triassic detrital zircons in the Fangzi Formation sourced from the Sulu terrane suggests that large-scale sinistral strike-slip movement along the Tan-Lu Fault Zone did not occur after the Middle Jurassic (ca. 175 Ma).

Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Feng

2013-10-01

160

Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro basin in Spain  

OpenAIRE

The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rain...

Quiroga, S.; Ferna?ndez-haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

2010-01-01

161

Vestiges of an Iapetan rift basin in the New Jersey Highlands: implications for the Neoproterozoic Laurentian margin  

Science.gov (United States)

Thin, discontinuous remnants of Neoproterozoic intracratonic rift-basin deposits of the Chestnut Hill Formation occur in the western New Jersey Highlands. These deposits form an important link between well-documented Iapetan rift-basins in both the northern and southern Appalachians. The close spatial relations of Chestnut Hill rocks to Paleozoic sedimentary rocks open the possibility that additional Iapetan rift-basins could be concealed beneath the rocks of the Valley and Ridge Province to the west indicating a much broader zone of rifting than has been previously proposed. The Chestnut Hill Formation is intermittently exposed along a 100 km-long band that extends northeast from Pennsylvania nearly to New York State. The lower part of the Chestnut Hill Formation is composed of interbedded lithic pebble- to boulder-conglomerate and feldspathic sandstone grading upward into interbedded phyllite, feldspathic and quartz sandstone, local paleosaprolite, quartz-pebble conglomerate, thin limestone lenses, volcanic, and volcaniclasic rocks, abundant bedded ironstone (hematite ore), and ultimately into diamictites that are interpreted as possible tilloids and containing rounded intra and extrabasinal clasts of the other lithologies. Extensive soft-sediment deformation, cross bedding, and clastic dikes are common in all but the lowest and upper facies. Banded hematite layers occur preferentially in fine-grained tuffs and tuffaceous sediments, but hematitization has affected most lithologies. Volcanic rocks consist of altered rhyolitic tuffs and lapilli tuffs that are interbedded with sediments. The Chestnut Hill Formation is interpreted to have been deposited in early alluvial, and later a complex of fluvial, lacustrine and deltaic environments. Provenance studies based upon petrographic and geochemical analysis of clastic rocks indicate that the sediments are predominantly immature and reflect derivation from local uplifted felsic basement sources in a rifted-margin tectonic setting. Low to moderate weathering of the source rocks is indicated by the geochemistry of most samples, as is the locally intense effect of hydrothermal alteration. Most occurrences of the Chestnut Hill Formation are associated with major faults that exhibit normal movement of apparent Neoproterozoic age. Rocks from the Morgan Hill fault near Easton, Pennsylvania display consistent normal shear sense and vary from low temperature S-C mylonites to breccia that contains deformed pieces of Chestnut Hill Formation.

Gates, Alexander E.; Volkert, Richard A.

2004-04-01

162

Evidence of clastic evaporites in the canyons of the Levant basin (Israel): implications for the Messinian salinity crisis  

Science.gov (United States)

The recognition of widespread and thick evaporite deposits below the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has boosted a long standing controversy concerning their depositional setting (shallow versus deep) and their correlation with the onshore sequences. Until a new scientific campaign might be launched to cross those deposits, the discussion is still open to speculation. Many Messinian evaporitic deposits have been interpreted as primary precipitates in very shallow-water or coastal environments, thus favouring the idea of a desiccated Mediterranean basin (Hsu et al., 1973). Recent studies have questioned this interpretation (Hardie and Lowenstein, 2004) and widespread, thick, clastic evaporite facies have been identified in the Mediterranean (Manzi et al., 2005). These clastic deposits are not compatible with a desiccation model as they were clearly emplaced by fully subaqueous, deep-water processes, ranging from submarine slides, to high- and low-density gravity flows. One of the most relevant areas for the understanding of the salinity crisis is the Levant basin where the Messinian evaporites partially fill some of the erosional features (canyons) considered to have formed as a consequence of significant drawdown related to the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea (up to - 850 m, Druckman et al., 1995). Our complete revisitation of the available cores from onshore Israel cutting through the sedimentary filling of the Messinian canyons (Afiq 1, Ashdod 2, Be'eri Sh1, Be'eri Sh4, Jaffa 1 and Talme-Yaffe 3) revealed exclusively clastic sulfate facies. This is the first direct evidence that the Lower Evaporite Unit offshore Israel may actually consist of deep-water resedimented evaporites that were originally deposited on the margin of the Levant Basin. References Druckman Y., Buchbinder B., Martinotti G.M., Tov R.S., Aharon P., 1995. The buried Afiq Canyon (eastern Mediterranean, Israel): a case study of a Tertiary submarine canyon exposed in Late Messinian times. Marine Geology, 123, 167-185. Hardie L.A. & Lowenstein T.K., 2004. Did the Mediterranean Sea dry out during the Miocene? A reassessment of the evaporite evidence from DSDP Legs 13 and 42A cores. JSR, 74, 453-461. Hsu, K.J., Cita, M.B., and Ryan, W.B.F, 1973. The origin of the Mediterranean evaporites, in Ryan, W.B.F., et al. eds., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, v. 13, Washington, 1203-1231. Manzi V., Lugli S., Ricci Lucchi F., Roveri M., 2005. Deep-water clastic evaporites deposition in the Messinian Adriatic foredeep (northern Apennines, Italy): did the Mediterranean ever dry out? Sedimentology, 52, 875-902.

Lugli, Stefano; Schreiber, B. Charlotte; Gvirtzman, Zohar; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco

2013-04-01

163

Modeling fluid flow in sedimentary basins with sill intrusions: Implications for hydrothermal venting and global climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) has been closely linked with past climate variations and mass extinctions. The hypothesis is that organic matter present within contact aureole of the surrounding sedimentary rock such as shale undergoes thermal maturation and releases greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide due to the emplacement of hot igneous bodies. These gases are then vented into the atmosphere through hydrothermal pipe structures resulting in climate change. Although, basin-scale estimates of potential methane generation show that these processes alone could trigger global incidents, the rates at which these gases are released into the atmosphere and the transport mechanism are quantitatively unknown. We use a 2D, hybrid FEM/FVM model that solves for fully compressible fluid flow to quantify the thermogenic release of methane and to evaluate flow patterns within these systems. In addition, methane transport within the system is tracked enabling us to constrain the rate of release of methane from the basin surface. The important outcomes of this study are: (1) the location of hydrothermal vents is directly controlled by the flow pattern, even in systems with no vigorous convection, without the explicit need for explosive degassing and/or boiling effects. The merging of fluid flow from the bottom and top edges of the sill result in hydrothermal plumes positioned at the lateral edges of the sill and is consistent with geological observations. (2) Methane generation potential in systems with fluid flow does not significantly differ from that estimated in diffusive systems, e.g. 2200 to 3350 Gt CH4 can be potentially generated within the Vøring and Møre basins with a sediment TOC content of 5 wt% and varying permeability structure. On the other hand, methane venting at the surface occurs in three distinct stages and can last for hundreds of thousands of years. Also, not all of the methane reaches the surface as some may still be trapped beneath an impermeable sill. (3) The model results demonstrate that although the total quantity of methane that may be potentially generated within the contact aureole may have indeed influenced past climate variations, the rate at which this methane is released into the atmosphere is too slow to trigger, by itself, the negative ?13C excursions observed in the fossil record over short time scales (< 10,000 years). For e.g., the PETM is associated with the formation of the North Atlantic igneous province and is characterized by a ?13C incursion of -2 to -3‰ over 10,000 years. The model results demonstrate that with a TOC content of 5 wt%, ~2200 Gt of methane is released within 10,000 years from the Vøring and Møre basins and results in a ?13C excursion of only -1.2‰. It is, therefore, likely that methane from organic cracking in sediments during sill intrusion in conjunction with other processes such as volcanic degassing and the destabilization of sub-surface methane hydrate is responsible for such short term catastrophic climate change.

Iyer, K. H.; Rupke, L.

2013-12-01

164

The Lower Cretaceous in sedimentary basins of the Brazil south-eastern border: isotopic analysis and their paleoecological implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon isotope data of bitumen, and carbon and oxygen isotope data of limestone provided additional knowledge to the sedimentation environment of the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of Campos and Espirito Santo basins. In the Buracica stage the carbon isotope data of bitumen suggest a deposition in fresh water lake. The isotope data of bitumen and limestone from lower and middle section of Jiquia stage could indicate a sedimentation in fresh water lake but gradually more saline on the top. More positive ? 13C values of limestone in the upper portion of the Jiquia stage and in the Alagoas stage suggest a restrict marine environment or deposition in hippersaline lakes. During the Albian, the carbonate sedimentation could have occurred still in a marine environment and above normal salinity. According to ? 18O data, the surface waters were warm, with a tendency to become gradually cooler towards the top of Albian. (author)

165

Sensitivity analysis of a sediment dynamics model applied in a Mediterranean river basin: global change and management implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and land-use change are major factors influencing sediment dynamics. Models can be used to better understand sediment production and retention by the landscape, although their interpretation is limited by large uncertainties, including model parameter uncertainties. The uncertainties related to parameter selection may be significant and need to be quantified to improve model interpretation for watershed management. In this study, we performed a sensitivity analysis of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs) sediment retention model in order to determine which model parameters had the greatest influence on model outputs, and therefore require special attention during calibration. The estimation of the sediment loads in this model is based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The sensitivity analysis was performed in the Llobregat basin (NE Iberian Peninsula) for exported and retained sediment, which support two different ecosystem service benefits (avoided reservoir sedimentation and improved water quality). Our analysis identified the model parameters related to the natural environment as the most influential for sediment export and retention. Accordingly, small changes in variables such as the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events could cause major changes in sediment dynamics, demonstrating the sensitivity of these dynamics to climate change in Mediterranean basins. Parameters directly related to human activities and decisions (such as cover management factor, C) were also influential, especially for sediment exported. The importance of these human-related parameters in the sediment export process suggests that mitigation measures have the potential to at least partially ameliorate climate-change driven changes in sediment exportation. PMID:25302447

Sánchez-Canales, M; López-Benito, A; Acuña, V; Ziv, G; Hamel, P; Chaplin-Kramer, R; Elorza, F J

2015-01-01

166

Multiscale variability of sediment load and streamflow of the lower Yangtze River basin: Possible causes and implications  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryLong monthly streamflow and sediment load series observed at the Datong station located in the lower Yangtze River basin were analyzed using the scanning t-test, F-test and coherency analysis techniques. The results indicated that: (1) different changing properties of the first and the second moments of the hydrological series on different time scales were observed, reflecting different driving factors influencing the hydrological processes of the lower Yangtze River basin; (2) a generally decreasing trend can be identified after the mid-1980s. Significant abrupt changes in sediment load were analyzed in the sediment load series. However, more complicated changing patterns can be observed in the changes in streamflow. Generally decreasing sediment load and increasing streamflow gave rise to anti-phase relations between sediment load and the streamflow on longer time scales. In-phase relations between sediment load and streamflow on shorter time scales may imply a considerable influence of the hydrological dynamics on sediment transport; and (3) human activities, particularly the construction of water storage reservoirs, exerted a massive influence on sediment load variations. Construction of a large amount of water reservoirs on the tributaries of the Yangtze River and the Gezhouba Dam on the mainstem of the Yangtze River seem to be the main factors responsible for abrupt changes in the sediment load. Construction of the Three Gorges Dam causes a sharp decrease and unstable variability in sediment load variations, which may pose new challenges for the ecological environment conservation and the deltaic management of the Yangtze Delta region.

Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Chong-Yu; Singh, V. P.; Yang, Tao

2009-04-01

167

The implications of climate change scenario selection for future streamflow projection in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of projected 21st century climate conditions on streamflow in the Upper Colorado River Basin was estimated using a multi-model ensemble approach wherein the downscaled outputs of 112 future climate projections from 16 global climate models (GCMs were used to drive a macroscale hydrology model. By the middle of the century, the impacts on streamflow range, over the entire ensemble, from a decrease of approximately 30% to an increase of approximately the same magnitude. Although prior studies and associated media coverage have focused heavily on the likelihood of a drier future for the Colorado River Basin, approximately 25 to 35% of the ensemble of runs, by 2099 and 2039, respectively, result in no change or increases in streamflow. The broad range of projected impacts is primarily the result of uncertainty in projections of future precipitation, and a relatively small part of the variability of precipitation across the projections can be attributed to the effect of emissions pathways. The simulated evolution of future temperature is strongly influenced by emissions, but temperature has a smaller influence than precipitation on flow. Period change statistics (i.e., the change in flow from one 30-yr period to another vary as much within a model ensemble as between models and emissions pathways. Even by the end of the current century, the variability across the projections is much greater than changes in the ensemble mean. The relatively large ensemble analysis described herein provides perspective on earlier studies that have used fewer scenarios, and suggests that impact analyses relying on one or a few climate scenarios are unacceptably influenced by the choice of projections.

B. L. Harding

2012-11-01

168

Paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental implications of magnetofossil occurrences in late Miocene marine sediments from the Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although recent studies have revealed more widespread occurrences of magnetofossils in pre-Quaternary sediments than have been previously reported, their significance for paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental studies is not fully understood. We present a paleo- and rock-magnetic study of late Miocene marine sediments recovered from the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain). Well-defined paleomagnetic directions provide a robust magnetostratigraphic chronology for the two studied sediment cores. Rock magnetic results indicate the dominance of intact magnetosome chains throughout the studied sediments. These results provide a link between the highest-quality paleomagnetic directions and higher magnetofossil abundances. We interpret that bacterial magnetite formed in the surface sediment mixed layer and that these magnetic particles gave rise to a paleomagnetic signal in the same way as detrital grains. They, therefore, carry a magnetization that is essentially identical to a post-depositional remanent magnetization, which we term a bio-depositional remanent magnetization. Some studied polarity reversals record paleomagnetic directions with an apparent 60-70 kyr recording delay. Magnetofossils in these cases are interpreted to carry a biogeochemical remanent magnetization that is locked in at greater depth in the sediment column. A sharp decrease in magnetofossil abundance toward the middle of the studied boreholes coincides broadly with a major rise in sediment accumulation rates near the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), an event caused by interruption of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. This correlation appears to have resulted from dilution of magnetofossils by enhanced terrigenous inputs that were driven, in turn, by sedimentary changes triggered in the basin at the onset of the MSC. Our results highlight the importance of magnetofossils as carriers of high-quality paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental signals even in dominantly terrigenous sediments. PMID:24624124

Larrasoaña, Juan C; Liu, Qingsong; Hu, Pengxiang; Roberts, Andrew P; Mata, Pilar; Civis, Jorge; Sierro, Francisco J; Pérez-Asensio, José N

2014-01-01

169

Paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental implications of magnetofossil occurrences in late Miocene marine sediments from the Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although recent studies have revealed more widespread occurrences of magnetofossils in pre-Quaternary sediments than has been previously reported, their significance for paleomagetic and paleoenvironmental studies is not fully understood. We present a paleo- and rock-magnetic study of late Miocene marine sediments recovered from the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain. Well-defined paleomagnetic directions provide a robust magnetostratigraphic chronology for the two studied sediment cores. Rock magnetic results indicate the dominance of intact magnetosome chains throughout the studied sediments. These results provide a link between the highest-quality paleomagnetic directions and higher magnetofossil abundances. We interpret that bacterial magnetite formed in the surface sediment mixed layer and that these magnetic particles gave rise to a paleomagnetic signal in the same way as detrital grains. They, therefore, carry a magnetization that is essentially identical to a post-depositional remanent magnetization and that we term a bio-depositional remanent magnetization (BDRM. Some studied polarity reversals record paleomagnetic directions that appear to be delayed by 60-70 kyr. Magnetofossils in these cases are interpreted to carry a biogeochemical remanent magnetization (BGRM that is locked in at greater depth in the sediment column. A sharp decrease in magnetofossil abundance toward the middle of the studied boreholes broadly coincides with a major rise in sediment accumulation rates near the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC, an event caused by interruption of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. This correlation appears to have resulted from dilution of magnetofossils by enhanced terrigenous inputs that were driven, in turn, by sedimentary changes triggered in the basin at the onset of the MSC. Our study highlights the importance of magnetofossils as carriers of high-quality paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental signals.

JuanCruzLarrasoaña

2014-03-01

170

Paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental implications of magnetofossil occurrences in late Miocene marine sediments from the Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Although recent studies have revealed more widespread occurrences of magnetofossils in pre-Quaternary sediments than have been previously reported, their significance for paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental studies is not fully understood. We present a paleo- and rock-magnetic study of late Miocene marine sediments recovered from the Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain). Well-defined paleomagnetic directions provide a robust magnetostratigraphic chronology for the two studied sediment cores. Rock magnetic results indicate the dominance of intact magnetosome chains throughout the studied sediments. These results provide a link between the highest-quality paleomagnetic directions and higher magnetofossil abundances. We interpret that bacterial magnetite formed in the surface sediment mixed layer and that these magnetic particles gave rise to a paleomagnetic signal in the same way as detrital grains. They, therefore, carry a magnetization that is essentially identical to a post-depositional remanent magnetization, which we term a bio-depositional remanent magnetization. Some studied polarity reversals record paleomagnetic directions with an apparent 60–70 kyr recording delay. Magnetofossils in these cases are interpreted to carry a biogeochemical remanent magnetization that is locked in at greater depth in the sediment column. A sharp decrease in magnetofossil abundance toward the middle of the studied boreholes coincides broadly with a major rise in sediment accumulation rates near the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), an event caused by interruption of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. This correlation appears to have resulted from dilution of magnetofossils by enhanced terrigenous inputs that were driven, in turn, by sedimentary changes triggered in the basin at the onset of the MSC. Our results highlight the importance of magnetofossils as carriers of high-quality paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental signals even in dominantly terrigenous sediments. PMID:24624124

Larrasoaña, Juan C.; Liu, Qingsong; Hu, Pengxiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Mata, Pilar; Civis, Jorge; Sierro, Francisco J.; Pérez-Asensio, José N.

2014-01-01

171

Hydrogeochemical zonation and its implication for arsenic mobilization in deep groundwaters near alluvial fans in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia  

Science.gov (United States)

High As groundwater has been found in shallow aquifers of the flat plain of the Hetao basin, but little is known about As concentration in deep groundwaters around piedmont areas, which are the major drinking water resources. One hundred and three groundwater samples from wells with depths >50 m and seven samples from one multi-level monitoring well (89 m in depth) were analyzed for chemical compositions and 18O and D isotopes to examine the geochemical processes controlling As mobilization. According to hydrogeological setting, chemical and isotopic characteristics of deep groundwater, three distinguished hydrogeochemical zones are delineated, including Recharge-Oxic Zone (Zone I), Groundwater Flow-Moderate Reducing Zone (Zone II), and Groundwater Flow-Reducing Zone (Zone III). Zone I is located in proximal fans in the recharge area with oxic conditions, where low As groundwater generally occurs. In Zone II, located in the intermediate between the fans and the flat plain with Fe-reduction predominated, groundwater As is moderate. Zone III lies in the flat plain with the occurrence of SO42- reduction, where high As groundwater is mostly found. This indicates that release of As to groundwater is primarily determined by reduction sequences. Arsenic is immobilized in O2 /NO3- reduction stage in Zone I and released in Fe-reducing conditions of Zone II, and displays a significant elevated concentration in SO4-reducing stage in Zone III. Dissolution of carbonate minerals occurs in Zone I, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ are expected to precipitate in Zone II and Zone III. In the multi-level monitoring well, both chemical and isotopic compositions are dependent of sampling depths, with the similar trend to the hydrogeochemical zonation along the flow path. The apparent increases in ?D and ?18O values in Zone III reveal the possibility of high As shallow groundwater recharge to deep groundwater. It indicates that deep groundwaters in proximal fans have low As concentrations and are considered as safe drinking water resources in the Hetao basin. However, high As concentration is frequently observed in deep groundwater in the flat plain, which should be routinely monitored in order to avoid chronic As poisoning.

Jia, Yongfeng; Guo, Huaming; Jiang, Yuxiao; Wu, Yang; Zhou, Yinzhu

2014-10-01

172

The Changing Nature of Water Storage in the Great Lakes Basin and its Implications for Future Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

Home to approximately 40 million people in the United States and Canada, the Great Lakes drainage basin is a tremendous freshwater resource. It is, however, undergoing significant changes both in land use and climate. It has suffered from substantial deforestation in the last century and the continued drainage of wetlands. Reforestation, urbanization and increased demand for agricultural production on less land are all changing the face of the region. Climate is also changing with warmer, wetter winters changing the accumulation of snow and the formation of lake and soil ice. When land use and climate are relatively consistent between years, the storage of water in and on the land surface can be neglected for inter-annual analysis of the regional water balance, however, given the observed and projected future changes to the region it is clear that representing changes in storage will be critical for understanding how hydrology in the region will respond. As nearly half of the freshwater supply to the Great Lakes is in the form of land surface runoff, changes in the volume and timing of water storage within the drainage basin is a critical factor in the future health and sustainability of their ecosystem. Unlike air temperature and precipitation which are fairly well known in the region, many of these storage variables are known at only a handful of locations if they are monitored at all. Therefore, hydrology model become indispensable tools when trying to quantify changes in storage. For this presentation, observed and simulated datasets are used to identify and quantify changes in the timing and quantity of storage within the Great Lakes region due to changes in land use and climate. Storage terms that will be evaluated include soil moisture and ice, snow cover, groundwater, and inland lake and wetland storage. Warmer winters are reducing snow cover, which can lead to the formation of more soil ice and wetter spring soils for a time, though increasing temperatures will get warm enough to reduce the formation of soil ice as well. Wetter and warmer conditions in the winter and spring can lead to earlier spring runoff, though the presence of lake and wetland storage can mitigate this effect. Wetlands and lakes increase infiltration and the potential for groundwater recharge, while the expansion of urban impervious area reduces infiltration and recharge.

Cherkauer, K. A.

2012-12-01

173

The population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda: implications for vector control  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina fuscipes fuscipes is the primary vector of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock in Uganda. The Lake Victoria basin has been targeted for tsetse eradication using a rolling carpet initiative, from west to east, with four operational blocks (3 in Uganda and 1 in Kenya, under a Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC. We screened tsetse flies from the three Ugandan PATTEC blocks for genetic diversity at 15 microsatellite loci from continental and offshore populations to provide empirical data to support this initiative. Methods We collected tsetse samples from 11 sites across the Lake Victoria basin in Uganda. We performed genetic analyses on 409 of the collected tsetse flies and added data collected for 278 individuals in a previous study. The flies were screened across 15 microsatellite loci and the resulting data were used to assess the temporal stability of populations, to analyze patterns of genetic exchange and structuring, to estimate dispersal rates and evaluate the sex bias in dispersal, as well as to estimate demographic parameters (NE and NC. Results We found that tsetse populations in this region were stable over 4-16 generations and belong to 4 genetic clusters. Two genetic clusters (1 and 2 corresponded approximately to PATTEC blocks 1 and 2, while the other two (3 and 4 fell within PATTEC block 3. Island populations grouped into the same genetic clusters as neighboring mainland sites, suggesting presence of gene flow between these sites. There was no evidence of the stretch of water separating islands from the mainland forming a significant barrier to dispersal. Dispersal rates ranged from 2.5?km per generation in cluster 1 to 14?km per generation in clusters 3 and 4. We found evidence of male-biased dispersal. Few breeders are successfully dispersing over large distances. Effective population size estimates were low (33–310 individuals, while census size estimates ranged from 1200 (cluster 1 to 4100 (clusters 3 and 4. We present here a novel technique that adapts an existing census size estimation method to sampling without replacement, the scheme used in sampling tsetse flies. Conclusion Our study suggests that different control strategies should be implemented for the three PATTEC blocks and that, given the high potential for re-invasion from island sites, mainland and offshore sites in each block should be targeted at the same time.

Hyseni Chaz

2012-10-01

174

Modern plant-derived terpenoids in an upper Michigan river basin and implications for interpreting the geologic record  

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Di- and triterpenoids are taxonomically specific plant biomarkers, which are produced by conifers and angiosperms, respectively. Because of this source specificity, terpenoids are often used for paleovegetation reconstruction. However, few studies have evaluated weather terpenoid ratios in modern river systems reflect the surrounding plant community. It is likely that various processes that bias terpenoid ratios as they are transported from plants to sediments. To learn more about these important geologic biomarkers, we used a modern fluvial system as an ancient river analog to provide information on the utility of terpenoids as quantitative paleovegetation proxies. Di- and triterpenoid concentrations were quantified in plants, sediments, and particulate and dissolved organic matter in a small river in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to (1) determine if the contribution of terpenoids from source vegetation is reflected in forested soil and river sediments, and (2) constrain the dispersal of these compounds in fluvial systems. In Miners River drainage basin, evergreen needleleaf conifers are six times less abundant than deciduous broadleaf angiosperms, yet contribute five times more terpenoids to the sediments, when scaled for leaf litter production and present vegetation cover. Thus, using sediment terpenoid ratios alone (ie. no corrections for production differences between major taxonomic groups) to reconstruct vegetation will drastically over represent evergreen conifer populations. Sediment di-/triterpenoid ratios are considerably lower than the expected terpenoid flux from vegetation, suggesting these compounds are preferentially lost between source and sink. In Miners River, terpenoids are transported in the particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM) fractions of river water. Fluvial transport of terpenoids does not appear to influence river sediment terpenoid concentrations in fresh water systems, like Miners River, however, transport by POM and DOM may affect terpenoid concentrations in estuarine and marine sediments. Despite the challenges of using terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies, when corrected for plant production, basin-wide terpenoid concentrations are useful in predicting the present plant community composition (based on plant census data) within 10-15%. This study suggests that the sedimentary record of terpenoids can broadly reconstruct paleovegetation, when corrected for differential terpenoid production and transport.

Giri, S.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.

2013-12-01

175

Secondary gas emissions during coal desorption, Marathon Grassim Oskolkoff-1 Well, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska: Implications for resource assessment  

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Cuttings samples of sub-bituminous humic coals from the Oligocene to Pliocene Tyonek Formation, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska show secondary gas emissions whose geochemistry is consistent with renewed microbial methanogenesis during canister desorption. The renewed methanogenesis was noted after initial desorption measurements had ceased and a canister had an air and desorbed gas mixture backflow into the canister during a measurement. About a week after this event, a secondary emission of gas began and continued for over two years. The desorbed gas volume reached a new maximum, increasing the total from 3.3 to 4.9 litres, some 48% above the pre-contamination total volume. The gases released during desorption show a shift in the isotopic signature over time of methane from ??13CCH4 of -53.60 ??? and ??DCH4 of -312.60 ??? at the first day to ??13CCH4 of -57.06 ??? and ??DCH4 of -375.80 ??? after 809 days, when the experiment was arbitrarily stopped and the canister opened to study the coal. These isotopic data, interpreted using a Bernard Diagram, indicate a shift from a mixed thermogenic and biogenic source typical of natural gases in the coals and conventional gas reservoirs of the Cook Inlet Basin to a likely biogenic acetate-fermentation methane source. However, the appearance of CO2 during the renewed gas emissions with a ??13CCO2 of +26.08 to +21.72 ???, interpreted using the carbon isotope fractions found for acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction between CO2 and CH4 by Jenden and Kaplan (1986), indicates a biogenic CO2-reduction pathway may also be operative during renewed gas emission. Adding nutrients to the coal cuttings and canister water and culturing the microbial consortia under anaerobic conditions led to additional methane-rich gas generation in the laboratory. After this anaerobic culturing, ultraviolet microscopy showed that canister water contained common, fluorescent, rod-like microbes comparable to Methanobacterium sp. Scanning electron microscope investigations of the coal matrix showed several morphological types of microbes, including rod, cocci and spherical forms attached to the coal surface. These microbes apparently represent at least a portion of the microbial consortia needed to depolymerize coal, as well as to generate the observed secondary methane emission from the canister. The introduction of 48% more methane from secondary sources has a major impact on coal-bed methane resource assessments and also in determining the true, in-situ degree of methane saturation in coal-beds using isotherms. Canister and isotherm measurements that show "supersaturation" of methane may actually be the result of additional gases generated during secondary methanogenesis.

Barker, C.E.; Dallegge, T.

2006-01-01

176

Lateral Drilling and Completion Technologies for Shallow-Shelf Carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin  

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Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil- well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius laterals in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2590 to 2890 m (8500 to 9500 ft) in Richland Co., MT; Bowman Co., ND; and Harding Co., SD.

David Gibbons; Larry A. Carrell; Richard D. George

1997-07-31

177

TT-OSL dating of Longyadong Middle Paleolithic site and paleoenvironmental implications for hominin occupation in Luonan Basin (central China)  

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Dating middle Pleistocene hominin occupations alongside the reconstruction of paleoenvironments in China between 700 and 100 ka has always been a challenging task. In this paper, we report thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating results for a Middle Paleolithic site in the Luonan Basin, central China, which we have named Longyadong Cave. The results suggest that the age of cave infilling and the deposition of sediments outside the cave range between 389 ± 18 and 274 ± 14 ka. These deposits are stratigraphically and geochronologically correlated with the L4 loess and S3 paleosol units of the typical loess-paleosol sequence of the Chinese Loess Plateau, and with Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 10 to 9, respectively. On the basis of these new ages and the available paleoenvironmental data, it is suggested that the Longyadong hominins might have occupied the site both in glacial and interglacial periods, demonstrating that they coped well with environmental change in this mountainous region in warm/wet and cold/dry climates. The study further implies that the hominins abandoned the Longyadong Cave between 274 ± 14 and 205 ± 19 ka, when it was sealed by alluvial and slope deposits.

Sun, Xuefeng; Lu, Huayu; Wang, Shejiang; Yi, Shuangwen; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Wenchao

2013-03-01

178

Phylogenetics of the genus Scaevola (Goodeniaceae): implication for dispersal patterns across the Pacific Basin and colonization of the Hawaiian Islands.  

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Scaevola, the only genus of Goodeniaceae that has extensively radiated outside of Australia, has dispersed throughout the Pacific Basin, with a few species reaching the tropical coastal areas of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Five Australian and most of the non-Australian species are placed in Scaevola section Scaevola based on their fleshy fruits, indeterminate inflorescences, and more arborescent habits. Analyses of ITS sequence data demonstrate that Scaevola is a monophyletic group if S. collaris is excluded and Diaspasis filifolia is included. The genus is Australian in origin, but there have been at least six separate dispersal events from Australia. Four of these dispersals each resulted in single extra-Australian species. The remaining two were followed by radiations that gave rise to large groups, each including one of the widespread strand species, S. taccada and S. plumieri. Remarkably, three of the six dispersals established species on the remote Hawaiian Archipelago, representing at present the largest number of colonizations by any flowering plant genus to these islands. PMID:21659187

Howarth, Dianella G; Gustafsson, Mats H G; Baum, David A; Motley, Timothy J

2003-06-01

179

Organic geochemistry of the Lower Suban coal seam, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia: Palaeoecological and thermal metamorphism implications  

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Hydrocarbons extracted from the Tertiary age coals from the Lower Suban seam, South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia have been investigated using gas chromatography (GC) and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Low rank (vitrinite-huminite reflectance about to 0.41-0.45%) coals from the Tambang Air Laya mine represent different maceral assemblages of an ideal succession of ombrogenous palaeo-peat development in a vertical section. High rank coals (vitrinite reflectance about to 1.42-5.18%) from the Suban mine have been thermally metamorphosed by an andesitic intrusion. Variations in the distributions of n-alkanes, isoprenoids and saturated and aromatic biomarkers in the low rank coals reflect variations in local source input and palaeomire conditions. Terpenoid biomarkers, such as cadinane- and eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids and oleanane- and ursane-type triterpenoids, indicate the predominance of angiosperm plants in the palaeomire, particularly Dipterocarpaceae. The distribution of hopanoids is affected by the organic facies of the coal and their maturity, and correlates with the palaeomire evolution as derived from petrological studies. Close to the igneous intrusion, rapid thermal stress has destroyed most of the biomarkers, but variations in n-alkane distributions, attributable to palaeomire conditions, remain. Reversals in the trends for molecular parameters based on aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkane distribution and pristane/phytane ratio) and aromatic hydrocarbons (methyl phenanthrenes) with coal rank are observed.

Amijaya, H.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Littke, R. [University of Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

2006-07-01

180

Significant mineral variations in the Lower Karoo deposits of the Mid-Zambezi Basin, Zimbabwe, and their palaeoenvironmental implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mineralogical composition of Lower Karoo deposits from the Mid-Zimbabwe Basin, Zimbabwe, have been established by means of X-ray diffractometry to evaluate mineralogical variables as possible palaeoenvironment indicators. Mineral variations are stratigraphically controlled. Dwyka tillites are composed of quartz, K-feldspar and plagioclase. Varvites contain additional calcite. The clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite in the northwestern part of the study area while in the southwest only subordinate proportions of kaolinite occur associated with approximately equal amounts of mica, chlorite, smectite, and interstratifications. The overlying Ecca sediments are characterized by a high kaolinite content, traces of K-feldspar, mica and occasional pyrite. In mudstones of the uppermost Ecca, the kaolonite proportion decreases in favour of mica and chlorite. The mineral composition of Beaufort mudstones differs significantly with considerable amounts of plagioclase and a more than sporadic presence of analcime which is restricted to this stratigraphic unit. The clay fraction is dominated by either kaolinite, mica, or smectite. Within the geotectonical setting discussed by this paper the kaolinite dominance in Ecca sediments corresponds well with freshwater depositional conditions deduced from sedimentological and palaeontological evidence. However, the abundance of 2:1 phyllosilicates and especially analcime prevalence in the Beaufort section indicates an alkaline palaeoenvrt section indicates an alkaline palaeoenvironment. 10 figs., 29 refs

181

High precision radiometric ages from the northern Sydney Basin and their implication for the Permian time interval and sedimentation rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three pyroclastic samples that bracket the coal-bearing Permian System of the northern Sydney Basin have been dated using the zircon U/Pb and hornblende K/Ar methods. The Matthews Gap Dacitic Tuff Member, situated 170 m below the base of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 309 ± 3 Ma. Its age correlates well with the Paterson Volcanics which suggests that the immediately overlying clastic sediments are equivalent to the Seaham Formation. The Awaba Tuff, which is located 50 m below the top of the Permian System, gives a best estimate of 256 ± 4 Ma. An intervening horizon, the Thornton Claystone of the Tomago Coal Measures, gives a best estimate of 266 ± 0.4 Ma. The ages indicate an earlier beginning ? 299 Ma BP), an earlier termination (? 255 Ma BP) and slightly longer duration (44±13 Ma) of the Permian System in the Hunter Valley than previously suggested. Sedimentation rates of ± 65m/Ma, calculated from proximal sequence thicknesses, are only half the rate calculated from the closest maximum thicknesses. Both are considerably lower than previously quoted rates. The estimated time interval of 10 Ma between the Thornton Claystone and the Awaba Tuff is more than twice the length of time previously attributed to accumulation of the combined Tomago and Newcastle Coal Measures. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

182

Ichnofabrics of the Capdevila Formation (early Eocene) in the Los Palacios Basin (western Cuba): Paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications  

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The ichnofabrics present in the early Eocene siliciclastic deposits of the Capdevila Formation exposed in the Pinar del Rio area (Los Palacios Basin, western Cuba) are analyzed in this paper and their paleoecological and paleoenvironmental significance are discussed. Nine ichnofabrics were recognized in the dominantly sandy sedimentary succession: Ophiomorpha, Asterosoma, Thalassinoides, Palaeophycus, Scolicia, Bichordites-Thalassinoides, Rhizocorallium, Scolicia-Thalassinoides and rhizobioturbation. Diversity of ichnofauna is low and burrows made by detritus-feeding organisms in well oxygenated and stenohaline waters predominate. Suites of the Cruziana and Skolithos Ichnofacies lacking their archetypical characteristics were recognized, being impoverished in diversity and presenting dominance of echinoderm and decapods crustacean burrows as a response to the environmental stress caused by the high frequency of deposition. The ichnofabric distribution in the studied succession, its recurrence in the sandstone beds and the presence of a Glossifungites Ichnofacies suite with rhizobioturbation associated reflect a shoaling-upward event with subaerial exposure of the substrate. The integrated analysis of the ichnology and the sedimentary facies suggests deposition in a shallow slope frequently impacted by gravitational flows and high-energy events. The evidence of substrate exposure indicates the occurrence of a forced regression and suggests the existence of a sequence boundary at the top of the Capdevila Formation.

Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Lavina, Ernesto Luis Correa; Rojas-Consuegra, Reinaldo

2014-12-01

183

Geochemical and isotopic anomalies preceding K/T boundary in the Cauvery basin, South India : implications for end Cretaceous events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary deposits of the Cauvery basin show prominent geochemical and isotopic anomalies preceding the K/T boundary. Analysis of stratigraphic variations of whole-rock elemental concentrations and stable isotopic compositions in the light of sedimentation history, petrography and mineralogy of the rocks reveal that these anomalies may be due to increased detrital influx caused by sea-level and climatic changes, Deccan volcanism and release of volatile gases from buried hydrocarbons, presumably gas hydrates. Comparison of these interpretations with that of K/T sites located in Guatemala, New Mexico and Israel revealed that these interpretations are in conformity with records on gradually increasing environmental stress during Upper Cretaceous that culminated with two major catastrophic events such as bolide impact and Deccan Trap volcanism. Thus this communication provides additional support to the growing acknowledgement of the theory that higher faunal turnover across the K/T boundary the world over might have been the result of gradual environmental deterioration rather than a sudden impact in the global scale. (author)

184

Biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental implications of an Early Cretaceous miospore assemblage from the Muling Formation, Jixi Basin, northeast China  

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In the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang Province, China, the lower part of the Lower Cretaceous succession consists of coal-bearing strata including the Muling Formation, which, in addition to plant megafossils, yields abundant spores and pollen grains and a few dinoflagellate cysts. The spore-pollen assemblage consists of more than 42 species belonging to 34 genera. Most of these are derived from pteridophytes and gymnosperms. The association of Aequitriradites echinatus, Cicatricosisporites australiensis, C. imbricatus, C. mediostriatus, C. undosus, Contignisporites glebulentus, Crybelosporites punctatus, Foranminisporis asymmetricus, Gleicheniidites laetus, Impardecispora purverulenta, Kuylisporites lunaris, Pilosisporites trichopapillosus and Triporoletes singularis suggests that the formation is unlikely to be older than late Hauterivian and younger than Aptian, with emphasis placed on the Barremian-early Aptian. The composition of the dinoflagellate cyst and plant megafossil assemblages is consistent with this determination. Based on palynofloral content, a comparison between the miospores recovered and the spores and pollen produced by extant plant taxa, the associated plant megafossils, and the sedimentary facies that characterize the Muling Formation, it is concluded that the source vegetation was dominated by ferns and that the climate was wet subtropical but seasonally dry.

Yang, X.J.; Li, W.B.; Batten, D.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

2007-04-15

185

Long-term changes in river-floodplain dynamics: implications for salmonid habitat in the Interior Columbia Basin, USA.  

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Rivers and their associated floodplains are among the world's most highly altered ecosystems, resulting in billions of dollars in restoration expenditures. Successful restoration of these systems requires information at multiple spatial scales (from localized reaches to broader-scale watersheds), as well as information spanning long time frames. Here, we develop a suite of historical landscape indicators of riverine status, primarily from the perspective of salmonid management, using a case study in the Interior Columbia Basin, Washington, USA. We use a combination of historical and modern aerial photography to quantify changes in land cover and reach type, as well as potential fish habitat within channel and off-channel floodplain areas. As of 1949, 55% of the Wenatchee River floodplain had been converted to agriculture. By 2006, 62% had been modified by anthropogenic development, of which 20% was due to urban expansion. The historical percentage of agricultural land in the watershed and the contemporary percentage of urban area surpass thresholds in land cover associated with deleterious impacts on river systems. In addition, the abundance of reach types associated with the highest quality salmonid habitat (island braided and meandering reaches) has declined due to conversion to straight reach types. The area occupied by fish habitats associated with channel migration (slow/stagnant channels and dry channels) has declined approximately 25-30%. Along highly modified rivers, these habitats have also become increasingly fragmented. Caveats related to visual quality and seasonal timing of historical photographs were important considerations in the interpretation of changes witnessed for headwater island braided systems, as well as for floodplain ponds. Development of rigorous, long-term, multi-scale monitoring techniques is necessary to guide the management and restoration of river-floodplain systems for the diversity of ecosystem services they provide. PMID:21830708

Tomlinson, Matthew J; Gergel, Sarah E; Beechie, Timothy J; McClure, Michelle M

2011-07-01

186

Groundwater geochemistry and its implications for arsenic mobilization in shallow aquifers of the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arsenic concentrations in shallow groundwaters from the Hetao Basin of Inner Mongolia range between 0.6 and 572 ?g/L. High As groundwaters generally occur in the shallow alluvial-lacustrine aquifers, which are mainly composed of black (or dark grey) fine sands in a reducing environment. They are characterized by high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Mn, HCO3-, P and S2-, and low concentrations of NO3- and SO42-. Low SO42- coupled with high S2- suggests that SO42- reduction has been an active process. In the reducing groundwaters, inorganic As(III) accounts for around 75% of total dissolved As. Total As contents in the sediments from three representative boreholes are observed to be 7.3-73.3 mg/kg (average of 18.9 mg/kg). The total As is mildly-strongly correlated with total Fe and total Mn, while a quite weak correlation exists between total As and total S, suggesting that the As is associated with Fe-Mn oxides, rather than sulfides in the sediments. It is found in the sequential extraction that chemically active As is mainly bound to Fe-Mn oxides, up to 3500 ?g/kg. The mobilization of As under reducing conditions is believed to include reductive dissolution of Fe-Mn oxides and reduction of adsorbed As. Although exchangeable As is labile and very vulnerable to hydrogeochemical condition, the contribution is relatively limited due to the bution is relatively limited due to the low concentrations. The competition between As and other anions (such as HPO42-) for binding sites on Fe-Mn oxides may also give rise to the release of As into groundwater. Slow groundwater movement helps accumulation of the released As in the groundwaters

187

Climate change and stream temperature projections in the Columbia River Basin: biological implications of spatial variation in hydrologic drivers  

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Full Text Available Water temperature is a primary physical factor regulating the persistence and distribution of aquatic taxa. Considering projected increases in temperature and changes in precipitation in the coming century, accurate assessment of suitable thermal habitat in freshwater systems is critical for predicting aquatic species responses to changes in climate and for guiding adaptation strategies. We use a hydrologic model coupled with a stream temperature model and downscaled General Circulation Model outputs to explore the spatially and temporally varying changes in stream temperature at the subbasin and ecological province scale for the Columbia River Basin. On average, stream temperatures are projected to increase 3.5 °C for the spring, 5.2 °C for the summer, 2.7 °C for the fall, and 1.6 °C for the winter. While results indicate changes in stream temperature are correlated with changes in air temperature, our results also capture the important, and often ignored, influence of hydrological processes on changes in stream temperature. Decreases in future snowcover will result in increased thermal sensitivity within regions that were previously buffered by the cooling effect of flow originating as snowmelt. Other hydrological components, such as precipitation, surface runoff, lateral soil flow, and groundwater, are negatively correlated to increases in stream temperature depending on the season and ecological province. At the ecological province scale, the largest increase in annual stream temperature was within the Mountain Snake ecological province, which is characterized by non-migratory coldwater fish species. Stream temperature changes varied seasonally with the largest projected stream temperature increases occurring during the spring and summer for all ecological provinces. Our results indicate that stream temperatures are driven by local processes and ultimately require a physically-explicit modeling approach to accurately characterize the habitat regulating the distribution and diversity of aquatic taxa.

D. L. Ficklin

2014-06-01

188

Climate change and stream temperature projections in the Columbia River Basin: biological implications of spatial variation in hydrologic drivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Water temperature is a primary physical factor regulating the persistence and distribution of aquatic taxa. Considering projected increases in temperature and changes in precipitation in the coming century, accurate assessment of suitable thermal habitat in freshwater systems is critical for predicting aquatic species responses to changes in climate and for guiding adaptation strategies. We use a hydrologic model coupled with a stream temperature model and downscaled General Circulation Model outputs to explore the spatially and temporally varying changes in stream temperature at the subbasin and ecological province scale for the Columbia River Basin. On average, stream temperatures are projected to increase 3.5 °C for the spring, 5.2 °C for the summer, 2.7 °C for the fall, and 1.6 °C for the winter. While results indicate changes in stream temperature are correlated with changes in air temperature, our results also capture the important, and often ignored, influence of hydrological processes on changes in stream temperature. Decreases in future snowcover will result in increased thermal sensitivity within regions that were previously buffered by the cooling effect of flow originating as snowmelt. Other hydrological components, such as precipitation, surface runoff, lateral soil flow, and groundwater, are negatively correlated to increases in stream temperature depending on the season and ecological province. At the ecological province scale, the largest increase in annual stream temperature was within the Mountain Snake ecological province, which is characterized by non-migratory coldwater fish species. Stream temperature changes varied seasonally with the largest projected stream temperature increases occurring during the spring and summer for all ecological provinces. Our results indicate that stream temperatures are driven by local processes and ultimately require a physically-explicit modeling approach to accurately characterize the habitat regulating the distribution and diversity of aquatic taxa.

Ficklin, D. L.; Barnhart, B. L.; Knouft, J. H.; Stewart, I. T.; Maurer, E. P.; Letsinger, S. L.; Whittaker, G. W.

2014-06-01

189

Basin Testing of Wave Energy Converters in Trondheim: Investigation of Mooring Loads and Implications for Wider Research  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the physical model testing of an array of wave energy devices undertaken in the NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim basin between 8 and 20 October 2008 funded under the EU Hydralabs III initiative, and provides an analysis of the extreme mooring loads. Tests were completed at 1/20 scale on a single oscillating water column device and on close-packed arrays of three and five devices following calibration of instrumentation and the wave and current test environment. One wave energy converter (WEC was fully instrumented with mooring line load cells, optical motion tracker and accelerometers and tested in regular waves, short- and long-crested irregular waves and current. The wave and current test regimes were measured by six wave probes and a current meter. Arrays of three and five similar WECs, with identical mooring systems, were tested under similar environmental loading with partial monitoring of mooring forces and motions. The majority of loads on the mooring lines appeared to be broadly consistent with both logistic and normal distribution; whilst the right tail appeared to conform to the extreme value distribution. Comparison of the loads at different configurations of WEC arrays suggests that the results are broadly consistent with the hypothesis that the mooring loads should differ. In particular; the results from the tests in short crested seas conditions give an indication that peak loads in a multi WEC array may be considerably higher than in 1-WEC configuration. The test campaign has contributed essential data to the development of Simulink™ and Orcaflex™ models of devices, which include mooring system interactions, and data have also been obtained for inter-tank comparisons, studies of scale effects and validation of mooring system numerical models. It is hoped that this paper will help to draw the attention of a wider scientific community to the dataset freely available from the Marintek website.

Vladimir Krivtsov

2014-04-01

190

Late Triassic tuff intervals in the Ordos basin, Central China: Their depositional, petrographic, geochemical characteristics and regional implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuff intervals of Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation are laterally widespread in the Ordos basin, Central China. This paper focuses on magmatic origins and potential source regions of these tuff intervals through detail depositional, petrographic and geochemical analyses. Most of the tuff intervals are well-documented at the bottom of the Chang7 oil reservoir unit and can be correlated laterally, and certain tuff beds are reworked by turbidity current or seismic activity. Petrographic studies of the Chang7 tuffs indicate that they are composed of crystal shards, lithic shards and altered glass shards, and the crystal shards include plagioclase, quartz and biotite. Alteration of the Chang7 tuffs is ubiquitous, thus, most of these tuffs transformed into illite/smectite (I/S) mixed-layers which are identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Less common minerals are also detected in the Chang7 tuffs such as zircon, hematite, siderite, anatase. Major elements are determined by the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the results indicate that the Chang7 tuffs are enriched in K2O (average 4.21%), the ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 ranges from 1.73 to 2.85 (average 2.17), and the ratio of TiO2/Al2O3 varies between 0.006 and 0.032 (average 0.017), which imply that the Chang7 tuffs originated from a felsic parental magma. Trace elements are determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), indicating the total rare earth element (?REE) concentrations are variable, and range from 117.46 to 466.83 ppm (average 251.88 ppm). REE distribution pattern of the Chang7 tuffs presents a LREE rightward incline with flat HREE curve. The value of ?Eu ranges from 0.151 to 0.837 (average 0.492), suggesting a strong to weak negative Eu anomaly. The Chang7 tuffs show positive anomalies in Rb, Th and U and negative anomalies in Nb, Sr and Eu on a primitive mantle normalized spidergram. A preliminary analysis of the geochemical composition of the Chang7 tuffs suggests a parental magma origin of rhyodacite/dacite, which came from volcanic arc-related setting along an active continental margin. Combined with the chronology and geochemical studies of the synchronous Tianshui rhyolite in the West Qinling Mountains, we propose that the west Qinling Mountains is one of the potential source regions of these tuffs, and the Middle-Late Triassic terminal closure of eastern Tethys provided the arc-related magma.

Qiu, Xinwei; Liu, Chiyang; Mao, Guangzhou; Deng, Yu; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Jianqiang

2014-02-01

191

Distal record of multi-sourced tephra in Onepoto Basin, Auckland, New Zealand: implications for volcanic chronology, frequency and hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

We have documented 80 tephra beds dating from ca. 9.5 to >50 ka, contained within continuously deposited palaeolake sediments from Onepoto Basin, a volcanic explosion crater in Auckland, New Zealand. The known sources for distal (>190 km from vent) tephra include the rhyolitic Taupo Volcanic Centre (4) and Okataina Volcanic Centre (14), and the andesitic Taranaki volcano (40) and Tongariro Volcanic Centre (3). The record provides evidence for four new events between ca. 50 and 28 ka (Mangaone Subgroup) suggesting Okataina was more active than previously known. The tephra record also greatly extends the known northern dispersal of other Mangaone Subgroup tephra. Ten rhyolitic tephra pre-date the Rotoehu eruption (>ca. 50 ka), and some are chemically dissimilar to post-50 ka rhyolites. Some of these older tephra were produced by large-magnitude events; however, their source remains uncertain. Eight tephra from the local basaltic Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) are also identified. Interpolation of sedimentation rates allow us to estimate the timing of 12 major explosive eruptions from Taranaki volcano in the 27.5-9.5-ka period. In addition, 28 older events are recognised. The tephra are trachytic to rhyolitic in composition. All have high K2O contents (>3 wt%), and there are no temporal trends. This contrasts with the proximal lava record that shows a trend of increasing K2O with time. By combining the Onepoto tephra record with that of the previously documented Pukaki crater, 15 AVF basaltic fall events are constrained at: 34.6, 30.9, 29.6, 29.6, 25.7, 25.2, 24.2, 23.8, 19.4, 19.4, 15.8 and 14.5 ka, and three pre-50 ka events. This provides some of the best age constraints for the AVF, and the only reliable data for hazard recurrence calculations. The minimum event frequency of both distal and local fall events can be estimated, and demonstrates the Auckland City region is frequently impacted by ash fall from many volcanoes.

Shane, Phil; Hoverd, Joy

2002-04-01

192

Paleoclimatic implications (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) from micromorphology of calcretes, palustrine limestones and silcretes, southern Paraná Basin, Uruguay  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of outcroping and subsurface calcretes, palustrine carbonates, and silcretes were carried out in the southern Paraná Basin (Uruguay). The aim of this work is to describe the microfabric and interpret the genesis of these rocks through detailed analyses, since they contain significant paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution information. The main calcrete and silcrete host rock (Mercedes Formation) is represented by a fluvial thinning upward succession of conglomerate and sandstone deposits, with isolated pelitic intervals and paleosoils. Most of the studied calcretes are macroscopically massive with micromorphological features of alpha fabric, originated by displacive growth of calcite in the host clastic material due to evaporation, evapotranspiration and degassing. Micromorphologically, calcretes indicate an origin in the vadose and phreatic diagenetic environments. Micrite is the principal component, and speaks of rapid precipitation in the vadose zone from supersaturated solutions. The abundance of microsparite and secondary sparite is regarded as the result of dissolution and reprecipitation processes. Although present, brecciated calcretes are less common. They are frequent in vadose diagenetic environments, where the alternation between cementation and non-tectonic fracturing conditions take place. These processes generated episodes of fragmentation, brecciation and cementation. Fissures are filled with clear primary sparitic calcite, formed by precipitation of extremely supersaturated solutions in a phreatic diagenetic environment. The micromorphological characteristics indicate that calcretes resulted from carbonate precipitation in the upper part of the groundwater table and the vadose zone, continuously nourished by lateral migration of groundwater. The scarcity of biogenic structures suggests that they were either formed in zones of little biological activity or that the overimposed processes related to water table fluctuations produced intense recrystallization completely obliterating the biogenic fabric. Limestone beds containing terrestrial gastropods are geographically restricted. Situated at the top of the calcrete successions, they exhibit brecciated and peloidal-intraclastic textures but lack lamination, edaphic structures, aggregates and vertical rhizoliths. This indicates they correspond to low-energy palustrine deposits, generated in shallow, local and ephemeral ponds developed in topographic depressions. When water table levels dropped, the palustrine deposits were exposed. This favours the presence of terrestrial gastropods, seeds and insect nests. The combination of calcretes and palustrine carbonates indicates periods and areas with a reduced clastic input and a predominantly semiarid climate, with well-defined humid and dry seasons. Characteristics of the later developed massive and nodular horizons of silcretes, such as, preservation of the internal structure of the host rock, the small areal extent, the formation of massive lenses, the complex pore infillings and the lack of a columnar upper section, indicate that they were generated from groundwaters. Every silcretized horizon shows different positions of the groundwater table and relates to the dissection of landscape. The age of calcretization and silcretization is bracketed between the Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) and the Early Eocene. Paleoclimate indicates changing conditions from warm and humid at the end of the Cretaceous (Mercedes Formation) to semiarid and seasonal during Paleocene (groundwater calcretes and palustrine deposits) and subtropical and seasonal in the early Eocene (Asencio Formation).

Tófalo, Ofelia R.; Pazos, Pablo J.

2010-04-01

193

Detrital records for Upper Permian-Lower Triassic succession in the Shiwandashan Basin, South China and implication for Permo-Triassic (Indosinian) orogeny  

Science.gov (United States)

Upper Permian to Lower Triassic siliciclastic succession in the Shiwandashan Basin, South China, accumulated in response to a Permo-Triassic orogeny (often referred to as the Indosinian orogeny). The petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of this succession, along with north and northwest-directed paleocurrent indicators, reveal an evolving provenance related to erosion and reworking of Precambrian, Early Paleozoic and Permian to Early Triassic units exposed to the south of the basin. The Upper Permian to Lower Triassic sandstones within the basin are quartz dominated, which along with their high Th/Sc and Zr/Sc ratios indicate a multi-cycled source. Sandstone clasts in the Upper Permian conglomerates display age patterns similar to nearby Silurian strata. Other clast types (limestone, mudstone and cherts) are from the Early Paleozoic strata within or adjoining the basin. Detrital zircon age spectra of the strata display prominent age groups at 1200-800 Ma, 650-500 Ma and 460-420 Ma, and are inferred to have been derived from basement units similar to those exposed in the Yunkai Massif to the south and southeast of the Shiwandashan Basin and/or from reworking of the Paleozoic units around the basin. The Lower Triassic strata also contain 260-240 Ma zircons that were likely derived from magmatic rocks located to the south of the basin. The Late Permian marks a significant change in the paleogeography of the Shiwandashan Basin from an older deep marine chert succession to a terrestrial to shallow marine environment receiving an influx of clastic detritus related to uplift and erosion to the south of the basin. The Lower Triassic units within the basin record a further pulse of sediment influx including detritus derived from approximately syn-sedimentary magmatic activity. Yunkai Massif, located in the southeast of the basin, underwent uplift in Late Permian and provided majority detritus for the basin in the Late Permian to Early Triassic. Integration of provenance data with regional geological information, magmatic and metamorphic records to the south of the Shiwandashan Basin suggests the basin was converted from a pre-Late Permian deep marine extensional basin to a Late Permian to Early Triassic foreland basin. Conversion to a foreland basin reflected collision between the South China and Indochina blocks.

Hu, Lisha; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Xu, Yajun; Xu, Wangchun; Huang, Hongwei

2015-02-01

194

Paleosol architecture of a late Quaternary basin-margin sequence and its implications for high-resolution, non-marine sequence stratigraphy  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleosol stratigraphy, a technique commonly applied in basin-margin settings to depict cyclic alluvial architecture on time scales of 10-100 ky, can be consistent with regional accommodation trends at even higher temporal resolution (1-10 ky), having strong implications for the sequence stratigraphy of late Quaternary, non-marine deposits. Three closely-spaced late Pleistocene paleosols (P1-P3), dating back approximately to 42-39, 35-31, and 29-26 cal kyr BP, respectively, form prominent stratigraphic markers across a lithologically homogeneous interfluve succession in the subsurface of Bologna, close to the Apenninic foothills. These paleosols are weakly developed (Inceptisols) and can be tracked continuously for 6 km across the triangle-shaped interchannel zone between two gravel/sand-filled channel systems (Reno and Savena rivers). In particular, the thickest paleosol (P3) is a distinctive stiff horizon that can be traced into laterally extensive, erosional-based fluvial bodies. We infer the correlation between (P3) soil development (and channel downcutting) and the final stage of the stepwise Late Pleistocene sea-level fall that culminated at the marine isotope stage 3/2 transition around 29 cal kyr BP (low accommodation systems tract). A fourth laterally extensive Inceptisol, encompassing the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary (PH), represents the major phase of soil development since the Last Glacial Maximum and is inferred to be related to channel entrenchment at the onset of the Younger Dryas. With the exception of the Iron Age-Roman paleosol, which reflects a predominantly anthropogenic control, the Holocene paleosols are laterally discontinuous and invariably more immature (Entisols) than their Pleistocene counterparts. This trend of decreasing paleosol development (and correlatability) upsection is interpreted to reflect increasing (transgressive-equivalent) accommodation during sea-level rise, thus confirming the possible extension of models used to interpret the ancient rock record to short-term depositional cycles.

Amorosi, Alessandro; Bruno, Luigi; Rossi, Veronica; Severi, Paolo; Hajdas, Irka

2014-01-01

195

Organic geochemistry of deep ground waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: implications for radionuclide complexation, ground-water origin, and petroleum exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the organic geochemistry of 11 ground-water samples from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas and discusses the implications of their organic geochemical compositions in terms of radionuclide complexation, ground-water origin, and the petroleum potential of two candidate repository sites in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties. Short-chain aliphatic acid anions are the principal organic constituents present. Stability constant data and simple chemical equilibria calculations suggest that short-chain aliphatic acids are relatively weak complexing agents. The extent of complexation of a typical actinide by selected inorganic ligands present in these brines is expected to far outweigh actinide complexation by the aliphatic acid anions. Various lines of evidence suggest that some portion of the bromide concentrations in the brines is derived from the same source as the short-chain aliphatic acid anions. When the postulated organic components are subtracted from total bromide concentrations, the origins of the Palo Duro brines, based on chloride versus bromide relationships, appear largely consistent with origins based on isotopic evidence. The short-chain aliphatic acid anion content of the Palo Duro brines is postulated to have been much greater in the geologic past. Aliphatic acid anions are but one of numerous petroleum proximity indicators, which consistently suggest a greater petroleum exploration potential for the area surrounding the Swisher County site than the region encompassing the candidate site in Deaf Smith County. Short-chain aliphatic acid anions appear to provide a useful petroleum exploration tool as long as the complex reactions that may dimish their concentrations in ground water are recognized. 71 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs

196

Estimates of recharge in two arid basin aquifers: a model of spatially variable net infiltration and its implications (Red Light Draw and Eagle Flats, Texas, USA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods of estimating recharge in arid basin aquifers (such as the 1 % rule, Maxey-Eakin method, storm-runoff infiltration and others) overlook the potential contribution of direct recharge on the basin floors. In the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas, USA, this has resulted in potential recharge and solute flux to basin aquifers being ignored. Observed trends in groundwater nitrate (NO3 -) concentrations and the presence of young (aquifers in Texas and elsewhere.

Robertson, Wendy Marie; Sharp, John M.

2013-12-01

197

Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction  

Science.gov (United States)

Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4000m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, late Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. -from Author

Clarke, S.H., Jr.

1992-01-01

198

Paleomagnetism of Eocene and Miocene sediments from the Qaidam basin: Implication for no integral rotation since the Eocene and a rigid Qaidam block  

Science.gov (United States)

Qaidam basin is the largest topographic depression inside the Tibetan Plateau and it is a key factor to understanding the Cenozoic evolution of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Paleomagnetic data was obtained from the middle to late Eocene Xiaganchaigou Formation and the early to middle Miocene Xiayoushashan Formation from seven localities. The paleomagnetic results indicate that the Qaidam basin has not undergone obvious basin-scale vertical axis rotation with respect to the Eurasia Plate since the Eocene. Local clockwise rotation took place only at a few special locations along the northern margin of the Qaidam basin. The uniform paleomagnetic results at different localities support that the Qaidam basin is a relatively rigid block. Regional paleomagnetic and geodetic observations also suggest that crust south of the Kunlun fault moves eastward faster than crust north of the Kunlun fault.

Yu, Xiangjiang; Fu, Suotang; Guan, Shuwei; Huang, Baochun; Cheng, Feng; Cheng, Xiang; Zhang, Tuo; Guo, Zhaojie

2014-06-01

199

Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of Eocene and Miocene sediments in the Qaidam Basin, Northwest China: Implication for Cenozoic tectonic transition and depocenter migration  

Science.gov (United States)

Cenozoic evolution of the Qaidam basin, especially its paleostress field, can provide a better understanding of the dynamistic process of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Under certain conditions, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) holds great potential for investigating early tectonic events, even where macroscopic and microscopic evidence of deformation is invisible. A basin-scale AMS study of the middle to late Eocene Xiaganchaigou Formation and the early to middle Miocene Xiayoushashan Formation from seven locations was conducted, covering most outcrops of these two formations within the Qaidam basin. In the western Qaidam basin, principal stress directions inferred from AMS ellipsoids consist with those inferred from fold axial traces, while at Eboliang and in the northern Qaidam basin, most principal stress directions reflected by AMS ellipsoids are different from those reflected by fold axial traces. Two epochs of compressive strain have been identified: an early N-S strain no later than Oligocene and a late NE-SW strain since Miocene. The early N-S compression is more intense in the northern Qaidam basin than that in the western Qaidam basin, while the late NE-SW compression, which dominates the modern NW-SE trending fold axial traces, is more intense in the western Qaidam basin than that in the northern Qaidam basin. The stress transfer provides a reasonable explanation for the southeastward migration of the deposition center in the Qaidam basin during Cenozoic. Moreover, the appearance of E-component compression may be in close relationship with the beginning of the left-lateral strike-slip Kunlun Fault or the eastward channel flow to the south of the Kunlun Fault.

Yu, Xiangjiang; Huang, Baochun; Guan, Shuwei; Fu, Suotang; Cheng, Feng; Cheng, Xiang; Zhang, Tuo; Guo, Zhaojie

2014-06-01

200

Diagenesis in Okavango fan and adjacent dune deposits with implications for the record of palaeo-environmental change in Makgadikgadi Okavango Zambezi basin, northern Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

This work considers the spatial distribution and ages of western MOZ basin siliclastic sediments prior to providing insights into the diagenesis of degraded dune and alluvial fan sands. Previously published and new TL/OSL ages imply that extensive over-washing of dune sands took place at least 100 ka ago while ages on Okavango floodplains imply that the fan was formed ca. 40 ka and has since undergone periods of higher and lower flood regimes. Sediment analyses indicate that both dune and fan sands contain a diagenetic matrix of clay-enhanced amorphous silica (CEAS) which bonds weakly formed aggregates. The time of formation of diagenetic matrix products is inconclusive but may have been accelerated during or shortly after events dated using OSL/TL techniques. Hence earlier dune over-washing may have led to greater porewater of an acidic to near neutral nature which in turn promoted smectite formation and silicic acid precipitation > 100 000 years ago. The relatively abundant CEAS matrix in floodplain sands implies more recent semi-continuous flood events again of an acidic-near neutral nature leading to the formation of smectite. In this case the floodplain sediments are dated as having been deposited around 40 and 11 ka, when porewater content may have accelerated clay formation and silica dissolution. The dual nature of the CEAS in the islands reflects a changing environment from smectite-dominated flooding events to sepiolite-dominated desiccation events. Flooding may also correspond to TL/OSL ages over the past 40 000 years which contributed to accelerated CEAS formation. The sepiolite is associated with a Ca-rich matrix implying desiccation which may relate to drying events over the 40 000 year period or to riparian tree root pumping and selective salt accumulation. This work shows that sedimentation in incipient rifts is complex and rarely explained totally in terms of primary depositional events. The implications of different stages of sand diagenesis may be significant in enhancing palaeo-environmental interpretations in semi-arid fluvial environments.

Ringrose, Susan; Huntsman-Mapila, Philippa; Downey, William; Coetzee, Stephan; Fey, Martin; Vanderpost, Cornelis; Vink, Bernard; Kemosidile, Thebe; Kolokose, Dikitso

2008-11-01

201

Sedimentology and paleogeographic evolution of the intermontane Kathmandu basin, Nepal, during the Pliocene and Quaternary. Implications for formation of deposits of economic interest  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kathmandu Valley is an intermontane basin in the center of a large syncline of the Lesser Himalayas. The sedimentary basin fill comprises three units of Plio-Pleistocene to Holocene age. The study aimed at modeling the paleogeographic evolution of the basin, with emphasis on sedimentary series of fossil fuels and non-metallic deposits. The lithological setting of the basin and the tectonic framework were instrumental to basin subsidence. Alluvial through lacustrine sedimentation during incipient stages is a direct response to uplift in the hinge zone of the synclinorium. Axial parallel sediment dispersal gave way to fluviodeltaic sedimentation mainly from the limbs of the synclinorium. Ongoing compression and renewed uplift in the core zone of the synclinorium drove the uplift of a NW-SE running divide and a subdivision of the mono-lake into two basins. This ridge blocked the flow of transverse rivers and the northern subbasin became gradually choked. Ongoing uplift of the entire basin during the recent geological history caused a reorganization of the drainage pattern and triggered linear erosion in the southern mountain range. Step-by-step the remaining lacustrine basins disappeared. Fan aggradation coincide with cold dry or warm seasons, fluvial dissection and discharge increased during warmer and more humid periods. High lake levels exist during phases of increased humidity. The results of this basin analysis may be used predictively in the exploration for coal, natural gas, diatomaceous earths and quarrying for sand or clay. The gas potential is at its maximum in the lacustrine facies, sand and clay for construction purposes may be quarried economically from various fluvial and deltaic deposits. Diatomaceous earths predominantly accumulated in marginal parts of the lake and some landslide-dammed ponds. Lignitic brown coal can be mined together with combustible shales from poorly drained swamps.

Dill, H. G.; Kharel, B. D.; Singh, V. K.; Piya, B.; Busch, K.; Geyh, M.

2001-10-01

202

Lineaments Extraction from Gravity Data by Automatic Lineament Tracing Method in Sidi Bouzid Basin (Central Tunisia: Structural Framework Inference andHydrogeological Implication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The gravity method may be used in the exploration of deep sedimentary basins. It allows the structuring and the lateral and vertical extent of sedimentary fill to be determined. This study has concerned a qualitative and quantitative gravity analysis of Sidi Bouzid Basin in Central Tunisia. Bouguer anomaly analysis and Gravity data filtering allows us to emphasize the structures affecting the basin. The Automatic Lineament Tracing method helps to quantify the different gravity responses of faults located in the shallow and deep sedimentary sections and in the basement. The elaborated structural map of the study area constitutes a useful document for rationalizing the future groundwater exploration in the arid area of central Tunisia since it shows faults dipping and deep hydrogeologic sub-basin delineation.

Hajer Azaiez

2011-08-01

203

The Density and Porosity of Lunar Impact Breccias and Impact Melt Rocks and Implications for Gravity Modeling of Impact Basin Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Measured bulk densities of lunar impact breccias and melt rocks increase the basin melt sheet thickness inferred with GRAIL gravity data. The grain densities of these rocks are consistent with an origin from a mixture of crust and mantle material.

Kiefer, W. S.; Macke, R. J.; Britt, D. T.; Irving, A. J.; Consolmagno, G. J.

2015-02-01

204

Seismic reflection-based evidence of a transfer zone between the Wagner and Consag basins: implications for defining the structural geometry of the northern Gulf of California  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the structural characteristics of the northern Gulf of California by processing and interpreting ca. 415 km of two-dimensional multi-channel seismic reflection lines (data property of Petróleos Mexicanos PEMEX) collected in the vicinity of the border between the Wagner and Consag basins. The two basins appear to be a link between the Delfín Superior Basin to the south, and the Cerro Prieto Basin to the north in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley along the Pacific-North America plate boundary. The seismic data are consistent with existing knowledge of four main structures (master faults) in the region, i.e., the Percebo, Santa María, Consag Sur, and Wagner Sur faults. The Wagner and Consag basins are delimited to the east by the Wagner Sur Fault, and to the west by the Consag Sur Fault. The Percebo Fault borders the western margin of the modern Wagner Basin depocenter, and is oriented N10°W, dipping (on average) ˜40° to the northeast. The trace of the Santa María Fault located in the Wagner Basin strikes N19°W, dipping ˜40° to the west. The Consag Sur Fault is oriented N14°W, and dips ˜42° to the east over a distance of 21 km. To the east of the study area, the Wagner Sur Fault almost parallels the Consag Sur Fault over a distance of ˜86 km, and is oriented N10°W with an average dip of 59° to the east. Moreover, the data provide new evidence that the Wagner Fault is discontinuous between the two basins, and that its structure is more complex than previously reported. A structural high separates the northern Consag Basin from the southern Wagner Basin, comprising several secondary faults oriented NE oblique to the main faults of N-S direction. These could represent a zone of accommodation, or transfer zone, where extension could be transferred from the Wagner to the Consag Basin, or vice versa. This area shows no acoustic basement and/or intrusive body, which is consistent with existing gravimetric and magnetic data for the region.

González-Escobar, Mario; Suárez-Vidal, Francisco; Hernández-Pérez, José Antonio; Martín-Barajas, Arturo

2010-12-01

205

Late Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine system in the Karacasu Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey): Depositional, paleogeographic and paleoclimatic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The sedimentary record of the late Cenozoic Karacasu Basin, a long-lived continental half-graben from southwestern Turkey, is characterized by siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. Sedimentation was controlled by an active NW-SE trending major normal fault along the basin's southern margin and by climatically-induced lake-level changes. Detailed facies analysis subdivides the entire Neogene-Quaternary basin-fill into three distinct litostratigraphic units representing paleogeographic changes and sedimentation patterns throughout the basin evolution. Sedimentation commenced in the late Miocene with the deposition of proximal-medial alluvial fan and fluvial facies (Damdere Formation; FA1). At this stage, alluvial fans developed in elevated areas to the south, prograding towards the basin center. At the beginning of the Pliocene, fresh to slightly alkaline, shallow lake deposits (FA2a) of the Karacaören Formation formed. The lake became open and meromictic conditions developed (FA2b). Pollen data from the FA2b facies show that climate was arid to humid. Climate probably changed cyclically through time producing alternation of Artemisia steppe (cold and dry periods) and more forested vegetation (warm and wet). The open lake facies passes upwards into lake margin facies (FA2c), but it was still dominated by alkaline to slightly saline lake conditions. Sedimentation was almost continuous from the late Miocene to Pleistocene. In the early Quaternary, the basin was dissected by the re-activation of basin bounding faults. The unconformable base of the overlying Quaternary deposits (Karacasu Formation; FA3) reflected the basin's transformation from a half-graben into a full-graben system. Oxygen isotope data from carbonates show an alternation of humid climatic periods, when freshwater settings predominated, and semiarid/arid periods in which the basin hosted alkaline and saline water lakes. Neotectonic activity has rejuvenated many of the basin-bounding faults, causing development of talus aprons and local alluvial fans. The basin was progressively incised by modern rivers that have largely smoothed out the topographic relief of the graben margins. id="ab0010" The study highlights to the paleo-geography/-climatology in the east Mediterranean.

Alçiçek, Hülya; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo

2013-06-01

206

Discovering the Cubango-Okavango river basin. A geomorphological description of the Angolan rivers and its fish assemblages and the ecological implications of future human development  

OpenAIRE

The years fly by but the African continet and its enourmos richness remains an undiscovered treasure. The Angolan province Cuando-Cubango includes one of the biggest watersheds of the African continent, the Cubango-Okavango river basin. One of the rivers where most parts remains untouched and in a pristine form. Ongoing water resources planning intends to regulate large parts of the basin and to intensify human uses. In order to better understand and to analize ecological respo...

Preiswerk, Sebastian Benedikt Coimbra

2013-01-01

207

Eocene Formation of the Bering Sea basin linked to regional-scale tectonism of Alaska -- implications for energy gas resources and the accumulation of massive hydrate deposits (VAMPs)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The creation of the deep-water Aleutian Basin (Bering Sea) is inextricably linked to the formation of the three co-genetic arcs that structurally frame the basin--the active Aleutian arc subduction zone (SZ), and the fossil submarine Shirshov and Bowers arcs. The origin of these arcs is tied to an early Eocene episode of accelerated tectonism and terrane movement that affected the north Pacific rim from British Columbia westward to Kamchatka. Transpressive tectonism was driven by rapid northward movement of the Kula plate into terrane-clogged SZs of southern Alaska and Kamchatka. A clogged Kamchatka SX and N-S compression of southern Alaska extruded interior Alaska southwestward along regional strike-slip shear zones toward the Beringian sector of the Pacific rim. Circum-north Pacific continental deformation transmitted shortening stresses to the adjacent Kula plate and formed the offshore family of SZs and arcs that cordoned off the Aleutian Basin from the Pacific Basin. The basin`s sedimentary sequence (4-12 km) is largely terrigenous in character, but dominantly diatomaceous deposits characterize turbidite beds that seismic relection data reveal host localized massive deposits of methane gas hydrate velocity structures termed VAMPs, which are detected at a subsurface depth of 400-500 m as anaomalous velocity pull-up domes (high velocity hydrate masses) overlying a high-amplitude BSR reflection and velocity push-down depressions below (low velocity gas). VAMPs record sealing of porous beds with hydrate deposits that block vertically migrating thermogenic gases generated from underlying Miocene and older basinal deposits. The volume of hydrated and free gas at a typical VAMP can exceed 0.3 TCF. A conservative estimate of the basin-wide ({approximately}400,000 km {sup 2}) volume of methane associated with VAMPs is 1100-900 TCF.

Scholl, D.W.; Stevenson, A.J.; Hart, P.E. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

208

Controls on Coarse-Grained Sediment Delivery and Distribution in the Holocene Santa Monica Basin, California: Implications for Evaluating Source-to-Sink Flux at Millennial Time Scales in a Deep-Marine Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulations of terrigenous sediment in deep-marine basins commonly represent the terminal position for source-to-sink sediment flux across a continental margin. The sedimentary succession in the sink records the interactions of external, or allogenic, controls (e.g., eustasy, climatic conditions, tectonic activity) and intrinsic, or autogenic, dynamics (e.g., sediment gravity flow processes and development of depositional relief). Analyzing terrigenous sediment from a sink to determine the relative contributions and thus, the history of external controls has been difficult owing to limited knowledge of event timing. In this study, six new radiocarbon (14C) dates are integrated with five previously published, but recalibrated, dates from a 12.5 meter-thick turbidite section from ODP Site 1015 in Santa Monica Basin, offshore southern California (33°42.925"N; 118°49.185"W; water depth = 900 m). This borehole is tied to high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles that cover a 1,000 km2 area of the middle and lower Hueneme submarine fan and most of the basin plain. This regional stratigraphic framework provides the highest temporal resolution to date for a thick-bedded Holocene turbidite succession, permitting an evaluation of source-to-sink controls at millennial (103 yr) scales. The depositional history from 7 ka to present indicates that the recurrence interval for large turbidity current events is relatively constant (300-360 yrs), but the volume of sediment deposited on the fan and in the basin plain has increased by a factor of two during this period. Moreover, the amount of sand per event (i.e., thickness of turbidite bed) on the basin plain during the same interval increased by a factor of six. Maps of sediment distribution derived from correlation of seismic-reflection profiles indicate that this trend cannot be attributed exclusively to autogenic processes (e.g., lobe progradation). The observed variability in sediment accumulation rates is thus mainly controlled by allogenic factors, including: (1) increased discharge of Santa Clara River as a result of increased magnitude and frequency of ENSO events from approximately 2 ka to present; (2) decreasing rates of sea-level rise (i.e., sea level reaches present stand approximately 7 ka); and (3) an apparent change in routing of coarse-grained sediment within the staging area at approximately 2-3 ka (i.e., from direct river input to indirect, littoral cell input into Hueneme submarine canyon). The Holocene history of the Santa Clara River-Santa Monica Basin source-to-sink system demonstrates how the interaction of varying sediment flux and changes in dispersal pathways affects the basinal stratigraphic record.

Romans, B. W.; Normark, W. R.; McGann, M. M.; Covault, J. A.; Graham, S. A.

2007-12-01

209

New Constraints on Buried Triassic Basins of the Eastern North American Margin and Implications for Regional Tectonics from Reanalysis of SeisData6 Seismic Profile  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) is most significant due to the complexity and regional extent of this mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism, (2) a preserved complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide-range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. The short-lived but most voluminous magmatic event associated with the initiation of rifting, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), is one of the most significant magmatic events in North America. The South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin is believed to be the largest and probably the most geologically complex Mesozoic graben of the ENAM formed during crustal extension associated with the breakup of Pangea and later opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The separation of the African and North American plates, the formation of the Atlantic Ocean and the associated zones of weakness in eastern North America have been stated as the initial events in the breakup of Pangea. At least four major unanswered questions of regional tectonic significance derive from a previous study of the USGS SeisData6 seismic profile across the Coastal Plain of South East Georgia and are now addressed through reprocessing. These issues are: (1) the stratigraphy, structural composition, extent and thickness of this buried basin which have remained unknown, (2) whether or not the SGR basin is connected with the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins in Georgia and South Carolina, (3) whether or not the Augusta fault, an inferred crustal scale thrust fault which approximately represents the Piedmont-Coastal Plain boundary in Georgia and South Carolina, extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments, and (4) weather there is evidence of CAMP basalt flows or sills within the SGR basin along this transect. A key significant discovery of this study is the substantiation of the presence of a buried Triassic basin inferred to be the subsurface convergence of the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins. Both basins appear to be subsidiaries of the main SGR basin. The SGR basin is about 2.2 km deep, 170 km wide and it appears to be bounded in the south-east by normal faults resembling graben-like structures. Basin-bounding faults reactivated as reverse faults during Cretaceous and Cenozoic times are common in many of the buried Mesozoic rift basins of the Southern Appalachians. The basin fill is mostly sedimentary rocks and no basalt was encountered. Absence of basalt in this area implies that erosion, uplift and possibly fault reactivation may have limited the regional extent of voluminous basaltic flows extruded during ENAM's magmatism. Seismically, we found no evidence to suggest that the Augusta fault extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments in the study area. Based on correlation of seismic and well data, we interpret the lack of reflections in the NW-end of the profile to be due to the presence of non-reflective metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont Province.

Knapp, C. C.; Akintunde, O. M.; Knapp, J. H.

2012-12-01

210

Formation of South Pole-Aitken Basin as the Result of an Oblique Impact: Implications for Melt Volume and Source of Exposed Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest, deepest, and oldest identified basin on the Moon and contains surfaces that are unique due to their age, composition, and depth of origin in the lunar crust [1-3] (Figure 1). SPA has been a target of interest as an area for robotic sample return in order to determine the age of the basin and the composition and origin of its interior [3-6]. As part of the investigation into the origin of SPA materials there have been several efforts to estimate the likely provenance of regolith material in central SPA [5, 6]. These model estimates suggest that, despite the formation of basins and craters following SPA, the regolith within SPA is dominated by locally derived material. An assumption inherent in these models has been that the locally derived material is primarily SPA impact-melt as opposed to local basement material (e.g. unmelted lower crust). However, the definitive identification of SPA derived impact melt on the basin floor, either by remote sensing [2, 7] or via photogeology [8] is extremely difficult due to the number of subsequent impacts and volcanic activity [3, 4]. In order to identify where SPA produced impact melt may be located, it is important to constrain both how much melt would have been produced in a basin forming impact and the likely source of such melted material. Models of crater and basin formation [9, 10] present clear rationale for estimating the possible volumes and sources of impact melt produced during SPA formation. However, if SPA formed as the result of an oblique impact [11, 12], the volume and depth of origin of melted material could be distinct from similar material in a vertical impact [13].

Petro, N. E.

2012-01-01

211

Coupled heat and fluid flow modeling of the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Alaska: Implications for the genesis of the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district  

Science.gov (United States)

The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Garven, G.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

2003-01-01

212

Basin structure beneath the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California: Implications for damage caused by the 1969 Santa Rosa and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional gravity data in the northern San Francisco Bay region reflect a complex basin configuration beneath the Santa Rosa plain that likely contributed to the significant damage to the city of Santa Rosa caused by the 1969 M 5.6, 5.7 Santa Rosa earthquakes and the 1906 M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Inversion of these data indicates that the Santa Rosa plain is underlain by two sedimentary basins about 2 km deep separated by the Trenton Ridge, a shallow west-northwest-striking bedrock ridge west of Santa Rosa. The city of Santa Rosa is situated above the 2-km-wide protruding northeast corner of the southern basin where damage from both the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes was concentrated. Ground-motion simulations of the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes, two events with opposing azimuths, using the gravity-defined basin surface, show enhanced ground motions along the northeastern edge of this corner, suggesting that basin-edge effects contributed to the concentration of shaking damage in this area in the past and may also contribute to strong shaking during future earthquakes.

McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Hartzell, S.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Aagaard, B.T.; Jachens, R.C.; McCabe, C.

2007-01-01

213

Hydrological implications of 234U/238U disequilibria observed along pressure dissolution structures within deep mesozoic limestone formations of the Eastern Paris basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is part of geological investigations conducted by ANDRA (French agency for nuclear waste management) around the Underground Research Laboratory excavated in a clay layer of the Eastern part of the sedimentary Paris Basin, France. The safety of such nuclear waste disposal relies on a multi-barrier approach that must prevent radionuclide migration from the disposal site to the biosphere. Fluid circulations constitute a critical parameter for the confining capacities of the system, since they are the most effective and fastest mechanism by which radionuclides can reach the biosphere. Consequently, knowledge of the past and present hydrological and geochemical regimes within the geological system is fundamental to making predictions of the behavior of radionuclides when they are released from the 'near field'. In a previous study, we reported systematic (234U/238U) disequilibria only in the vicinity of pressure dissolution structures -stylolites- localized in the Bathonian and Oxfordian limestones that under- and overly the target argilite unit. This finding provides in situ indications of the confining capacities of these deep formations and highlights a mobility of uranium within the carbonated units. This is a major and surprising result since these deep, low-permeability, compact formations are generally supposed to behave as a chemically stable system. More precisely, these results highlight an active re-localization of uranium in then active re-localization of uranium in the last 1-2 Ma within the stylolitized zones of the Bathonian and Oxfordian formations. The question arises now of the driving phenomena responsible for the 'recent' re-localization of uranium and of their hydrological implications. Uranium fractionation and re-localization can be, indirectly or directly, related to the phenomenon of stylolitization. The stylolitic discontinuities present high chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities due to the accumulation of non-soluble minerals. The (234U/238U) disequilibria observed in these zones may highlight geochemical transfers due to the high gradient of uranium concentration between the detrital material within the seams and the embedding carbonate matrix. Other possible explanation is an active stylolitization or reactivation of this phenomenon in the recent time (in the last 1-2 Ma). Pressure dissolution process, particularly in horizontal plane, may result from overburden. One cannot therefore exclude that the current gravitational loading causes stylolitization within the most stressed domains of the limestones. Pressure dissolution goes with mass transfer through an aqueous phase, either by diffusion or bulk flow, of the material dissolved within stylolitic seams. Therefore, uranium associated with the dissolved carbonate material was redistributed in the surrounding carbonate matrix together with other dissolution products (major or trace elements). This may lead to precipitation of secondary carbonate cement within pore spaces of less stressed zones. If this case arises, this would have important hydrological consequences since stylolitization goes with reprecipitation of secondary carbonate phases within pore spaces of the host matrix, thereby reducing the porosity and permeability of the limestone formations. In both cases discussed above, the (234U/238U) disequilibria observed within stylolitic zones would characterize late epi-diagenetic phenomena that do not involve massive transport of uranium into or out of the system and open-system behavior at large scale. Water/rock interactions induced by the physical and chemical perturbation associated with flowing fluids are often put forward to explain U-series disequilibria observed on rocks in the upper lithosphere. In the present case, although this assumption cannot be totally ruled out, there is no other clear geochemical evidence for such a phenomenon. Moreover, from an hydrologic point of view, these limestones have also very low porosities and permeabilities. In this second hypothesis, pressure dissolution surfaces could act as pre

214

Coseismic Slip Beneath Forearc Basins in Great Subduction Zone Earthquakes: Implications for the Size and Mode of Rupture on the Cascadia Subduction Zone  

Science.gov (United States)

We have examined the relationship between coseismic slip and forearc structure for 29 of the largest circum-Pacific megathrust earthquakes. Coseismic slip distributions were compiled from published seismic, geodetic, and tsunami waveform inversions, and we interpreted forearc structure from satellite gravity and bathymetry and marine geology. Seismogenic slip is generally focused beneath forearc deep sea terraces and basins, which are underlain by relatively high velocity arc or continental crust. Along the non-accretionary margins of NE Japan, Kuriles, and Kamchatka, the high slip areas roughly correlate with the width of the deep sea terrace, and the landward edge of the terrace approximately coincides with the landward limit of interplate thrust focal mechanisms. Along accretionary margins, coseismic slip is commonly focused beneath the offshore forearc basins. In the 1923, 1944, 1946, and 1968 earthquakes along the Nankai and Sagamai Trough of SW Japan, slip was focused beneath five forearc basins, and the presently locked Tokai source region is centered on a sixth. The steep gravity gradient marking the landward edge of the basins coincides with the landward decrease in coseismic slip and the 350°C isotherm on the plate boundary, approximately marking the down-dip limit to stick-slip behavior. Similar coseismic slip beneath basins is also observed along the Aleutian, Mexico, Peru, and S. Chile subduction zones. Transverse forearc gravity highs which separate the basins commonly overlie areas of lower coseismic slip, as at Cape Erimo separating the 1952 and 1968 Tokachi-oki earthquakes off Hokkaido, the Shumagin gap separating the 1938 and 1946 earthquakes in S. Alaska, and the Portlock anticline separating the Kodiak and Prince William Sound asperities in 1964. If the long-term slip budget is balanced along the margin, then the intervening gravity highs may be future sources of great slip not observed historically, or more likely are regions of smaller interseismic strain accumulation, as is observed in the Shumagin gap. The empirical relationship between high coseismic slip and forearc basins suggests that forearc basins may be useful indicators of long-term seismic moment release in some subduction zones. The inferred source zone of the 1700 AD Mw~9 Cascadia earthquake contains five very large basin-centered gravity lows, the largest of which is 350 km long off the mouth of the Columbia River. These lows, corresponding to the Eel, Coos Bay, Newport-Willapa, and Olympic basins, lie within the locked and transition zones inferred from geodetic data and may indicate at depth. The steep gravity gradient marking the inboard edge of the basins and presumably the downdip limit to large coseismic slip lies beneath Grays Harbor and the western Olympic Peninsula in Washington and just offshore Oregon, between the 350°C and 450° C isotherms on the megathrust. Transverse gravity highs between the basins suggest the margin is seismically segmented and may produce a variety of large earthquakes.

Wells, R. E.; Blakely, R.; Sugiyama, Y.; Scholl, D.

2002-12-01

215

Shale Tectonics in the Continental Slope and Rise Regions of Krishna-Godavari Basin, Bay of Bengal: Implication in Gas-Hydrate Exploration  

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Increased oil and gas exploration activity has led to a detailed investigation of the deep offshore and adjacent slope regions of Mahanadi, Krishna-Godavari (KG) and Cauvery basins, which are categorized as promising petroliferous basins along the eastern continental margin of India. The high sedimentation rate, thick sedimentary prism, and deeply buried mobile shale strata favor shale tectonics in KG basin which is manifested in the form of large extensional growth faults in the shelf and upper slope regions, and mud diapirs and toe-thrusts in the deep offshore regions of KG basin. Multichannel seismic reflection data depict the acoustic signatures akin to imbricate thrust faults, escarpment, mud diapirs, and intraslope basins in the KG deep offshore. The multibeam swath bathymetry mosaic and the sub-bottom profiler (SBP) datasets confirm their surface and subsurface manifestations. Some of the structural elements are buried under large scale mass transport deposits. The shallow deposits associated with the shale tectonics structures like sliding/slumping deposits, debrites, sediment creep deposits, turbidites, pelagites/hemipelagites, and interlayered debrites and turbidites are inferred from SBP echo facies analysis and microtopography. Shallow structures associated with shale tectonics, and their spatial distribution is a precursor in understanding the subsurface occurrence of gas hydrate deposits. We believe that the shale tectonics structures are largely responsible for the distribution of gas hydrate deposits in KG-offshore basin, and the inferred toe-thrust and mud diapiric zones are favorable locales for gas hydrate accumulation. The results of recent drilling/coring in the KG-offshore (May-Aug, 2006) show the presence of thick accumulation of gas hydrate in the vicinity of the region associated with mud diapiric and toe-thrust fault zones. Further, the study of geophysical data and analysis of long sediment cores collected onboard Marion Dufresne (May, 2007) in the mud diapiric and toe-thrust regions suggest paleo-expulsion of methane and sulfidic fluid from the seafloor. However, the cores collected in the intraslope basin do not show any indications of methane venting. We prepared a regional tectonics map that illustrates the distribution of shale structures and shallow depositional environments. This map may serve as a better constraint in understanding the genesis and occurrence of gas hydrate deposits in KG-basin.

Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M. V.; Mazumdar, A.; Desa, M.; Badasab, F.

2008-12-01

216

Implications of diapir-derived detritus and gypsic paleosols in Lower Triassic strata near the Castle Valley salt wall, Paradox Basin, Utah  

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Gypsum-bearing growth strata and sedimentary facies of the Moenkopi Formation on the crest and NE flank of the Castle Valley salt wall in the Paradox Basin record salt rise, evaporite exposure, and salt-withdrawal subsidence during the Early Triassic. Detrital gypsum and dolomite clasts derived from the middle Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation were deposited in strata within a few kilometers of the salt wall and indicate that salt rise rates roughly balanced sediment accumulation, resulting in long-term exposure of mobile evaporite. Deposition took place primarily in flood-basin or inland sabkha settings that alternated between shallow subaqueous and subaerial conditions in a hyperarid climate. Matrix-supported and clast-supported conglomerates with gypsum fragments represent debris-flow deposits and reworked debris-flow deposits, respectively, interbedded with flood-basin sandstone and siltstone during development of diapiric topography. Mudstone-rich flood-basin deposits with numerous stage I to III gypsic paleosols capped by eolian gypsum sand sheets accumulated during waning salt-withdrawal subsidence. Association of detrital gypsum, eolian gypsum, and gypsic paleosols suggests that the salt wall provided a common source for gypsum in the surrounding strata. This study documents a previously unrecognized salt weld with associated growth strata containing diapir-derived detritus and gypsic palesols that can be used to interpret halokinesis.

Lawton, Timothy F.; Buck, Brenda J.

2006-10-01

217

Magnetostratigraphic evidence of a mid-Pliocene onset of the Nihewan Formation - implications for early fauna and hominid occupation in the Nihewan Basin, North China  

Science.gov (United States)

The fluvio-lacustrine sediments in the Nihewan Basin of North China, known as the Nihewan Formation, are well-known for an abundance of Early Pleistocene mammalian fossils (known as the Nihewan Fauna sensu lato) and Paleolithic sites. The age at which the sedimentation started is thus crucial for our understanding of early fauna and hominid occupation and infilling history of the basin, but it is poorly constrained to date. Here we report on a detailed paleomagnetic investigation of the Yangshuizhan section that crops out in the northeastern Nihewan Basin, supplemented by rock magnetic analyses into the carriers of the natural remanent magnetization. Magnetite and hematite are shown to be the main carriers of the characteristic remanent magnetization. Magnetostratigraphic correlation to the geomagnetic polarity timescale indicates that the onset of the Nihewan Formation in this section occurs at ˜3.7 Ma, just below the Gilbert-Gauss boundary and ca 1-Myr earlier than previously established evidence. This pushes the lower limit of the Nihewan Formation back in time from very late Pliocene (<2.8 Ma) to (at least) the mid-Pliocene. Combining the previously established magnetostratigraphic data with the present study, we arrive at a better understanding of the chronological framework and spatio-temporal history of the deposition of the terrestrial Nihewan Formation. Furthermore, it provides new perspectives of early fauna and hominid occupation in the Nihewan Basin.

Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; An, Zhisheng; Xiao, Guoqiao; Li, Yongxiang; Zhao, Hui; Qiang, Xiaoke; Chang, Hong; Chang, Qiufang; Wu, Dacheng

2013-01-01

218

Coeval Lower Miocene subsidence of the Eisenstadt Basin and relative updoming of its Austroalpine frame: implications from high-resolution geophysics at the Oslip section (Northern Burgenland, Austria)  

Science.gov (United States)

A fault system southeast of Eisenstadt was investigated with high-resolution geophysics using electric resistivity tomography, seismics and gravimetry. The St. Margarethen Fault separates the Neogene succession of the Eisenstadt Basin from the north south-trending Rust Range, which belongs to the Austroalpine frame. The interpretation of profiles down to a depth of 350 m derived from reflection and refraction seismics combined with the density model along the Oslip road section clearly reveals a listric fault, which dips westward towards the Eisenstadt Basin. Bed thickness of growth-strata regularly increases from west to east, and normal fault drags visible in the seismic profile west of the St. Margarethen Fault allow for interpreting this structure as a hanging-wall syncline. Thickness distribution of Neogene deposits reveals that the Eisenstadt Basin can be interpreted as a half-graben bounded by the listric St. Margarethen normal fault, which developed at the western flank of Rust Range. The subsidence of the Eisenstadt Basin during Lower to Middle Sarmatian times was accompanied by concurrent updoming of the Rust Range of at least 70 m. For the mechanism of the updoming of the Rust Range footwall uplift during hanging wall subsidence is inferred.

Häusler, Hermann; Scheibz, Jürgen; Chwatal, Werner; Kohlbeck, Franz

2015-03-01

219

Late Quaternary variability of precipitation in Southern California and climatic implications: clay mineral evidence from the Santa Barbara Basin, ODP Site 893  

Science.gov (United States)

Clay mineral assemblages have been investigated in a sequence of Late Quaternary age sediments (160 ka) from the Santa Barbara Basin off California. These predominantly terrigenous sediments contain an assemblage of clay minerals dominated by smectite mostly derived from discharges of the Santa Clara River, together with illite and kaolinite from adjacent relief. Besides its characteristic clay mineral signature, the Santa Clara River has the largest drainage basin in this region and contributes most of the terrigenous load to the Santa Barbara Basin. Smectite contents of the sediments in the basin may therefore be used as a proxy for precipitation and run-off. Distinct changes in the relative abundance of smectite allow reconstruction of the pattern of precipitation, and its relations with regional environments and global climate. This showed that major intervals of precipitation coincide with local development of pine during glacials, and oak during terminations and interglacials; some expansion of mountain glaciers in the Sierra Nevada, especially when they occur during local minima of insolation; and lacustrine developments in the now arid continental interior of California. Major precipitation intervals started during glacials, and persisted during terminations and early interglacials, associated with a weak California Current and subsequent expansion of warm Pacific surface waters. In detail, major precipitation intervals consist of alternating episodes of higher and lower rainfall modulated by orbital precession, with a significant correlation between episodes of high rainfall and minima in precession, which were times of increased meridional gradients, enhanced poleward heat transfer and northward expansion of tropical waters.

Robert, C.

2004-05-01

220

A high-resolution carbon-isotope record of the Turonian stage correlated to a siliciclastic basin fill: Implications for mid-Cretaceous sea-level change.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 405, July (2014), s. 42-58. ISSN 0031-0182 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP210/10/1991; GA MŠk LA08036 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : eustasy * carbon isotopes * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin * Turonian * greenhouse climate * sequence stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2013

Uli?ný, David; Jarvis, I.; Gröcke, D. R.; ?ech, S.; Laurin, Ji?í; Olde, K.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Švábenická, L.; Pedentchouk, N.

2014-01-01

221

Migration of growth axial surfaces and its implications for multiphase tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Zhangwu fault depression, southern Songliao Basin, NE China  

Science.gov (United States)

The normal fault-bend folding theory uses active axial surfaces, inactive axial surfaces, and growth axial surfaces to describe the geometric relationship between faults and deformation of a hanging wall. The dip of a growth axial surface is related to the fault slip rate and the basin sedimentation rate: higher fault slip rates result in smaller dips of growth axial surfaces, whereas higher basin sedimentation rates produce larger dips of growth axial surfaces. Moreover, the growth axial surface will be a straight line if both the fault slip and sedimentation rates remain relatively unchanged, but will become curved if both rates are variable. Therefore, the characteristics of growth axial surfaces can provide clear information on the evolution of faulting and deposition. By studying the seismic profiles of the Zhangwu fault depression of the southern Songliao Basin, we show that the migration of growth axial surfaces and unconformities can be used as indicators of basin development. Multiphase tectonic activity will not only produce unconformities but also result in migration of growth axial surfaces or inactive axial surfaces. Therefore, the normal fault-bend folding theory, particularly with regard to the evolution of growth axial surfaces, can be applied to the interpretation of geometric and kinematic evolutions of half-grabens and the exploration of related tectono-sedimentary processes.

Gui, Baoling; He, Dengfa; Chen, Weijia; Zhang, Wenjun

2014-04-01

222

Coarse-grained sediment delivery and distribution in the Holocene Santa Monica Basin, California: Implications for evaluating source-to-sink flux at millennial time scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing accumulations of coarse-grained terrigenous sediment from deep-marine basins to evaluate the relative contributions of and history of controls on sediment flux through a source-to-sink system has been difficult as a result of limited knowledge of event timing. In this study, six new radiocarbon (14C) dates are integrated with five previously published dates that have been recalibrated from a 12.5-m-thick turbidite section from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1015 in Santa Monica Basin, offshore California. This borehole is tied to high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles that cover an 1100 km2 area of the middle and lower Hueneme submarine fan and most of the basin plain. The resulting stratigraphic framework provides the highest temporal resolution for a thick-bedded Holocene turbidite succession to date, permitting an evaluation of source-to-sink controls at millennial (1000 yr) scales. The depositional history from 7 ka to present indicates that the recurrence interval for large turbidity-current events is relatively constant (300-360 yr), but the volume of sediment deposited on the fan and in the basin plain has increased by a factor of 2 over this period. Moreover, the amount of sand per event on the basin plain during the same interval has increased by a factor of 7. Maps of sediment distribution derived from correlation of seismic-reflection profiles indicate that this trend cannot be attributed exclusively to autogenic processes (e.g., progradation of depocenters). The observed variability in sediment accumulation rates is thus largely controlled by allogenic factors, including: (1) increased discharge of Santa Clara River as a result of increased magnitude and frequency of El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events from ca. 2 ka to present, (2) an apparent change in routing of coarse-grained sediment within the staging area at ca. 3 ka (i.e., from direct river input to indirect, littoral cell input into Hueneme submarine canyon), and (3) decreasing rates of sea-level rise (i.e., rate of rise slowed considerably by ca. 3 ka). The Holocene history of the Santa Clara River-Santa Monica Basin source-to-sink system demonstrates the ways in which varying sediment flux and changes in dispersal pathways affect the basinal stratigraphic record. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

Romans, B.W.; Normark, W.R.; McGann, M.M.; Covault, J.A.; Graham, S.A.

2009-01-01

223

Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the middle Eocene Guara carbonate platform near Arguis, South-West Pyrenean foreland: Implications for basin physiography  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pyrenees results from the collision between Spain and Europe and developed between the upper Cretaceous (Santonian) and the Miocene. Its foreland basins are characterised by a thick fill of detrital and carbonate sediments. The diversity of Eocene deposits in the southern Pyrenean foreland basin is of particular use in facies sedimentology due to their exceptional outcropping quality and well established stratigraphic framework and has been taken as type examples of many different sedimentary environments. Most studies have concerned facies sedimentology of detrital series in turbiditic environments, meandering and braided rivers, alluvial fans, and deltas. In contrast, the Eocene carbonate series have attracted less attention. The marine Guara limestones are a formation of lower to middle Eocene age deposited on the southern border of the western Pyrenean foreland basin (Jaca basin). They were deposited as a retrogradational carbonate platform dominated by large benthic foraminifers near or at the flexural forebulge of the foreland basin as the Pyrenean orogen developed. This formation represents the last episode of carbonate platform in the Pyrenees and remains poorly studied. In the present work our aim is to provide a detailed facies analysis and physiographic reconstructions of the Guara carbonate platform. This is crucial to unravel the respective influences of tectonics, climate and rheology of the lithosphere on the foreland basin tectonic and stratigraphic development, and it brings new constraints on the paleoenvironments and paleogeography during the Lutetian, i.e. at the beginning of the major phase of activity of the Pyrenean orogenesis. Two outcrops were studied in the Sierras Marginales at the localities of Arguis and Lusera. The Lusera section once restored in its initial position is located to the North of the Arguis section in a basinward direction such that comparing time-equivalent facies between these two sections helps us reconstructing the paleobathymetric gradient on this side of the foreland basin. The sedimentological and paleontological content show that the Guara formation was deposited in shallow water environments (less than 80 m) and can be classified as a carbonate ramp. The evolution of paleobathymetries with time on these two sections allows us to identify three complete progradational - retrogradational cycles. Those cycles do not match global eustatic variations, perhaps indicating the dominating influence of tectonics in this area. The precise study of foraminifera allowed us to date our sections with respect to the SBZ time scale of Serra-Kiel et al. (1). The bottom of the Guara formation, in the Arguis section is dated from the lower Lutetian (SBZ 13) and the top corresponds to the upper Lutetian (SBZ 16). An important hiatus is recorded between the base of the carbonates and the lower Paleocene subjacent continental deposits. Moreover, the base of the formation is older at Lusera i.e. to the centre of the basin. This hiatus could thus represent the foreland flexural forebulge unconformity (2). By restoring the relative position of the two sections during the Lutetian, we have calculated the possible slope of the Guara ramp during this period for each MFS, with values always lower than 0.5°. Extrapolating this slope to the centre of the basin allows us to estimate the paleodepth of the coeval Eocene turbidites and address the important issue of the depth of deposition of submarine fan systems in foreland settings. Within the limits of our approach we propose that these clastic fan systems have been deposited under water depths of 400 to 200 metres. This is partly in agreement with the upper bound of other estimations based on foraminiferal assemblages and trace fossils, and thus favours a relatively "shallow" view of the Middle Eocene Ainsa-Jaca deep marine basin. 1. J. Serra-Kiel et al., Bulletin De La Societe Geologique De France 169, 281 (March 1, 1998, 1998). 2. S. L. Crampton, P. A. Allen, Aapg Bulletin 79, 1495 (October 1, 1995, 1995).

Huyghe, D.; Castelltort, S.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Filleaudeau, P.-Y.; Emmanuel, L.; Mouthereau, F.; Renard, M.

2009-04-01

224

Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow Modeling of the Earth's Largest Zinc Ore Deposit at Red Dog, Alaska: Implications for Structurally-Focused, Free Convection in Submarine Sedimentary Basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Crustal heat flow can provide a strong mechanism for driving groundwater flow, particularly in submarine basins where other mechanisms for driving pore fluid flow such as topography, compaction and crustal deformation are too weak or too slow to have a significant effect on disturbing conductive heat flow. Fault zones appear to play a crucial role in focusing fluid migration in basins, as inferred in ancient rocks by many examples of hydrothermal deposits of sediment-hosted ores worldwide. Many rift-hosted deposits of lead, zinc, and barite ore appear to have formed at or near the seafloor by focused venting of hot basinal fluids and modified seawater, although the geophysical nature of these systems is not so well known. For example, the upper Kuna Formation, a finely laminated, black, organic-rich siliceous mudstone and shale in the Western Brooks Range of northwest Alaska, is host to the largest resources of zinc yet discovered in the Earth's crust, containing ore reserves in excess of 175 Mt averaging about 16% Zn and 5% Pb. Although situated today in a highly-deformed series of structural allocthonous plates thrusted during the Jurassic to Cretaceous Brookian Orogeny, the stratiform ores are thought to have formed much earlier in the anoxic, mud-rich Carboniferous-age Kuna Basin when adjacent carbonate platforms were drowned by rifting and tectonic subsidence. Fluid inclusion studies of ore-stage sphalerite and gangue minerals indicate sub-seafloor mineralization temperatures less than 200oC and most likely between 120 to 150 oC, during a period of sediment diagenesis and extensional faulting. We have constructed fully-coupled numerical models of heat and fluid flow to test hydrologic theories for free convection, submarine venting and subsequent ore formation, as constrained by paleoheat flow and petrologic observations. A finite element grid was designed and adapted for a cross section of the Kuna Basin, geologically restored to latest Mississippian time. Hydrologically, the Kuna Basin was a 200-km wide, rifted asymmetric basin layered with calcareous turbidites, mudstones and carbonates overlying a thick conglomerate and sandstone aquifer, which likely was thickest and more faulted near Red Dog (Ikalukrok graben). Buoyancy-driven free convection cells drive fluid migration to km-depths in the submarine basin, at rates of about 5 m/yr within permeable normal faults, which are assumed to be conduits. Mostly lateral flow is predicted to occur in the deep clastic formations. The clastic aquifers appear to be the principal reservoir for metal-bearing brines that ultimately discharged near the seafloor within slightly permeable, highly porous and organic rich muds, where sulfate can be reduced to form massive zinc-lead sulfide ores. Basin-wide paleoheat flows of 150 to 160 mW/m2 and focused fluid discharge along normal faults are required to explain the hot thermal venting recorded within these ore fields. This mineralized hydrothermal system provides a remarkable geophysical model for the role of faults, free convection and extensional basin heat flow in ore genesis.

Garven, G.; Dumoulin, J. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Young, L. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Leach, D. L.

2002-12-01

225

From source to sink in the sediment cascade of the Hei-River Basin: Implications for late Quaternary landscape dynamics in the Gobi Desert, NW China  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hei River Basin with a catchment size of ~130,000 km² is host to one of the largest continental alluvial fans in the world. The basin comprises: (1) its high-elevated river sources in the glacier and the permafrost zone of the Qilian Mountains, (2) the semi-arid foreland of the Hexi Corridor in the middle reaches and (3) the endorheic Ejina Basin (Gaxun Nur Basin) as its recent sink. The river basin is characterized by small subcatchments of hyper-arid mountain ranges of the Gobi-Tienshan and Beishan as well as of smooth and fuzzy water divides of the Hexi-Corridor and the Badain Jaran Sand Sea. Up to 300 m of Quaternary sediments establish the large Ejina Basin, with a size of 28,000 km², as an excellent archive for environmental reconstructions located at the recent intersection of westerly and monsoonal air masses. Three sediment cores (up to 230 m long) provide evidence of sedimentation dynamics over the last 250,000 years, and cover at least two terminations since OIS 6. The sediments have to be regarded as a result of the interplay between tectonic activity and climate dynamics, accompanied by a related eolian and hydrological response of the catchment. Thus, it is crucial to understand and reconstruct the sedimentary processes along the huge sediment cascades, and to identify the most important sediment sources. Here we present a provenance analysis from mineralogical fingerprints of modern sediments that have been deposited along recent pathways from the sources to the Ejina Basin. The methodical approach combines the analysis of clay minerals, bulk mineralogy, and bulk geochemistry. Furthermore, we use heavy mineral data obtained from automated particle-analysis via a computer-controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM) and XRD measurements. We analyzed ~200 surface samples from the whole catchment as reference material, as well as the upper 19 m of cored sediments, to gain insight into temporal changes of depositional processes and provenance. Geostatistical analyses of the compositional data reveal a clear discrimination between sediments from the Qilian Shan in the south and from local basin sediments in the north. Moreover the mineralogical fingerprints allow the differentiation of sources from intrusive rocks that are dominant in the Bei Shan mountain sub-catchment, and from greenschist-bearing metamorphic rocks, that are widespread in the Qilian Mountain catchment. Finally, we draw conclusions about the main transport processes and pathways from assumed source regions to the sink (Ejina Basin). The provenance analysis of the sediment core reveals strong changes from local (Bei Shan) to long-distant (Qilian Shan) sources. The Late Pleistocene record reveals frequently changing sediment supply between periodic high mountain runoff and local episodic runoff. We assume that these variations are related to basin internal processes (e.g. fan dynamics, tectonics) and changing environmental conditions that are linked with variations in meltwater runoff and precipitation in the upper reaches of the southern catchment. These conclusions are supported by grain size characteristics that indicate phases of predominant alluvial activity and limnic deposition around the Late Glacial to Holocene transition and enhanced pre-Holocene eolian activity.

Schimpf, Stefan; Nottebaum, Veit; Diekmann, Bernhard; Hartmann, Kai; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Wünnemann, Bernd; Zhang, Chi

2014-05-01

226

Genetic comparison of Glossina tachinoides populations in three river basins of the Upper West Region of Ghana and implications for tsetse control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) and human African trypanosomosis (HAT). In March 2010, the Government of Ghana initiated a large scale integrated tsetse eradication campaign in the Upper West Region (UWR) (?18,000 km(2)) under the umbrella of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). We investigated the structuring of Glossina tachinoides populations within and between the three main river basins of the target area in the UWR. Out of a total sample of 884 flies, a sub-sample of 266 was genotyped at nine microsatellite loci. The significance of the different hierarchical levels was tested using Yang's parameters estimated with Weir and Cockerham's method. A significant effect of traps within groups (pooling traps no more than 3 km distant from each other), of groups within river basins and of river basins within the whole target area was observed. Isolation by distance between traps was highly significant. A local density of 0.48-0.61 flies/m(2) was estimated and a dispersal distance that approximated 11 m per generation [CI 9, 17]. No significant sex-biased dispersal was detected. Dispersal distances of G. tachinoides in the UWR were relatively low, possibly as a result of the fragmentation of the habitat and the seasonality of the Kulpawn and Sissili rivers. Moreover, very high fly population densities were observed in the sample sites, which potentially reduces dispersal at constant habitat saturation, because the probability that migrants can established is reduced (density dependent dispersal). However, the observed spatial dispersal was deemed sufficient for a G. tachinoides-cleared area to be reinvaded from neighboring populations in adjacent river basins. These data corroborate results from other population genetics studies in West Africa, which indicate that G. tachinoides populations from different river basins cannot be considered isolated. PMID:24709401

Adam, Y; Bouyer, J; Dayo, G-K; Mahama, C I; Vreysen, M J B; Cecchi, G; Abd-Alla, A M M; Solano, P; Ravel, S; de Meeûs, T

2014-12-01

227

The Middle Miocene lacustrine mollusc fauna of the Kupres Basin: palaeobiogeography, palaeoecology, and taxonomic implications (Dinaride Lake System, Bosnia and Herzegovina)  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Early and Middle Miocene the Dinaride Lake System displayed one of the largest freshwater systems in the Neogene of Europe, forming a palaeogeographic barrier between the Paratethys and the Mediterranean seas. It is widely known for its exceptional mollusc fauna, which experienced major radiations resulting in a high level of endemicity. Despite advanced investigations in that region our knowledge on the mollusc fauna is still fragmentary or out-dated. A major problem for taxonomic revisions is the complex geographic and geologic setting with numerous basins. Therefore, most authors were unable to assign already described taxa and localities in the literature to discrete basins and palaeo-lakes. The herein presented results give insight into the outstandingly preserved mollusc fauna of the Kupres Basin. Except for few descriptions, partly dating back to the early 20th century, and a preliminary list of species, a concise taxonomic frame is entirely missing. Consequently, the presented results provide the base for a systematic revision of several supraspecific taxa among the Hydrobiidae. Moreover, the faunal composition allows inferences on palaeobiogeography and hydrological connections within the Dinaride Lake System during the early Middle Miocene. About one third of the described taxa are restricted to the Kupres basin. The other taxa document faunistic relations to the coeval faunas of the Sinj, Drniš, and Džepi basins. Phases of hydrological isolation, indicated by carbonate dominated lithology, coincide with a high frequency of sculptured morphologies within the gastropods. Phases of increased aridity led to high evaporation, a lowered lake level and enhanced carbonate production which seem to have promoted strongly calcified shells. The stratigraphic ranges of the species imply a depositional age of 15.5 ± 0.2 Ma (earliest Middle Miocene; Langhian).

Neubauer, T. A.; Mandic, O.; Harzhauser, M.; Hrvatovi?, H.

2012-04-01

228

Sedimentology and petrography of mass-emplaced limestone (Orahiri Limestone) on a late Oligocene shelf, western North Island, and tectonic implications for eastern margin development of Taranaki Basin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Te Kuiti Group in North Wanganui Basin, North Island, New Zealand, of Oligocene - earliest Miocene (Whaingaroan-Waitakian) age, is dominated by calcareous siltstone, calcareous sandstone, and skeletal limestone. Exposures in the southwestern corner of the basin at Awakino Tunnel are distinctive because, compared with elsewhere, the group is generally thicker (>300 m), has strong dips (25-45 degrees E), exhibits an up-section decrease in the amount of dip, and the capping Orahiri Limestone includes several thick (up to 3 m) mass-emplaced units containing a variety of 1-10 cm sized calcareous lithoclasts of older Te Kuiti Group rocks. Petrographic and ?18O and ?13C data suggest that the source deposits of these lithoclasts were cemented at relatively shallow subsurface burial depths (100-500 m) before their uplift and erosion. The lithoclasts so produced were rounded by abrasion in shoal water, often bored profusely by pholad bivalves, and sometimes encrusted by coralline algae, before being periodically mass-emplaced from west to east onto a shelf accumulating coeval Orahiri Limestone lithofacies now in the vicinity of Awakino Tunnel. Pressure-dissolution during subsequent burial provided the main source of calcite cement in the host Orahiri Limestone, mainly at moderate burial depths of 500-1000 m, according to ?18O data. The source region for the lithoclasts probably lay west of Awakino Tunnel and corresponds to the southern pannel and corresponds to the southern part of the basement Herangi High, which otherwise separates North Wanganui Basin from Taranaki Basin, but must have been submarine and accumulating Te Kuiti Group-equivalent calcareous facies during the early Oligocene (Early Whaingaroan, 36-32 Ma). Uplift of this depocentre was accompanied by synsedimentary eastward tilting of the Te Kuiti Group strata already deposited immediately east of Herangi High, contributing to the dips now measured at Awakino Tunnel. Inversion and tilting of the high began in the Late Whaingaroan, after 32 Ma ago, concomitant with the onset of rapid subsidence along eastern Taranaki Basin margin directly west of Herangi High. Uplift continued throughout the Duntroonian (28-24 Ma), when erosion and mass-emplacement supplied the abundant calcareous lithoclasts in the Orahiri Limestone, and into the Waitakian (24-22 Ma), when erosion possibly expanded onto parts of the shelf, stripping out sections of the overlying Otorohanga Limestone, the topmost formation in the group. The uplift and partial emergence of Herangi High is viewed as a topographic response to the initiation of basement over thrusting from the east along the Taranaki Fault Zone. The resultant loading evolved a carbonate foredeep in eastern Taranaki Basin during the Duntroonian-Waitakian. This late Oligocene phase of deformation developed in a mildly compressive regime, which corresponds to a time of proto-plate boundary development through New Zealand that preceded propagation of the continuous and more localised present plate boundary through the country at 22-23 Ma. The latter was marked in both North Wanganui Basin and Taranaki Basin by rejuvenated, more active basement overthrusting, the influx of copious amounts of terrigenous sediment, and the termination everywhere of extensive limestone and Te Kuiti Group deposition. (author). 38 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

229

Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that there are major, rift-like, sedimentary basins underlying the area of the Azov Sea and the inverted north-eastern margin of the Black Sea. It can be speculated that one of these basins may represent the previously unknown western prolongation of the Jurassic-aged Greater Caucasus back-arc basin and that the other may be the legacy of earlier - Late Palaeozoic-Triassic - extensional tectonics in this area. Individuals (in alphabetical order) from each institution involved scientifically in DOBRE-2 (listed alphabetically according to country) include: H. Thybo (Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark); A. Dannowski and E. Flüh (IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany); W. Czuba, A. Guterch and P. ?roda (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland); M. Grad (Institute of Geophysics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland); D. Gryn, K. Kolomiyets, O. Legostaeva, D. Lysynchuk, V. Omelchenko and O. Rusakov (Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv); M. Pobedash, N. Polyvach, G. Sydorenko and Z. Voitsytskyi (Ukrgeofisika, Kyiv, Ukraine); as well as the named co-authors of this presentation.

Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

2014-05-01

230

Palynology of Lower Palaeogene (Thanetian-Ypresian) coastal deposits from the Barmer Basin (Akli Formation, Western Rajasthan, India): palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 32-m thick sedimentary succession of the Paleocene-Eocene Akli Formation (Barmer basin, Rajasthan, India), which is exposed in an open-cast lignite mine, interbed several lignite seams that alternate with fossiliferous carbonaceous clays, green clays and widespread siderite bands and chert nodules. The palynofloral assemblages consist of spore, pollen and marine dinoflagellate cysts that indicate a Thanetian to Ypresian age. The assemblage is dominated by angiospermic pollen and specimens showing affinity with the mangrove Palm Nypa are also very abundant. The Nypa-like pollen specimens exhibit a wide range of morphological variation, some of the recorded morphotypes being restricted to this Indian basin. Preponderance of these pollen taxa indicates that the sediments were deposited in a coastal swamp surrounded by thick, Nypa-dominated mangrove vegetation. The dispersed organic matter separated from macerated residues indicates the dominance of anoxic conditions throughout the succession, although a gradual transition to oxic conditions is recorded in the upper part.

Tripathi, S.K.M.; Kumar, M.; Srivastava, D. [Birbal Sahni Instititue of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

2009-03-15

231

Trace-element systematics of sediments in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Sediment provenance and palaeoclimate implications of fine scale chemical heterogeneity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high-resolution dataset of trace element concentrations is presented for the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, Australia's most important river system. The data were obtained by solution quadrupole ICP-MS resulting in concentrations for 44 elements. Of these, 21 were determined with a long-term external precision of better than 1% and a further 13 at a precision better than 2%. Trace element maps for the surface sediments constructed from such high precision data reveal small but coherent variations in the four major sub-catchments of the basin, even in ratios of elements with very similar geochemical behaviour, such as Y/Ho, Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf. The origin of these chemical fingerprints of drainage systems are discussed in terms of the geochemical character of the upper continental crust. The potential of trace element maps for palaeo-environmental and climatic reconstruction is then illustrated. First, a sample of dust collected in a trap located in the far southeastern corner of the study area is used to pinpoint the location of the dust source. Next the fine-scale change in down-stream alluvial sediment chemistry is analysed to estimate the importance of sediment contribution from tributaries with a view to reconstructing river flow dynamics. Finally, the chemistry of dune sediments is compared with surrounding floodplain alluvium to estimate relative age of deposition. These examples demonstrate that in low-elevation river systems, such as the Murray-Darling Basin, ystems, such as the Murray-Darling Basin, extended trace element maps of sediment offer substantially more applications than radiogenic isotope data alone.

232

The floating astronomical time scale for the terrestrial Late Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation from the Songliao Basin of Northeast China and its stratigraphic and paleoclimate implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K 2qn) in the Songliao Basin (SLB) of Northeast China consists of up to 550 m thick, lacustrine mudstone and shale that constitute one of the most important source rocks of the Daqing oil field. A high-resolution cyclostratigraphic analysis of the natural gamma-ray logging from 10 wells of the Qingshankou Formation (K 2qn) reveals orbital cycles of precession (20 ka), obliquity (40 ka) and eccentricity (100 ka and 405 ka), providing strong evidence for astronomically driven climate changes in the Late Cretaceous terrestrial environments. Floating astronomical time scales (ATS) are established for all sections, which demonstrate variable durations of K 2qn across the basin (1.09 Ma-5.20 Ma) and strong diachroneity of the lacustrine strata. Four periods of high depositional rates can be identified in the central parts of the basin, possibly recording deposition during times of sustained wet climate and high chemical weathering. An ATS established from well M206 in the central depression zone of the basin, where the most complete and stable Milankovitch cycles are present, suggests that the maximum duration of the K 2qn is 5.20 Ma (from 94.27 Ma to 89.07 Ma; Late Cenomanian to Early Coniacian). The lacustrine anoxic event 1 (LAE1) at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary lasted ~ 210-310 ka, during which the most prolific petroleum source rocks in SLB were deposited. The onset (~ 94.21-94.18 Ma) and duration (~ 210-310 Ka) of LAE1 in SLB are comparable to those of the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE2; onset at 94.21 Ma and duration of ~ 320-900 ka), suggesting that the same trigger mechanism, such as increased atmospheric CO 2 from large-scale igneous activity, may have initiated high primary productivity and organic carbon burial in both marine and terrestrial systems.

Wu, Huaichun; Zhang, Shihong; Jiang, Ganqing; Huang, Qinghua

2009-02-01

233

Rock magnetic properties and paleoenvironmental implications of an 8-Ma Late Cenozoic terrigenous succession from the northern Tian Shan foreland basin, northwestern China  

Science.gov (United States)

In the northern Tian Shan foreland basin, northwestern China, the thick Cenozoic terrigenous succession is crucial for paleoclimate-environmental reconstruction of the Asian interior. Here we present a detailed rock magnetic investigation on 245 samples from the ~ 1200-m-thick Neogene Taxi He section with a magnetostratigraphic age span of ca. 8.0 to 2.0 Ma in the northern Tian Shan foreland basin. Our rock magnetic results indicate that the significant variations in composition, concentration and grain size of magnetic minerals occurred at ca. 6.0, 3.7 and 2.7 Ma. The comparable compositions of rare earth elements (REEs) throughout the Neogene Taxi He section suggest no significant modification of the source materials during the interval between ca. 8.0 and 2.0 Ma, and thus sediment provenance is not regarded as responsible for these observed variations in rock magnetic properties. Our further analyses show that the variations in magnetic properties of the Taxi He section are casually linked mainly with lithofacies transition due to range encroachment into foreland basin as well as climate aridification. Identified enhancement of aridification was chronologically constrained at ca. 6.0 and 2.7 Ma. Such climate events are important archives for reconstructing the Late Cenozoic paleoclimatic history of the Asian interior. Further comparison between different paleoclimate records clearly indicates that magnetic parameters such as S- 100mT are potentially effective proxy indices for paleoclimate-environmental reconstruction in the Tian Shan foreland basins and the nearby areas.

Lu, Honghua; Zhang, Weiguo; Li, Youli; Dong, Chenyin; Zhang, Tianqi; Zhou, Zuyi; Zheng, Xiangmin

2013-12-01

234

Summer Watering Patterns of Mule Deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: Implications of Differential Use by Individuals and the Sexes for Management of Water Resources  

OpenAIRE

Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and...

Shields, Andrew V.; Larsen, Randy T.; Whiting, Jericho C.

2012-01-01

235

Late Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic results from the Sugetbrak Formation of the Aksu area, Tarim basin (NW China) and their implications to paleogeographic reconstructions and the snowball Earth hypothesis  

OpenAIRE

In order to better constrain the Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstruction of continents and to improve the understanding of the snowball Earth hypothesis, paleomagnetic investigations were carried out in the Aksu area of the northwestern Tarim basin. Forty-eight sites of samples were collected from the Sugetbrak and Chigebrak Formations. Twenty-four sites of sandstone and volcanic rock from the Sugetbrak Formation revealed stable characteristic remanent components (ChRm) isolated between...

Zhan, Sheng; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Wang, Bo; Faure, Michel

2007-01-01

236

A high-resolution stable isotopic record from the Junggar Basin (NW China): Implications for the paleotopographic evolution of the Tianshan Mountains  

OpenAIRE

This study presents high-resolution oxygen and carbon isotopic records of paleosol carbonates from fluvial sediments and lacustrine carbonates, sampled from the Jingou He and Kuitun He stratigraphic sections, located in the northern Tianshan piedmont. These sections expose remarkable outcrops of Junggar foreland basin sediments that have been previously dated by high-resolution magnetostratigraphy to between ?23.6 and ?1 Ma, and ?10.5 and ?3.1 Ma. A total of 216 samples of fluvio-lacu...

Charreau, Julien; Kent-corson, Malinda Louise; Barrrier, Laurie; Augier, Romain; Ritts, Bradley D.; Chen, Yan; France-lannord, Christian; Guilmette, Caroline

2012-01-01

237

Source tracing of detrital serpentinite in the Oligocene molasse deposits from the western Alps (Barrême basin): implications for relief formation in the internal zone.  

OpenAIRE

We present the first contribution of tracing the source area of ophiolitic detritus in the Alpine molasses by Raman spectroscopy. The lower Oligocene molasse deposits preserved in the Barrême basin, in the SW foreland of the western Alpine arc, are known for the sudden arrival of the first "exotic" detritus coming from the internal Alpine zones. Among them, the pebbles of serpentinized peridotites have so far not been studied. We show that they only consist of antigorite serpentinite, implyi...

Schwartz, Ste?phane; Ste?phane, Guillot; Pierre, Tricart; Mathias, Bernet; Se?bastien, Jourdan; Thierry, Dumont; Gilles, Montagnac

2012-01-01

238

Palynology of Lower Palaeogene (Thanetian-Ypresian) coastal deposits from the Barmer Basin (Akli Formation, Western Rajasthan, India) : Palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic implications  

OpenAIRE

The 32-m thick sedimentary succession of the Paleocene-Eocene Akli Formation (Barmer basin, Rajasthan, India), which is exposed in an open-cast lignite mine, interbed several lignite seams that alternate with fossiliferous carbonaceous clays, green clays and widespread siderite bands and chert nodules. The palynofloral assemblages consist of spore, pollen and marine dinoflagellate cysts that indicate a Thanetian to Ypresian age. The assemblage is dominated by angiospermic pollen and specimens...

Tripathi, S. K. M.

2009-01-01

239

Rapid climate change from north Andean Lake Fúquene pollen records driven by obliquity: implications for a basin-wide biostratigraphic zonation for the last 284 ka  

OpenAIRE

This paper compares a new super-high resolution pollen record from a central location in Lake Fúquene (4 N) with 3 pollen records from marginal sites from the same lake basin, located at 2540 m elevation in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. We harmonized the pollen sum of all records, and provided previously published records of climate change with an improved age model using a new approach for long continental pollen records. We dissociated from subjective curve matching and a...

Bogota?-a, R. G.; Groot, M. H. M.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Lourens, L. J.; Linden, M.; Berrio, J. C.

2011-01-01

240

Sedimentary and provenance record of the Cianzo basin, Eastern Cordillera, NW Argentina: Implications for transition from postrift subsidence to Cenozoic Andean shortening  

Science.gov (United States)

The onset of Andean shortening in NW Argentina is poorly understood, with estimates ranging from late Cretaceous to late Miocene. The Cenozoic Cianzo basin (~7 km thick) represents a fault-bounded intermontane depocenter in the Eastern Cordillera at 23°S, with Cambrian metasedimentary rock to the west and Cretaceous strata to the east. New characterizations of sedimentation and provenance for this shortening-induced basin are used to constrain the transition from Late Cretaceous postrift thermal subsidence system to an Andean flexural basin. Measured stratigraphic sections and lithofacies of Miocene clastic sedimentary rocks show a change from a paleosol-rich, distal fluvial system (400m thick Paleogene Santa Barbara Group) to braided fluvial system represented by cross-stratified sandstones and interbedded mudstones with upward-fining cycles (1500m thick Miocene Casa Grande and 3100m thick Rio Grande formations) to an alluvial fan system with massive polymictic conglomerates interbedded with discontinuous sandstone lenses (2000m thick upper Miocene Pisungo Formation). Sandstone petrographic results and conglomerate clast compositions help distinguish sediment sources potentially related to the western magmatic arc (Western Cordillera) from the evolving fold-thrust belt (Puna plateau and Eastern Cordillera). Ongoing U-Pb geochronological analyses of detrital zircon populations provide further constraints on probable sediment sources, potentially enabling discrimination of deformation related to thrust displacement along the east-directed Cianzo thrust from oblique thrust reactivation of the NE-striking Hornocal fault. Field mapping throughout the Cianzo basin reveals an overall structure of a doubly plunging syncline within the Miocene clastic succession in the shared footwall of the Cianzo and Hornocal faults. New 40Ar/39Ar geochronological results on interbedded volcanic tuffs further constrain deposition of braided fluvial deposits of the Rio Grande Formation occurred from a minimum of ~17 to ~9 Ma, consistent with an early to middle Miocene activation of thrusting in the Eastern Cordillera.

Siks, B. C.; Horton, B. K.

2010-12-01

241

Structural styles and depositional architecture in the Triassic of the Ninian and Alwyn North fields: Implications for basin development and prospectivity in the Northern North Sea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interpretation of well-calibrated three-dimensional seismic volumes, sedimentological analysis and electrical well-log correlations from the Ninian and Alwyn North fields challenge the long-held view that Mid-Late Jurassic extensional faults in the East Shetland Basin represent a simple reactivation of older (Triassic) fault systems. Restoration for the effects of the younger, predominantly eastward-dipping, Mid-Late Jurassic structures clearly demonstrates that Triassic precursors had a steep, westerly dip. In contrast to the eastern flank of the Viking Graben (e.g. Troll and Oseberg areas), where the west-dipping Triassic structures are reutilised in the Mid-Late Jurassic, those of the East Shetland Basin have largely been dissected and rotated during the later event. Those west-dipping faults that did see later movement appear to have simply acted as minor antithetic structures to the throughgoing east-dipping ones. The Triassic normal fault patterns actively controlled sediment thicknesses and facies distribution within the Lunde and Teist Formations in the basin. Use of seismic stratigraphic surfaces, calibrated by biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphic markers, provides strong evidence that the Triassic depocentres are spatially offset from their Mid-Late Jurassic counterparts. The combination of structural, stratigraphic and sedimentary effects reveal the existence of an emergent deeper Triassic play opportunity in footwall locations to the Mid-Late Jurassic normal faults, which has the potential to extend the life of what is otherwise mature acreage. (author)

Tomasso, Mark [School of Geosciences, Grant Institute of Earth Science, The University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Avenue, Dept. 4068, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Underhill, John R. [School of Geosciences, Grant Institute of Earth Science, The University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hodgkinson, Richard A. [School of Geosciences, Grant Institute of Earth Science, The University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bowleven PLC, 1 North St. Andrew Lane, Edinburgh EH2 1HX, Scotland (United Kingdom); Young, Mike J. [School of Geosciences, Grant Institute of Earth Science, The University of Edinburgh, The King' s Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom); StatoilHydro, NO-4035 Stavanger (Norway)

2008-08-15

242

Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene lake-level fluctuations in the Lahontan Basin, Nevada: Implications for the distribution of archaeological sites  

Science.gov (United States)

The Great Basin of the western U.S. contains a rich record of late Pleistocene and Holocene lake-level fluctuations as well as an extensive record of human occupation during the same time frame. We compare spatial-temporal relationships between these records in the Lahontan basin to consider whether lake-level fluctuations across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition controlled distribution of archaeological sites. We use the reasonably well-dated archaeological record from caves and rockshelters as well as results from new pedestrian surveys to investigate this problem. Although lake levels probably reached maximum elevations of about 1230-1235 m in the different subbasins of Lahontan during the Younger Dryas (YD) period, the duration that the lakes occupied the highest levels was brief Paleoindian and early Archaic archaeological sites are concentrated on somewhat lower and slightly younger shorelines (???1220-1225 in) that also date from the Younger Dryas period. This study suggests that Paleoindians often concentrated their activities adjacent to large lakes and wetland resources soon after they first entered the Great Basin. ?? 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Adams, K.D.; Goebel, T.; Graf, K.; Smith, G.M.; Camp, A.J.; Briggs, R.W.; Rhode, D.

2008-01-01

243

Assemblage characteristics of clay minerals and its implications to evolution of eolian dust input to the Parece Vela Basin since 1.95 Ma  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the provenance and evolution of eolian input in the last 1.95 Ma in the Parece Vela Basin in the eastern Philippine Sea, the clay mineral assemblage of a gravity core PV090510 from the basin was investigated using paleogeomagnetic dating and X-ray diffraction. The assemblage of the core mainly consisted of smectite (˜46%) and illite (˜40%), with some chlorite (˜10%) and kaolinite (˜4%). Analysis of the provenance of these minerals suggested that smectite was mainly derived from volcanic rocks of the Mariana Arc, while illite, chlorite, and kaolinite were mainly transported as eolian dust by the East Asian monsoon from central Asia. We used the ratio of (illite+chlorite+kaolinite)/smectite as a proxy for Asian eolian input to the Parece Vela Basin since 1.95 Ma. This ratio followed glacial and interglacial cycles and was consistent with the intensity of the East Asian monsoon and aridity of central Asia since 1.95 Ma. The changes of the ratio reflected three different stages of the East Asian monsoon and provenance climate.

Ming, Jie; Li, Anchun; Huang, Jie; Wan, Shiming; Meng, Qingyong; Jiang, Fuqing; Yan, Wenwen

2014-01-01

244

Fluid migration at the basement/sediment interface along the margin of the Southeast basin (France): implications for Pb-Zn ore formation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the isotopic composition (C, O, S and Sr) of carbonates, sulphates and sulphide cements in the rock matrix and fracture fillings in geological formations of the Southeast basin of France, using core samples collected during the Deep Geology of France programme (GPF Ardèche theme). The Southeast basin belongs to the Alpine Tethyan margin. It is one of the thickest sedimentary basins in Europe, reaching upwards of 9 km in certain locations. The main fluid transfer from the basin is related to the large Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley-type district along the southern margin of the Massif Central block. A synthesis of the tectonic, mineralogical and petrographic investigations on the GPF boreholes shows that a major fluid circulation event occurred across the Alpine margin of Tethys during the Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Bathonian). It produced a general cementation of the rock porosity through precipitation of dolomite, sulphate and barite. Fracture fillings yield isotopic signatures distinct from the matrix cements. Matrix cements have particular characteristics, i.e. ?34S and ?13C that agree with a marine origin. The ?34S values of Permo-Carboniferous to Triassic sulphides from fracture cements are interpreted as resulting from the thermo-chemical reduction of sulphates. Fracture sulphates in the same geological formations yield ?34S values that define a relatively homogeneous end-member, whose composition is similar to sulphates in the Largentière Pb-Zn ore deposit. The source of S is attributed to the Permo-Carboniferous succession. The borehole fracture fillings are attributed to a major fluid circulation stage compatible with the Early Jurassic stage identified from the geological investigation of the boreholes. The formation of the Largentière deposit is considered as resulting from the mixing of this Early Jurassic fluid with continental hydrothermal fluids circulating in a basement horst, along its margin with the sedimentary basin. Other Pb-Zn deposits may also be related to fluid migration along the basement/sedimentary cover interface in the eastern and western parts of the Massif Central. This regional fluid circulation event may represent a geodynamic marker of the Jurassic extensional phase.

Aquilina, Luc; Boulvais, Philippe; Mossmann, Jean-Rémi

2011-12-01

245

Subalkaline andesite from Valu Fa Ridge, a back-arc spreading center in southern Lau Basin: petrogenesis, comparative chemistry, and tectonic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Tholeiitic andesite was dredged from two sites on Valu Fa Ridge (VFR), a back-arc spreading center in Lau Basin. Valu Fa Ridge, at least 200 km long, is located 40-50 km west of the active Tofua Volcanic Arc (TVA) axis and lies about 150 km above the subducted oceanic plate. One or more magma chambers, traced discontinuously for about 100 km along the ridge axis, lie 3-4 km beneath the ridge. The mostly aphyric and glassy lavas had high volatile contents, as shown by the abundance and large sizes of vesicles. An extensive fractionation history is inferred from the high SiO2 contents and FeO* MgO ratios. Chemical data show that the VFR lavas have both volcanic arc and back-arc basin affinities. The volcanic arc characteristics are: (1) relatively high abundances of most alkali and alkaline earth elements; (2) low abundances of high field strength elements Nb and Ta; (3) high U/Th ratios; (4) similar radiogenic isotope ratios in VFR and TVA lavas, in particular the enrichment of 87Sr 86Sr relative to 206Pb 204Pb; (5) high 238U 230Th, 230Th 232Th, and 226Ra 230Th activity ratios; and (6) high ratios of Rb/Cs, Ba/Nb, and Ba/La. Other chemical characteristics suggest that the VFR lavas are related to MORB-type back-arc basin lavas. For example, VFR lavas have (1) lower 87Sr 86Sr ratios and higher 143Nd 144Nd ratios than most lavas from the TVA, except samples from Ata Island, and are similar to many Lau Basin lavas; (2) lower Sr/REE, Rb/Zr, and Ba/Zr ratios than in arc lavas; and (3) higher Ti, Fe, and V, and higher Ti/V ratios than arc lavas generally and TVA lavas specifically. Most characteristics of VFR lavas can be explained by mixing depleted mantle with either small amounts of sediment and fluids from the subducting slab and/or an older fragment of volcanic arc lithosphere. The eruption of subalkaline andesite with some arc affinities along a back-arc spreading ridge is not unique. Collision of the Louisville and Tonga ridges probably activated back-arc extension that ultimately led to the creation and growth of Valu Fa Ridge. Some ophiolitic fragments in circum-Pacific and circum-Tethyan allochthonous terranes, presently interpreted to have originated in volcanic arcs, may instead be fragments of lithosphere that formed during early stages of seafloor spreading in a back-arc basin. ?? 1991.

Vallier, T.L.; Jenner, G.A.; Frey, F.A.; Gill, J.B.; Davis, A.S.; Volpe, A.M.; Hawkins, J.W.; Morris, J.D.; Cawood, P.A.; Morton, J.L.; Scholl, D. W.; Rautenschlein, M.; White, W.M.; Williams, Ross W.; Stevenson, A.J.; White, L.D.

1991-01-01

246

Data-driven modeling of radionuclide inventory at the Savannah River Site F-area seepage basins and implications for long-term behavior predictions  

Science.gov (United States)

The availability of data is a major constraint in the development of a conceptual model and predictions of physical and chemical processes impacting contaminant behavior in the subsurface. For example, a wealth of data has been collected over the past 60 years from a network of several hundred groundwater wells and surface water monitoring stations at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The data were collected during and following the release of low-level liquid waste into seepage basins, as well as during the application of various groundwater remediation techniques. The result is a dataset of over 350,000 measurements. To analyze these data, we used a new data management system being developed as part of the DOE initiative on Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM). This system was developed for easier access, management, visualization, and exploration of large amounts of heterogeneous data. Using this system, we developed a data-driven model for the evaluation of a mass balance and the inventory of the F-Area seepage basins and the groundwater plume. Process operations at the F-area led to the discharge of more than 4×109 L of low-level liquid radioactive waste containing tritium, uranium and fission products into the seepage basins. Between 1953 and 1989, 8.6×104 Ci (corrected for evaporation and decay to 1989) of tritium was released into the basins according to operational data. Starting in the 1960s, SRS monitored radioactivity in the Fourmile Branch (FMB) located downgradient of the basins. Through 1989 around 43% of the total release was detected in FMB, leaving an estimated inventory of 57% in the subsurface as of 1989. This model was used to assess t he sources of uncertainty in the mass balance calculations. The results of calculations of the tritium inventory in groundwater were compared with those from monitoring data prior to remediation, as well as were used to estimate the time needed to achieve the tritium MCL level under natural attenuation conditions.

Wiedmer, A.; Hunt, J. R.; Agarwal, D.; Faybishenko, B.

2012-12-01

247

Fluid inclusions and biomarkers in the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district; implications for the fluid-flow and thermal history of the Illinois Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district is hosted by Ordovician carbonate rocks at the northern margin of the Illinois Basin. Fluid inclusion temperature measurements on Early Permian sphalerite ore from the district are predominantly between 90?C and I50?C. These temperatures are greater than can be explained by their reconstructed burial depth, which was a maximum of approximately 1 km at the time of mineralization. In contrast to the temperatures of mineral formation derived from fluid inclusions, biomarker maturities in the Upper Mississippi Valley district give an estimate of total thermal exposure integrated over time. Temperatures from fluid inclusions trapped during ore genesis with biomarker maturities were combined to construct an estimate of the district's overall thermal history and, by inference, the late Paleozoic thermal and hydrologic history of the Illinois Basin. Circulation of groundwater through regional aquifers, given sufficient flow rates, can redistribute heat from deep in a sedimentary basin to its shallower margins. Evidence for regional-scale circulation of fluids is provided by paleomagnetic studies, regionally correlated zoned dolomite, fluid inclusions, and thermal maturity of organic matter. Evidence for igneous acti vity contemporaneous with mineralization in the vicinity of the Upper Mississippi Valley district is absent. Regional fluid and heat circulation is the most likely explanation for the elevated fluid inclusion temperatures (relative to maximum estimated burial depth) in the Upper Mississippi Valley district. One plausible driving mechanism and flow path for the ore-forming fluids is groundwater recharge in the late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita mountain belt and northward flow through the Reelfoot rift and the proto- Illinois Basin to the Upper Mississippi Valley district. Warm fluid flowing laterally through Cambrian and Ordovician aquifers would then move vertically upward through the fractures that control sphalerite mineralization in the Upper Mississippi Valley district. Biomarker reactant-product measurements on rock extracts from the Upper Mississippi Valley district define a relatively low level ofthermal maturity for the district, 0.353 for sterane and 0.577 for hopane. Recently published kinetic constants permit a time-temperature relationship to be determined from these biomarker maturities. Numerical calculations were made to simulate fluid heat flow through the fracture-controlled ore zones of the Thompson-Temperly mine and heat transfer to the adjacent rocks where biomarker samples were collected. Calculations that combine the fluid inclusion temperatures and the biomarker constraints on thermal maturity indicate that the time interval during which mineralizing fluids circulated through the Upper Mississippi Valley district is on the order of 200,000 years. Fluid inclusion measurements and thermal maturities from biomarkers in the district reflect the duration of peak temperatures resulting from regional fluid circulation. On the basis of thermal considerations, the timing of fluorite mineralization in southern Illinois, and the northward-decreasing pattern of fluorine enrichment in sediments, we hypothesize that the principal flow direction was northward through the Cambrian and Ordovician aquifers of the Illinois Basin. A basin-scale flow system would result in mass transport (hydrocarbon migration, transport of metals in solution) and energy (heat) transport, which would in turn drive chemical reactions (for example, maturation of organic matter, mineralization, diagenetic reactions) within the Illinois Basin and at its margins.

Rowan, E. Lanier; Goldhaber, Martin B.

1996-01-01

248

Basin geometry and cumulative offsets in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, southern California: Implications for transrotational deformation along the San Andreas fault system  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eastern Transverse Ranges, adjacent to and southeast of the big left bend of the San Andreas fault, southern California, form a crustal block that has rotated clockwise in response to dextral shear within the San Andreas system. Previous studies have indicated a discrepancy between the measured magnitudes of left slip on through-going east-striking fault zones of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and those predicted by simple geometric models using paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations of basalts distributed along the faults. To assess the magnitude and source of this discrepancy, we apply new gravity and magnetic data in combination with geologic data to better constrain cumulative fault offsets and to define basin structure for the block between the Pinto Mountain and Chiriaco fault zones. Estimates of offset from using the length of pull-apart basins developed within left-stepping strands of the sinistral faults are consistent with those derived by matching offset magnetic anomalies and bedrock patterns, indicating a cumulative offset of at most ???40 km. The upper limit of displacements constrained by the geophysical and geologic data overlaps with the lower limit of those predicted at the 95% confidence level by models of conservative slip located on margins of rigid rotating blocks and the clockwise rotation of the paleomagnetic vectors. Any discrepancy is likely resolved by internal deformation within the blocks, such as intense deformation adjacent to the San Andreas fault (that can account for the absence of basins there as predicted by rigid-block models) and linkage via subsidiary faults between the main faults. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

Langenheim, V.E.; Powell, R.E.

2009-01-01

249

The implications of geology, soils, and vegetation on landscape morphology: Inferences from semi-arid basins with complex vegetation patterns in Central New Mexico, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the relationship between land surface properties (e.g. soil, vegetation, and lithology) and landscape morphology quantified by the catchment descriptors: the slope-area (S-A) relation, curvature-area (C-A) relation, and the cumulative area distribution (CAD), in two semi-arid basins in central New Mexico. The first site is composed of several basins located in today's desert elevations with mesic north-facing and xeric south-facing hillslopes underlain by different lithological formations. The second site is a mountainous basin exhibiting vegetation gradients from shrublands in the lower elevations to grasslands and forests at higher elevations. All three land surface properties were found to have significant influences on the S-A and C- A relations, while the power-law exponents of the CADs for these properties did not show any significant deviations from the narrow range of universal scaling exponents reported in the literature. Among the three different surface properties we investigated, vegetation had the most profound impact on the catchment descriptors. In the S-A diagrams of the aspect-controlled ecosystems, we found steeper slopes in north-facing aspects than south-facing aspects for a given drainage area. In elevation-controlled ecosystems, forested landscapes exhibited the steepest slopes for the range of drainage areas examined, followed by shrublands and grasslands in all soil textures and lithologies. In the C-A diagrams, steeper slopes led to a higher degree of divergence on hillslopes and a higher degree of convergence in the valleys than shallower slopes. The influence of functional types of vegetation detected on observed topography provided some initial understanding of the potential impacts of life on the organization of topography. This finding also emphasizes the critical role of climate in catchment development. We suggest that climatic fluctuations that are capable of replacing vegetation communities could lead to highly amplified hydrological and geomorphic responses.

Yetemen, Omer; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Vivoni, Enrique R.

2010-04-01

250

Petrography and geochemistry of Cretaceous to quaternary siliciclastic rocks in the Tarfaya basin, SW Morocco: implications for tectonic setting, weathering, and provenance  

Science.gov (United States)

The petrography, heavy mineral analysis, major element geochemical compositions and mineral chemistry of Early Cretaceous to Miocene-Pliocene rocks, and recent sediments of the Tarfaya basin, SW Morocco, have been studied to reveal their depositional tectonic setting, weathering history, and provenance. Bulk sediment compositional and mineral chemical data suggest that these rocks were derived from heterogeneous sources in the Reguibat Shield (West African Craton) including the Mauritanides and the western Anti-Atlas, which likely form the basement in this area. The Early Cretaceous sandstones are subarkosic in composition, while the Miocene-Pliocene sandstones and the recent sediments from Wadis are generally carbonate-rich feldspathic or lithic arenites, which is also reflected in their major element geochemical compositions. The studied samples are characterized by moderate SiO2 contents and variable abundances of Al2O3, K2O, Na2O, and ferromagnesian elements. Binary tectonic discrimination diagrams demonstrate that most samples can be characterized as passive continental marginal deposits. Al2O3/Na2O ratios indicate more intense chemical weathering during the Early Cretaceous and a variable intensity of weathering during the Late Cretaceous, Early Eocene, Oligocene-Early Miocene, Miocene-Pliocene and recent times. Moreover, weathered marls of the Late Cretaceous and Miocene-Pliocene horizons also exhibit relatively low but variable intensity of chemical weathering. Our results indicate that siliciclastics of the Early Cretaceous were primarily derived from the Reguibat Shield and the Mauritanides, in the SW of the basin, whereas those of the Miocene-Pliocene had varying sources that probably included western Anti-Atlas (NE part of the basin) in addition to the Reguibat Shield and the Mauritanides.

Ali, Sajid; Stattegger, Karl; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Kluth, Oliver; Jabour, Haddou

2014-01-01

251

Formation and preservation of greigite (Fe3S4) in sediments from the Santa Barbara Basin: Implications for paleoenvironmental changes during the past 35 ka  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagenetic processes are known to modify sedimentary records, but they can also reveal important paleoenvironmental changes. Here we investigate variations in sedimentary iron diagenesis and depositional environments for the last 35 ka by analyzing the rock magnetic and geochemical properties of two sediment cores collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (California). In organic-rich sediments, early diagenesis often leads to partial dissolution of detrital iron oxides and stepwise formation of authigenic pyrite (FeS2). The pyritization process takes place following several geochemical pathways, sometimes involving intermediate iron sulfide species such as greigite (Fe3S4). Sedimentary conditions in the basin appear to have recurrently favored preservation of greigite (identified by its magnetic properties) and inhibited its complete transformation into pyrite. The Holocene interval contains a series of centimeter-thick greigite-bearing layers that are associated with large flood deposits, which are known in the basin as "gray layers." We propose that greigite preservation was enabled in these sediments by their relative enrichment in reactive iron over organic matter and/or hydrogen sulfide (because of their high ratio of terrigenous over organic material), which limited pyritization reactions. Within the glacial deposits, formation and preservation of meter-thick greigite layers occurred in terrigenous-rich and organic-poor sedimentary layers and is proposed to result from a similar diagenetic process to that in the Holocene greigite-bearing layers (dominance of reactive iron over organic matter and/or HS-). The terrigenous enrichments in the glacial greigite-bearing layers are probably related to climatic or sea level changes because they occur at times of massive iceberg releases in the North Atlantic, the so-called Heinrich events.

Blanchet, C. L.; Thouveny, N.; Vidal, L.

2009-06-01

252

Morphology and growth history of Delgada Fan: implications for the Neogene evolution of Point Arena Basin and the Mendocino Triple Junction  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-range side scan (GLORIA) sonographs and seismic reflection data acquired during a survey of the western US Exclusive Economic Zone in 1984, coupled with information from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites, provide new insights into the growth and evolution of the Delgada Fan. Construction of the fan commenced in the latest Miocene (~6 Ma) following the filling of the Neogene Point Arena Basin. The large size of the fan is incompatible with the small present-day supply of sediment to the canyon system. The GLORIA data show the Delgada Fan to be a hybrid-type fan, exhibiting characteristics of both elongate and radial fans. The morphology and volume of the fan, along with evidence for a decline in accumulation rates on the lower fan during the Quaternary period, suggest that the fan experienced an early growth phase (latest Miocene and Pliocene) characterized by relatively rapid progradation of elongate fan lobes followed by a period (Quaternary) of slower growth that has featured a shift of depocenters to sites closer to the canyons and a transition to distributary channels bordered by less prominent levees and overbank deposits. We examine the growth of Delgada Fan in relation to the Neogene evolution of the North American-Pacific plate boundary using a series of paleogeographic reconstructions based on recently published time displacement histories of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ), the San Andreas fault (SAF), and the Pacific plate, upon which the fan rests. The time displacement curves for the SAF and the MTJ suggest that the MTJ and Mendocino Fracture Zone overtook and passed Point Arena Basin at about 10 Ma when the basin lay immediately southwest of the present San Francisco Bay area. We suggest that the MTJ joined the SAF at approximately that time and location, thus making the SAF the master fault in the transform system. -from Authors

Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.; Gardner, J.V.; McCulloch, D.S.; Masson, D.

1989-01-01

253

Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the Paleogene sedimentary rocks from the North Jiangsu Basin, Eastern China: implications for provenance and tectonic setting  

Science.gov (United States)

The petrography and geochemistry (major, trace, and rare earth elements) of clastic sedimentary rocks from the Paleogene Dainan Formation (E2 d) in the North Jiangsu Basin, eastern China, are investigated to trace their provenance and to constrain their tectonic setting. The studied samples are characterized by LREE enrichment, flat HREE, and negative Eu anomaly similar to the upper continental crust composed chiefly of felsic components in the source area. Petrographic observation indicates that the sandstones contain predominant metamorphic and sedimentary clasts that were derived from peripheral recycled orogen and intrabasinal materials. The trace element ratios (Co/Th, La/Sc, La/Th, and Th/U) and the La-Th-Sc ternary plot further confirm that the sandstones are derived from granitic gneiss sources from recycled orogen and the intrabasinal mixed sedimentary provenance. The granitic gneiss source rocks may have derived from the Proterozoic granitic gneiss denuded in the eastern Dabie-Sulu orogen; and the intrabasinal provenance may come from the underlying strata during the Late Paleocene Wubao movement. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) and A-CN-K plot show that these source rocks may have experienced weak to medium chemical weathering. Analysis on tectonic setting of the source area suggests an active continental margin, which is intimate with tectonic feature of the Dabie-sulu orogen and the Yangtze block. In summary, we suggest that the North Jiangsu Basin is an ideal site for the study of the coupling between the uplift of the orogen and the subsidence of the foreland basin.

Zhang, Ni; Lin, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Xia

2014-08-01

254

Cyclostratigraphy of an orbitally-driven Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp succession, Southern Mendoza, Argentina: Implications for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Neuquén Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed sedimentological, sequence stratigraphical and cyclostratigraphical analyses have been made from four lower Tithonian-lower Valanginian sections of the Vaca Muerta Formation, exposed in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The Vaca Muerta Formation is characterized by decimetre-scale rhythmic alternations of marls, shales and limestones, and consists of five facies associations, which reflect different paleoenvironmental conditions: basin to restricted outer ramp, outer ramp, and middle ramp. Vertical organization within the Vaca Muerta Formation shows a well-ordered hierarchy of cycles, where elementary cycles, bundles and superbundles with frequencies within the Milankovitch band have been recognized. According to biostratigraphic data, elementary cycles have a periodicity of ~ 20 ky, which correlates with the precession cycle of Earth's axis. Spectral analysis based on series of cycle thickness allows us to identify frequencies of about 400 ky and 90-120 ky, which we interpret as the modulation of the precessional cycle by the Earth's orbital eccentricity. Cycles are probably driven by variations in carbonate exportation, as fluctuations in shallow-water carbonate production involve modifications in carbonate basinward exportation. Cyclostratigraphic data allowed us to build a floating orbital scale for the Tithonian-lower Valanginian interval in the Neuquén Basin. Correlation between studied sections allowed us to recognize a discontinuity between the Substeueroceras koeneni and Argentiniceras noduliferum ammonite zones in the Malargüe Anticline area. Orbital calibration of these sections is consistent with Riccardi's biostratigraphic scheme, wich place the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary within the Substeueroceras koeneni ammonite Zone. On the other hand, the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Virgatosphinctes mendozanus ammonite Zone) would be probably placed in the base of the middle Tithonian rather than the lower Tithonian, which is also consistent with our preliminary palaeomagnetic data.

Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Iglesia Llanos, Maria Paula

2015-01-01

255

Lumped parameter, isotopic model simulations of closed-basin lake response to drought in the Pacific Northwest and implications for lake sediment oxygen isotope records.  

Science.gov (United States)

The economy of the Pacific Northwest relies heavily on water resources from the drought-prone Columbia River and its tributaries, as well as the many lakes and reservoirs of the region. Proper management of these water resources requires a thorough understanding of local drought histories that extends well beyond the instrumental record of the twentieth century, a time frame too short to capture the full range of drought variability in the Pacific Northwest. Here we present a lumped parameter, mass-balance model that provides insight into the influence of hydroclimatological changes on two small, closed-basin systems located in north- central Washington. Steady state model simulations of lake water oxygen isotope ratios using modern climate and catchment parameter datasets demonstrate a strong sensitivity to both the amount and timing of precipitation, and to changes in summertime relative humidity, particularly at annual and decadal time scales. Model tests also suggest that basin hypsography can have a significant impact on lake water oxygen isotope variations, largely through surface area to volume and consequent evaporative flux to volume ratio changes in response to drought and pluvial sequences. Additional simulations using input parameters derived from both on-site and National Climatic Data Center historical climate datasets accurately approximate three years of continuous lake observations (seasonal water sampling and continuous lake level monitoring) and twentieth century oxygen isotope ratios in sediment core authigenic carbonate recovered from the lakes. Results from these model simulations suggest that small, closed-basin lakes in north-central Washington are highly sensitive to changes in the drought-related climate variables, and that long (8000 year), high resolution records of quantitative changes in precipitation and evaporation are obtainable from sediment cores recovered from water bodies of the Pacific Northwest.

Steinman, B. A.; Rosenmeier, M.; Abbott, M.

2008-12-01

256

Groundwater dynamics under water-saving irrigation and implications for sustainable water management in an oasis: Tarim River basin of western China  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of the socio-economy and the sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understanding regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In the Tarim River basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux between the unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a sophisticated water-saving irrigation method, was widely applied in the Tarim River basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gaining a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2012 and 2013 in a typical oasis within the Tarim River basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux at the groundwater table is mostly downward (310.5 mm year-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (16.1 mm year-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting the ecological system. This could lead to an increased risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

2014-10-01

257

Water balance of the Indus River Basin and moisture source in the Karakoram and western Himalayas: Implications from hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in river water  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable isotope measurements of hydrogen and oxygen for surface waters from the Indus River Basin (IRB), together with historical records for river discharge, annual precipitation, and groundwater levels, are used to assess water balance for the basin. The Indus River presently drains 53 km3 yr-1 or roughly one-eighth of the 398-km3 water that annually falls on the basin in the form of rain and snow, with the remainder returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Monthly samples for the Indus River close to its mouth, for the water year March 1994 to February 1995, show a tight correlation in ?D and ?18O space. The slope of the linear regression is 7.5, which is not significantly different from the slopes of the Local Meteoric Water Lines (LMWL; 7.3 and 7.1). This observation argues against significant loss of water by direct evaporation from river surfaces or from soils in hydrologic continuum with surface waters. An upper limit for evaporation from poorly drained soils is calculated to be ˜10 km3 yr-1 or only 2.5% of the annual precipitation flux. Groundwater storage in the entire Canal Command Area received a maximum of 23 km3 yr-1 or 5.8% of the annual precipitation during the early stages of irrigation, but modern recharge is probably balanced by discharge to rivers and well exploitation. Transpiration by natural vegetation and crops annually returns 83% of the precipitation flux and constitutes the largest pathway for the loss of water from the basin. Deuterium excess (d-excess) in the IRB ranges between 4‰ and 28‰, with values for 95% of the sample population exceeding 10‰. The Indus main channel close to its mouth varies in d-excess between 12‰ and 20‰ during low and high water stands, respectively, with a discharge weighted average of 18‰. These values are distinctly higher than the long-term average for the Indian monsoon (˜8‰) and reflect contributions from water vapor originating in the Mediterranean (22‰) or other inland seas. Using these end-member compositions and the discharge weighted average d-excess, isotope balance calculations require that up to 72% of the Indus discharge close to its mouth must be derived from the Mediterranean end-member and implies that bulk of the Indus discharge is the result of delayed runoff from the Karakoram and the Himalayas.

Karim, Ajaz; Veizer, Jan

2002-09-01

258

Rapid climate change from north Andean Lake Fúquene pollen records driven by obliquity: implications for a basin-wide biostratigraphic zonation for the last 284 ka  

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This paper compares a new super-high resolution pollen record from a central location in Lake Fúquene (4°N) with 3 pollen records from marginal sites from the same lake basin, located at 2540 m elevation in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. We harmonized the pollen sum of all records, and provided previously published records of climate change with an improved age model using a new approach for long continental pollen records. We dissociated from subjective curve matching and applied a more objective procedure including radiocarbon ages, cyclostratigraphy, and orbital tuning using the new 284 ka long Fúquene Basin Composite record (Fq-BC) as the backbone ( Groot et al., 2011). We showed that a common ˜9 m cycle in the arboreal pollen percentage (AP%) records reflects obliquity forcing and drives vegetational and climatic change. The AP% records were tuned to the 41 kyr component filtered from standard benthic ? 18O LR04 record. Changes in sediment supply to the lake are reflected in concert by the four records making frequency analysis in the depth domain an adequate method to compare records from the same basin. We calibrated the original 14C ages and used where necessary biostratigraphic correlation, i.e. for records shorter than one obliquity cycle. Pollen records from the periphery of the lake showed changes in the abundance of Alnus and Weinmannia forests more clearly while centrally located record Fq-9C shows a more integrated signal of regional vegetation change. The revised age models show that core Fq-2 reflects the last 44 ka and composite record Fq-7C the last 85.5 ka. Marginally located core Fq-3 has an age of 133 ka at 32 m core depth and the lowermost 11 m of sediments appear of older but unknown age. The longest record Fq-BC shows ˜60 yr resolution over the period of 284-27 ka. All pollen records are in support of a common regional vegetation development leading to a robust reconstruction of long series of submillennial climate oscillations reflecting Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles. Reconstructed climate variability in the tropical Andes since marine isotope stage (MIS) 8 compares well with NGRIP (? 18O based), Epica Dome C (?D based) and the Mediterranean sea surface temperature record MD01-2443/44 (U K'37 based) underpinning the global significance of the climate record from this tropical Andean lake. A basin-wide biostratigraphy is presented and we concluded although with varying robustness that each core is representative of regional vegetational and climatic change.

Bogotá-A, R. G.; Groot, M. H. M.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Lourens, L. J.; Van der Linden, M.; Berrio, J. C.

2011-11-01

259

Groundwater Dynamics under Water Saving Irrigation and Implications for Sustainable Water Management in an Oasis: Tarim River Basin of Western China  

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Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of socio-economy and sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understand regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In Tarim River Basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a very advanced water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in the Tarim River Basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gain a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2011 and 2012 in a typical oasis within Tarim River Basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux is mostly downward (310.5 mm yr-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (-16.1 mm yr-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting ecological system. This would lead to increasing risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

2014-02-01

260

Upper mantle diapers, lower crustal magmatic underplating, and lithospheric dismemberment of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau regions, Nevada and Utah; implications from deep MT resistivity surveying  

Science.gov (United States)

In the rifted Basin and Range province of the southwestern U.S., a common faulting model for extensional basins based e.g. on reflection seismology data shows dominant displacement along master faults roughly coincident with the main topographic scarp. On the other hand, complementary data such as drilling, earthquake focal mechanisms, volcanic occurrences, and trace indicators such as helium isotopes suggest that there are alternative geometries of crustal scale faulting and material transport from the deep crust and upper mantle in this province. Recent magnetotelluric (MT) profiling results reveal families of structures commonly dominated by high-angle conductors interpreted to reflect crustal scale fault zones. Based mainly on cross cutting relationships, these faults appear to be late Cenozoic in age and are of low resistivity due to fluids or alteration (including possible graphitization). In the Ruby Mtns area of north-central Nevada, high angle faults along the margins of the core complex connect from near surface to a regional lower crustal conductor interpreted to contain high-temperature fluids and perhaps melts. Such faults may exemplify the high angle normal faults upon which the major earthquakes of the Great Basin appear to nucleate. A larger-scale transect centered on Dixie Valley shows major conductive crustal-scale structures connecting to conductive lower crust below Dixie Valley, the Black Rock desert in NW Nevada, and in east-central Nevada in the Monitor-Diamond Valley area. In the Great Basin-Colorado Plateau transition of Utah, the main structures revealed are a series of nested low-angle detachment structures underlying the incipient development of several rift grabens. All these major fault zones appear to overlie regions of particularly conductive lower crust interpreted to be caused by recent basaltic underplating. In the GB-CP transition, long period data show two, low-resistivity upper mantle diapirs underlying the concentrated conductive lower crust and nested faults, and these are advanced as melt source regions for the underplating. MT, with its wide frequency bandwidth, allows views of nearly a complete melting and emplacement process, from mantle source region, through lower crustal intrusion, to brittle regime deformational response.

Wannamaker, P. E.; Doerner, W. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

2005-12-01

261

Numerical model simulations of small closed basin lake sediment core ?18O records from the upper Columbia River basin over the last millennium and implications for a mid-Holocene ‘megadrought’  

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A suite of simulations conducted using a coupled lake-catchment hydrologic and isotope mass-balance model indicate that small, closed-basin lakes in the upper Columbia River basin are isotopically sensitive to changes in precipitation, and to a lesser extent, relative humidity and temperature. In an initial set of experiments, ~100 years of continuous monthly temperature and precipitation data were used as model inputs to simulate the intra- and interannual hydrologic and isotopic responses of Scanlon and Castor Lakes, located in the rainshadow of the Cascade Mountains within north-central Washington. At both sites, model-derived lake water ?18O data compare favorably to high-resolution lake sediment core ?18O records spanning the 20th century, as well as to instrumental records of drought variability and precipitation-evaporation balance (specifically, the Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI). Measured, decadally-averaged sediment core ?18O values from the last millennium were then simulated within the model by varying precipitation, relative humidity and temperature input data in an effort to provide quantitative estimates of both short-term hydroclimatic variability and mean climate state changes at the study sites. Comparison of these simulation results with regional tree-ring based PDSI reconstructions reveals a strong spatial and temporal coherence, suggesting that practicable quantitative paleohydroclimatic data can be derived from lake isotope mass-balance modeling methods. To provide a basis of comparison for evaluating mean state hydroclimate over the last ~1000 years, a final set of experiments were used to estimate mean state climate during the mid-Holocene (~7500 to 6500 cal. BP) ‘megadrought’. During this arid period, Castor Lake sediment ?18O values increased by over 2‰. The Scanlon Lake sediment record, however, shows no appreciable increase in ?18O at this time, but does exhibit clear sedimentological evidence for a two meter decrease in lake level. Model simulations of the ‘megadrought’ period suggest that the discrepancies in the Castor and Scanlon sediment core ?18O records are the result of differing lake outseepage rates. Specifically, at Scanlon Lake, with minimal outseepage, isotopic change is induced only by short-term hydroclimate variability and not by changes in mean climate state. In contrast, at Castor Lake, with appreciable outseepage, both short-term hydroclimate variability and variations in the mean climate state will induce isotopic changes. Comparison of model results with tree ring based PDSI reconstructions and with sediment record ?18O values spanning both the past one thousand years and the ‘megadrought’ period demonstrates that an alternate mean hydroclimatic state existed for the upper Columbia basin during the mid-Holocene and that such large-scale mean state shifts did not occur over the last millennium.

Steinman, B. A.; Rosenmeier, M. F.; Abbott, M.

2009-12-01

262

Hemipelagic cephalopods from the Maastrichtian (late Cretaceous) Parras Basin at La Parra, Coahuila, Mexico, and their implications for the correlation of the lower Difunta Group  

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Few biostratigraphic data exist from the Parras and La Popa basins, mainly due to the absence of index fossils. This paper describes 19 ammonoid species from 15 genera and 1 nautilid from La Parra, southeastern Coahuila, Mexico. The assemblage consists of Tethyan [( Baculites ovatus, Brahmaites ( Anabrahmaites) vishnu, Fresvillia constricta, Hauericeras rembda, Pachydiscus ( P.) ex gr. neubergicus, Solenoceras reesidei, Tetragonites cf. superstes], cosmopolitan ( Anagaudryceras politissimum, Desmophyllites diphylloides, Diplomoceras cylindraceum, Gaudryceras kayei, Phyllopachyceras forbesianum, Pseudophyllites indra), and cold water taxa [ Fresvillia teres, Hypophylloceras ( Neophylloceras) surya, H. ( N.) hetonaiense, Pachydiscus ( P.) cf. egertoni]. Eutrephoceras sp. and Menuites juv. sp. were not determined to species level. A similar assemblage was recently described from the coeval Méndez Formation at Cerralvo, Nuevo León. Species endemic to North America, particularly the Western Interior Seaway, are absent at La Parra. The ammonoid assemblage and associated planktonic foraminifers allow for precise biostratigraphic assignation to the early Maastrichtian planktonic foraminiferal zone CF 5, and thus provide an important marker level for correlation of the lower Difunta Group. The new biostratigraphic data presented herein allow for the first time precise dating of the Cañon del Tule Formation of the Difunta Group. Their combination with existing sequence- and magnetostratigraphic data improve the correlation of the lower Difunta Group with time-equivalent lithostratigraphic units such as the Cárdenas Formation in Mexico. They also provide new insight into ammonoid migration patterns induced by sea-level changes. Baculites ovatus migrated into the La Popa Basin as a result of the sea-level highstand documented at La Parra.

Ifrim, Christina; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Garza, Rufino Rodríguez; Ventura, José Flores

2010-04-01

263

Magnetic mineral study of Holocene marine sediments from the Alfonso Basin, Gulf of California - implications for depositional environment and sediment sources  

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Full Text Available Results of a rock magnetic study of marine sediments from the Alfonso Basin, Bay of La Paz are used to investigate sediment sources and depositional environment in the southern Gulf of California during the Holocene. Radiocarbon dating provides stratigraphic control, with age for the core bottom sediments of 7597-7831 cal. yr B.P. Magnetic signal is dominated by fine-grained titanomagnetites, derived from the silicic volcanic units surrounding the Bay of La Paz. Magnetic mineralogy is relatively homogenous as seen in bulk magnetic properties of low-field susceptibility, remanent intensity and coercivity. Magnetic hysteresis loops show strong variable paramagnetic components; after paramagnetic correction loops show saturation at low fields and high saturation magnetization values. Plots of hysteresis parameter ratios for domain state show that samples group in the pseudo-single domain field, with mixtures of single and multi-domain particles. Magnetic susceptibility log shows relatively high frequency dependence factors, particularly for the Middle Holocene, suggesting contribution of fine-grained superparamagnetic minerals related to eolian deposition. The well-preserved laminated sequence indicates predominant anoxic conditions in the basin floor. Depositional environment had a dominant supply of pluvial detrital sediments and eolian fimaterial with less abundant biogenic input.

L. Pérez Cruz

2009-07-01

264

Late Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian carbonate deposits of NW Switzerland (Swiss Jura): Stratigraphical and palaeogeographical implications in the transition area between the Paris Basin and the Tethys  

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Geological sections of the shallow-water, carbonate-dominated sedimentary system of the Late Jurassic Reuchenette Formation in northwestern Switzerland have been studied between the southern Jura Mountains and the Tabular Jura. The largest sections show a characteristic cyclic stacking pattern. Up to now, the age of these sediments (including the type-section) linking the Boreal and Tethyan realms, was biostratigraphically poorly constrained. In the Tabular Jura five 3rd order sequences can be assigned to the Planula- to Eudoxus-Zone (Late Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian) using index-fossils (ammonites and ostracodes; [Jank M., 2004, New insights into the development of the Late Jurassic Reuchenette Formation of NW Switzerland (Late Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian, Jura Mountains). Dissertationen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Basel, 32, 121 pp.]). This time control and several new outcrops, in combination with mineralostratigraphical and lithological marker beds, allow the correlation and dating of the thickest sections of the Reuchenette Formation and thus serve to improve the previously estimated ages of their sequence boundaries. The variability of stacking pattern and facies between sections also reveals distinctive changes in facies evolution, related to Late Palaeozoic basement structures and synsedimentary subsidence. These structures acted as important controlling factors for the sediment distribution of the Reuchenette Formation besides the sea level fluctuations. The interplay of sea level changes and synsedimentary subsidence is outlined by lateral thickness variations and shifting depositional environments. A close examination of these changes also sheds much light on the nature of platform topography in the transition area between the Paris Basin in the north and the Tethys in the south, or more generally between the Boreal and Tethyan realms. During the Planula- to Divisum-time-intervals the study area was a flat platform with a more or less uniform facies distribution, which connected the above-mentioned realms. During the Divisum-to Acanthicum-time-intervals this platform changed into a pronounced basin-and-swell morpoholgy, with specific depositional environments and "separated" the Paris Basin from the Tethys.

Jank, Markus; Meyer, Christian A.; Wetzel, Andreas

2006-05-01

265

Sedimentary petrology and geochemistry of siliciclastic rocks from the upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation (Neuquén Basin, western Argentina): Implications for provenance and tectonic setting  

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The Upper Jurassic Tordillo Formation is exposed along the western edge of the Neuquén Basin (west central Argentina) and consists of fluvial strata deposited under arid/semiarid conditions. The pebble composition of conglomerates, mineralogical composition of sandstones and pelitic rocks, and major- and trace-element geochemistry of sandstones, mudstones, and primary pyroclastic deposits are evaluated to determine the provenance and tectonic setting of the sedimentary basin. Conglomerates and sandstones derived almost exclusively from volcanic sources. The stratigraphic sections to the south show a clast population of conglomerates dominated by silicic volcanic fragments and a predominance of feldspathic litharenites. This framework composition records erosion of Triassic-Jurassic synrift volcaniclastic rocks and basement rocks from the Huincul arch, which was exhumed as a result of Late Jurassic inversion. In the northwestern part of the study area, conglomerates show a large proportion of mafic and acidic volcanic rock fragments, and sandstones are characterised by a high content of mafic volcanic rock fragments and plagioclase. These data suggest that the source of the sandstones and conglomerates was primarily the Andean magmatic arc, located west of the Neuquén Basin. The clay mineral assemblage is interpreted as the result of a complex set of factors, including source rock, climate, transport, and diagenesis. Postdepositional processes produced significant variations in the original compositions, especially the fine-grained deposits. The Tordillo sediments are characterised by moderate SiO 2 contents, variable abundances of K 2O and Na 2O, and a relatively high proportion of ferromagnesian elements. The degree of chemical weathering in the source area, expressed as the chemical index of alteration, is low to moderate. The major element geochemistry and Th/Sc, K/Rb, Co/Th, La/Sc, and Cr/Th values point to a significant input of detrital volcanic material of calcalkaline felsic and intermediate composition. However, major element geochemistry is not useful for interpreting the tectonic setting. Discrimination plots based on immobile trace elements, such as Ti, Zr, La, Sc, and Th, show that most data lie in the active continental margin field. Geochemical information is not sufficiently sensitive to differentiate the two different source areas recognized by petrographic and modal analyses of conglomerates and sandstones.

Spalletti, Luis A.; Queralt, Ignasi; Matheos, Sergio D.; Colombo, Ferrán; Maggi, Jorge

2008-06-01

266

Middle to late Cenozoic basin evolution in the western Alborz Mountains: Implications for the onset of collisional deformation in northern Iran  

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Oligocene-Miocene strata preserved in synclinal outcrop belts of the western Alborz Mountains record the onset of Arabia-Eurasia collision-related deformation in northern Iran. Two stratigraphic intervals, informally named the Gand Ab and Narijan units, represent a former basin system that existed in the Alborz. The Gand Ab unit is composed of marine lagoonal mudstones, fluvial and alluvial-fan clastic rocks, fossiliferous Rupelian to Burdigalian marine carbonates, and basalt flows yielding 40Ar/39Ar ages of 32.7 ± 0.3 and 32.9 ± 0.2 Ma. The Gand Ab unit is correlated with the Oligocene-lower Miocene Qom Formation of central Iran and is considered a product of thermal subsidence following Eocene extension. The Narijan unit unconformably overlies the Gand Ab unit and is composed of fluvial-lacustrine and alluvial fan sediments exhibiting contractional growth strata. We correlate the Narijan unit with the middle to upper Miocene Upper Red Formation of central Iran on the basis of lithofacies similarities, stratigraphic position, and an 8.74 ± 0.15 Ma microdiorite dike (40Ar/39Ar) that intruded the basal strata. Deformation timing is constrained by crosscutting relationships and independent thermochronological data. The Parachan thrust system along the eastern edge of the ancestral Taleghan-Alamut basin is cut by dikes dated at 8.74 ± 0.15 Ma to 6.68 ± 0.07 Ma (40Ar/39Ar). Subhorizontal gravels that unconformably overlie tightly folded and faulted Narijan strata are capped by 2.86 ± 0.83 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) andesitic lava flows. These relationships suggest that Alborz deformation had migrated southward into the Taleghan-Alamut basin by late Miocene time and shifted to its present location along the active range front by late Pliocene time. Data presented here demonstrate that shortening in the western Alborz Mountains had started by late middle Miocene time. This estimate is consistent with recent thermochronological results that place the onset of rapid exhumation in the western Alborz at ˜12 Ma. Moreover, nearly synchronous Miocene contraction in the Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Turkish-Iranian plateau, and Anatolia suggests that the Arabia-Eurasia collision affected a large region simultaneously, without a systematic outward progression of mountain building away from the collision zone.

Guest, Bernard; Horton, Brian K.; Axen, Gary J.; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; McIntosh, William C.

2007-12-01

267

Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic study on volcanic units of the Valsequillo Basin: implications for early human occupation in central Mexico  

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Alleged human and animal footprints were found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al, 2005). The ash has been dated at 40 ka by optically stimulated luminescence analysis, thereby providing new evidence that America was colonized earlier than the Clovis culture (about 13.5 Ma). We carried out paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analysis on 18 Xalnene ash block and core samples collected at two distinct localities and 19 standard paleomagnetic cores belonging to nearby monogenetic volcanoes. Our data provide evidence that both the volcanic lava flow and Xalnene ash were emplaced during the Laschamp geomagnetic event spanning from about 45 to 39 ka.

Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Pozzo, Ana Lillian Martin-Del; Rocha-Fernandez, Jose Luis; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Soler-Arechalde, Ana Maria

2009-01-01

268

The upper limit of maturity of natural gas generation and its implication for the Yacheng formation in the Qiongdongnan Basin, China  

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Vitrinite reflectance (VR, Ro%) measurements from residual kerogen of pyrolysis experiments were performed on immature Maoming Oil Shale substituted the samples for the gas-prone source rocks of Yacheng formation of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the South China Sea. The work was focused on determination an upper limit of maturity for gas generation (ULMGG) or "the deadline of natural gas generation". Ro values at given temperatures increase with increasing temperature and prolonged heating time, but ?Ro-value, given a definition of the difference of all values for VR related to higher temperature and adjacent lower temperature in open-system non-isothermal experiment at the heating rate of 20 °C/min, is better than VR. And representative examples are presented in this paper. It indicates that the range of natural gas generation for Ro in the main gas generation period is from 0.96% to 2.74%, in which ?Ro is in concordance with the stage for the onset and end of the main gas generation period corresponding to 0.02% up to 0.30% and from 0.30% up to 0.80%, respectively. After the main gas generation period of 0.96-2.74%, the evolution of VR approach to the ULMGG of the whole rock for type II kerogen. It is equal to 4.38% of VR, where the gas generation rates change little with the increase of maturation, ?Ro is the maximum of 0.83% corresponding to VR of 4.38%Ro, and the source rock does not nearly occur in the end process of hydrocarbon gas generation while Ro is over 4.38%. It shows that it is the same the ULMGG from the whole rock for type II kerogen as the method with both comparison and kinetics. By comparing to both the conclusions of pyrolysis experiments and the data of VR from the source rock of Yacheng formation on a series of selected eight wells in the shallow-water continental shelf area, it indicate that the most hydrocarbon source rock is still far from reaching ULMGG from the whole rock for type II kerogen. The source rock of Yacheng formation in the local areas of the deepwater continental slope basin have still preferable natural gas generative potential, especially in the local along the central depression belt (namely the Ledong, Lingshui, Songnan and Baodao sags from southwest to northeast) from the depocenter to both the margin and its adjacent areas. It help to evaluate the resource potential for oil and gas of the hydrocarbon source rock in the deepwater continental slope of the Qiongdongnan Basin or other basins with lower exploration in the northern of the South China Sea and to reduce the risk in exploration.

Su, Long; Zheng, Jianjing; Chen, Guojun; Zhang, Gongcheng; Guo, Jianming; Xu, Yongchang

2012-08-01

269

The variability of vertical structure of precipitation in Huaihe River Basin of China: Implications from long-term spaceborne observations with TRMM precipitation radar  

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The current study investigates the variability of vertical structure of precipitation in the Huaihe River Basin (HRB) of China. The precipitation characteristics have been revealed by the long-term observations of vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) from the first spaceborne precipitation radar (PR) onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. This study has statistically analyzed the latest TRMM 2A-23 and 2A-25 products (version 7, released in 2012) with ˜15 years time span (from 11 December 1997 to 19 August 2012). First, the spatial and seasonal variations of storm height and freezing level have been investigated. The results show a climatological relation connecting the storm height with the rainfall rate in HRB. Second, mean VPRs have been studied for the stratiform and convective precipitation. The VPR variability has been analyzed for different seasons and rain intensities. Third, the characteristics of rain intensification and weakening in the vertical direction have been examined by the statistical analysis of VPR slope below the melting layer. The results show that the rainfall tends to be reduced (or intensified) with the height changing downward in the light (or moderate and heavy) precipitating clouds, no matter stratiform or convection. Finally, the S-band climatological VPRs have been characterized by converting the VPR from Ku-band to S-band. Considering the wide application of national radar network for weather surveillance in China, the developed S-band climatological VPRs can be potentially applied in a VPR correction scheme to improve the ground radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) in this river basin.

Cao, Qing; Qi, Youcun

2014-05-01

270

Tectonic setting of the Late Triassic volcaniclastic series of the Luang Prabang Basin, Laos, and geodynamic implications from the Triassic to Jurassic in SE Asia  

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The Luang Prabang Basin, located on the eastern margin of the Indochina block, is mainly composed of volcaniclastic continental deposits. The interpretation of U-Pb zircon geochronological dates shows that volcanism is contemporaneous with the sedimentation during the Late Triassic (c.a. 225 to 215 Ma; Blanchard et al., 2013, J. Asian Earth Sci., 70-71; 8-26). At the same time, volcanism is also known along the Eastern margin of the Indochina block (present day Thailand). There are currently two main contrasting interpretations concerning the tectonic setting related to these volcanic events: are they arc-related (e.g. Barr et al., 2006, J. Geol. Soc. London, 163; 1037-1046) or post collisional (e.g. Srichan et al., 2009, Island Arc, 18; 32-51)? We have performed geochemical analysis on both sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Luang Prabang Basin in order to evaluate the relationships between the volcanic events and to propose a geodynamic interpretation. The geochemical characteristics of the Luang Prabang Late Triassic volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks are compatible with a volcanic arc setting. The confrontation of these results with the stratigraphic evolution of the eastern margin of the Indochina block leads to reconsider the Late Triassic to Jurassic geodynamic evolution of this area. Arc-related volcanism seems to occur during nearly the whole Triassic, implying a subduction of the Paleotethys beneath the Indochina block. As the stratigraphic record of north-eastern Thailand and western Myanmar shows an important stratigraphic gap spanning from the Early to the Middle Jurassic, the collision between the Indochina and the Sibumasu blocks likely occurred at that period.

Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Nalpas, Thierry

2014-05-01

271

Natural CO2 migrations in the South-Eastern Basin of France: implications for the CO2 storage in sedimentary formations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of natural CO2 analogues brings key informations on the factors governing the long term stability/instability of future anthropogenic CO2 storages. The main objective of this work, through the study of cores from V.Mo.2 well crosscutting the Montmiral natural reservoir (Valence Basin, France), is to trace the deep CO2 migrations in fractures. Petrographic, geochemical and micro-thermometric studies of the V.Mo.2 cores were thus performed in order: 1) to describe the reservoir filling conditions and 2) to detect possible CO2-leakage through the sediments overlying the reservoir. Fluid inclusions from the Paleozoic crystalline basement record the progressive unmixing of a hot homogeneous aquo-carbonic fluid. The Montmiral reservoir was therefore probably fed by a CO2-enriched gas component at the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The study of the sedimentary column in V.Mo.2 well, demonstrates that the CO2 did not migrate towards the surface through the thick marly unit (Domerian-Middle Oxfordian). These marls have acted as an impermeable barrier that prevented the upward migration of fluids. Two main stages of fluid circulation have been recognized: 1) an ante- Callovian one related to the Tethysian extension 2) a tertiary stage during which the upper units underwent a karstification, with CO2 leakage related but which remained confined into the deeper parts of the Valence Basin. Since the Paleogene, the Montmiral reservoir has apparently remained stable, despite the Pyrenean and alpine orogeneses. This is mainly due to the efficient seal formed by the thick marly levels and also to the local structuration in faulted blocks which apparently acted as efficient lateral barriers. (author)

272

Nd, Sr-isotopic provenance and trace element geochemistry of Amazonian foreland basin fluvial sands, Bolivia and Peru: Implications for ensialic Andean orogeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nd and Sr isotopes and the trace element contents, including the rare earths, were determined for fluvial sands of lithic arenite composition from the Madre de Dios foreland basin of Bolivia and Peru. On standard petrologic ternary diagrams, the sands fall in the recycled orogen provenance field and thus are similar to typical ancient foreland basin composition. The average rare earth elemental pattern of the sands is identical to the upper continental crustal average, as estimated from post-Archean composite shales of different continents. Ratio of Th/U, Co/Th, La/Sc and Th/Sc of the fluvial sands are intermediate between an average magmatic arc and an upper crustal average compositions. The dispersion of some trace elemental patterns in the sands can be attributed to fractionation of dense minerals, including zircon, during the sedimentation process. The variations of Nd isotopes in conjunction with the petrographic parameters of lithic metamorphic (Lm) and volcanic (Lv) fragments allow a two-fold classification of the sands. These two sand types can be interpreted in terms of mixing among three different provenances: one volcanic rock-suit with less negative ?Nd(O) parameter than the other volcanic suite, and a third metasedimentary source with ?Nd(O) value of around -12, which is considered to be similar to the average western Brazilian shield composition. Thus the overall compositions of the sands has been modeled as mechanical mixtures ofs been modeled as mechanical mixtures of two components, an Andean magmatic arc and the Brazilian shield-derived metasediments. The model is strongly supported by a plot of ?Nd(O) versus ?Sr(O) of the sands. In this plot, the Type 1 and 2 sands define two coherent hyperbolic trends contiguous with two different portions of the Andean magmatic trend. (orig./WB)

273

Paleoclimatic implications of magnetic susceptibility in Late Pliocene-Quaternary sediments from deep drilling core SG-1 in the western Qaidam Basin (NE Tibetan Plateau)  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake sediments are important archives of paleoclimate change and erosion history. A 938.5 m long core (SG-1) of lacustrine sediments, dated at 2.77 Ma to 0.1 Ma, was obtained from the western Qaidam Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, consisting of dark grayish mudstone and grayish siltstone, intercalated with salts and fine sandstones in the upper part. Magnetic susceptibility data, combined with detailed rock magnetic properties, were analyzed for revealing the significance of ferro(i)magnetic concentration for past changes of climate and erosion. Mass-specific susceptibility (?) shows a striking cyclic and long-term variation. Samples with high ? values are dominated by magnetite and maghemite with pseudo-single-domain properties. In contrast, samples with low ? values contain maghemite from single-domain to multidomain and, additionally, a significant fraction of hematite. The driving mechanism of ? variation can be explained by three alternative models: (1) different source regions with alternations of wind and cryoclastic erosion in a wider hinterland (dry-cold climate) and surface runoff erosion from a narrower area (more humid climate) and (2 and 3) low-temperature oxidation, occurring either in the lake sediments (dry climate) or in the catchment area during weathering (more humid climate). Trends of ? match with changes in sedimention rates and are roughly synchronous with the deep-sea ?18O record on a glacial-interglacial timescale. Therefore, the concentration of magnetic minerals in the western Qaidam Basin sediments is likely controlled by both tectonic influence and paleoenvironmental changes but can be best interpreted by alternations and trends of dry-cold and more humid periods due to Asian drying and global cooling.

Zhang, Weilin; Appel, Erwin; Fang, Xiaomin; Yan, Maodu; Song, Chunhui; Cao, Liwan

2012-06-01

274

The regional structural setting of the 2008 Wells earthquake and Town Creek Flat Basin: implications for the Wells earthquake fault and adjacent structures  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2008 Wells earthquake occurred on a northeast-striking, southeast-dipping fault that is clearly delineated by the aftershock swarm to a depth of 10-12 km below sea level. However, Cenozoic rocks and structures around Wells primarily record east-west extension along north- to north-northeast-striking, west-dipping normal faults that formed during the middle Miocene. These faults are responsible for the strong eastward tilt of most basins and ranges in the area, including the Town Creek Flat basin (the location of the earthquake) and the adjacent Snake Mountains and western Windermere Hills. These older west-dipping faults are locally overprinted by a younger generation of east-dipping, high-angle normal faults that formed as early as the late Miocene and have remained active into the Quaternary. The most prominent of these east-dipping faults is the set of en-échelon, north-striking faults that bounds the east sides of the Ruby Mountains, East Humboldt Range, and Clover Hill (about 5 km southwest of Wells). The northeastern-most of these faults, the Clover Hill fault, projects northward along strike toward the Snake Mountains and the approximately located surface projection of the Wells earthquake fault as defined by aftershock locations. The Clover Hill fault also projects toward a previously unrecognized, east-facing Quaternary fault scarp and line of springs that appear to mark a significant east-dipping normal fault along the western edge of Town Creek Flat. Both western and eastern projections may be northern continuations of the Clover Hill fault. The Wells earthquake occurred along this east-dipping fault system. Two possible alternatives to rupture of a northern continuation of the Clover Hill fault are that the earthquake fault (1) is antithetic to an active west-dipping fault or (2) reactivated a Mesozoic thrust fault that dips east as a result of tilting by the west-dipping faults along the west side of the Snake Mountains. Both alternatives are precluded by the depths of the earthquake and aftershocks, about 8 km and as deep as 12 km, respectively. These depths are below where an antithetic fault would intersect any main fault, and a tilted, formerly shallow and sub-horizontal thrust fault would not extend to depths of more than about 5–6 km. The east-dipping, high-angle, earthquake fault cuts older west-dipping faults rather than reactivating them, highlighting a change in the structural style of Basin and Range extension in this region from closely-spaced, west-dipping faults that rotated significantly during slip and accommodated large-magnitude extension, to widely-spaced, high-angle faults that accommodate much less total strain over a long time span.

Henry, Christopher S.; Colgan, Joseph P.

2011-01-01

275

Petrography and major element geochemistry of the Permo-Triassic sandstones, central India: Implications for provenance in an intracratonic pull-apart basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Detrital mode, composition of feldspars and heavy minerals, and major element chemistry of sandstones from the Permo-Triassic succession in the intracratonic Satpura Gondwana basin, central India have been used to investigate provenance. The Talchir Formation, the lowermost unit of the succession, comprises glacio-marine and glacio-fluvial deposits. The rest of the succession (base to top) comprising the Barakar, Motur, Bijori, Pachmarhi and Denwa formations, largely represent variety of fluvial depositional systems with minor fluvio-deltaic and fluvio-lacustrine sedimentation under a variety of climatic conditions including cold, warm, arid, sub-humid and semi-arid. QFL compositions of the sandstones indicate a predominantly continental block provenance and stable cratonic to fault-bounded basement uplift tectonic setting. Compositional maturity of sandstones gradually increases upwards from the Early Permian Talchir to the Middle Triassic Denwa but is punctuated by a sharp peak of increased maturity in the Barakar sandstones. This temporal change in maturity was primarily controlled by temporal variation in fault-induced basement uplift in the craton and was also influenced by climatic factors. Plots of different quartz types suggest plutonic source rocks for the Talchir sandstones and medium-to high-rank metamorphic plus plutonic source rocks for the younger sandstones. Composition of alkali feldspars in the Permo-Triassic sandstones and in different Precambrian rocks suggests sediment derivation from felsic igneous and metasedimentary rocks. Compositions of plagioclase in the Talchir and Bijori sandstones are comparable with those of granite, acid volcanic and metasedimentary rocks of the Precambrian basement suggesting the latter as possible source. Rare presence of high-K plagioclase in the Talchir sandstones, however, indicates minor contribution from volcanic source rock. Exclusively plagioclase-bearing metasedimentary rock, tonalite gneiss and mafic rocks are the probable sources of plagioclase in the Upper Denwa sandstones. Quartz-rich nature of the sandstones, predominance of K-feldspar over plagioclase and albite rich character of plagioclase in the sandstones is consistent with deposition in an intracratonic, pull-apart basin like the Satpura Gondwana basin. Composition of garnet and its comparison with that from the Precambrian basement rocks suggests mica-schist and amphibolite as possible sources. Predominance of dravite variety of tourmaline in the Permian sandstones suggests sediment supply from metasedimentary rocks. Presence of both dravite and schorl variety of tourmaline in subequal amount in the Triassic sandstones indicates sediment derivation from granitic and metasedimentary rocks. However, schorl-bearing rocks are absent in the basement complex of the study area. A-CN-K plot suggests granites, acid volcanic rock and meta-sediments of the basement as possible sources of the Talchir sandstones and metasedimentary rocks for the Barakar to Pachmarhi sandstones. The Denwa sandstones were possibly derived from K-feldspar-free, plagioclase-bearing metasediments, mafic rocks and tonalite gneiss. Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values suggest low intensity source rock weathering for the Talchir sandstones and higher intensity source rock weathering for the others. Various bivariate plots of major oxides composition of the sandstones suggest passive to active continental margin setting and even arc tectonic setting for a few samples.

Ghosh, Sampa; Sarkar, Soumen; Ghosh, Parthasarathi

2012-01-01

276

Application of integrated vitrinite reflectance and FAMM analyses for thermal maturity assessment of the northeastern Malay Basin, offshore Vietnam: Implications for petroleum prospectivity evaluation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several exploration wells have intersected a Cenozoic coal-bearing, fluvial-deltaic mudstone and sandstone succession in the northeastern Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin, and have successfully tested seismically identified direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs). The oil and gas/condensate discovery ell 46-CN-1x encountered a _55m thick section of lacustrine mudstones having considerable potential as an oil source. Vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements from these alginite-bearing rocks introduce several problems in thermal maturity evaluation, including associated VR suppression and delineation of cavings and bitumens. Reliable thermal maturity gradients, however, may be established using a combination of conventional VR measurements and ‘equivalent VR' (EqVR) values derived from the fluorescence alteration of multiple macerals (FAMM) technique. These measurements, performed on dispersed organic matter (DOM) in cuttings from 46-CN-1x, allow separation of low-reflecting bitumens and vitrinite in cavings fromindigenous vitrinite and the FAMM results indicate VR suppression of 0.14% in an alginite-bearing mudstone with a high Hydrogen Index value. On the basis of available ‘raw' VR data, a highly irregular maturity trend is determined, with the deepest sample (2675-2680m) having a VR of _0.4%Ro. The EqVR value, however, for the deepest sample is 0.70%. The maturity trend determined from the FAMM data (and VR data, omitting samples having suppressed VR) indicates that the top of the oil window (VR of 0.75%Ro) is located at about 2800m depth. Modelling the geothermal gradient using the EASY%Ro algorithm yields _40 1C/km for both of the two maturity profiles; his is in the low end of the range for the Malay Basin. Modelled temperature histories indicate onset of hydrocarbon generation for the uppermost Oligocene source rocks between 2Ma and present-day, which post-dates trap formation. Seismic facies patterns suggest that lacustrine oil-prone units are in he oil window in the same graben complex a few km NW of the investigated well, and these rocks are likely to be the source of the hydrocarbons found in the well. A more widespread occurrenceof hydrocarbons sourced from this kitchen is indicated by other discoveries and mapping of DHIs in the area.

Petersen, H. I.; Sherwood, N.

2008-01-01

277

New magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy of the Mae Moh Basin in northern Thailand, and Implications for the Age of the First Miocene Hominoids  

Science.gov (United States)

This magnetostratigraphic study has been conducted on the Miocene Mae Moh basin, in the Lampang province, Northern Thailand. 194 paleomagnetic samples were collected from 65 stratigraphics levels from Na Khaem and Huai Luang formations. The studied sections are mainly composed of clay, sandstone and lignite. Rock magnetic experiments revealed that titanomagnetite, magnetite and hematite are the mains carriers of magnetisation. Samples subjected to progressive thermal or alternating field demagnetization procedures exhibit a low stability and a high stability component, with either normal and reversed polarities. The reversal test is positive and indicates that the characteristic remnant magnetization directions correspond to the primary magnetization directions (McFadden and Mc Elhinny, 1990). The mean direction calculated for section 1 are: incl : 23.24 and decl. : 5.01 and incl. : 31.22 et decl. : 7.01 for section 2. These results don't document any rotation with respect to previous study (Benammi et al., 2002). In total, nine polarity zones (four normal and five reverse), that can be reliably be correlated the geomagnetic polarity time scale developed by Gradstein et al, 2004, are recognized from the studied sections. Based on the biochronological constraints, the magnetostartigraphic column of the Mae Moh formations correlates best with chron C5ACr-C5r.3r, between 14.1and 12 Ma. This correlaton revealed a mean sedimentation rate of approximately 21 cm/ky, and a age of 12.7 et 13.2 for for the fossilferous levels (J5, K1, K2) where the mammals remains were found. The analysis of the elements traces spectrum of two ash levels coming from the basins of Mae Moh and Chiang Muan made it possible to establish a new correlation of the Chiang Muan sequence with the GPTS. This correlation prove that the age of the Chiang Muan sequence would be between 13.1 and 12 Ma, and the fossiliferous levels with hominoid (Khoratpithecus Chiangmuanensis) would be dated between 12.2 and 12.4 Ma for the upper lignite and between 13 and 12.8 My for the lower lignite.

Benammi, M.; Coster, P.; Jaeger, J.; Chaimanee, Y.

2007-05-01

278

Implications of clumped-isotope thermometry for the deposition and alteration of evaporite-carbonate sabkha cycles in the Jurassic Weald Basin, U.K  

Science.gov (United States)

Marginal marine Jurassic evaporite-carbonate cycles in the Weald Basin, United Kingdom, are examined using clumped isotope thermometry to reconstruct the temperature of a sabkha system and determine their paleoenvironment and diagenetic histories. The objective is to provide insight into the depositional parameter and burial history of the sabkha deposits, and thus to constrain whether they have undergone secondary alteration. Previous studies of evaporite temperature distribution trends have utilized fluid inclusion micro-thermometry to derive the temperatures of precipitation for evaporites. However, we aim to couple ?18O and clumped isotope analyses to investigate meter-scale spatial variations in the temperature at which calcitic marls inter-bedded with evaporite sequences were precipitated. Furthermore, this approach will allow for the isotopic composition of the diagenetic fluid to be reconstructed. Discrete laterally-extensive marly horizons occur in anhydrite of the Lower Purbeck and our focus is placed on marly algal limestone outcropping ~300 m below surface in Brightling Mine. Preliminary data from one sample yields a datum with ?48 and ?48 values of 242.6‰ and 256.2‰, respectively, and a ?48 offset from the heated gas line larger than 2‰. The ?47 and ?47 values are 0.038×0.01‰ and 7.25×0.02‰, respectively. These results point out possible contamination (e.g., by sulfur) because a sample should not yield a signal at mass ?48 due to the low abundance of isotopologues of this mass. XRD analysis shows a high intensity calcite peak at 29.4 °2? (CuK? radiation), gypsum at 11.6 °2?, and a peak of anhydrite at 22.7 °2?. Subsequent to cleaning the sample twice utilizing a mixture of dilute 3% H2O2-Calgon-Nh3 solution, a second XRD analysis was conducted and only showed a high intensity calcite peak at 29.4 °2?. This indicates that the cleaning procedure dissolved evaporitic material and it will be repeated for future clumped isotope analyses. The reconstructed clumped isotope temperatures are independent from the ?18O composition of the fluid, and thus, the associated carbonates within evaporites can provide a more profound understanding of the temperature histories of carbonate depositional facies. Future work will also include reconstructing the temperature of precipitation and fluid composition involved in the precipitation of potential carbonate phases within another sabkha system, in the Upper Permian Zechstein Group in the Southern Permian Basin, which will allow for a comparison of precipitation temperatures within sulfate deposits.

Abbott, S.; John, C. M.; Fraser, A.

2013-12-01

279

Predominance of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes from lacustrine sediments in Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau: Implications for climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? This study reports the first observation of predominant even carbon-numbered n-alkanes of sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. ? Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for the special distribution of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. ? These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded palaeoclimate change. ? A close correspondence among the low ratio of n-C27/n-C31, the heavy ?13C values of TOC and a strong even carbon-number predominance (low OEP16-20 values) from approximately 6.5 to 4.4 Ma and at approximately 8 Ma in the studied section suggests that n-alkanes with a high predominance of even carbon-numbers may be treated as geochemical proxies for arid climate. - Abstract: This study reports the first observation of predominant even C-numbered n-alkanes from sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. The n-alkanes showed a bimodal distribution that is characterised by a centre at n-C16-n-C20 with maximum values at n-C18 and n-C27-n-Cub> and n-C27-n-C31 as well as at n-C29. The first mode shows a strong even C-number predominance (OEP16-20 0.34-0.66). In contrast, the second mode has a strong odd C-number predominance (OEP27-31 1.20-2.45). Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for this distribution of even C-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded palaeoclimate change.

280

Tectonic repetitions of the Early Cretaceous Agrio Formation in the Chos Malal fold-and-thrust belt, Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Geometry, kinematics and structural implications for Andean building  

Science.gov (United States)

The Neuquén Basin, developed in a retroarc setting in the central-west of Argentina, contains more than 6000 m of Mesozoic marine and continental sedimentary rocks. These rocks were deformed during the Andean orogeny leading to several thick and thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts. The Early Cretaceous Agrio Formation is composed by a thick marine succession predominantly of black shales in which highlights a thin fluvial-aeolian sandy interval named Avilé Member. The Avilé Member, one of the most important hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Neuquén Basin, constitutes an excellent structural marker. At the Chos Malal fold-and-thrust belt, the strong mechanical anisotropy given by the contrasting lithology of the Avilé Member within the Agrio Formation favored the location of detachments along the shales and ramps affecting the sandstones during the Andean compression. Detailed field mapping at the Chacay Melehue area allowed us to recognize tectonic repetitions of the Avilé Member, which form imbrications in the simplest case whereas in other places constitute a more complex combination of imbrications, including fault-bend folding that duplicates stratigraphic sequences and fault-propagation folding that deforms more intensely the duplicated units. Along three structural cross-sections we illustrate the geometry of these tectonic repetitions of the Agrio Formation, which in the northern area have an eastward-vergence and in the central and southern regions show a clear westward-vergence. A tear fault along the arroyo Chacay Melehue could explain this vergence change. Forward modeling of the structures at the central cross-section, where a backthrust system produced imbrication, duplication and folding of the Agrio Formation, allows us to propose a balanced kinematic reconstruction of this complex structure and to compare the features produced at different stages of the deformation sequence with field observations. Our kinematic interpretation shows that the tectonic repetitions of the Agrio Formation involve 3 km of shortening above a basal detachment within the lowermost black shales. Based on a regional balanced cross-section constructed from the basement-cored Cordillera del Viento anticlinorium toward the east, across the thin-skinned sector of the Chos Malal FTB, it is possible to connect the backthrust system with east-vergent fault-bend folds that involve the stratigraphic units below the Agrio Formation. Finally, we propose a regional structural model considering the Cordillera del Viento as a basement wedge related to a low angle Andean thrust that is inserted into the sedimentary cover producing structures of different order, which evidence a strong relationship between thick and thin-skinned structures during the Andean orogeny.

Turienzo, M.; Sánchez, N.; Dimieri, L.; Lebinson, F.; Araujo, V.

2014-08-01

281

Predominance of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes from lacustrine sediments in Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau: Implications for climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} This study reports the first observation of predominant even carbon-numbered n-alkanes of sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. {yields} Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for the special distribution of even carbon-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. {yields} These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded palaeoclimate change. {yields} A close correspondence among the low ratio of n-C{sub 27}/n-C{sub 31}, the heavy {delta}{sup 13}C values of TOC and a strong even carbon-number predominance (low OEP{sub 16-20} values) from approximately 6.5 to 4.4 Ma and at approximately 8 Ma in the studied section suggests that n-alkanes with a high predominance of even carbon-numbers may be treated as geochemical proxies for arid climate. - Abstract: This study reports the first observation of predominant even C-numbered n-alkanes from sediments in the continuous lacustrine-sedimentary section (Maogou) from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (13-4.4 Ma) in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. The n-alkanes showed a bimodal distribution that is characterised by a centre at n-C{sub 16}-n-C{sub 20} with maximum values at n-C{sub 18} and n-C{sub 27}-n-C{sub 31} as well as at n-C{sub 29}. The first mode shows a strong even C-number predominance (OEP{sub 16-20} 0.34-0.66). In contrast, the second mode has a strong odd C-number predominance (OEP{sub 27-31} 1.20-2.45). Certain types of special autochthonous bacteria are a possible source for this distribution of even C-numbered n-alkanes in lacustrine sediments. These bacteria may have a high production rate in weak oxic-anoxic and arid depositional environments, in which a variety of geochemical parameters have recorded palaeoclimate change.

Wang Yongli [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Institute of Tibetan and Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Fang Xiaomin, E-mail: fangxm@itpcas.ac.cn [Institute of Tibetan and Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Western Resources and Environment of Education Ministry, College at Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Tongwei [Key Laboratory of Western Resources and Environment of Education Ministry, College at Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li Yuanmao; Wu Yingqin; He Daxiang; Wang Youxiao [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2010-10-15

282

Clay mineral assemblages of terrestrial records (Xining Basin, China) during the Eocene-Oligocene climate Transition (EOT) and its environmental implications  

Science.gov (United States)

The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) between ~34.0 and 33.5 million years ago, where global climate cooled from 'greenhouse' to 'icehouse' at ~33.5 Ma ago, is one of the great events during Cenozoic climate deterioration. In contrast to the marine records of the EOT, significantly less research has focused on the continental climate change during this time, particularly in inner Asia. We present a comprehensive study of the upper Eocene to lower Oligocene succession with regular alternations of laterally continuous gypsum/gypsiferous layers and red mudstone beds in Tashan section of Xining Basin, which is located at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Clay minerals, which were extracted from this succession, were analyzed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by using X-ray differaction (XRD). Base on detailed magnetostratigraphic time control, clay mineral compositions of this succession (33.1-35.5 Ma) are compared with open ocean marine records and Northern Hemisphere continental records to understand the process and characteristics of Asian climate change before, during and after EOT. Our results indicate that illite is the dominant clay mineral with less chlorite and variable smectite. Multi-parameter evidence suggests that the source areas of detrital inputs in Tashan have not changed and climate is the main control for the composition of the clay fraction. The characteristics of clay mineral concentrations suggest warm and humid fluctuations with cold and dry conditions and intense of seasonality during ~35.5-34.0 Ma in inner Asian. This changed to cold and dry condition at ~34 Ma and remained so from ~34-33.1 Ma. The comparisons between continental and marine records indicate that the climate changes experienced in the Xining basin region are more consistent with Northern Hemisphere rather than open oceans records. This indicates that paleoclimate changes for inner Asian before, during and after EOT was not controlled by Antarctic ice growth, but may be due to atmospheric cooling linked to the existence and expansion of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

Zhang, C.; Guo, Z.

2013-12-01

283

New glacial evidences at the Talacasto paleofjord (Paganzo basin, W-Argentina) and its implications for the paleogeography of the Gondwana margin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Talacasto paleovalley is situated in the Central Precordillera of San Juan, Argentina, where upper Carboniferous-Permian rocks (Paganzo Group) rest on Devonian sandstones of the Punta Negra Formation. This outcrop is an excellent example of a glacial valley-fill sequence that records at least two high-frequency cycles of the advance and retreat of a glacier into the valley. The paleocurrent analysis shows transport predominantly to the south, indicating that at this site the ice flow differs from the other nearby paleovalleys. Evidence of the glacial origin of this valley can be seen in the glacial striae on the valley's sides, as well as the U-shape of the valley, indicated by very steep locally overhanging valley walls. Deglaciation is indicated by a set of retransported conglomerates deposited in a shallow-water environment followed by a transgressive succession, which suggests eustatic rise due to meltwater input to the paleofjord. The complete sedimentary succession records distinct stages in the evolution of the valley-fill, represented by seven stratigraphical units. These units are identified based on facies associations and their interpreted depositional setting. Units 1 to 5 show one cycle of deglaciation and unit 6 marks the beginning of a new cycle of glacier advance which is characterized by different types of glacial deposits. All units show evidence of glacial influence such as dropstones and striated clasts, which indicates that the glaciers were always present in the valley or in adjacent areas during sedimentation. The Talacasto paleofjord provides good evidence of the Late Paleozoic Gondwana glaciation in western Argentina and examples of sedimentary successions which have been interpreted as being deposited by a confined wet-based glacier in advance and retreat cycles, with eventual release of icebergs into the basin. The outcrop is also a key for reconstructing the local glacial paleogeography, and it suggests a new interpretation that is not in agreement with previous studies. Finally, the importance of the Talacasto paleovalley for the Paganzo basin lies in its orientation, because it allows the reconstruction of the ice paleoflow and indication, for the first time, that marine ingressions into this area were not taking place along the Jachal trough, as expected, but along a different connection to the sea, which for this work we will call the San Juan Paleotrough.

Aquino, Carolina Danielski; Milana, Juan Pablo; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

2014-12-01

284

Magnetic fabric data from regionally extensive Miocene ignimbrites in the western Great Basin; Implications for Neogene tectonism and ignimbrite emplacement mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic fabric data from regionally extensive ignimbrites in the western Great Basin, some of which are part of the southwest Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF), are overall consistent with those from many ignimbrites, in that a well-developed imbrication fabric allows for approximating source calderas and transport direction, as well as characterizing the petrofabric of the ignimbrite. The three ignimbrites studied are the Tuff of Stonewall Flat, tuffs of the Timber Mountain Group, and Tuff of Mount Dunfee (dated with high precision 40Ar/39Ar on sanidine crystals at 7.62 × 0.01 Ma, 11.55 × 0.012 Ma, and 16.31 × 0.009 Ma, respectively) and were sampled at 277 different sites between near Beatty and Goldfield, NV, yielding 6,237 individual specimens for anisotropy analyses. The cumulative anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data set from all sites reveals source calderas to the east and southeast. Although each ignimbrite has been subjected to varying degrees of vertical axis rotation, representative AMS data (Tuff of Stonewall Flat, site GP233) yields a K3 trend of 315.2° and plunge of 54.7° (confidence angles (CA) = 3.8/3.5) and a source direction (K1 trend) of 183.9° and plunge of 25.0° (CA = 15.8/3.5, based on n=27 specimens). The degree of anisotropy for these ignimbrites ranges from 1.01 to 1.05, with low-field bulk susceptibilities averaging 4.25E-03 SI Volume. Typical of ignimbrites, the magnetic foliation dominates the magnetic lineation, with a well developed oblate fabric in 96% of the sites; the remaining generally exhibit a triaxial fabric. Anisotropy of remanence (anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM) and isothermal remanent magnetization (AIRM)) analyses help elucidate controls on specific AMS data sets, as bulk AMS data integrate contributions from paramagnetic and ferro/ferri magnetic sources, including single domain magnetite. Petrographic examination and study of the bulk susceptibility vs. temperature show that the principal magnetic phase in these deposits is magnetite. These magnetic fabric studies bear on the tectonic history of the SWNVF as the area was deformed during the initiation and evolution of a major displacement transfer system in the western Great Basin.

Fitter, T.; Geissman, J. W.; Oldow, J. S.; Jackson, J.

2013-12-01

285

Vegetation and geomorphic significance of the riparian greenline in the Sprague River basin, southern Oregon: implications for biogeomorphic monitoring of riparian corridors in semi-arid mountain valleys  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many regions in the western U.S., valley-floor environments of the semi-arid Sprague River basin of southern Oregon are heavily irrigated and widely grazed by cattle. To better understand the impacts of grazing and other land uses on river quality, the Klamath Tribes have begun a long-term, basin-wide program aimed at: (1) establishing baseline geomorphic and vegetative conditions along the Sprague River and its tributaries, and (2) monitoring changes in these conditions over time. Because of its widespread use and ease of application, determining the composition of the lowest line of perennial vegetation above baseflow, or the “greenline,” has been included. The goal of this paper is to summarize results of 38 greenline surveys conducted at 19 sites in 2008-9 and to explore geomorphic hypotheses that may explain vegetation patterns evident in the surveys. Spikerush (Eleocharis ssp.) and reed-canary grass (Phalaris arudinacea) were the most commonly occurring vegetation in the greenline across all sites. Because these species are aggressive colonizers, they indicate high availability of fresh alluvium, which may be associated with sustained channel-bank disturbance. Sedges dominated some portions of the greenline at most of the sites, but occurred in less abundance. The late successional or early-to-late transitional state of these sedges, combined with their relatively low frequency, further supports the hypothesis that channel-bank systems remain chronically disturbed and dynamic. Grazing is common, but variable in intensity, at nearly all of the study sites, likely contributing to the persistence of channel-bank disturbance. Among meandering channels, the richness of dominant species (i.e., “community diversity”) was higher on the outer bends than on the inner bends of meanders at 10 of 12 sites. The variability of geomorphic surfaces (old floodplain, new floodplain, failed bank, accreted toe, etc.) incorporated in the greenline by the spatially discontinuous processes of channel-bank erosion and failure on the outer meander bends appears to increase the types of habitats surveyed and their combined biodiversity. In contrast, the spatial continuity of bar accretion on the inner meander bends appears to result in a more uniform geomorphic setting with fewer dominant species in the greenline. Despite widespread recognition that geomorphic processes influence riparian vegetation, factors such as the type and severity of bank erosion, the location of the survey with respect to meander geometry, and the type of geomorphic surface underlying greenline observations are not explicitly included in published guidance for biogeomorphic monitoring of the riparian greenline. Inclusion of such factors would improve communication, study design, and application of research by fluvial geomorphologists, riparian ecologists, and resource managers utilizing the greenline methodology.

Hughes, M. L.; Leeseberg, C.

2009-12-01

286

Biostratigraphy and sedimentology of the Fluviatile Untere Serie (Early and Middle Miocene) in the central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin: implications for palaeoenvironment and climate  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early to Middle Miocene Fluviatile Untere Serie lithostratigraphic unit of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (UFM) in the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) crops out in a 40 m long section at Untereichen-Altenstadt (central part of the NAFB). This section yields a unique superposition of two vertebrate assemblages belonging to different biostratigraphic units: early part OSM C + D (Karpatian) and OSM E (Early Badenian). Detailed taxonomic analyses reveal different diversity patterns in the two assemblages. Nine small mammal and six ectothermic vertebrate taxa occur in the older level UA 540 m, while 20 small mammal and 23 ectothermic vertebrate taxa are recorded for the younger level UA 565 m. From the latter locality comes a small-sized representative of the biostratigraphically significant Megacricetodon lappi lineage. This evolutionary level has not been documented previously for the eastern part of the NAFB. Bioclimatic analysis combined with lithofacies and architectural element analysis indicates that significant changes in the fluvial sedimentation style, surface-water runoff and tectonics occurred between the Early Karpatian and Early Badenian. A meandering fluvial system (marly unit) is erosively overlain by sandy braided river deposits (sandy unit). Overbank deposits of the marly unit revealed that the older vertebrate fossil assemblage (UA 540 m) is deposited in an animal burrow that was presumably produced by owls. Both reptilian and mammalian taxa are indicative of a relatively open environment and dry, probably semi-arid climate. Conversely, vertebrates from the sandy unit (UA 565 m), which are accumulated in channel fill deposits, suggest closed as well as open habitats with a subtropical humid climate and mean annual rainfall of about 1,000 mm. According to the sequence stratigraphic analysis the marly unit is interpreted as a highstand-system-tract of the TB 2.2 global 3rd order sequence. The new results add support to the hypothesis that the erosional unconformity between both sedimentary units spanning the Karpatian-Badenian transition corresponds to the pre-Riesian hiatus, which has been interpreted as part of the Styrian Tectonic Phase, and was previously identified only in the eastern and northeastern part of the NAFB. The biostratigraphic data further indicate that this hiatus lasted longer in the eastern than in the central part of the basin.

Prieto, J.; Böhme, M.; Maurer, H.; Heissig, K.; Abdul Aziz, H.

2009-10-01

287

Regional importance of post-6 M.Y. old vocanism in the southern Great Basin: Implications for risk assessment of volcanism at the proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes our activities during the period July 1, 1987 to June 30, 1988. Our goal was to develop an understanding of late-Miocene and Pliocene volcanism in the Great Basin by studying late-Tertiary volcanic rocks to the north and south of the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). We especially concentrated on detailed stratigraphic studies and geochemistry to determine the nature of chemical changes during the lifetime of a volcanic field, and on structural studies to determine the nature of the structures that control vent location. Also, K-Ar age dating provided important new information on the duration of activity at a single volcanic center. Geologic studies were concentrated in the Fortification basalt field in southern Nevada and in the Reveille Range in central Nevada. Our studies provide three important conclusions that have implications for volcanism about the proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain. There are no easily recognized geochemical characteristics that signify the termination of volcanism. The location of vent areas of basaltic volcanoes are not necessarily controlled by pre-existing structures. Volcanism at an individual basaltic center may last as long as 500,000 years. 32 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs

288

Summer watering patterns of mule deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: implications of differential use by individuals and the sexes for management of water resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and 4 springs) on one mountain range in western Utah, USA, during summer from 2007 to 2011 to document frequency and timing of water use, number of water sources used by males and females, and to estimate population size from individually identified mule deer. Male and female mule deer used different water sources but visited that resource at similar frequencies. Individual mule deer used few water sources and exhibited high fidelity to that resource. Wildlife water developments were frequently used by both sexes. Our results highlight the differing use of water sources by sexes and individual mule deer. This information will help guide managers when siting and reprovisioning wildlife water developments meant to benefit mule deer and will contribute to the conservation and management of this species. PMID:23125557

Shields, Andrew V; Larsen, Randy T; Whiting, Jericho C

2012-01-01

289

Isotopes in the Hueco Bolson aquifer, Texas (USA) and Chihuahua (Mexico): local and general implications for recharge sources in alluvial basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable isotope data for the Hueco Bolson aquifer (Texas, USA and Chihuahua, Mexico) distinguish four water types. Two types relate to recharge from the Rio Grande: pre-dam (pre-1916) river water with oxygen-18 and deuterium (?18O, ?D, ‰) from (-11.9, -90) to (-10.1, -82), contrasts with present-day river water (-8.5, -74) to (-5.3, -56). Pre-dam water is found beneath the Rio Grande floodplain and Ciudad Juárez, and is mixed with post-dam river water beneath the floodplain. Two other types relate to recharge of local precipitation; evidence of temporal change of precipitation isotopes is present in both types. Recharge from the Franklin and Organ Mountains plots between (-10.9, -76) and (-8.5, -60) on the global meteoric water line (GMWL), and is found along the western side of the Hueco Bolson, north of the Rio Grande. Recharge from the Diablo Plateau plots on an evaporation trend originating on the GMWL near (-8.5, -58). This water is found in the southeastern Hueco Bolson, north of the river; evaporation may be related to slow recharge through fine-grained sediment. Pre-dam water, recognizable by isotope composition, provides information on groundwater residence times in this and other dammed river basins.

Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Olivas, Alfredo Granados; Hogan, James F.; Hawley, John; Hutchison, William R.

2008-06-01

290

Magnetic mineral study of Holocene marine sediments from the Alfonso Basin, Gulf of California: implications for depositional environment and sediment sources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio de propiedades magnéticas en sedimentos marinos colectados en la Cuenca Alfonso en la Bahía de la Paz, los cuales se analizan en términos de las fuentes de aporte y el ambiente de depósito en el sur del Golfo de California durante el Holoceno. El control estra [...] tigráfico se basa en fechamientos de radiocarbono, que indican una edad para los sedimentos de fondo del núcleo de alrededor de 7597-7831 años cal. B.P. La señal magnética está dominada por minerales de grano fino de titanomagnetitas, los cuales provienen de las secuencias de tobas silícicas expuestas en la Bahía de la Paz. La mineralogía magnética es relativamente homogénea como lo indican las mediciones de propiedades de susceptibilidad magnética, magnetización remanente y coercitividad. Los ciclos de histéresis magnética indican la ocurrencia de componente paramagnéticas y los ciclos correspondientes después de la corrección paramagnética muestran ciclos que saturan en campos bajos y altos valores de magnetización de saturación. Las gráficas de discriminación de estado de dominio magnético empleando cocientes de los parámetros de histéresis muestran que las muestras se agrupan en el campo de dominio pseudos-sencillo, sugiriendo mezclas de dominios sencillo y múltiple. Los registros de susceptibilidad magnética revelan valores altos de factores de dependencia de frecuencia, en particular en el segmento del Holoceno Medio, lo que sugiere contribuciones de minerales superparamagnéticos de grano fino y posible transporte eólico. La presencia de laminaciones finas, características de la secuencia de Alfonso indica condiciones anóxicas en el fondo de la cuenca. El ambiente de depósito durante el Holoceno parece ser dominado por sedimentos detríticos pluviales y sedimentos de grano muy fino y transporte eólico, con menor contribución de sedimentos biogénicos. Abstract in english Results of a rock magnetic study of marine sediments from the Alfonso Basin, Bay of La Paz are used to investigate sediment sources and depositional environment in the southern Gulf of California during the Holocene. Radiocarbon dating provides stratigraphic control, with age for the core bottom sed [...] iments of 7597-7831 cal. yr B.P. Magnetic signal is dominated by fine-grained titanomagnetites, derived from the silicic volcanic units surrounding the Bay of La Paz. Magnetic mineralogy is relatively homogenous as seen in bulk magnetic properties of low-field susceptibility, remanent intensity and coercivity. Magnetic hysteresis loops show strong variable paramagnetic components; after paramagnetic correction loops show saturation at low fields and high saturation magnetization values. Plots of hysteresis parameter ratios for domain state show that samples group in the pseudo-single domain field, with mixtures of single and multi-domain particles. Magnetic susceptibility log shows relatively high frequency dependence factors, particularly for the Middle Holocene, suggesting contribution of fine-grained superparamagnetic minerals related to eolian deposition. The well-preserved laminated sequence indicates predominant anoxic conditions in the basin floor. Depositional environment had a dominant supply of pluvial detrital sediments and eolian fine-grained dust composed of siliciclastic volcanically-derived material with less abundant biogenic input.

L, Pérez-Cruz; J, Urrutia-Fucugauchi.

2009-09-01

291

Complementing data-driven and physically-based approaches for predictive morphologic modeling: Results and implication from the Red River Basin, Vietnam  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last 30 years, the delta of the Red River (Song Hong) in northern Vietnam experienced grave morphologic degradation processes which severely impact economic activities and endanger region-wide livelihoods. Rapidly progressing river bed incision, for example, threatens the irrigation of the delta's paddy rice crops which constitute 20% of Vietnam's annual rice production. Morphologic alteration is related to a drastically changed sediment balance due to major upstream impoundments, sediment mining and land use changes, further aggravated by changing hydro-meteorological conditions. Despite the severe impacts, river morphology was so far not included into the current efforts to optimize basin wide water resource planning for a lack of suitable, not overly resource demanding modeling strategies. This paper assesses the suitability of data-driven models to provide insights into complex hydromorphologic processes and to complement and enrich physically-based modeling strategies. Hence, to identify key drivers of morphological change while evaluating impacts of future socio-economic, management and climate scenarios on river morphology and the resulting effects on key social needs (e.g. water supply, energy production and flood mitigation). Most relevant drivers and time-scales for the considered processes (e.g. incision) - from days to decades - were identified from hydrologic and sedimentologic time-series using a feature ranking algorithm based on random trees. The feature ranking pointed out bimodal response characteristics, with important contributions of long-to-medium (5 - 15 yrs.) and rather short (10d - 6 months) timescales. An artificial neural network (ANN), built from identified variables, subsequently quantified in detail how these temporal components control long term trends, inter-seasonal fluctuations and day to day variations in morphologic processes. Whereas the general trajectory of incision relates, for example, to the overall regional sediment balance over an extended time-horizon (>15 yrs.), upstream impoundments induce a much more rapid adaptation (1-5 yrs.). The applicability of the ANN as predictive model was evaluated by comparing its results with a traditional, 1D bed evolution model. The next decade's morphologic evolution under an ensemble of scenarios, considering uncertainties in climatic change, socio-economic development and upstream reservoir release policies was derived from both models. The ANN greatly outperforms the 1D model in computational requirements and presents a powerful tool for effective assessment of scenario ensembles and quantification of uncertainties in river hydro-morphology. In contrast, the processes-based model provides detailed, spatio-temporally distributed outputs and validation of the ANN's results for selected scenarios. We conclude that the application of both approaches constitutes a mutually enriching strategy for modern, quantitative catchment management. We argue that physically based modeling can have specific spatial and temporal constrains (e.g. in terms of identifying key drivers and associated temporal and spatial domains) and that linking physically-based with data-driven approaches largely increases the potential for including hydro-morphology into basin-scale water resource management.

Schmitt, R. J.; Bernardi, D.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

2013-12-01

292

Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: implications for the management of environmental flows  

Science.gov (United States)

Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

2015-01-01

293

Organic geochemistry of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillo-carbonated sedimentary series of the East of the Paris basin and of England. Variabilities and paleo-environmental implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stones from the East of the Paris basin are studied by ANDRA in order to test the feasibility of a possible storage of radioactive waste. The molecular analysis of their organic matter indicates that they can be considered as homogenous from their organic content point of view because they are characterized by only one molecular facies. However, the transition to the surrounding limestones is underlined by a major evolution of the molecular facies indicating a change and an increase of the variability of the deposition and diagenesis conditions. The evolution of the distribution of the plant bio-markers indicates, at the end of the Lower Oxfordian, a paleo-floristic change characterized by the increase of the proportion of Pinaceae (a conifer family) or their forerunners on the London-Brabant massif. This paleo-floristic evolution reflects a paleo-climatic change characterized by the increase of aridity at the global scale. Other complementary results get on other sedimentary series of similar ages highlight the occurrence of a period of water anoxia during the Middle Callovian which certainly happened on the major part of the Western Europe. This event could be at the origin of the crisis of the carbonate production at the Dogger/Malm transition. On the other hand, an experimental technique based on artificial maturation of extant plants has been developed and will allow the acquisition of new palaeo-chemo-taxonomic data. These data will contribute to a better interpretation of plant bio-marker assemblages in terms of palaeo-floristic composition. (author)

294

Implication for horizontally-elongated fluid flow inferred from heat flow measurements in the Iheya-North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough back-arc basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located in the southwestern part of Japan. It is considered to be in the initial stage of rifting of continental crust, and the activity generates volcanic edifices in this area, accompanied by hydrothermal circulation. The Iheya-North is one of the most active hydrothermal fields among them. As a proposed drilling site for the Integrated ocean Drilling Program, extensive geophysical surveys have been carried out including single-channel seismic imaging, and precise side-scan sonar imaging by using autonomous underwater vehicle 'Urashima' of Japan Agency for Marine-Science and Technology. In the recent few years, we have measured heat flow in and around the Iheya-North hydrothermal field to understand the spatial of hydrothermal circulation in detail. 78 measurements show that heat flow is higher than 10 W/m2 with in 0.5 km of the hydrothermal vent complex, that it gradually decrease eastward to sonar images as well as piston core samples suggest an impermeable sediment layer to a few hundreds meters below the seafloor in this area. This sediment layer should work as a hydrological barrier to suppress flow through the seafloor, whereas seawater can penetrate into the formation at 1.5 km east of the hydrothermal field, where sidescan images suggest coars sediments on the seafloor. We infer that the hydrothermal circulation within the Iheya-North involves one with a horizontally-elongated scale (~1.5 km horizontal vs. ~a few hundreds meters vertical). We performed numerical calculations of fluid flow and heat transportation to give constraints on the depth of hydrothermal circulation, the magnitude of darcy velocity, and the permeability at depth. The simulated results will be compared with measured heat flow distribution and will be checked for the larger or smaller circulation scale proposed from heat flow or fluid geochemistry data.

Masaki, Yuka; Kinoshita, Masataka; Kawada, Yoshifumi

2010-05-01

295

Contact metamorphic effects of the basic intrusive rocks on the Proterozoic uraniferous dolostone in Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh: implications on uranium mobilisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mafic intrusive rocks in the Vempalle formation of the mid-Proterozoic Cuddapah basin occur as sills and dykes. These include minor bodies of gabbro, olivine gabbro, olivine norite, basalt and mainly dolerite with basaltic andesite. The metamorphic effects of these intrusive rocks on the uraniferous phosphatic siliceous dolostone are mainly mineralogical (thermal) with subordinate changes in chemistry. These are manifested by (a) formation of plagioclase-hornblende hornfels, (b) notable mineralogical changes in the dolostone leading to enrichment of magnetite, epidote, anatase and de-dolomitised calcite, (c) decrease in specific gravity of dolostone from 3.0 to 2.8 due to volatilisation reaction products of epidote and smectite, and (d) formation of wollastonite, chalcedony, and secondary uranium minerals (autunite and uranophane) at places, in the contact aureole that led to notable changes in the chemistry of the intrusive body and the host rock. Intrusive rocks at the contact show enrichment in Fe2+, Mg, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, and depletion in Ca and Fe3+, whereas the dolostone shows enrichment in Ti, Ca, and depletion in Si, Al, alkalies and P. Depletion of uranium in the affected parts (0.003% U3O8) of mineralised dolostone (0.062% U3O8) adjacent to the basic intrusive rocks suggests its mobilisation, due to increase in temperature, resulting in baking. This phenomenon is also manifested, at places, ihenomenon is also manifested, at places, in the formation of secondary uranium minerals - result of remobilisation of uranium from primary phases and its subsequent precipitation. (author)

296

Evaluation of triclosan and triclocarban at river basin scale using monitoring and modeling tools: implications for controlling of urban domestic sewage discharge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are two commonly used personal care products. They may enter into aquatic environments after consumption and pose potential risks to aquatic organisms. We investigated the occurrence and fate of TCS and TCC in five large rivers (the Liao River, Hai River, Yellow River, Zhujiang River and Dongjiang River) in China, and compared the monitoring data with the predicted results from Level III fugacity modeling. TCS and TCC were detected in the five large rivers with the detection frequencies of 100% or close to 100% in surface water and sediments of almost every river. TCS and TCC were found at concentrations of up to 478 ng/L and 338 ng/L in surface water, and up to 1329 ng/g and 2723 ng/g in sediments. Cluster analysis indicated that the sites with higher concentrations were usually located in or near urban area. Meanwhile, principal component analysis also suggested that the mass inventories of TCS and TCC in water and sediment were significantly influenced by the factors such as the total or untreated urban domestic sewage discharge at river basin scale. The concentrations and mass inventories from the fugacity modeling were found at the same order of magnitude with the measured values, suggesting that the fugacity modeling can provide a useful tool for evaluating the fate of TCS and TCC in riverine environments. Both monitoring and modeling results indicated that the majority of mass inventories of TCS and TCC were stored into sediment, which could be a potential pollution source for river water. The wide presence of TCS and TCC in these large rivers of China implies that better controlling of urban domestic sewage discharge is needed. PMID:23127624

Zhao, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Feng; Wang, Li; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Li-Jun; Liu, Shan; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhang, Rui-Quan

2013-01-01

297

Chemistry of sands from the modern Indus River and the Archean Witwatersrand basin: Implications for the composition of the Archean atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the Indus River and the Witwatersrand basin contain sand with grains of detrital uraninite. Because this mineral is easily oxidized, its presence in Archean strata as a detrital particle has been used as evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere before 2.5 Ga. However, its presence in modern sand from the Indus River system has been used to argue that detrital uraninite does not provide information about the oxygen concentration of Earth's early atmosphere. Petrographic and chemical study of sand from these two sources reveals differences that suggest the modern Indus sand cannot be used as an analog for the Archean Witwatersrand occurrences. The Witwatersrand quartzites are depleted in Ca, Mg, and Na, indicating that the original sand from which they formed had been subjected to intense weathering. The chemical index of alteration (CIA), a commonly used indicator of degree of weathering, yields an average value of about 0.80 for Witwatersrand quartzites, comparable to modern tropical streams such as the Orinoco that drain deeply weathered terrains under tropical conditions (CIA=0.75). In contrast, the CIA for Indus sand is 0.45, indicating virtually no chemical weathering. The significance of Archean quartz-pebble conglomerates is not just that they contain unstable detrital phases like uraninite and pyrite, but that these particles are associated with rocks whose compositions suggest intense weathering. These conglomerates must have been subjected to intense weatherust have been subjected to intense weathering under tropical conditions, either in their source area or at the site of deposition, and the preservation of minerals like uraninite such conditions is indeed strong evidence for a low-oxygen atmosphere

298

Present-day stress analysis of the St. Lawrence Lowlands sedimentary basin (Canada) and implications for caprock integrity during CO2 injection operations  

Science.gov (United States)

A geomechanical analysis of the St. Lawrence Lowlands sedimentary basin is important to reliably estimate the maximum sustainable fluid pressures for CO2 injection that will not reactivate pre-existing faults in the caprock thereby inducing a breeched CO2 reservoir. This requires the determination of prevailing stresses (orientations and magnitudes), fault and fractures geometries and rock strengths. The average maximum horizontal stress orientation (SHmax) is estimated N59°E ± 20° in the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The stress orientations were obtained from stress-induced wellbore breakouts inferred from four-arm dipmeter caliper data in 17 wells. These wellbore failure features are confined to Paleozoic lithological units of the St. Lawrence Platform succession and frontal thrusts of the Quebec Appalachians at depths from 250 m to 4 km. Our results are consistent with the regional NE-SW SHmax stress orientation trend that is generally observed in eastern Canada and the U.S. The stresses/pressure gradients estimated for the St. Lawrence Lowlands (depths fractures in the Paleozoic sedimentary succession and the Grenvillian basement are oblique to the SHmax stress orientations (10° to 36°) and could be reactivated (slip tendency 0.34 to 0.58) under the present-day stress field if fluid pressures exceeded the critical threshold. Further refinement of regional geomechanical model is required to estimate the maximum sustainable injection pressure necessary for shear reactivation along the regional faults. The regional pore pressure-stress coupling ratio under assumed parameters is about 0.5-0.65 and may contribute to reduce the risk of shear reactivation of faults and fractures. The maximum sustainable Pp that would not cause opening of vertical tensile fractures during CO2 operations is about 18.5-20 MPa for the depth of 1 km.

Konstantinovskaya, E.; Malo, M.; Castillo, D. A.

2012-01-01

299

Pervasive late Paleozoic-Triassic remagnetization of miogeoclinal carbonate rocks in the Basin and Range and vicinity, SW USA: regional results and possible tectonic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Relatively unmetamorphosed Paleozoic miogeoclinal carbonate rocks in the Basin and Range of E Nevada, SW Nevada and adjacent California, and W Utah yield low-inclination magnetizations that reflect pervasive, regional remagnetization around the close of the Paleozoic. The rocks range in age from mid-Cambrian through Pennsylvanian and lie generally in a broad belt between the mid-Paleozoic Roberts Mountain Thrust and the late Cretaceous Sevier thrusts. Most of the magnetizations reside in magnetite, but at one site the magnetization is evidently carried by pyrrhotite. Preliminary rock-magnetic data suggest samples with magnetite-borne remanences have wasp-waisted hysteresis curves typical of remagnetized carbonates. The origin of the remagnetization is problematic and probably polygenetic: both the Permo-Triassic Sonoma orogeny and deformation associated with the Ancestral Rockies seem too spatially limited, but magnetite from smectite destruction seems difficult to reconcile with the great stratigraphic extent of late Paleozoic remagnetization unless combined with thermal resetting of the lowermost units. A number of sites also appear to have undergone some vertical-axis rotation, and the sense and magnitude of these rotations are grossly consistent with independent geologic evidence. However, the probably large age range of the low-inclination components complicates their use for resolving tectonic rotations. Younger, intermediate-stability components of magnetization, probably of Cretaceous or Cenozoic age, are also found in many sites and also probably have multiple origins. At sites farther W, the late Paleozoic component is not found, which probably reflects its destruction by later Mesozoic or Cenozoic heating. At sites farther E, on and near the Colorado Plateau, gray carbonates yield only Cenozoic magnetizations. Some reddish, oxidized carbonates there locally contain a hematite-borne magnetization of late Paleozoic age. However, it is probably related to the development of thick continental redbed sequences in overlying strata on the plateau rather than to the remagnetization process(es) in the miogeocline.

Gillett, Stephen L.; Karlin, Robert E.

2004-02-01

300

Coal petrology of coal seams from the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Lower Permian of the Parana Basin, Brazil - Implications for coal facies interpretations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Leao-Butia Coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul the coal seams occur in the Rio Bonito Formation, Guata Group, Tubarao Supergroup of the Parana Basin, Brazil and are of Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian) age. This study is the first detailed investigation on the coal petrographic characterization of the coal-bearing sequence in relation to the depositional settings of the precursor mires, both in terms of whole seam characterization and in-seam variations. The study is based on the analyses of nine coal seams (I2, CI, L4, L3, L2, L1, S3, S2, S1), which were selected from core of borehole D-193, Leao-Butia and represent the entire coal-bearing sequence. The interpretation of coal facies and depositional environment is based on lithotype, maceral and microlithotype analyses using different facies-critical petrographic indices, which were displayed in coal facies diagrams. The seams are characterized by the predominance of dull lithotypes (dull, banded dull). The dullness of the coal is attributed to relatively high mineral matter, inertinite and liptinite contents. The petrographic composition is dominated by vitrinite (28-70 vol.% mmf) and inertinite (> 30 vol.% mmf) groups. Liptinite contents range from 7 to 30 vol.% (mmf) and mineral matter from 4-30 vol.%. Microlithotypes associations are dominated by vitrite, duroclarite, carbominerite and inertite. It is suggested that the observed vertical variations in petrographic characteristics (lithotypes, microlithotypes, macerals, vitrinite reflectance) were controlled by groundwater level fluctuations in the ancient mires due to different accommodation/peat accumulation rates. Correlation of the borehole strata with the general sequence-stratigraphical setting suggests that the alluvial fan system and the coal-bearing mudstone succession are linked to a late transgressive systems tract of sequence 2. Based on average compositional values obtained from coal facies diagrams, a deposition in a limno-telmatic to limnic coal facies is suggested. (author)

Silva, M.B. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Geologica, Departamento de Geociencias, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, FURG, Av. Italia km 08, Campus Carreiros, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2008-02-01

301

Lateral drilling and completion technologies for shallow-shelf carbonates of the Red River and Ratcliffe Formations, Williston Basin. Topical report, July 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Luff Exploration Company (LEC) focused on involvement in technologies being developed utilizing horizontal drilling concepts to enhance oil-well productivity starting in 1992. Initial efforts were directed toward high-pressure lateral jetting techniques to be applied in existing vertical wells. After involvement in several failed field attempts with jetting technologies, emphasis shifted to application of emerging technologies for drilling short-radius lateral in existing wellbores and medium-radius technologies in new wells. These lateral drilling technologies were applied in the Mississippi Ratcliffe and Ordovician Red River formations at depths of 2,590 to 2,890 m in Richland County, MT; Bowman County, ND; and Harding County, SD. In theory, all of the horizontal drilling techniques explored in this project have merit for application fitting specific criteria. From a realistic point of view, the only relatively trouble-free, adequately-proven technology employed was the medium-radius steered motor/MWD technology. The slim-tool steered motor/MWD re-entry technology has been used extensively but appears to still be significantly in developmental stages. This technology will probably always be more troublesome than the technology used to drill new wells because the smaller diameter required for the tools contributes to both design and operational complexities. Although limited mechanical success has been achieved with some of the lateral jetting technologies and the Amoco tools, their predictability and reliability is unproven. Additionally, they appear to be limited to shallow depths and certain rock types. The Amoco technology probably has the most potential to be successfully developed for routinely reliable, field applications. A comparison of the various horizontal drilling technologies investigated is presented.

Carrell, L.A.; George, R.D.; Gibbons, D.

1998-07-01

302

Vinna Basin.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Prague : Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 223-241 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

Hon?k, J.; Franc?, J.; Mikuláš, Radek; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Tomanová-Petrová, P.

303

Small-scale sedimentary structures and their implications in recognizing large-scale ancient tidal bedforms. Example from Dur At Talah outcrop, Late Eocene, Sirt Basin, Libya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dur At Talah escarpment (150 m thick and 150 km long) is exposed at the southern side of the Sirt Basin, central Libya. This outcrop exposes an Upper Eocene succession, composed by highly bioturbated fine grained sandstones to claystones at the base (New Idam Unit; 80-100 m thick), overlain by medium grained to microconglomeratic sandstones at the top (Sarir Unit; 60 m thick). The latter is split into two subunits of nearly equal thickness: the lower Sarir subunit, composed of medium to coarse cross-bedded sandstones; and the upper Sarir subunit, composed of very coarse to microconglomeratic sandstones. The whole succession evolves from shallow marine estuarine (the New Idam Unit) to fluvial deposits (the upper Sarir subunit). The sandstone of the lower Sarir subunit, which is the focus of this article, is previously misinterpreted as being deposited in a purely fluvial environment. However, close observations revealed that the depositional environment is largely tide-influenced. It is notably marked by conspicuous subaqueous dune cross-stratifications that bear a variety of discrete, multi-scale, sedimentary structures evidencing their deposition in tidal rather than fluvial setting. Mud drapes, tidal bundles, and perpendicularly draining and oppositely climbing ripples are largely developed. Among these structures, the most diagnostic are of millimetric to centimetric scale. As a prime aim of this article, all these sedimentary structures are described, interpreted, and discussed for the first time from this outcrop. Their style of association and the quality of their preservation provide an outstanding ancient example of tide-dominated siliciclastic systems. Such structures are rarely found together in one outcrop as they are in Dur At Talah, and they provide a significant indicators in identifying ancient bedforms of tidal origin. Evidences of subtidal and intertidal depositional environments are afforded by these structures. Criteria indicative of semidiurnal regime of the tide are also presented. These criteria are especially well-preserved in the bundled foresets of the spring tides, the neap tide record is also distinguishable but it provides no discernible structures. Moreover, sedimentary features that can be used to infer a macrotidal range during the depositional time are also afforded by a combination of these structures. Above all, this study also concludes that one of the most reliable sedimentary structures for recognizing the tidal bedforms are the ripple-scale (centimetric) sedimentary structures. These are preserved inside and at the base of the cross-sets.

Abouessa, Ashour; Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Pelletier, Jonathan; Rubino, Jean-Loup

2014-12-01

304

Hydrogeochemical contrasts between low and high arsenic groundwater and its implications for arsenic mobilization in shallow aquifers of the northern Yinchuan Basin, P.R. China  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about hydrogeochemical contrasts between low and high As groundwaters and their connection to As mobilization in the Yinchuan Basin. Investigations were carried out to evaluate As distribution and geochemical processes for As mobilization in three regions, including piedmont proluvial fans (PA), dry farmland (DF) and paddy farmland (PF). Ninety-two groundwater samples, 4 surface water samples, and 66 sediments samples were collected and analyzed for chemical and isotopic components. Results show that low As groundwater is generally found in PA. However, high As concentrations (up to 105 ?g L-1) are mainly observed in groundwaters from DF and PF, which are associated with reducing conditions. High As groundwater is characterized by high concentrations of NH4+, dissolved Mn, dissolved Fe and Fe(II), and low concentrations of NO3- and SO42-. The intensive irrigation in PF recharges the aquifers by vertical infiltration of the diverted Yellow River water, and leads to the higher redox potentials and the lower dissolved As in comparison with those in DF. Environmental isotopes (?18O and ?D) show that evaporation due to the intensive irrigation plays a minor role in As enrichment. The positive correlation between As and dissolved Fe suggests that groundwater As would result from the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides. Besides, dissolved P may be involved in competing with As for binding sites on Fe oxide minerals. Sediment As ranges between 3.94 and 75.2 mg kg-1. HCl-leached As accounts for 60% of total As in the sediments, while H3PO4-leached As accounts for 5%. Depth-matched samples show a good correlation between dissolved As and H3PO4-leached As in sediments. Arsenic distribution coefficient (Kd), calculated from H3PO4-leached As and dissolved As, ranges between 5.08 and 17.3 cm3 g-1, which generally depends on groundwater redox potentials. In reducing conditions, low values are found with As being preferentially partitioned into groundwater.

Guo, Qi; Guo, Huaming; Yang, Yuance; Han, Shuangbao; Zhang, Fucun

2014-10-01

305

Provenances of the Mesozoic sediments in the Ordos Basin and implications for collision between the North China Craton (NCC) and the South China Craton (SCC)  

Science.gov (United States)

To constrain the provenance of the Ordos Basin and the evolution history of the Qinling Orogen Belt from the Triassic to the Jurassic, 10 samples from the Dongsheng area and 28 samples from the Yan'an area were analyzed for U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions. The results indicate that Middle Jurassic sediments in the Dongsheng area were derived from the Khondalite Belt, Langshan Mountain and the Yinshan Terrane. Mesozoic sediments in the Yan'an area consist of two parts. One part is derived from the North China Craton (NCC), which has U-Pb age groups of ?1.8 Ga and ?2.5 Ga, and Hf model ages of ?2.8 Ga. The other part is derived from the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt, which has U-Pb age groups of 600-1500 Ma and 100-500 Ma, and Nd and Hf isotopic model ages of less than 2.2 Ga. Combining the U-Pb ages with the Hf and Nd isotopic model ages, Mesozoic detrital zircons with U-Pb age groups of ?1.8 Ga and ?2.5 Ga in the Yan'an area are found to also be derived from the Khondalite Belt, Langshan Mountain and the Yinshan Terrane, not from the Trans-China Orogen Belt. From the late-Late Triassic sediments of the Yan'an area, the low average values of the Hf (2.03 Ga) and Nd (2.03 Ga) model ages and the characteristic age population of 600-1500 Ma reveal that the main collision or continental subduction between the NCC and the South China Craton (SCC) occurred in the late-Late Triassic. After the main collision or continental subduction, the proportion of sediments from the Qinling-Qilian Orogenic Belt began to decrease (recorded in the early Jurassic samples), which may be in response to the gradual slowing of the uplift speed of the Qinling Orogenic Belt. In the early-middle Jurassic, the sediments have a main U-Pb age population of 100-500 Ma, low detrital zircon Hf model ages (average value is 1.17 Ga) and low whole rock Nd model ages (average value is 1.13 Ga), which suggests that the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt may have a fast uplift history in the early-middle Jurassic.

Chuang, Bao; Yuelong, Chen; Dapeng, Li; Shanhui, Wang

2014-12-01

306

Response of River Discharge to Changing Climate Over the Past Millennium in the Upper Mackenzie Basin: Implications for Water Resource Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Runoff generated from high elevations is the primary source of freshwater for western North America, yet this critical resource is managed on the basis of short instrumental records that encompass an insufficient range of climatic conditions. Like other streams that drain this part of the continent and flow across the northern Great Plains, where seasonal and extended intervals of water deficit are a natural element of the landscape, the Peace and Athabasca rivers provide water that is crucial for societal needs. Climate variability and rapidly increasing industrial development are, however, raising concerns over the future availability of water resources for continued economic growth in these watersheds and to maintain the integrity of aquatic ecosystems, including the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD). This is particularly acute for the Athabasca River because the Alberta oil sands industry remains dependent on its water for bitumen extraction. Here we report the effects of climate change over the past 1000 years on river discharge in the upper Mackenzie River system based on paleoenvironmental information from the PAD and Lake Athabasca. The delta landscape responds to hydroclimatic changes with marked variability, capturing systematic changes in ice-jam flood frequency and perched basin water balance. Lake Athabasca level appears to directly monitor overall water availability with the highest levels occurring in concert with maximum glacier extent during the Little Ice Age, and the lowest during the 11th century prior to medieval glacier expansion. Recent climate-driven hydrological change appears to be on a trajectory to even lower levels as high-elevation snow and glacier meltwater contributions both continue to decline. The temporal perspective offered by these paleohydrological reconstructions indicates that climatic changes over the past millennium have led to characteristic responses in the quantity and seasonality of streamflow generated from the hydrographic apex of North America. For water resource managers, a key feature that emerges from these results is that the hydrograph of the 21st century may be evolving towards conditions unprecedented over the past 1000 years, extending beyond the 11th century when reduced glacier meltwater contributions were partly compensated by abundant snowmelt runoff. Continuing reduction in both peak and total discharge clearly underscores the need for stringent allocation of freshwater resources in these watersheds.

Wolfe, B. B.; Hall, R. I.; Edwards, T. W.; Jarvis, S. R.; Sinnatamby, R. N.; Yi, Y.; Johnston, J. W.

2009-05-01

307

Hydrologic models of modern and fossil geothermal systems in the Great Basin: Genetic implications for epithermal Au-Ag and Carlin-type gold deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The Great Basin region in the western United States contains active geothermal systems, large epithermal Au-Ag deposits, and world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. Temperature profiles, fluid inclusion studies, and isotopic evidence suggest that modern and fossil hydrothermal systems associated with gold mineralization share many common features, including the absence of a clear magmatic fluid source, discharge areas restricted to fault zones, and remarkably high temperatures (>200 ??C) at shallow depths (200-1500 m). While the plumbing of these systems varies, geochemical and isotopic data collected at the Dixie Valley and Beowawe geothermal systems suggest that fluid circulation along fault zones was relatively deep (>5 km) and comprised of relatively unexchanged Pleistocene meteoric water with small (Au) had larger-scale (???15 km) loop convection cells with a greater component of flow through marine sedimentary rocks at lower water/rock ratios and greater endowments of gold. Enthalpy calculations constrain the duration of Carlin-type gold systems to probably <200 k.y. Shallow heat flow gradients and fluid silica concentrations suggest that the duration of the modern Beowawe system is <5 k.y. However, fluid flow at Beowawe during the Quaternary must have been episodic with a net duration of ???200 k.y. to account for the amount of silica in the sinter deposits. In the Carlin trend, fluid circulation extended down into Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks, which afforded more mixing with isotopically enriched higher enthalpy fluids. Computed fission track ages along the Carlin trend included the convective effects, and ranged between 91.6 and 35.3 Ma. Older fission track ages occurred in zones of groundwater recharge, and the younger ages occurred in discharge areas. This is largely consistent with fission track ages reported in recent studies. We found that either an amagmatic system with more permeable faults (10-11 m2) or a magmatic system with less permeable faults (10-13 m2) could account for the published isotopic and thermal data along the Carlin trend systems. Localized high heat flow beneath the Muleshoe fault was needed to match fl uid inclusion temperatures at Mule Canyon. However, both magmatic and amagmatic scenarios require the existence of deep, permeable faults to bring hot fluids to the near surface. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Hofstra, A.; Sweetkind, D.; Gao, Y.

2008-01-01

308

New high precision U-Pb ages for the Vinchina Formation: Implications for the stratigraphy of the Bermejo Andean foreland basin (La Rioja province, western Argentina)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Vinchina Formation is one of the thickest Cenozoic units related to the Andean orogeny in Argentina totaling more than 5100 m in thickness. Different ages, from Eocene to latest Miocene, have been postulated for this red-bed succession based on fission track, magnetostratigraphy and whole rock isotopic analyses. Two new high precision U-Pb zircon ages are reported herein for this unit. A maximum U-Pb age of 15.6 ± 0.4 Ma was obtained from detritic zircons collected from a thick tuffaceous interval of the Lower Member of the Vinchina Formation at La Cueva (Precordillera), while a depositional U-Pb age of 9.24 ± 0.034 Ma was derived from volcanic zircons collected from a thin tuff bed in the Upper Member at Quebrada de Los Pozuelos (Northwestern Sierras Pampeanas). At La Cueva, the Vinchina Formation unconformably overlies eolian sandstones of the Vallecito Formation and was divided into four units representing 1) deposits of high-sinuosity ephemeral rivers associated with 2) a playa-lake passing upwards to 3) low-sinuosity sandy ephemeral rivers and finally, 4) a gravelly-sandy braided plain. The tuffaceous level corresponding to unit 1 is located 280 m above the base of the formation. At Quebrada de Los Pozuelos, the Vinchina Formation unconformably overlies the Vallecito Formation and is covered by a deeply incised surface at the base of the Toro Negro Formation. We divided the Vinchina Formation into four units. Unit 1 represents sedimentation in shallow fluvial channels with sandy to muddy floodplains. Units 2 and 3 record sedimentation in braided, meandering and anastomosing rivers. Finally unit 4 represents deposition in braided and wandering fluvial systems. The sampled tuff is located within unit 4 at ?3470 m above the base of the formation. The new ages indicate that the bulk of the Vinchina Formation is Miocene in age but they do not preclude a longer time span for the sedimentation of the whole unit. Ages of the sampled volcanic zircons match an important episode of volcanism recorded in the Cerro Las Tórtolas Formation, located ?90 km to the west in the Andean Cordillera, but also the upper tuff could be related to the late Miocene Puna volcanism. Comparison of the new ages with previous chronological data suggests coetaneous sedimentation along different depocenters of the Bermejo basin (e.g., Vinchina and Talampaya depocenters in Western Sierras Pampeanas and La Troya depocenter and Huaco-Mogna sections in Precordillera) and strenghten the need for correlation among them. In addition the age of 15.6 ± 0.4 Ma constrains the end of the severe arid conditions recorded in the Sierras Pampeanas and Precordillera region.

Ciccioli, P. L.; Limarino, C. O.; Friedman, R.; Marenssi, S. A.

2014-12-01

309

Disentangling Middle Paleozoic sea level and tectonic events in cratonic margins and cratonic basins of North America  

Science.gov (United States)

The cratonic margins and basins of North America contain evidence of distinct changes in relative sea level, one of the most intriguing of which occurred in middle Paleozoic time. The change in relative sea level began in Frasnian time (Late Devonian) and continued through Visean time (Middle Mississippian) in the Cordilleran miogeocline, in the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, in the Appalachian miogeocline and in the Michigan, Illinois, and Williston basins. The synchroneity and wide geographic distribution of this event are striking and would seem to argue for an eustatic mechanism. An estimate of the middle Paleozoic sea level rise relative to the stable craton in Iowa suggests that while a large sea level rise occurred, it is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence in the cratonic basins and margins. Flexural foreland basin models do not appear to account for the all of the events in the cratonic margins, and thermal subsidence mechanisms do not seem appropriate for the subsidence in the cratonic basins. The middle Paleozoic stratigraphic record from the North American craton and its margins, therefore, poses a basic problem of identifying a mechanism for producing a large-amplitude rise in sea level relative to the stable craton at the same time as a synchronous onset of tectonic subsidence in widespread basinal and marginal settings of diverse tectonic origin. One plausible mechanism for the tectonic subsidence in the basins and margins is a pulse of intraplate compressive stress. The origin of the large sea level rise relative to the stable craton could reflect an unusually large eustatic sea level change, but we cannot eliminate the possibility of a small component of subsidence or change in dynamic topography of the North American craton. The synchroneity of the sea level rise relative to the craton with the subsidence of basins and margins may be fortuitous, but it is also predicted by recent mantle convection models for the early stages of accretion of supercontinents.

Bond, Gerard C.; Kominz, Michelle A.

1991-04-01

310

Upper Campanian-Maastrichtian stable isotopes and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecology in the Boreal Realm (Stevns-1 well, Danish Basin Chalks) : implications for climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

The Stevns-1 borehole, drilled in eastern Denmark close to the famous K-Pg boundary section of Stevns Klint, recovered 456 m of upper Campanian to basal Danian chalks with ~100% recovery. A nearly complete nannofossil biozonation was documented for this core (Sheldon, 2008). Stevns-1 represents the first complete section throughout the uppermost Cretaceous chalk of NW Europe and the most expanded Maastrichtian section worldwide. Because these chalks lack extensive burial diagenetic overprinting and are composed of more of 70% of calcareous nannofossils in volume, they likely reflect conditions of past sea-surface waters, thus making this site highly suitable for the study of past environments and climates of the Boreal realm in the uppermost Cretaceous. Here, we present the results obtained on the long-term evolution of calcareous nannofossil assemblages and bulk carbon- and oxygen-stable isotopes on this site. In the nannofossil assemblage, the main significant changes are observed within the distribution of Watznaueria barnesiae (considered in the Boreal realm as a warm-water index), of the cool-water taxa and of the fertility indices. The neat opposition between the relative abundance of the sum of cool-water taxa and that of Watznaueria barnesiae allowed us to build a nannofossil temperature index (NTI). The NTI and the bulk ^18O show the same evolution and have a high coefficient of correlation (R2=0.73), thus suggesting that oxygen stable isotopes could be used here to estimate past variations of sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the Boreal realm. These two proxies suggest the following climate evolution : SST were quite stable and warm in the upper Campanian, and are estimated at around 19 °C. A 4 °C cooling is recorded between the uppermost Campanian and the lowermost Maastrichtian. An expanded mid-Maastrichtian warming episode of 1.5 °C is recorded and followed by a second cooling event of 1.5 °C in the upper Maastrichtian. The end of the Maastrichtian is characterized by the well-documented Deccan warming which is here expressed by a 2.2 °C rise. This climate evolution is similar to that shown in the tropical South Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans (Barrera and Savin, 1999). As already suggested by these authors, the two cooling events seem to match well two third-order regressions of the sea-level as nicely expressed in the recently updated sea-level curve of Miller (detailed in Kominz et al., 2008), indicative of a possible glacio-eustatic control. Moreover, we show that changes in the abundances of nannofossil fertility index taxa occured at the time of remarkable shifts in the ^13C curve. This suggests a competition for trophic resources through time among nannofossil taxa, indicative of surface-water fertility changes which are associated with the distinct climatic modes, with more fertile and/or more stable environmental conditions during the Campanian and the mid-Maastrichtian warming modes. The evolution of species richness and the record of first appearance and last appearance datums also suggest significant changes in the stability of the nannofossil community, with more severe environmental conditions coincident with minimum or sharply decreasing ^13C values during the two cooling events of the Campanian-Maastrichtian interval. References Barrera, E. and Savin, S.M. In: Barrera, E., and Johnson, C.C., Eds., Evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean-Climate System: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 332, 1999, pp. 245-282. Kominz, M.A., Browning, J.V., Miller, K.G., Sugarman, P.J., Mizintseva, S., Scotese, C.R., 2008. Basin Research 20: 211-226. Sheldon, E., 2008. Upper Campanian - Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Stevns-1 borehole, Denmark. Journal of Nannoplankton Research 30(1): 39-49.

Thibault, N.; Schovsbo, N.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

2009-04-01

311

Residual basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author)

312

Mineralogy, geochemistry and diagenetic evolution of continental clastic proterozoic basins. The example of the Jotnian in the Baltic shield. Implications on the genesis of unconformity related U-deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Satakunta and Muhos basins in Finland are Mesoproterozoic (Jotnian in Fennoscandia, Riphean in Russia) clastic basins unconformably overlying Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basements. These basins share similarities with the Athabasca (Canada) and Kombolgie (Australia) basins, which are associated with large unconformity-related uranium deposits. The aim of the study is to characterize their mineralogy and geochemistry and to compare them to the mineralized basins. The samples for this study have been taken from existing drill cores stored at the Loppi drill core depot of the Geological Survey of Finland. Geological setting, characteristics of the basement and the sediments, sandstone geochemical characteristics are reported. Degree of the sediments' maturity, pH and redox conditions, P-T conditions of the thermal events and evidence of hydrothermal alteration are discussed. It is concluded that extreme immaturity of Satakunta and Muhos basin sediments, strong silicification and weak diagenetic fluid circulation are unfavourable for significant U-deposit associated to them

313

Paleomagnetism and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of Eocene and Miocene sediments in the Qaidam Basin, Northwest China: Implication for the Cenozoic tectonic transition and development of the northern Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleomagnetism and AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) results are reported from the middle to late Eocene Xiaganchaigou Formation and the early to middle Miocene Xiayoushashan Formation sediments at eight locations (Xichagou, Gansen, Eboliang, Heishiqiu, Luluohe, Kushuiquan, Hong Shan and Gahai), covering most outcrop regions of these two formations within the Qaidam Basin, Northwest China. These paleomagnetic data indicate that the Qaidam basin has not undergone wholesale tectonic vertical axis rotation relative to Eurasia and North China since at least middle and late Eocene. Local clockwise rotation only took place at some special locations such as Gahai. According to AMS results, 12 of 16 AMS ellipsoids belong to embryonic deformation magnetic fabric, which can be applied to reconstruct tectonic strain. Two epochs of compressive strain have been identified in the Qaidam basin during the Cenozoic: an early N-S strain no later than the Oligocene and a late NE-SW strain mainly after the early to middle Miocene. Further analysis shows that the early N-S compression in northern Qaidam basin is much more intense than that in western Qaidam basin, while the late NE-SW compression, which dominates the NW-SE-trending folds in the modern Qaidam basin, is more intense in western Qaidam basin than that in northern Qaidam basin. The stress concentration transition provides a reasonable explanation of the southeastwards migration of the deposition center in the Qaidam basin during the Cenozoic. The uniform paleomagnetic and AMS results at different localities reveal that the Qaidam basin is a relatively rigid plate, obviously different from the surrounding regions. Moreover, the appearance of E-component stress may be in close relationship with the beginning of the left-lateral Kunlun Fault or the eastwards channel flow south to the Kunlun Fault, implying that the south side of the Kunlun Fault is the active side.

Yu, X.; Guo, Z.; Huang, B.; Yin, A.; Guan, S.; Zhou, S.; Qiao, Q.; Cheng, F.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, T.

2013-12-01

314

Mechanisms and biogeochemical implications of Cenomanian/Turonian black shale formation in North Africa:An integrated geochemical, millennial-scale study from theTarfaya-LaAyoune Basin in SW Morocco  

OpenAIRE

Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T; ~94 Ma ago) black shale successions from various N African basins, in particular from the Tarfaya-LaAyoune Basin (SW Morocco), have been studied in great detail using data from the field (including gamma-ray resistivity logging), sedimentology and advanced geochemical trace metal, biomarker and stable isotope methods. Deposition of these black shale units in most of the region was restricted to a short time envelope termed the C/T oceanic anoxic event (OAE2). During ...

Kolonic Sadat

2003-01-01

315

Non-steady state redox conditions in bottom and pore waters of the Mid-Cretaceous NW-African shelf at Tarfaya (SW-Morocco): Climate control and implications for synchrony of basin-wide oxidation of shallow waters during the CT-OAE2  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread deposition of organic-carbon-rich marine sediments during the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) is a distinct feature of the Cretaceous ocean that was intrinsically linked to periods of extreme oxygen-depletion in the water column. High-resolution geochemical and biofacial records from the southern proto-North Atlantic including the NW-African shelf have recently become available indicating that the redox state of the water column was far from stable during the OAE2. Instead it varied between anoxic/euxinic and probably suboxic/oxic conditions on Milankovitch- and maybe even shorter time scales. Despite these stimulating implications little is known about the degree of oxygenation of the water column, the dynamics of contrasting redox conditions, and whether oxidation of the water column occurred synchronous on a basin-wide scale, i.e. across the North American and NW-African shelves. We report millennial-scale geochemical records from a bathymetric transect through the Tarfaya Basin in SW-Morocco to address the nature, pacing, and synchrony of shallow marine redox cycles associated with the OAE2. The data propose that reoxidation of the water column repetitively occurred on orbital frequencies, the transition from anoxic to oxic conditions was abrupt and strong enough to result in distinct metal-rich layers (e.g. Mn) in the sedimentary column. The presence of these distinct layers propose non-steady state diagenesis with progressively downward migrating oxidation fronts. As known from more recent geological analogs, short oxic periods during the OAE2 drastically reduced the preservation potential of marine organic matter in the sediment and supported the re-colonization of the sea floor by benthic organisms. Correlation of one distinct and longer-lasting oxygenation event positioned right in the maximum of the CT global carbon isotopic excursion between the Tarfaya Basin and recently published data from the type section of the Western Interior Basin at Pueblo for the first time allow the discussion of basin-wide synchrony of this oxidation event and probable mechanism.

Wagner, T.; Kasten, S.; Kolonic, S.

2003-12-01

316

Permo-Triassic changes in bulk crustal shortening direction during deformation and metamorphism of the Taebaeksan Basin, South Korea using foliation intersection/inflection axes: Implications for tectonic movement at the eastern margin of Eurasia during the Songrim (Indosinian) orogeny  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permo-Triassic Songrim (Indosinian) orogeny in South Korea was a major tectonic event involving complicated continental collisions at the eastern margin of Eurasia. Previous studies have examined the structural and metamorphic features of the Songrim orogeny in each of the Paleozoic terranes of the orogenic belt (i.e., the Taebaeksan Basin, the Okcheon Basin, and the Imjingang Belt), but correlations of these features among the terranes remain uncertain. The aim of this paper is to reveal deformation history including bulk crustal shortening directions in the Taebaeksan Basin, and to correlate the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Taebaeksan Basin with other Phanerozoic mobile belts in eastern Asia based on a combined analysis of foliation intersection/inflection axes (FIA) trends and metamorphic P-T and T-t (time) paths. The orientations and relative timing of FIA preserved as inclusion trails within porphyroblasts of andalusite, chloritoid, garnet, and staurolite reveal two age groups of inclusion trails in the Pyeongan Supergroup at the northeastern margin of the Taebaeksan Basin. These microstructures indicate the development of early NNW-NNE-trending structures and fabrics, followed by later E-W-trending ones. These observations suggest a change in the orientation of bulk crustal shortening from E-W to N-S during the Songrim orogeny. Based on the similar microstructures and temperature-time paths of the three Paleozoic terranes, we interpret that the E-W bulk crustal shortening influenced the eastern part of the Korean Peninsula during the early stages of the Songrim orogeny, presumably related to amalgamation between the proto-Japan terrane and the eastern margin of Eurasia, whereas the N-S bulk crustal shortening was stronger in the western part of the peninsula during the later stages of the orogeny, related to collision between the South and North China blocks.

Kim, Hyeong Soo; Ree, Jin-Han

2013-03-01

317

Paleomagnetic and chronostratigraphic constraints on the Middle to Late Miocene evolution of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania): Implications for Central Paratethys stratigraphy and emplacement of the Tisza-Dacia plate  

Science.gov (United States)

From the Oligocene onwards, the complex tectonic evolution of the Africa-Eurasia collision zone led to paleogeographic and biogeographic differentiation of the Mediterranean and Paratethys, two almost land-locked seas, in the area formerly occupied by the western Tethys Ocean. Episodic isolation of the basins triggered strong faunal endemism leading to the introduction of regional stratigraphic stages for the Paratethys. Chronostratigraphic control on the Paratethys stages remains rudimentary compared to the cyclostratigraphically constrained Mediterranean stages. This lack of chronostratigraphic control restricts the insight in the timing of geodynamic, climatic, and paleobiogeographic events and thereby hinders the identification of their causes and effects. In this paper, we here derive better age constraints on the Badenian, Sarmatian and Pannonian Central Paratethys regional stages through integrated 40Ar/39Ar, magnetostratigraphic, and biostratigraphic research in the Transylvanian Basin. The obtained results help to clarify the regions Middle Miocene geodynamic and paleobiogeographic evolution. Six new 40Ar/39Ar ages were determined for tuffs intercalating with the generally deep marine basin infill. Together with data from previous studies, there is now a total of 9 radio-isotopically dated horizons in the basin. These were traced along seismic lines into a synthetic seismic stratigraphic column in the basin center and serve as first order tie-points to the astronomically tuned Neogene timescale (ATNTS). Paleomagnetically investigated sections were treated similarly and their polarity in general corroborates the 40Ar/39Ar results. The integrated radio-isotopic and magnetostratigraphic results provide an improved high-resolution time-frame for the sedimentary infill of the Transylvanian Basin. Early Badenian deep water sedimentation is characterized by accumulation of the Dej Tuff Complex in response to a period of intensive volcanism, the onset of which is constrained between the first occurrence (FO) of Orbulina suturalis at 14.56 Ma and 14.38 ± 0.06 Ma. During the subsequent Badenian Salinity Crisis (BSC) up to 300 m of salt accumulate in the basin center. The faunal turnover that marks the Badenian-Sarmatian Boundary is dated at 12.80 ± 0.05 Ma. A second phase of intense volcanism occurs at 12.4 Ma and leads to deposition of the middle Sarmatian tuff complex (Ghiri?, H?d?reni, Turda and Câmpia Turzii tuffs). Rates of sediment accumulation strongly diminish in the basin center at the onset of the Pannonian stage coincident with an approximately 20° CW tectonic rotation of the Tisza-Dacia plate. Concurrent enhanced uplift in the Eastern a'nd Southern Carpathians leads to the isolation of the Central Paratethys and triggers the transition from marine to freshwater conditions. An additional Pannonian to post-Pannonian 6° of CW rotation is related to the creation of antiform geometries in the Eastern Carpathians which are notably larger in the north than in the south. An 8.4 Ma age is determined for the uppermost Pannonian sediments preserved in the central part of the Transylvanian Basin. Two sections belonging to middle Pannonian Zone D, and the lower part of Zone E (Subzone E1) are found to cover the 10.6-9.9 Ma time-interval.

de Leeuw, Arjan; Filipescu, Sorin; Ma?enco, Liviu; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Stoica, Marius

2013-04-01

318

Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins  

Science.gov (United States)

New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa

2001-02-01

319

Paleotopographic Reconstruction of the Tharsis Magmatic Complex Reveals Potential Ancient Drainage Basin/Aquifer System  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleotopographic reconstructions reveal the potential existence of an enormous Noachian drainage basin in the eastern part of the Tharsis region of significant geologic and paleohydrologic implications. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Dohm, J. M.; Ferris, J.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V.; Hare, T.; Barlow, N. G.; Strom, R. G.; Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.

2001-01-01

320

Paleomagnetic and chronostratigraphic constraints on the Middle to Late Miocene evolution of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania): Implications for Central Paratethys stratigraphy and emplacement of the Tisza-Dacia plate  

OpenAIRE

From the Oligocene onwards, the complex tectonic evolution of the Africa–Eurasia collision zone led to paleogeographic and biogeographic differentiation of the Mediterranean and Paratethys, two almost land-locked seas, in the area formerly occupied by the western Tethys Ocean. Episodic isolation of the basins triggered strong faunal endemism leading to the introduction of regional stratigraphic stages for the Paratethys. Chronostratigraphic control on the Paratethys stages remains rudimenta...

Leeuw, A.; Filipescu, S.; Matenco, L. C.; Krijgsman, W.; Kuiper, K.; Stoica, M.

2012-01-01

321

Platform-induced clay-mineral fractionation along a northern Tethyan basin-platform transect: implications for the interpretation of Early Cretaceous climate change (Late Hauterivian-Early Aptian)  

OpenAIRE

High-resolution clay-mineral analyses were performed on upper Hauterivian to lower Aptian sediments along a platform-to-basin transect through the northern Tethyan margin from the Neuchâtel area (Switzerland), to the Vocontian Trough (France) in order to investigate links between climate change, carbonate platform evolution, and fractionation patterns in clay minerals during their transport. During the Hauterivian, the northern Tethyan carbonate platform developed in a heterozoan mode, and ...

Godet, Alexis; Bodin, Ste?phane; Adatte, Thierry; Fo?llmi, Karl B.

2009-01-01

322

Devonian shelf basin, Michigan basin, Alpena region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This biostratigraphic study involves the Devonian paleogeography-paleoecology-paleobathymetry of the transition from carbonate platform shelf margin to basinal sedimentation for the northern part of the Michigan basin in the Alpena region. Shelf-basin analysis is based on lithofacies, rock colors, concretion, biostratigraphy, paleoecology of faunas - especially microfaunas and trace fossils - stratified water column, eustasy, and application of Walther's Law. Field observations were made on Partridge Point along Lake Huron, where type sections of the Middle Devonian Thunder Bay Limestone and Late Devonian Squaw